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1

The Appearance of Human Skin: A Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin is the outer-most tissue of the human body. As a result, people are very aware of, and very sensitive to, the appearance of their skin. Consequently, skin appearance has been a subject of great interest in various fields of science and technology. ...

Takanori Igarashi; Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity.

Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Halin, Cornelia [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: cornelia.halin@pharma.ethz.ch

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Action Spectra for Human Skin Cells: Estimates of the Relative Cytotoxicity of the Middle Ultraviolet, Near Ultraviolet, and Violet Regions of Sunlight on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Action spectra for the cytotoxic action of electromagnetic radiation in the solar range 280-434 nm have been determined for human fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same foreskin biopsy. The spectra for the two cell types are close to identical and coincide with our previously published data for a human lymphoblastoid line indicating that the mechanism of inactivation of the three human cell types is similar at any given wavelength. Using published data for ultraviolet transmission of human skin and sample spectral irradiarÃa'data, we have estimated the relative biological effectiveness of the middle ultraviolet (UVB) (290-320 nm), near ultraviolet (UVA) (320-380 nm), and violet (380-434 nm) regions of sunlight for cytotoxicity at the basal layer of the epidermis. We conclude that the UVB component in noon summer sunlight (the most UVB rich spectral conditions tested) may contribute only about 40 % of the total cytotoxic effectiveness of sunlight at 290-

Rex M. Tyrrell; Mireille Pidoux; Cancer Res; Contact The Aacr Publications; Epidermal Keratinocytes; Rex M. Tyrrell; Mireille Pidoux

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Cell Type-dependent Gene Transcription Profile in Three Dimensional Human Skin Tissue Model Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Medical Exposures  

SciTech Connect

The concern over possible health risks from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation has been driven largely by the increase in medical exposures, the routine implementation of X-ray backscatter devices for airport security screening, and, most recently, the nuclear incident in Japan. Due to a paucity of direct epidemiological data at very low doses, cancer risk must be estimated from high dose exposure scenarios. However, there is increasing evidence that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events and may have different mechanisms of cancer induction. We have examined the radiation induced temporal response of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model using microarray-based transcriptional profiling. Our data shows that exposure to 100 mGy of X-rays is sufficient to affect gene transcription. Cell type specific analysis showed significant changes in gene expression with the levels of > 1400 genes altered in the dermis and > 400 genes regulated in the epidermis. The two cell types rarely exhibited overlapping responses at the mRNA level. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements validated the microarray data in both regulation direction and value. Key pathways identified relate to cell cycle regulation, immune responses, hypoxia, reactive oxygen signaling, and DNA damage repair. We discuss in particular the role of proliferation and emphasizing how the disregulation of cellular signaling in normal tissue may impact progression towards radiation induced secondary diseases.

Freiin von Neubeck, Claere H.; Shankaran, Harish; Karin, Norman J.; Kauer, Paula M.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

5

In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin  

SciTech Connect

Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using in vitro dermal absorption data for risk assessment.

Hughes, Michael F., E-mail: hughes.michaelf@epa.go [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Edwards, Brenda C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Characteristics of Radiation-Induced Basal Cell Skin Cancer in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in human hematopoietic cell transplant patients had shown that total body irradiation selectively induced basal cell carcinoma but not squamous cell carcinoma or...

7

Identification of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin Feng Yang, Katrina M. Waters, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Lye-Meng Markillie, Rachel M. Wirgau, Shawna M. Hengel, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, and David L. Stenoien. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Our focus has been on identifying the early events that occur after low dose ionizing radiation exposure that precede and often regulate downstream events such as altered transcription, protein secretion and epigenetic regulation. Phosphorylation is one of the earliest detectible events that occurs following radiation exposure and plays important roles in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. Very robust

8

The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1?, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-?, MIP-1?, TNF ?, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Regulation of Annexin A2 by Ionizing Radiation in Human Skin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annexin A2 by Ionizing Radiation in Human Skin Equivalent Culture: Does A Nuclear Annexin A2-Protein Kinase C Epsilon Complex Contribute To Reduced Cancer Risks At Low Dose...

10

Regulation of Annexin A2 by Ionizing Radiation in Human Skin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Annexin A2 by Ionizing Radiation in Human Skin Equivalent Culture: Does A Nuclear Annexin A2-Protein Kinase C Epsilon Complex Contribute To Reduced Cancer Risks At Low...

11

Soluble/Shed Factors Released from Skin Cells Following Low Dose...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SolubleShed Factors Released from Skin Cells Following Low Dose Irradiation Exposure David Springer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Abstract The purpose of this work is to...

12

Low dose and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model. and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model. Sally A. Amundson and Alexandre Mezentsev Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Radiological Research, New York, NY 10032 Significant structural abnormalities develop within several days of exposure of the 3-dimensional normal human skin tissue model EPI-200 (MatTek) to high or low doses of low LET radiation. Disruption of the basal layer occurs following high radiation doses, and premature cornification is evident after both high and low dose exposures. In bystander tissue that is near irradiated portions of the tissue, but is not itself irradiated, we also observe premature cornification, increased apoptosis and micronucleus formation. Changes in global gene expression also occur

13

Low dose and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model and bystander responses in a 3-D human skin model Sally A. Amundson Columbia University Medical Center Abstract Significant structural abnormalities develop within several days of exposure of the 3-dimensional normal human skin tissue model EPI-200 (MatTek) to high or low doses of low LET radiation. Disruption of the basal layer occurs following high radiation doses, and premature cornification is evident after both high and low dose exposures. In bystander tissue that is near irradiated portions of the tissue, but is not itself irradiated, we also observe premature cornification, increased apoptosis and micronucleus formation. Changes in global gene expression also occur in both directly irradiated and bystander EPI-200 tissue. Although the unfolding over time

14

Metabolomic Response of Human Skin Tissue to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding how human organs respond to ionizing radiation (IR) at a systems biology level and identifying biomarkers for IR exposure at low doses can help provide a scientific basis for establishing radiation protection standards. Little is known regarding the physiological responses to low dose IR at the metabolite level, which represents the end-point of biochemical processes inside cells. Using a full thickness human skin tissue model and GC-MS-based metabolomics analysis, we examined the metabolic perturbations at three time points (3, 24 and 48 hr) after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. PLS-DA score plots revealed dose- and time-dependent clustering between sham and irradiated groups. Importantly, a comparable number of metabolites were detected to have significant change 48 hr after exposure to 3 and 10 cGy of irradiation, when compared with the high dose of 200 cGy. Biochemical pathway analysis showed perturbations to DNA/RNA damage and repair, lipid and energy metabolisms, even at low doses of IR.

Hu, Zeping; Kim, Young-Mo; Sowa, Marianne B.; Robinson, Robert J.; Gao, Xiaoli; Metz, Thomas O.; Morgan, William F.; Zhang, Qibin

2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Identifies Filaggrin and other Targets of Ionizing Radiation in a Human Skin Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our objective here was to perform a quantitative phosphoproteomic study on a reconstituted human skin tissue to identify low and high dose ionizing radiation dependent signaling in a complex 3-dimensional setting. Application of an isobaric labeling strategy using sham and 3 radiation doses (3, 10, 200 cGy) resulted in the identification of 1113 unique phosphopeptides. Statistical analyses identified 151 phosphopeptides showing significant changes in response to radiation and radiation dose. Proteins responsible for maintaining skin structural integrity including keratins and desmosomal proteins (desmoglein, desmoplakin, plakophilin 1 and 2,) had altered phosphorylation levels following exposure to both low and high doses of radiation. A phosphorylation site present in multiple copies in the linker regions of human profilaggrin underwent the largest fold change. Increased phosphorylation of these sites coincided with altered profilaggrin processing suggesting a role for linker phosphorylation in human profilaggrin regulation. These studies demonstrate that the reconstituted human skin system undergoes a coordinated response to ionizing radiation involving multiple layers of the stratified epithelium that serve to maintain skin barrier functions and minimize the damaging consequences of radiation exposure.

Yang, Feng; Waters, Katrina M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Freiin von Neubeck, Claere H.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Wirgau, Rachel M.; Gristenko, Marina A.; Zhao, Rui; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Stenoien, David L.

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

16

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Skin melanin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skin melanin Skin melanin Name: Janae Lepir Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How does the skin produce melanin? Replies: There are special cells in the skin called melanocytes. They synthesize melanin from an amino acid, tyrosine. (Amino acids make up proteins; there are about 20 different ones). Melanocytes can be stimulated by a hormone in the pituitary gland called melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH). I don't know how much biology you've had, but melanocytes are derived from an interesting embryonic tissue called the neural crest, which also gives rise to a lot of different types of neurons, so embryologically melanocytes are related to neurons. If melanocytes become malignant, it becomes a very bad form of cancer, called melanoma (often called "skin cancer", although there are other forms of skin cancer).

18

Skin Evolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skin Evolution Skin Evolution Name: Olga Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Do you think it is possible that our ancestors were actually black, and that a gene mutation for an enzyme in the metabollic pathway of melanin meant that not enough melanin was produced some of us ended up with white skin. Primitive apes have black skin, and we evolved from them, so doesn't this mean that humans orginally had black skin??? Replies: Most likely, yes, humans probably evolved from dark-skinned ancestors. I will take issue, however, with your statement that "primitive apes have black skin;" we can't say that for absolute certain, because we have no primitive apes to compare to. All we have now are modern apes. All modern apes - homo sapiens, pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla - are highly, probably equally, evolved. (One could make an argument that homo sapiens is in many ways more generalized - note the generalized dentition, fragile skeleton, etc. - than other modern apes, and thus could be said to be more primitive.) As far as that goes, the only modern apes with white skin I know of are a color variant of homo sapiens.

19

Light interaction with human skin: from believable images to predictable models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research efforts in image synthesis have been directed toward the rendering of believable and predictable images of biological materials. This course addresses an important topic in this area, namely the predictive simulation of skin's appearance. ...

Gladimir V. G. Baranoski; Aravind Krishnaswamy

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Human Fetal Liver Cell Culturing in Porous Hydroxyapatite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Next Generation Biomaterials. Presentation Title, Human Fetal Liver Cell ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Zhang Zhuo [Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Chae [Institute of Oral Biosciences and BK21 Program, Research Center of Bioactive Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shi Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0305 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Skin flicks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Comparative mutagenesis of human cells in vivo and in vitro  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses measuring methods of point mutations; high density cell cultures for low dose studies; measurement and sequence determination of mutations in DNA; the mutational spectra of styrene oxide and ethlyene oxide in TK-6 cells; mutational spectrum of Cr in human lymphoblast cells; mutational spectra of radon in TK-6 cells; and the mutational spectra of smokeless tobacco. (CBS)

Thilly, W.G.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Continuous human cell lines and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

Stampfer, Martha R. (Oakland, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Random mitotic activities across human embryonic stem cell colonies.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systemic and quantitative study was performed to examine whether different levels of mitotic activities, assessed by the percentage of S-phase cells at any given time point, existed at different physical regions of human embryonic stem (hES) cell colonies at 2, 4, 6 days after cell passaging. Mitotically active cells were identified by the positive incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) within their newly synthesized DNA. Our data indicated that mitotically active cells were often distributed as clusters randomly across the colonies within the examined growth period, presumably resulting from local deposition of newly divided cells. This latter notion was further demonstrated by the confined growth of enhanced green florescence protein (EGFP) expressing cells amongst non-GFP expressing cells. Furthermore, the overall percentage of mitotically active cells remained constantly at about 50% throughout the 6-day culture period, indicating mitotic activities of hES cell cultures were time-independent under current growth conditions.

Jin, Q.; Duggan, R.; Dasa, S.; Li, F.; Chen, L. (Biosciences Division)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reactive oxygen species mediate arsenic induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 cells  

SciTech Connect

Long term exposure to arsenic can increase incidence of human cancers, such as skin, lung, and colon rectum. The mechanism of arsenic induced carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is generally believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the possible linkage between ROS, {beta}-catenin and arsenic induced transformation and tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, DLD1 cells. Our results show that arsenic was able to activate p47{sup phox} and p67{sup phox}, two key proteins for activation of NADPH oxidase. Arsenic was also able to generate ROS in DLD1 cells. Arsenic increased {beta}-catenin expression level and its promoter activity. ROS played a major role in arsenic-induced {beta}-catenin activation. Treatment of DLD1 cells by arsenic enhanced both transformation and tumorigenesis of these cells. The tumor volumes of arsenic treated group were much larger than those without arsenic treatment. Addition of either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase reduced arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation. The results indicate that ROS are involved in arsenic induced cell transformation and tumor formation possible through Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD1 cells. - Highlights: > Arsenic activates NADPH oxidase and increases reactive oxygen species generation in DLD1 cells. > Arsenic increases {beta}-catenin expression. > Inhibition of ROS induced by arsenic reduce {beta}-catenin expression. > Arsenic increases cell transformation in DLD1 cells and tumorigenesis in nude mice. > Blockage of ROS decrease cell transformation and tumorigenesis induced by arsenic.

Zhang Zhuo [Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang Xin; Cheng Senping; Sun Lijuan; Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yao Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Li Wenqi [Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Budhraja, Amit [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li Li [Department of Family Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Shelton, Brent J.; Tucker, Thomas [Markey Cancer Control Program, University of Kentucky, 2365 Harrodsburg Rd, Lexington, KY 40504 (United States); Arnold, Susanne M. [Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi Xianglin, E-mail: Xianglin.sh@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose Transcriptional and Epigenetic Responses of Human Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Identified through High Throughput ChIP-Seq Analysis Carl Anderson Brookhaven National Laboratory Abstract The major consequence of human exposures to ionizing radiation (IR) is considered to be an increased incidence of cancer (Brenner et al., 2003). Exposure of cells to 1 Gy of IR produces approximately 40 double-stranded breaks, 1000 single-stranded breaks, and 1000 damaged bases per genome equivalent (Pandita and Richardson, 2009); however, most direct DNA damage is rapidly repaired. Exposure to IR also induces epigenetic changes including both increases and decreases in DNA methylation, and increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic changes can both initiate cancer and

28

Defining cell culture conditions to improve human norovirus infectivity assays  

SciTech Connect

Significant difficulties remain for determining whether human noroviruses (hNoV) recovered from water, food, and environmental samples are infectious. Three-dimensional tissue culture of human intestinal cells has shown promise in developing an infectivity assay, but reproducibility, even within a single laboratory, remains problematic. From the literature and our observations, we hypothesized that the common factors that leads to more reproducible hNoV infectivity in vitro requires that the cell line be 1) of human gastrointestinal origin, 2) expresses apical microvilli, and 3) be a positive secretor cell line. The C2BBe1 cell line, which is a brush-border producing clone of Caco-2, meets these three criteria. When challenged with Genogroup II viruses, we observed a 2 Log10 increase in viral RNA titer. A passage experiment with GII viruses showed evidence of the ability to propagate hNoV by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and microscopy. Using 3-D C2BBe1 cells improves reproducibility of the infectivity assay for hNoV, but the assay can still be variable. Two sources of variability include the cells themselves (mixed phenotypes of small and large intestine) and initial titer measurements using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that measures all RNA vs. plaque assays that measure infectious virus.

Straub, Tim M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

29

Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

Timper, Katharina [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Seboek, Dalma [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Eberhardt, Michael [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Linscheid, Philippe [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Christ-Crain, Mirjam [Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Keller, Ulrich [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, Beat [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Zulewski, Henryk [Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland) and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital, Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Understanding the global architecture of gene regulation in human cells through analysis of chromatin signatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

annotation of functional chromatin signatures in the humanA. Thomson, and Bing Ren. Chromatin States in Human ES CellsApproach to Finding Common Chromatin Signatures in the Human

Hon, Gary Chung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Butyl benzyl phthalate suppresses the ATP-induced cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma HOS cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), an endocrine disruptor present in the environment, exerts its genomic effects via intracellular steroid receptors and elicits non-genomic effects by interfering with membrane ion-channel receptors. We previously found that BBP blocks the calcium signaling coupled with P2X receptors in PC12 cells (Liu and Chen, 2006). Osteoblast P2X receptors were recently reported to play a role in cell proliferation and bone remodeling. In this present study, the effects of BBP on ATP-induced responses were investigated in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. These receptors mRNA had been detected, named P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y9, and P2Y11, in human osteosarcoma HOS cells by RT-PCR. The enhancement of cell proliferation and the decrease of cytoviability had both been shown to be coupled to stimulation via different concentrations of ATP. BBP suppressed the ATP-induced calcium influx (mainly coupled with P2X) and cell proliferation but not the ATP-induced intracellular calcium release (mainly coupled with P2Y) and cytotoxicity in human osteosarcoma HOS cells. Suramin, a common P2 receptor's antagonist, blocked the ATP-induced calcium signaling, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity. We suggest that P2X is mainly responsible for cell proliferation, and P2Y might be partially responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. BBP suppressed the calcium signaling coupled with P2X, suppressing cell proliferation. Since the importance of P2X receptors during bone metastasis has recently become apparent, the possible toxic risk of environmental BBP during bone remodeling is a public problem of concern.

Liu, P.-S., E-mail: pslediting@mail.scu.edu.t [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-Y. [Department of Microbiology, Soochow University, Shihlin, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

SciTech Connect

Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

Keener, William K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Thomas E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Mesenchymal stem cells secreting angiopoietin-like-5 support efficient expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells without compromising their repopulating potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Clinical and preclinical applications of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are often limited by scarcity of cells. Expanding human HSCs to increase their numbers while maintaining their stem cell properties has therefore ...

Drake, Adam

35

The influence of microwave radiation on the state of chromatin in human cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isolated human buccal epithelium cell were irradiated by microwaves at frequency f=35 GHz and surface power density E=30 mcW/cm2. The state of chromatin in human cells was determined by methodsof light and electron microscopy. The state of cell membranes was evaluated by the method of vital indigo carmine staining. The microwave-induced condensation of chromatin in human cells was revealed. Left side circulary polarized waves induced less effect than linearly polarized radiation. The linearly polarized electromagnetic waves induced cell membrane damage revealed by the increase of cell stainability. The data obtained are discussed in connection with the mechanisms of biologica effect of electromagnetic waves.

Shckorbatov, Y G; Grabina, V A; Kolchigin, N N; Batrakov, D O; Kalashnikov, V V; Ivanchenko, D D; Bykov, V N

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

The influence of microwave radiation on the state of chromatin in human cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isolated human buccal epithelium cell were irradiated by microwaves at frequency f=35 GHz and surface power density E=30 mcW/cm2. The state of chromatin in human cells was determined by methodsof light and electron microscopy. The state of cell membranes was evaluated by the method of vital indigo carmine staining. The microwave-induced condensation of chromatin in human cells was revealed. Left side circulary polarized waves induced less effect than linearly polarized radiation. The linearly polarized electromagnetic waves induced cell membrane damage revealed by the increase of cell stainability. The data obtained are discussed in connection with the mechanisms of biologica effect of electromagnetic waves.

Y. G. Shckorbatov; V. N. Pasiuga; V. A. Grabina; N. N. Kolchigin; D. O. Batrakov; V. V. Kalashnikov; D. D. Ivanchenko; V. N. Bykov

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

37

Computational aspects in numerical simulation of skin tissues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to present some computational aspects in numerical simulation of the human skin tissue. A multi-layered model is considered for the skin tissue with emphasis on the mathematical modelling and numerical models in space 2D and ... Keywords: biothermomechanics, coupled problems, finite element method, numerical methods, skin tissue, thermal systems

Iulia Maria Cârstea; Ion Cârstea

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

7H-Benzo[c]fluorene DNA adduct formation in different human cells...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA adduct formation in different human cells in culture Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2002 Authors Goth-Goldstein, Regine, Marion L. Russell, B....

39

Investigation of a suppression of asymmetric cell kinetics (SACK) approach for ex vivo expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a long-standing challenge faced by both researchers and clinicians. To date, no robust, efficient method for the pure, ex vivo expansion of human HSCs has been ...

Taghizadeh, Rouzbeh R

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

NIST Announces Program to ID Human Cell Lines for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Walter Nelson-Rees, who in a series of papers in the 1970s documented extensive misidentification of cell cultures contaminated with cells from the ...

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Tumors of the skin and soft tissues  

SciTech Connect

The majority of the body surface is covered by the skin. Many internal disorders are reflected in the condition of the skin. One of the major functions of the skin is protection of the other organ systems from a variety of environmental insults. In this role, the skin itself is exposed to factors that can ultimately cause chronic diseases and cancer. Since it is relatively easy to recognize skin abnormalities, most skin cancers are brought to professional attention sooner than other types of cancer. However, due to the close resemblance between many skin neoplasms and noncancerous dermatologic disorders, these neoplasms may be mistreated for months or even years. In veterinary oncology, as in human medicine, most cancers can be effectively treated or cured following an accurate diagnosis. Once diagnosed, skin neoplasms should be aggressively treated. If causal factors are known, exposure to these factors should be limited through removal of the agent (for chemical carcinogens) or limiting exposure to the agent (for other carcinogens such as sunlight). 10 tabs. (MHB)

Weller, R.E.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

Jian Li

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

43

Variability in Raman Spectra of Single Human Tumor Cells Cultured in Vitro: Correlation with Cell Cycle and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada (A.G.B.) In this work we investigate the capability of Raman microscopy of a human tumor cell line (DU145) cultured in vitro. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to identify interest in applying RM to live cells and tissues for cancer detection and diagnosis. Due to the complexity

Brolo, Alexandre G.

44

Laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells with optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect

We report a study on the laser-induced fusion of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) at the single-cell level. Cells were manipulated by optical tweezers and fused under irradiation with pulsed UV laser at 355 nm. Successful fusion was indicated by green fluorescence protein transfer. The influence of laser pulse energy on the fusion efficiency was investigated. The fused products were viable as gauged by live cell staining. Successful fusion of hESCs with somatic cells was also demonstrated. The reported fusion outcome may facilitate studies of cell differentiation, maturation, and reprogramming.

Chen Shuxun; Wang Xiaolin; Sun Dong [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Cheng Jinping; Han Cheng, Shuk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kong, Chi-Wing [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Ronald A. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Consortium, and Departments of Medicine and Physiology, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Center of Cardiovascular Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Direct and indirect effects of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to establish a model system to study the direct effect, the bystander effect and the combinational effect of alpha-particle irradiations of human prostate tumor cells, toward the goal of ...

Wang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Skin supersolidity slipperizing ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistency between theory predictions and measurements and calculations revealed that the skin of ice, containing water molecules with fewer than four neighbours, forms a supersolid phase that is highly polarized, elastic, hydrophobic, with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice.

Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of {gamma}-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

Chen Wenshu [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien (China); Lee Yijang [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (China); Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui [Department of Life Science, Tzu Chi University, Hualien (China)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Analysis of enzymopathies in the human red blood cells by constraint-based stoichiometric modeling approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The human red blood cell (RBC) metabolism is investigated by calculating steady state fluxes using constraint-based stoichiometric modeling approaches. For the normal RBC metabolism, flux balance analysis (FBA) is performed via optimization of various ... Keywords: Enzymopathy, Flux balance analysis, Minimization of metabolic adjustment, Red blood cell, Regulatory on-off minimization

Saliha Durmu? Tekir; Tunahan Çak?r; Kutlu Ö. ílgen

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

National Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) has designated May as National Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month. In 1996, an estimated 1 million cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed, of which approximately 95 % will be squamous cell or basal cell carcinomas (1). Although the incidence of melanoma is lower than those of squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas, the case-fatality rate is highest for persons with melanoma. During 1973–1992, mortality from melanoma increased 34%—the third highest increase of all cancers (2). CDC, in collaboration with the AAD, has initiated the National Skin Cancer Prevention Education Program (NSCPEP) to increase public awareness about skin cancer and to help reduce the occurrence of and deaths associated with skin cancer. Goals of this program are to develop and disseminate educational messages for children, their parents, and other caregivers; develop guidelines for school curricula; evaluate the utility and value of the ultraviolet (UV) index; and develop educational messages for health-care providers. Additional information about this month and the NSCPEP is available from

Among Children; Young Adults

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Meshorer E, Misteli T: Chromatin in pluripotent embryonic3. Mattout A, Meshorer E: Chromatin plasticity and genome22:334–341. 4. Meshorer E: Chromatin in embryonic stem cell

Hinde, Elizabeth; Cardarelli, Francesco; Chen, Aaron; Khine, Michelle; Gratton, Enrico

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Reversion of the Malignant Phenotype of Human Breast Cells in ...  

The Rockefeller University Press, 0021-9525/97/04/231/15 $2.00 The Journal of Cell Biology, Volume 137, Number 1, April 7, 1997 231–245 231 Reversion of the ...

52

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

53

Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

A suppressor T cell in the human mixed lymphocyte reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T lymphocytes are known to exert both positive and negative regulatory controls on effector cells in the immune response. The positive helper effects on antibody production were recognized first (1, 2). Later, suppressor functions were demonstrated in humoral immune responses (3-5) and more recently in delayed hypersensitivity (6) and the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) (7). ' It is now clear from the work of Cantor and Boyse (8) that there are two types of regulatory T lymphocytes, helper and suppressor cells, which belong to separate populations distinguishable by their Ly surface antigens. Like helper T cells, suppressor T cells appear to be genetically controlled by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These regulatory genes map in the I region of the mouse MHC (H-2), which is serologically divisable into A, B, J, E, and C regions. Kapp et al. (9) showed that the immune response to the synthetic peptide L-glutamic acid6°-L-alanine3°-L-tyrosine TM in mice was regulated by an antigen-specific immune suppression gene. Tada et al. (10) have shown that immune T cells can release a supernatant factor which specifically

A. J. Mcmichael; T. Sasazuki

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Designing building skins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis involves framing criteria and discerning issues to be considered in the design of building skins in an urban environment. The 'information age' has paradoxically seen the demise of the facade as an important ...

Desai, Arjun

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd EditionChapter 17 Recent Developments in the Human Nutrition of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Single Cell Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single Cell Oils: Microbial and Algal Oils, 2nd Edition Chapter 17 Recent Developments in the Human Nutrition of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Single Cell Oils Biofuels and Bioproducts and Biodiesel Biofuels - Bioproducts eChapters 322

57

Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

{sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Su Xiaoming [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Suzuki, Hiromi [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Omori, Katsunori [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko [Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Advanced Engineering Services Company, Limited, Ibaraki (Japan); Shimazu, Toru [Japan Space Forum, Tokyo (Japan); Ishioka, Noriaki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Space Environmental Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiyasu [Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.j [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, Nara (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Ibaraki (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta [Centre for Applied Medical Research, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Rouzaut, Ana [Centre for Applied Medical Research, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)], E-mail: arouzaut@unav.es

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context  

SciTech Connect

It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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61

Low Dose Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation Responses in Human Cells and Molecular Mechanisms of Adaptation Joe Gray Priscilla Cooper Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The radiation Adaptive Response (adaptation, or AR) is a well documented, although evidently highly variable, protective phenomenon in which exposures to low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation result in reduced deleterious effects of subsequent higher exposures. Protection has been reported against a variety of biologically important endpoints, but its variability as a function of cell and tissue type and its genetic control are not well understood. The adaptive response is predicted to result in a non-linear dose response for cancer risk in the low dose range. However, the molecular mechanism(s) remain unknown, and such information is

62

Human cloning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

it will ever be possible. The reason is that most specialized cell (ie. skin, hair, heart . . .) may not have all the genetic information necessary to form a complete person....

63

Prevalence of skin neoplasma amont the atomic bomb survivors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen`s disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalent of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

Yamada, Michiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan)] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Synthetic skins with humanlike warmth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic skins with humanlike characteristics, such as a warm touch, may be able to ease the social stigma associated with the use of prosthetic hands by enabling the user to conceal its usage during social touching situations. Similarly for social ... Keywords: prosthetics, rehabilitation robotics, social robotics, synthetic skin, warm skin

John-John Cabibihan; Rangarajan Jegadeesan; Saba Salehi; Shuzhi Sam Ge

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tim H.-M., E-mail: Tim.Huang@osumc.ed [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong [Department of Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Skin contamination dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

68

Identification of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E6 Polypeptide in Cells Derived from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We recently reported the expression of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 protein in bacteria and the production of anti-E6 polyclonal antibodies. This work has now been extended with the production of a panel ofmonoclonal antibodies against the HPV-18 E6 protein. These antibodies demonstrate that there is little antigenic conservation in the E6 protein between HPV-16 and HPV-18, with only one antibody recognizing a cross-reactive epitope. We have used both the monoclonal and the polyclonal antibodies to look for E6 expression in a number of HPV DNA-containing cell lines. These reagents specifically detected a 16.5K tool. wt. polypeptide in cells derived from a human cervical carcinoma.

Human Cervical Carcinomas; Lawrence Banks; L Elliot Androphy; Nancy Hubbert; Greg Matlashewski; Anne Murray; Lionel Crawford

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chip-Based Comparison of the Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Mechanical Stimulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are considered as an attractive stem cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We compared human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hASCs ...

Park, Sang-Hyug

70

Concurrent expression of heme oxygenase-1 and p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO activity on the expression of p53 in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced the expression of both HO-1 and p53 without significant toxicity to the cells. In addition, the blockage of HO activity with the iron chelator DFO or with HO-1 siRNA inhibited the CoPP-induced expression of p53. Similarly, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO, suppressed p53 expression in ARPE-19 cells, although ZnPP increased the level of HO-1 protein while inhibiting HO activity. Also, CoPP-induced p53 expression was not affected by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these results, we conclude that HO activity is involved in the regulation of p53 expression in a ROS-independent mechanism, and also suggest that the expression of p53 in ARPE-19 cells is associated with heme metabolites such as biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and iron produced by the activity of HO.

Lee, Sang Yull [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hong Jae [Department of General Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Mi; Song, Ju Dong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 1-10 Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun Taeg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Chonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chul [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 1-10 Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycpark@pusan.ac.kr

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

71

Telomere-surrounding regions are transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments in human cells  

SciTech Connect

Positioning of genes relative to nuclear heterochromatic compartments is thought to help regulate their transcriptional activity. Given that human subtelomeric regions are rich in highly expressed genes, we asked whether human telomeres are related to transcription-permissive nuclear compartments. To address this question, we investigated in the nuclei of normal human lymphocytes the spatial relations of two constitutively expressed genes (ACTB and RARA) and three nuclear transcripts (ACTB, IL2RA and TCRB) to telomeres and centromeres, as a function of gene activity and transcription levels. We observed that genes and gene transcripts locate close to telomere clusters and away from chromocenters upon activation of transcription. These findings, together with the observation that SC35 domains, which are enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors, are in close proximity to telomeres, indicate that telomere-neighboring regions are permissive to gene expression in human cells. Therefore, the associations of telomeres observed in the interphase nucleus might contribute, as opposed to chromocenters, for the establishment of transcription-permissive 3D nuclear compartments.

Quina, Ana Sofia [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Parreira, Leonor [Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina de Lisboa, Av. Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-028 Lisbon (Portugal) and Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: lparreir@igc.gulbenkian.pt

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Critical Evaluation of Current Skin Thermal Property Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Burn treatment is an area of major importance in medicine, however, there is not currently an analytic method to determine the depth and magnitude of burns. Complications, such as a relative lack of knowledge of the specific thermal properties of skin and the relation between heat transfer and biological processes, have prevented a comprehensive model to explain the field of bioheat transfer. Research was conducted to estimate the relevant thermal and material properties in the field of bioheat transfer. Subsequently, an experiment was proposed, and a mathematical model was developed for the experiment, to allow for detection of burns through the use of heat transfer analysis. Burned skin and healthy skin differ in that there is no blood flow and thus no directionality to the heat transfer in burned skin. Thus, the experiment was designed to determine if there was a directionality was present in the heat transfer in the skin. Using the estimated skin properties, calculations were done to determine the viability of the proposed experiment. The experiment was refined to account for the findings and modified to more accurately detect burns in human skin. 1

Anand Mani

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Integrated Experimental and Computational Approach to Understand the Effects of Heavy Ion Radiation on Skin Homeostasis.  

SciTech Connect

The effects of low dose high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on human health are of concern for both space and clinical exposures. As epidemiological data for such radiation exposures are scarce for making relevant predictions, we need to understand the mechanism of response especially in normal tissues. Our objective here is to understand the effects of heavy ion radiation on tissue homeostasis in a realistic model system. Towards this end, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional skin equivalent to low fluences of Neon (Ne) ions (300 MeV/u), and determined the differentiation profile as a function of time following exposure using immunohistochemistry. We found that Ne ion exposures resulted in transient increases in the tissue regions expressing the differentiation markers keratin 10, and filaggrin, and more subtle time-dependent effects on the number of basal cells in the epidermis. We analyzed the data using a mathematical model of the skin equivalent, to quantify the effect of radiation on cell proliferation and differentiation. The agent-based mathematical model for the epidermal layer treats the epidermis as a collection of heterogeneous cell types with different proliferation/differentiation properties. We obtained model parameters from the literature where available, and calibrated the unknown parameters to match the observed properties in unirradiated skin. We then used the model to rigorously examine alternate hypotheses regarding the effects of high LET radiation on the tissue. Our analysis indicates that Ne ion exposures induce rapid, but transient, changes in cell division, differentiation and proliferation. We have validated the modeling results by histology and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The integrated approach presented here can be used as a general framework to understand the responses of multicellular systems, and can be adapted to other epithelial tissues.

von Neubeck, Claere; Shankaran, Harish; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Robert J.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

74

Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

Ho, T.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Peng, Y.-T.; Chuang, S.-M.; Lin, S.-C.; Feng, B.-L. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.-H. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yu, W.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Chang, C.-C. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in human breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

17?-Estradiol induces E2F-1 gene expression in ZR-75 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Analysis of the E2F-1 gene promoter in MCF-7 cells previously showed that hormone-induced transactivation required interactions between estrogen receptor ? (ER?)/Sp1 bound to upstream GC-rich sites and NFYA bound to downstream CCAAT sites within the -169 to -54 promoter region. This promoter region was also E2-responsive in ER?-positive ZR-75 cells; however, further analysis of the promoter showed that cooperative ER?/Sp1/NFY interactions were not necessary for hormone-induced transactivation in ZR-75 cells. The upstream GC-rich motifs are activated independently by ER?/Sp1 in ZR-75 but not MCF-7 cells, and the downstream CCAAT sites were also E2-responsive. E2 also induced reporter gene activity in ZR-75 cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain fused to pM-NFYA and a construct containing five tandem GAL4 response elements. Subsequent studies showed that hormonal activation of pE2F-1jm1 and pM-NFYA are dependent on non-genomic pathways in which E2 activates cAMP/protein kinase A. Hormone-dependent regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in ZR-75 and MCF-7 involves different mechanisms, demonstrating the importance of cell context on transactivation pathways, even among ER-positive breast cancer cell lines. TCDD inhibited ER?-mediated responses in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells. E2- induced E2F-1protein and mRNA levels in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells and this response was inhibited by TCDD. Constructs containing GC-rich sites alone or in combination with the downstream NFY sites were used in transactivation studies to investigate the mechanism of inhibitory AhR-ER? crosstalk. Although TCDD inhibited E2-induced mRNA, protein and reporter gene actitivity, it was not possible to determine if the inhibitory response was due to limiting ER? protein levels due to proteasome degradation since proteaome inhibitors alone blocke hormone-dependent responses. TCDD also inhibited the cAMP/PKA pathway by inhibiting adenyl cyclase activity. In Drosophila SL-2 cells cotransfected with the GC-rich -169 to -54 region, ER? and Sp1 plasmids E2 induced transactivation in cells cotransfected with AhR/Arnt expression plasmids suggesting that the AhR complex suppressed ER?/Sp1 action. These results demonstrate that TCDD inhibits E2-dependent activation of both non-genomic and genomic pathways of ER-mediated E2F-1 gene expression. 17?-Estradiol induces E2F-1 gene expression in ZR-75 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Analysis of the E2F-1 gene promoter in MCF-7 cells previously showed that hormone-induced transactivation required interactions between estrogen receptor ? (ER?)/Sp1 bound to upstream GC-rich sites and NFYA bound to downstream CCAAT sites within the -169 to -54 promoter region. This promoter region was also E2-responsive in ER?-positive ZR-75 cells; however, further analysis of the promoter showed that cooperative ER?/Sp1/NFY interactions were not necessary for hormone-induced transactivation in ZR-75 cells. The upstream GC-rich motifs are activated independently by ER?/Sp1 in ZR-75 but not MCF-7 cells, and the downstream CCAAT sites were also E2-responsive. E2 also induced reporter gene activity in ZR-75 cells transfected with an expression plasmid containing the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain fused to pM-NFYA and a construct containing five tandem GAL4 response elements. Subsequent studies showed that hormonal activation of pE2F-1jm1 and pM-NFYA are dependent on non-genomic pathways in which E2 activates cAMP/protein kinase A. Hormone-dependent regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in ZR-75 and MCF-7 involves different mechanisms, demonstrating the importance of cell context on transactivation pathways, even among ER-positive breast cancer cell

Ngwenya, Sharon Khethiwe

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Applications of carbon-13 and sodium-23 NMR in the study of plants, animal, and human cells  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-13 and sodium-23 NMR have been applied to the study of a variety of plant, animal and human cell types. Sodium NMR, in combination with dysprosium shift reagents, has been used to monitor sodium transport kinetics in salt-adapted, and non-adapted cells of P. milliaceum and whole D. spicata plants. The sodium content of human erythrocytes and leukemic macrophages was measured. Carbon-13 NMR was used to determine the structure and metabolism of rat epididymal fat pad adipocytes in real time. Insulin and isoproterenol-stimulated triacylglycerol turnover could be monitored in fat cell suspensions. (1-/sup 13/C) glucose was used as a substrate to demonstrate futile metabolic cycling from glucose to glycerol during lypolysis. Cell wall polysaccharide synthesis was followed in suspensions of P. milliaceum cells using (1-/sup 13/C) glucose as a precursor. These results illustrate the wide range of living systems which are amenable to study with NMR. 14 refs., 21 figs.

Sillerud, L.O.; Heyser, J.W.; Han, C.H.; Bitensky, M.W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiosensitization of Human Cervical Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Ribonucleotide Reductase: Enhanced Radiation Response at Low-Dose Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To test whether pharmacologic inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) by 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC no. 663249) enhances radiation sensitivity during low-dose-rate ionizing radiation provided by a novel purpose-built iridium-192 cell irradiator. Methods and Materials: The cells were exposed to low-dose-rate radiation (11, 23, 37, 67 cGy/h) using a custom-fabricated cell irradiator or to high-dose-rate radiation (330 cGy/min) using a conventional cell irradiator. The radiation sensitivity of human cervical (CaSki, C33-a) cancer cells with or without RNR inhibition by 3-AP was evaluated using a clonogenic survival and an RNR activity assay. Alteration in the cell cycle distribution was monitored using flow cytometry. Results: Increasing radiation sensitivity of both CaSki and C33-a cells was observed with the incremental increase in radiation dose rates. 3-AP treatment led to enhanced radiation sensitivity in both cell lines, eliminating differences in cell cytotoxicity from the radiation dose rate. RNR blockade by 3-AP during low-dose-rate irradiation was associated with low RNR activity and extended G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: We conclude that RNR inhibition by 3-AP impedes DNA damage repair mechanisms that rely on deoxyribonucleotide production and thereby increases radiation sensitivity of human cervical cancers to low-dose-rate radiation.

Kunos, Charles A., E-mail: charles.kunos@UHhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Colussi, Valdir C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Pink, John [Department of General Medical Sciences, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Radivoyevitch, Tomas [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States); Oleinick, Nancy L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

The skin prick test ¿ European standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. : The skin prick test – European standards. Clinicalof results and thus make test Heinzerling et al. Clinical1: Table S3. Skin prick test panel – inhalant allergens.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

CXCR6, a Newly Defined Biomarker of Tissue-Specific Stem Cell Asymmetric Self-Renewal, Identifies More Aggressive Human Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+. Conclusions/Significance: The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

Rouzbeh Taghizadeh; Minsoo Noh; Yang Hoon Huh; Emilio Ciusani; Luca Sigalotti; Michele Maio; Beatrice Arosio; Maria R. Nicotra; PierGiorgio Natali; James L. Sherley; Caterina A. M. La Porta

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

skin temperature skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments IRT : Infrared Thermometer MFRIRT : Multifilter Radiometer and Infrared Thermometer External Instruments

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81

Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer.

Yuan Baozhu [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)], E-mail: bby1@cdc.gov; Jefferson, Amy M.; Millecchia, Lyndell [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Popescu, Nicholas C. [Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 28092 (United States); Reynolds, Steven H. [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Involvement of recombination in x-ray mutagenesis of human cells  

SciTech Connect

Closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 differ greatly in their responses to X-irradiation. Compared with TK6 (ATCC CRL 8015), WI-L2-NS (ATCC CRL 8155) has an enhanced X-ray survival. The induction of mutation by X-rays is also markedly different. The hemizygous hprt locus is slightly more mutable in WI-L2-NS than in TK6, and the dose response fits best to a linear-quadratic curve rather than the linear fit of TK6X-ray induced mutation at the autosomal tk locus in heterozygotes derived from WI-L2-NS is 20-50 fold higher than in heterozygotes derived from TK6. A larger proportion of WI-L2-NS mutants had lost heterozygosity compared with mutants of TK6. , Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that loss of heterozygosity was due almost uniformly to deletion of an allele in mutants of TK6, and to recombination or gene conversion in mutants of WI-L2-NS. These results indicate that recombinational repair contributes to both cell survival and mutation following exposure to ionizing radiation.

Amundson, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Xia, F.; Liber, H.L. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Involvement of recombination in x-ray mutagenesis of human cells  

SciTech Connect

Closely related human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from WI-L2 differ greatly in their responses to X-irradiation. Compared with TK6 (ATCC CRL 8015), WI-L2-NS (ATCC CRL 8155) has an enhanced X-ray survival. The induction of mutation by X-rays is also markedly different. The hemizygous hprt locus is slightly more mutable in WI-L2-NS than in TK6, and the dose response fits best to a linear-quadratic curve rather than the linear fit of TK6X-ray induced mutation at the autosomal tk locus in heterozygotes derived from WI-L2-NS is 20-50 fold higher than in heterozygotes derived from TK6. A larger proportion of WI-L2-NS mutants had lost heterozygosity compared with mutants of TK6. , Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that loss of heterozygosity was due almost uniformly to deletion of an allele in mutants of TK6, and to recombination or gene conversion in mutants of WI-L2-NS. These results indicate that recombinational repair contributes to both cell survival and mutation following exposure to ionizing radiation.

Amundson, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Xia, F.; Liber, H.L. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Alterations in transcription factor binding in radioresistant human melanoma cells after ionizing radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyzed alterations in transcription factor binding to specific, known promoter DNA consensus sequences between irradiated and unirradiated radioresistant human melanoma (U1-Mel) cells. The goal of this study was to begin to investigate which transcription factors and DNA-binding sites are responsible for the induction of specific transcripts and proteins after ionizing radiation. Transcription factor binding was observed using DNA band-shift assays and oligonucleotide competition analyses. Confluence-arrested U1-Mel cells were irradiated (4.5 Gy) and harvested at 4 h. Double-stranded oligonucleotides containing known DNA-binding consensus sites for specific transcription factors were used. Increased DNA binding activity after ionizing radiation was noted with oligonucleotides containing the CREB, NF-kB and Sp1 consensus sites. No changes in protein binding to AP-1, AP-2, AP-3, or CTF/NF1, GRE or Oct-1 consensus sequences were noted. X-ray activation of select transcription factors, which bind certain consensus sites in promoters, may cause specific induction or repression of gene transcription. 22 refs., 2 figs.

Sahijdak, W.M.; Yang, Chin-Rang; Zuckerman, J.S.; Meyers, M.; Boothman, D.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sensitive skins and somatic processing for affective and sociable robots based upon a somatic alphabet approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sense of touch is one of the most important senses of the human body. This thesis describes the biologically inspired design of "sensitive skins" for two different robotic platforms: Leonardo, a high degree-of-freedom, ...

Stiehl, Walter Daniel, 1980-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Inhibition of angiotensinogen production by angiotensin II analogues in human hepatoma cell line  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to examine in Hep G2, a human hepatoma-derived cell line, the presence of angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors and the effect of ANG II and its analogues on angiotensinogen production. The presence of ANG II receptors was demonstrated using a long-acting ANG II analogue, 125I-labeled (Sar1)ANG II. A single class of specific binding sites was identified in these cells with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 2 nM. The number and affinity of these binding sites were not changed by (Sar1)ANG II treatment over 24 h. ANG II showed an inhibitory effect on angiotensinogen production. (Sar1)ANG II also exhibited a similar inhibitory effect as that of ANG II but to a greater extent and therefore was used throughout these studies. (Sar1)ANG II inhibited angiotensinogen production in a dose-dependent manner, exhibiting a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2 nM. Other ANG II analogues showed similar effects on angiotensinogen production. In order of decreasing ability, they were (Sar1)ANG II greater than (Sar1-Ala8)ANG II greater than (Sar1-Val8)ANG II greater than (Sar1-Val5-(Br5)-Phe8)ANG II greater than (Sar1-Val5-DPhe8)ANG II. Results of these studies show that the Hep G2 cell possesses specific ANG II receptors and that (Sar1)ANG II induces a dose-dependent inhibition of angiotensinogen production in this system.

Coezy, E.; Darby, I.; Mizrahi, J.; Cantau, B.; Donnadieu, M.H.; Nussberger, J.; Escher, E.; Chapnick, B.; Corvol, P. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 36 Paris (France))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Oroxylin A induced apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was involved in its antitumor activity  

SciTech Connect

We previously reported that wogonin, a flavonoid compound, was a potent apoptosis inducer of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and murine sarcoma S180 cells. In the present study, the effect of oroxylin A, one wogonin structurally related flavonoid isolated from Scutellariae radix, on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was examined and molecular mechanisms were also investigated. Oroxylin A inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner measured by MTT-assay. Treatment with an apoptosis-inducing concentration of oroxylin A caused typical morphological changes and apoptotic blebbing in HepG2 cells. DNA fragmentation assay was used to examine later apoptosis induced by oroxylin A. FACScan analysis revealed a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic and G{sub 2}/M phase arrest cells after oroxylin A treatment. The pro-apoptotic activity of oroxylin A was attributed to its ability to modulate the concerted expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and pro-caspase-3 proteins. The expression of Bcl-2 protein and pro-caspase-3 protein was dramatically decreased after treatment with oroxylin A. These results demonstrated that oroxylin A could effectively induce programmed cell death and suggested that it could be a promising antitumor drug.

Hu Yang [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang Yong [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); You Qidong [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)]. E-mail: qdyou@cpu.edu.cn; Liu Wei [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gu Hongyan [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhao Li [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang Kun [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang Wei [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang Xiaotang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Guo Qinglong [Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)]. E-mail: qinglongguo@hotmail.com

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

The human estrogen receptor can regulate exogenous but not endogenous vitellogenin gene promoters in a Xenopus cell line  

SciTech Connect

Transfection of a human estrogen receptor cDNA expression vector (HEO) into cultured Xenopus kidney cells confers estrogen responsiveness to the recipient cells as demonstrated by the hormone dependent expression of co-transfected Xenopus vitellogenin-CAT chimeric genes. The estrogen stimulation of these vit-CAT genes is dependent upon the presence of the vitellogenin estrogen responsive element (ERE) in their 5{prime} flanking region. Thus, functional human estrogen receptor (hER) can be synthesized in heterologous lower vertebrate cells and can act as a trans-acting regulatory factor that is necessary, together with estradiol, for the induction of the vit-CAT constructs in these cells. In addition, vitellogenin minigenes co-transfected with the HEO expression vector also respond to hormonal stimulation. Their induction is not higher than that of the vit-CAT chimeric genes. It suggests that in the Xenopus kidney cell line B 3.2, the structural parts of the vitellogenin minigenes do not play a role in the induction process. Furthermore, no stabilizing effect of estrogen on vitellogenin mRNA is observed in these cells.

Seiler-Tuyns, A.; Merillat, A.M.; Haefliger, D.N.; Wahli, W. (Universite de Lausanne (Switzerland))

1988-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

89

Methylation status and transcriptional expression of the MHC class I loci in human trophoblast cells from term placenta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of the various molecular regulatory mechanisms that may be used by human trophoblast cells to down-regulate expression of HLA class I genes, we chose to investigate the methylation of DNA, generally associated with inhibition of transcription. We analyzed the methylation status of different HLA class I loci in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and in vitro-differentiated syncytiotrophoblast, purified from human term placenta, as well as in the human trophoblast-derived JAR and JEG-3 cell lines. We then compared methylation status and transcriptional activity. An inverse relationship was established between JAR and JEG-3: HLA-A, -B, and -G are methylated and repressed in JAR, whereas in JEG-3, HLA-A is methylated and repressed but HLA-B and -G are partially methylated and transcribed. HLA-E is unmethylated and transcribed in both cell lines. Apart from HLA-E, which is always unmethylated and transcribed, no such relationship exists for the other class I loci in trophoblast cells. Whereas nonclassical HLA-G and classical HLA-A and -B class I genes are undermethylated in both cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast, they are clearly transcribed in the former but minimally transcribed in the latter subpopulation. Thus, the down-regulation of class I gene expression in the in vitro-differentiated synctiotrophoblast is unlikely to be caused by DNA methylation. Furthermore, there is no detectable expression of any class I molecule at the cell surface of either trophoblast cell subpopulation, suggesting a negative control on translation and/or on the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. 50 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Guillaudeux, T.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Girr, M. [University Hospital Center Purpan, Toulouse (France)] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Expression of a functional extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in human aortic endothelial cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) regulates the functions of many cell types through a G protein-coupled [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}-sensing receptor (CaR). Whether the receptor is functionally expressed in vascular endothelial cells is largely unknown. In cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), RT-PCR yielded the expected 555-bp product corresponding to the CaR, and CaR protein was demonstrated by fluorescence immunostaining and Western blot. RT-PCR also demonstrated the expression in HAEC of alternatively spliced variants of the CaR lacking exon 5. Although stimulation of fura 2-loaded HAEC by several CaR agonists (high [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}, neomycin, and gadolinium) failed to increase intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), the CaR agonist spermine stimulated an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} that was diminished in buffer without Ca{sup 2+} and was abolished after depletion of an intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool with thapsigargin or after blocking IP{sub 3}- and ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} release with xestospongin C and with high concentration ryanodine, respectively. Spermine stimulated an increase in DAF-FM fluorescence in HAEC, consistent with NO production. Both the increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and in NO production were reduced or absent in HAEC transfected with siRNA specifically targeted to the CaR. HAEC express a functional CaR that responds to the endogenous polyamine spermine with an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, primarily due to release of IP{sub 3}- and ryanodine-sensitive intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stores, leading to the production of NO. Expression of alternatively spliced variants of the CaR may result in the absence of a functional response to other known CaR agonists in HAEC.

Ziegelstein, Roy C. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD 21224-2780 (United States); Xiong Yali [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD 21224-2780 (United States); He Chaoxia [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD 21224-2780 (United States); Hu Qinghua [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD 21224-2780 (United States)]. E-mail: qinghuaa@jhmi.edu

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effect of Recombinant Human Endostatin on Radiosensitivity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To observe the effects of recombinant human endostatin (RHES) on the radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: First, 10 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC selected from 15 patients were used to determine the normalization window, a period during which RHES improves NSCLC hypoxia. Second, 50 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC (Stages I-III) were randomly divided into a RHES plus radiotherapy group (25 cases) and a radiotherapy-alone group (25 cases). Intensity = modulated radiotherapy with a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions for 6 weeks was adopted in the two groups. The target area included primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes. In the RHES plus radiotherapy group, RHES (15 mg/day) was intravenously given during the normalization window. Results: After RHES administration, the tumor-to=normal tissue radioactivity ratio and capillary permeability surface were first decreased and then increased, with their lowest points on the fifth day compared with the first day (all p window is within about 1 week after administration. RHES combined with radiotherapy within the normalization window has better short-term therapeutic effects and local control rates and no severe adverse reactions in the treatment of NSCLC, but it failed to significantly improve the 1-year and 3-year overall survival rates.

Jiang Xiaodong; Dai Peng; Wu Jin; Song Daan [Department of Oncology, Lianyungang First People's Hospital, Lianyungang (China); Yu Jinming, E-mail: jxdysy@sohu.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

Robbins, E.S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Activation of nuclear factor kB in human lymphoblastoid cells by low-dose ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is involved in the transcriptional regulation of several specific genes. Recent reports demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the dose range of 2-50 Gy results in expression of NF-kB in human KG-1 myeloid leukemia cells and human B-lymphocyte precursor cells; the precise mechanism involved and the significance are not yet known. The present report demonstrates that even lower doses of ionizing radiation, 0.25-2.0 Gy, are capable of inducing expression of NF-kB in EBV-transformed 244B human lymphoblastoid cells. These results are in a dose range where the viability of the cells remains very high. After exposure to {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays at a dose rate of 1.17 Gy/min, a maximum in expression of NF-kB was seen at 8 h after a 0.5-Gy exposure. Time-course studies revealed a biphasic time-dependent expression after 0.5-, 1- and 2-Gy exposures. However, for each time examined, the expression of NF-kB was maximum after the 0.5-Gy exposure. The expression of the p50 and p65 NF-kB subunits was also shown to be regulated differentially after exposures to 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. 32 refs., 3 figs.

Prasad, A.V.; Mohan, N.; Meltz, M.L.; Chandrasekar, B. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Multipotent human stromal cells improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction in mice without long-term engraftment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to determine whether intravenously administered multipotent stromal cells from human bone marrow (hMSCs) can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) without long-term engraftment and therefore whether transitory paracrine effects or secreted factors are responsible for the benefit conferred. hMSCs were injected systemically into immunodeficient mice with acute MI. Cardiac function and fibrosis after MI in the hMSC-treated group were significantly improved compared with controls. However, despite the cardiac improvement, there was no evident hMSC engraftment in the heart 3 weeks after MI. Microarray assays and ELISAs demonstrated that multiple protective factors were expressed and secreted from the hMSCs in culture. Factors secreted by hMSCs prevented cell death of cultured cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells under conditions that mimicked tissue ischemia. The favorable effects of hMSCs appear to reflect the impact of secreted factors rather than engraftment, differentiation, or cell fusion.

Iso, Yoshitaka [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Spees, Jeffrey L. [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); E-mail: Jeffrey.Spees@uvm.edu; Serrano, Claudia [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Bakondi, Benjamin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Pochampally, Radhika [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Song, Yao-Hua [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Sobel, Burton E. [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Delafontaine, Patrick [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Prockop, Darwin J. [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)]. E-mail: dprocko@tulane.edu

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

96

Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is national interest in the development of sophisticated materials that can automatically detect and respond to chemical and biological threats without the need for human intervention. In living systems, cell membranes perform such functions on a routine basis, detecting threats, communicating with the cell, and triggering automatic responses such as the opening and closing of ion channels. The purpose of this project was to learn how to replicate simple threat detection and response functions within artificial membrane systems. The original goals toward developing 'smart skin' assemblies included: (1) synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles to produce electrochemically responsive systems within a lipid bilayer host matrices, (2) calculating the energetics of nanoparticle-lipid interactions and pore formation, and (3) determining the mechanism of insertion of nanoparticles in lipid bilayers via imaging and electrochemistry. There are a few reports of the use of programmable materials to open and close pores in rigid hosts such as mesoporous materials using either heat or light activation. However, none of these materials can regulate themselves in response to the detection of threats. The strategies we investigated in this project involve learning how to use programmable nanomaterials to automatically eliminate open channels within a lipid bilayer host when 'threats' are detected. We generated and characterized functionalized nanoparticles that can be used to create synthetic pores through the membrane and investigated methods of eliminating the pores either through electrochemistry, change in pH, etc. We also focused on characterizing the behavior of functionalized gold NPs in different lipid membranes and lipid vesicles and coupled these results to modeling efforts designed to gain an understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles within lipid assemblies.

Montano, Gabriel A.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Amy; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Wheeler, David Roger

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A critical comparison of human face rendering techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human skin exhibits complex light reflectance properties that make it difficult to render realistically. In recent years, many techniques have been introduced to render skin, with varying degrees of complexity and realism. ...

Arizpe, Arturo Andrew

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Research Article Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of Red Sorghum Bran Anthocyanin on a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women worldwide both in the developed and developing countries. Thus effective treatment of breast cancer with potential antitumour drugs is important. In this paper, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has been employed to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of red sorghum bran anthocyanin. The present investigation showed that red sorghum bran anthocyanin induced growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells at significant level. The growth inhibition is dose dependent and irreversible in nature. When MCF-7 cells were treated with red sorghum bran anthocyanins due to activity of anthocyanin morphological changes were observed. The morphological changes were identified through the formation of apoptopic bodies. The fragmentation by these anthocyanins on DNA to oligonuleosomal-sized fragments, is a characteristic of apoptosis, and it was observed as concentration-dependent. Thus, this paper clearly demonstrates that human breast cancer cell MCF-7 is highly responsive by red sorghum bran anthocyanins result from the induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. 1.

P. Suganya Devi; M. Saravana Kumar; S. Mohan Das

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Help:Skins | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Skins Skins Jump to: navigation, search Clicking on the my preferences link in the upper right while logged in then click on the Skin button to change your skin. You can also preview the skin by clicking the (preview) links next to each skin. You can make changes to the current skin's stylesheet file (CSS) by creating a subpage of your userpage, "User:Yourname/monobook.css" for example. This requires your site admin to have enabled this feature -- if it is, you will see advice text at the top of your custom CSS page about clearing your browser's cache. Tools.png Tip for wiki admins: To enable this feature, you have to set $wgAllowUserCss to your LocalSettings.php. See also Help:Preferences Manual:Gallery of user styles (no official skins) Retrieved from

100

Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damagein Human Cells, and Insights into the Adaptive Response Mechanism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damage Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damage in Human Cells, and Insights into the Adaptive Response Mechanism Björn E. Rydberg, Torsten Groesser, Antoine Snijders, Kelly Trego, Ju Han, Do Yup Lee, Bahram Parvin, Trent Northen, Andrew J. Wyrobek, and Priscilla K. Cooper Berkeley Lab SFA P.I.: Gary Karpen Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 Goal: Task 1 of the Berkeley Lab SFA is designed to identify adaptive response (AR) mechanisms that may affect risk of developing radiation-induced cancer and to assess the linearity with dose of processes that influence mammary gland carcinogenesis. We use both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems in a parallelogram strategy. Our human cell culture

102

Oxide Skin Strength Measurements on Molten Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, OXIDE SKIN STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS ON MOLTEN ALUMINUM – MANGANESE ALLOYS WITH AND WITHOUT SALT ON SURFACE

103

Geometric skinning with approximate dual quaternion blending  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skinning of skeletally deformable models is extensively used for real-time animation of characters, creatures and similar objects. The standard solution, linear blend skinning, has some serious drawbacks that require artist intervention. Therefore, a ... Keywords: Skinning, dual quaternions, linear combinations, rigid transformations, transformation blending

Ladislav Kavan; Steven Collins; Ji?í Žára; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

LET dependence of radiation-induced bystander effects using human prostate tumor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past fifteen years, evidence provided by many independent research groups have indicated higher numbers of cells exhibiting damage than expected based on the number of cells traversed by the radiation. This phenomenon ...

Anzenberg, Vered

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

A comparative analysis of DNA methylation across human embryonic stem cell lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA (to SEJ and MP), and by the Department of Energy

Chen, Pao-Yang; Feng, Suhua; Joo, Jong; Jacobsen, Steve E; Pellegrini, Matteo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Skin Sensitivity and the Cold  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Skin Sensitivity and the Cold Skin Sensitivity and the Cold Name: Richard Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: A student in my anatomy and physiology class asked me, "When it's very cold outside in the winter, why does your skin hurt MORE than usual when you bang your finger or someone slaps you on the arm?" Replies: Wow! This is one outstanding question. Mammals respond to cold weather with the hypothalamus releasing thyrotropin releasing factor. This production increases with the severity of the cold weather and the length of the exposure to cold over a long period of time (at least three to four weeks). The thyroid responds by slowly increasing in size and releases thyroxine at higher quantities. Thyroxine increases the sensitivity of the entire nervous system. As a matter of fact, as you probably know, it increases the metabolism wholesale! within the body. This gets complicated so I'm keeping it simple. So, the bottom line is thyroxine. It just heightens our sensitivity not only to cold but our entire nervous system is enhanced.

107

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1 Authors: Jian Jian Li, Kazi M. Ahmed, Ming Fan, Shaozhong Dong, Douglas R. Spitz, and Cheng-Rong Yu Institutions: Division of Molecular Radiobiology, Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gene expression profiles demonstrate that a group of key stress-responsive genes are associated with radiation exposure and may contribute to cellular

108

Skin carcinogenicity of synthetic and natural petroleums. [Mice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a series of three separate experiments mice were exposed to various concentrations of fossil liquids obtained from coal, oil shale or natural petroleum. All materials were capable of inducing squamous cell carcinoma, but potency differed substantially. Skin carcinogenicity was markedly greater for both coal or oil shale liquids than for natural petroleums. None of the syncrudes approached the skin carcinogenicity of a pure reference carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BP). It is unlikely that determination of the concentration of an active compound in material applied to the test animal will allow meaningful comparison among the diverse agents of interest to the synthetic fuels industry. To better establish the relationship between actual tissue dose and surface concentration the authors are investigating various in vitro and biochemical measures of hydrocarbon-skin interaction to determine which, if any, could serve as a more definitive measure of surface dose. Results, using BP as a marker carcinogenic hydrocarbon, suggest that carcinogenic crudes inhibit both BP metabolism in skin organ culture and the interaction of BP adducts with epidermal DNA, in vivo.

Holland, J.M.; Rahn, R.O.; Smith, L.H.; Clark, B.R.; Chang, S.S.; Stephens, T.J.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin.

Kim, Yongbae [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Soonchunhyan University, Chunan City (Korea, Republic of) ; Olivi, Luisa [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Cheong, Jae Hoon [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Maertens, Alex [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Bressler, Joseph P. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States) and Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)]. E-mail: Bressler@kennedykrieger.org

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Stationary turbine component with laminated skin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

112

Interim report on intrathoracic radiotherapy of human small-cell lung carcinoma in nude mice with Re-188-RC-160, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Re-188-RC-160 in experimental models of human small cell lung carcinomas which mimic the clinical presentation. In the experimental model, cells from the human small cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H69 cells were inoculated into the thoracic cavity of athymic mice and rats. Subsequently, the biodistribution of Re-188-RC-160 after injection into the pleural cavity, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, was monitored as was the effect on the subsequent growth of tumors. The results presented here, and which are a part of a larger series of studies, suggest that Re-188-RC-160 can be effectively used in this animal model to restrict the growth of small cell lung carcinoma in the thoracic cavity.

Zamora, P.O. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine]|[RhoMed Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, H.; Biersack, H.J. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

5-Methoxyflavanone induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, apoptosis and autophagy in HCT116 human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Natural flavonoids have diverse pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the action of 5-methoxyflavanone (5-MF) which has a strong bioavailability and metabolic stability. Our results show that 5-MF inhibited the growth and clonogenicity of HCT116 human colon cancer cells, and that it activated DNA damage responses, as revealed by the accumulation of p53 and the phosphorylation of DNA damage-sensitive proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) at Ser1981, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) at Thr68, and histone H2AX at Ser139. 5-MF-induced DNA damage was confirmed in a comet tail assay. We also found that 5-MF increased the cleavage of caspase-2 and -7, leading to the induction of apoptosis. Pretreatment with the ATM inhibitor KU55933 enhanced 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-7 cleavage. HCT116 cells lacking p53 (p53{sup -/-}) or p21 (p21{sup -/-}) exhibited increased sensitivity to 5-MF compared to wild-type cells. 5-MF further induced autophagy via an ERK signaling pathway. Blockage of autophagy with the MEK inhibitor U0126 potentiated 5-MF-induced {gamma}-H2AX formation and caspase-2 activation. These results suggest that a caspase-2 cascade mediates 5-MF-induced anti-tumor activity, while an ATM/Chk2/p53/p21 checkpoint pathway and ERK-mediated autophagy act as a survival program to block caspase-2-mediated apoptosis induced by 5-MF. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > 5-MF inhibits the proliferation of HCT116 colon cancer cells. > 5-MF inhibits cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. > Inhibition of autophagy triggers 5-MF-induced apoptosis. > Inhibition of ERK signaling blocks 5-MF-induced autophagy but activates apoptosis. > Treatment with 5-MF in combination with an ERK inhibitor may be a potential therapeutic strategy in human colon cancer.

Shin, Soon Young [SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Research Center for Transcription Control, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jiye [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae-Ran [Department of Environmental and Tropical Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoongho, E-mail: yoongho@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, BMIC, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han, E-mail: yhlee58@konkuk.ac.kr [SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Research Center for Transcription Control, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Drug-loaded nanoparticles induce gene expression in human pluripotent stem cell derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

typically contain few functional groups for further chemical modification. Doxycycline (DXC), a potent small complex spatiotemporal control of gene expression and cell transitions.8 Doxycycline (DXC) is a small

Saha, Krishanu

115

Interplay between chromatin state, regulator binding, and regulatory motifs in six human cell types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The regions bound by sequence-specific transcription factors can be highly variable across different cell types despite the static nature of the underlying genome sequence. This has been partly attributed to changes in ...

Kellis, Manolis

116

Quantitative correlations among human mesenchymal stem cell mechanical properties and biological function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from bone marrow, and are capable of proliferating and differentiating along multiple pathways such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. MSCs offer the means for regenerative ...

Jolibois-Quinot, Remi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Skin-Like Prosthetic Polymer Surfaces  

transmit heat much more easily than untreated polymers. In addition, the material can be adjusted for color and skin smoothness, ... ••Thermal conduct ...

118

Inhibiting the Aurora B Kinase Potently Suppresses Repopulation During Fractionated Irradiation of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The use of molecular-targeted agents during radiotherapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a promising strategy to inhibit repopulation, thereby improving therapeutic outcome. We assessed the combined effectiveness of inhibiting Aurora B kinase and irradiation on human NSCLC cell lines in vitro. Methods and Materials: NSCLC cell lines were exposed to concentrations of AZD1152-hydroxyquinazoline pyrazol anilide (AZD1152-HQPA) inhibiting colony formation by 50% (IC50{sub clone}) in combination with single dose irradiation or different fractionation schedules using multiple 2-Gy fractions per day up to total doses of 4-40 Gy. The total irradiation dose required to control growth of 50% of the plaque monolayers (TCD50) was determined. Apoptosis, G2/M progression, and polyploidization were also analyzed. Results: TCD50 values after single dose irradiation were similar for the H460 and H661 cell lines with 11.4 {+-} 0.2 Gy and 10.7 {+-} 0.3 Gy, respectively. Fractionated irradiation using 3 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day, and 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 Gy/day schedules significantly increased TCD50 values for both cell lines grown as plaque monolayers with increasing radiation treatment time. This could be explained by a repopulation effect per day that counteracts 75 {+-} 8% and 27 {+-} 6% of the effect of a 2-Gy fraction in H460 and H661 cells, respectively. AZD1152-HQPA treatment concomitant to radiotherapy significantly decreased the daily repopulation effect (H460: 28 {+-} 5%, H661: 10 {+-} 4% of a 2-Gy fraction per day). Treatment with IC50{sub clone} AZD1152-HPQA did not induce apoptosis, prolong radiation-induced G2 arrest, or delay cell cycle progression before the spindle check point. However, polyploidization was detected, especially in cell lines without functional p53. Conclusions: Inhibition of Aurora B kinase with low AZD1152-HQPA concentrations during irradiation of NSCLC cell lines affects repopulation during radiotherapy. Thus, concomitant Aurora B kinase inhibition and irradiation may be a promising strategy for fast repopulating tumors, which are difficult to cure by dose escalation based on conventional fractionation.

Sak, Ali, E-mail: ali.sak@uni-due.de [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Stuschke, Martin; Groneberg, Michael; Kuebler, Dennis; Poettgen, Christoph [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Radiotherapy, West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany); Eberhardt, Wilfried E.E. [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)] [Department of Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer Centre (WTZ), University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Receptors for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and regulation of thyroglobulin secretion by ANP in human thyroid cells  

SciTech Connect

Specific binding sites for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were identified and characterized in primary cultures of human thyroid cells. Saturation analysis using ({sup 125}I) {alpha} rat (1-28) ANP as the ligand showed a single class of high affinity binding which was inhibited by atriopeptin I and the {alpha} -human form of ANP, but not by a C-terminal fragment (13-28) of the peptide. The number of ANP binding sites in these cultures was not altered by the thyroid hormone concentration of the medium. In a dose-response experiment, thyroglobulin secretion was significantly reduced in the presence of 0.01 nM ANP and was maximally reduced with 10 nM ANP. Cyclic GMP production was increased threefold in the presence of 100 nM ANP, but was unchanged with lower doses of the peptides. The finding of receptors in thyroid follicular cells suggests a hitherto unrecognized role of ANP in the thyroid gland.

Sellitti, D.F.; Tseng, Y.C.L.; Wartofsky, L. (Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (USA) Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Locust skin: a thesis in creative nonfiction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This creative thesis includes a critical introduction that discusses a brief history and definition of the creative nonfiction genre, the ethical dilemmas faced by the writer when telling a true story, and contextualizes my work within contemporary creative nonfiction. Locust Skin contains twenty-eight original pieces describing my experience adjusting to life as a single mother. Narrative segments alternate with short prose poems that add depth of feeling and a sense of wonder and beauty to contrast with the struggles voiced in the narrative. Through research and the study of works by authors such as Mary Karr, Terry Tempest Williams and Norma Cantú, I was able to establish a framework for the creative portion of the thesis. In writing the stories, I discovered the difficulty in negotiating an effective balance between telling a true story while maintaining privacy for the real people included in the narrative. Objectivity, avoiding sentimentality, and writing about myself without producing an overly self-absorbed collection was also a struggle. Overall, the collection contains short prose pieces that strive to reflect the precise poetic prose of Karr's The Liar's Club, while combining human suffering with detailed descriptions of nature illustrated by Williams' Refuge: An Unnatural History of Family and Place in an unconventional form reminiscent of Norma Cantú's Canícula: Snapshots of a Girlhood en la Frontera.

Poff, Terri Lynn

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Smart Thermal Skins for Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Smart Thermal Skins for Vehicles With a modest effort, many of the energy-efficient technologies developed for buildings can be transferred to the transportation sector. The goal of vehicle thermal management research at LBL is to save the energy equivalent of one to two billion gallons of gasoline per year, and improve the marketability of next-generation vehicles using advanced solar control glazings and insulating shell components to reduce accessory loads. Spectrally selective and electrochromic window glass and lightweight insulating materials improve the fuel efficiency of conventional and hybrid vehicles and extend the range of electric vehicles by reducing the need for air conditioning and heating, and by allowing the downsizing of equipment.

122

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

123

Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013  

SciTech Connect

During course of this project, we have worked in several areas relevant to low-dose ionizing radiation. Using gene expression to measure biological response, we have examined the response of human skin exposed in-vivo to radation, human skin exposed ex-vivo to radiation, and a human-skin model exposed to radiation. We have learned a great deal about the biological response of human skin to low-dose ionizing radiation.

Rocke, David M. [University of California Davis

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

124

BK virus has tropism for human salivary gland cells in vitro: Implications for transmission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background: In this study, it was determined that BKV is shed in saliva and an in vitro model system was developed whereby BKV can productively infect both submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) salivary gland cell lines. Results: BKV was detected in oral fluids using quantitative real-time PCR (QRTPCR). BKV infection was determined using quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. The infectivity of BKV was inhibited by pre-incubation of the virus with gangliosides that saturated the major capsid protein, VP1, halting receptor mediated BKV entry into salivary gland cells. Examination of infected cultures by transmission electron microscopy revealed 45-50 nm BK virions clearly visible within the cells. Subsequent to infection, encapsidated BK virus was detected in the supernatant. Conclusion: We thus demonstrated that BKV was detected in oral fluids and that BK infection and replication occur in vitro in salivary gland cells. These data collectively suggest the potential for BKV oral route of transmission and oral pathogenesis.

Jeffers, Liesl K. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Madden, Vicki [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifer@med.unc.ed [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Department of Dental Ecology, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

Sulforaphane induces DNA double strand breaks predominantly repaired by homologous recombination pathway in human cancer cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cytotoxicity and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were studied in HeLa cells treated with sulforaphane (SFN), a well-known chemo-preventive agent. Cell survival was impaired by SFN in a concentration and treatment time-dependent manner. Both constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) and {gamma}-H2AX assay unambiguously indicated formation of DSBs by SFN, reflecting the cell survival data. These DSBs were predominantly processed by homologous recombination repair (HRR), judging from the SFN concentration-dependent manner of Rad51 foci formation. On the other hand, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, a key non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) protein, was not observed by SFN treatment, suggesting that NHEJ may not be involved in DSBs induced by this chemical. G2/M arrest by SFN, a typical response for cells exposed to ionizing radiation was also observed. Our new data indicate the clear induction of DSBs by SFN and a useful anti-tumor aspect of SFN through the induction of DNA DSBs.

Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yu, Dong [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kubota, Nobuo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-machi, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Anzai, Kazunori [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: anzai@nirs.go.jp

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

126

Impaired skin integrity related to radiation therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin reactions associated with radiation therapy require frequent nursing assessment and intervention. Preventive interventions and early management can minimize the severity of the skin reaction. With the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation skin reactions, the ET nurse can determine who is at risk and then implement preventive measures. Because radiation treatment is fractionated, skin reactions do not usually occur until midway through the course of therapy and will subside within a few weeks after completion of radiation. Many patients and their families still fear that radiation causes severe burns. Teaching and anticipatory guidance by the ET nurse is needed to assist patients and their families to overcome this fear, and to educate them on preventive skin care regimens.

Ratliff, C.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of CAD gene expression and inhibition by Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in human breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CAD gene is trifunctional and expresses carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate carbamyltransferase/dihydroorotase, which are required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. CAD gene activities are induced in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and treatment of MCF-7 or ZR-75 cells with 17b-estradiol (E2) resulted in a 3-5 fold increase in CAD mRNA levels in both cell lines. E2 induced reporter gene activity in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells transfected with a construct containing the growth-responsive -90/+115 (pCAD1) region of the CAD gene promoter, which contains three upstream GC-rich and two downstream E-box motifs. Deletion and mutation analysis of the CAD gene promoter demonstrated that only the GC boxes that bind Sp1 protein were required for E2-responsiveness. Results of gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays show that both Sp1 and estrogen receptor a (ERa) interact with the GC-rich region of the CAD gene promoter. Moreover, hormone-induced transactivation of pCAD1 was inhibited by cotransfection with dominant-negative Sp1 expression plasmid and small inhibitory RNA for Sp1. These results demonstrate that, in common with many other genes involved in E2-induced cell proliferation, the CAD gene is also regulated by a nonclassical ERa/Sp1-mediated pathway. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands suppress several E2-induced responses in the rodent uterus and mammary tumors and in human breast cancer cells. TCDD inhibited hormone-induced activation of CAD mRNA levels and reporter gene activity in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells transfected with E2-responsive pCAD promoter constructs. E2-mediated transactivation of pCAD constructs with a mutant inhibitory dioxin responsive element DRE (iDRE) were also inhibited by TCDD suggesting that inhibitory AhR-ERa/Sp1 crosstalk was iDRE-independent. It was not possible to determine whether the levels of ERa in cells cotreated with E2 plus TCDD were limiting since the proteasome inhibitor MG132 itself directly decreased CAD mRNA levels. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), it was shown that both E2 and TCDD enhanced AhR-ERa interactions. E2 also induced interactions between ERa and Sp1. However cotreatment with TCDD abrogated this effect. Results of this study demonstrate a unique model of AhR-ERa crosstalk where the liganded AhR inhibits ERa-Sp1 interactions and also recruits ERa to Ahresponsive gene promoters such as CYP1A1.

Khan, Shaheen Munawar Ali

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Biomolecular interactions and responses of human epithelial and macrophage cells to engineered nanomaterials.  

SciTech Connect

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in commercial products, particularly in the biomedical, cosmetic, and clothing industries. For example, pants and shirts are routinely manufactured with silver nanoparticles to render them 'wrinkle-free.' Despite the growing applications, the associated environmental health and safety (EHS) impacts are completely unknown. The significance of this problem became pervasive within the general public when Prince Charles authored an article in 2004 warning of the potential social, ethical, health, and environmental issues connected to nanotechnology. The EHS concerns, however, continued to receive relatively little consideration from federal agencies as compared with large investments in basic nanoscience R&D. The mounting literature regarding the toxicology of ENMs (e.g., the ability of inhaled nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier; Kwon et al., 2008, J. Occup. Health 50, 1) has spurred a recent realization within the NNI and other federal agencies that the EHS impacts related to nanotechnology must be addressed now. In our study we proposed to address critical aspects of this problem by developing primary correlations between nanoparticle properties and their effects on cell health and toxicity. A critical challenge embodied within this problem arises from the ability to synthesize nanoparticles with a wide array of physical properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, surface chemistry, etc.), which in turn creates an immense, multidimensional problem in assessing toxicological effects. In this work we first investigated varying sizes of quantum dots (Qdots) and their ability to cross cell membranes based on their aspect ratio utilizing hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy. We then studied toxicity of epithelial cell lines that were exposed to different sized gold and silver nanoparticles using advanced imaging techniques, biochemical analyses, and optical and mass spectrometry methods. Finally we evaluated a new assay to measure transglutaminase (TG) activity; a potential marker for cell toxicity.

Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Brozik, Susan Marie; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Bachand, George David; Bachand, Marlene; Aaron, Jesse S.; Allen, Amy; Seagrave, Jean-Clare

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected human endothelial cells on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,a Zhenggong Li, MD,b Yang Shen, PhD,a James C.-M. Lee, PhD,c and Qingsong Yu, PhD,c Chongqing, China-stent restenosis (ISR). A growing body of evidence suggests that drugs loaded on drug-eluting stents could impair (ECs).4 Moreover, drugs may also impair the circulation of endo- thelial progenitor cells for re

Lee, James

130

Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Skin Bleaching in Jamaica: A Colonial Legacy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light skin color sits within a space of privilege. While this has global significance and relevance, it is particularly true in Jamaica, a former British colony. The majority of the population is of African descent, yet there is an elevation of Eurocentric values and a denigration of Afrocentric values in many facets of life, specifically in the promotion of light skin as an indicator of beauty and social status. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological and socio-cultural factors that influence the practice of skin bleaching in the postcolonial society of Jamaica. Additionally, the study outlined the nation's efforts to combat the skin-bleaching phenomenon. The naturalistic paradigm of inquiry was used to frame the study and to collect and analyze data. The sample consisted of fifteen participants—twelve participants (six males and six females) with a history of skin bleaching; a retailer of skin lightening products; a local dermatologist who has written and published in local newspapers on the practice; and a representative from the Ministry of Health who was integrally involved in the national educational efforts to ban the practice. Data came from three sources: in-depth interviews with respondents; observation of participant's skin-bleaching practices; and a review of local cultural artifacts from popular culture and the media. Data from the audio recorded and transcribed interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Some of the findings reveal that there are multiple and inconsistent definitions of bleaching; skin bleaching enjoys mixed reviews—much attributed to economic and social class distinctions; bleachers demonstrate and boast of their expertise in managing the bleaching process suggesting, that because of this expertise, they are immune to any negative side-effects of the practice; the bleaching practice was found to be intermittent, time consuming and laborious, costly and addictive; there are several motivations for the skin-bleaching practice, and these are primarily connected to issues of fashion, beauty, popularity, self-image and acceptability; there is a certain level of defiance towards the government‘s efforts to ban bleaching yet an expressed sense of responsibility among bleachers. The overall findings show that there is a bias in Jamaica for light skin over dark skin and these values are taught in non-formal and informal ways from very early in life. The practice of skin bleaching is of social and public health concern, and this study has implications for national policy, practice and theory.

Robinson, Petra Alaine

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Differential response of nontumorigenic and tumorigenic human papillomavirus type 16-positive epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta 1. Cancer Res  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transforming growth factor (TGF) ßsare multifunctional polypeptide growth factors with diverse biological effects, including inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the possible role of 1<,!•/<, in the regulation of papillomavirus infection and papillomavirus-associated transformation, we compared the response to TGF/SI of normal keratinocytes, human papillomavirus, type 16 (HPV 16)-positive-immortalized keratinocytes (nontumorigenic), and HPV 16positive cervical carcinoma cells (tumorigenic) with respect to DNA synthesis and protooncogene expression. All HPV 16-immortalized cell lines were nearly as inhibited by TGF/3, as normal keratinocytes, whereas two cervical carcinoma cell lines (Cask! and Siha) were refractory to growth inhibition by TGF/9]. Cell surface receptors for TGF/9, were present on both normal and carcinoma cell lines. In all cases, growth

L. Braun; M. Dürst; R. Mikumo; Et Al; Cancer Res; Contact The Aacr Publications; L. Braun; M. Durst; R. Mikumo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

26, 2011 26, 2011 Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy J. Tyson McDonald, Julia Fox, Heather Szelag, Annie Kang, Heiko Enderling, Peter Nowd, Douglas Scheinder, Giannoula Lakka Klement, Ingolf Tuerk, and Lynn Hlatky Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Steward St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, 736 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02135. Primary tissue represents a better model for studies than immortalized cell lines that are adapted

134

Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

SciTech Connect

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hypersensitivity of human and rodent Fanconi anemia (FA) cells to bystander  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paul Wilson Paul Wilson Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Abstract Fanconi anemia (FA) is a chromosomal instability and cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by developmental defects, progressive bone marrow failure, and cellular hypersensitivity to agents that induce DNA interstrand crosslinks and oxidative stress [1]. The disease is transmitted either as an autosomal-recessive or X-linked trait, and mutations in 13 FA genes have been identified in FA patients (with more likely to be discovered). Previously, we reported on the hypersensitivity of the isogenic Fancg-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant KO40 for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction following low dose 3.86-MeV plutonium-238 α-particle irradiation where <1% of cell nuclei are hit.

136

earth skin temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

earth skin temperature earth skin temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Earth Skin Temperature (° C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Earth Skin Temperature (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords climate

137

Unconventional human computer interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course focuses on how we can use the potential of the human body in experimental or unconventional interface techniques. It explores the biological or physiological characteristics of the separate parts of the body, from head to toe, and from skin ...

Steffi Beckhaus; Ernst Kruijff

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Requirement for vasoactive amines for production of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Injection of antigen into the dermis of the flank of an appropriately immunized rat, guinea pig, monkey, or man results, 24-48 h later, in the formation of an erythematous, indurated lesion. Similar skin testing of immunized mice generally fails to produce such lesions (1-3). The explanation for this particular difference between mice and men is unknown but there is reason to believe that it may not stem from differences in immunologically competent cells. Two observations support this view. (a) Appropriately immunized mice exhibit antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) ' reactions when the site of elicitation is the foot pad (4) or the ear (5). (b) Mice exhibit most other manifestations of cell-mediated immunity, in a normal fashion, despite their failure to produce DTH reactions in the flank skin. Thus, mice must have appropriately reactive T cells but there may be some difficulty in delivering the cells required for the production of DTH reactions to the flank skin. In support of this notion, it has been shown that ifperitoneal exudate cells are added to the eliciting dose of antigen placed in the flank skin the lesions that result are morphologically

K. Gershon; Philip W. Askenase; Michael; D. Gershon

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma.

Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.a [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Crivello, Martin [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires(Argentina); Perona, Marina [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto [Department of Instrumentation and Control, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pozzi, Emiliano [Argentina Reactor, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Casal, Mariana [Institute of Oncology 'Angel H. Roffo', University of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kahl, Steven [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario Alberto [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, Buenos Aires (Argentina); National Research Council (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The bipyridyl herbicide paraquat-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: relevance to dopaminergic pathogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paraquat (PQ) is a cationic non-selective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds and grasses. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to pesticides can be a risk factor in the incidence of Parkinson`s disease (PD). A strong correlation has been reported between exposure to paraquat and PD incidence in Canada, Taiwan, and United States. This correlation is supported by animal studies showing that paraquat produces toxicity in dopaminergic neurons of the rat and mouse brain. However, it is unclear how paraquat triggers toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Based on the previous reports, it was hypothesized that paraquat may induce oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. To explore this possibility, dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat, and several biomarkers of oxidative stress or proteasomal dysfunction were investigated. First, a specific dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 significantly protected SY5Y cells against the toxicity of paraquat, indicating that paraquat exerts its toxicity by a mechanism involving the dopamine transporter (DAT). Second, paraquat increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SY5Y cells, but decreased the levels of glutathione. Third, paraquat inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity, but did not affect glutathione reductase activity. On the other hand, paraquat increased GST activity by 24 hr, after which GST activity returned to the control value at 48 hr. Fourth, paraquat decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Fifth, paraquat produced the increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls, as well as DNA fragmentation, indicating oxidative damage to major cellular components. Sixth, paraquat decreased proteasomal activity, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and V, and intracellular ATP levels, but increased the activities of caspase 3 and 9, indicating that proteasomal inhibition is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by the activation of apoptotic signaling pathway. Seventh, paraquat increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), p53, Bax, �±-synuclein and ubiquitinated proteins. Eighth, paraquat induced nuclear condensation. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that paraquat produces oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunctionmediated toxicity in SY5Y cells. Thus, current findings suggest that paraquat may induce the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurons through oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction.

Yang, Wonsuk

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The skin's role in human thermoregulation and comfort  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is 3.8 met (ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 2005). Swimmingcomfort. The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals provides theEngineers) (2005), Handbook of Fundamentals, Atlanta,

Arens, Edward A; Zhang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Generation and characterization of transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells and conversion to putative clinical-grade status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pluripotent stem cells and conversion to putative clinical-pluripotent stem cells and conversion to putative clinical-manufacturing facilities for conversion of our iPSCs into

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.

Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)] [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Mondal, Sumona [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Woodworth, Craig D., E-mail: woodworth@clarkson.edu [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Cultured human melanoma cells biosynthesize a novel form of laminin that lacks the M/sub r/ = 400 kDa subunit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A human melanoma cell line (A375) was found to produce an unusual type of laminin composed exclusively of M/sub r/ = 200 kDa B subunits and lacking the M/sub r/ = 400 kDa A subunit. Detergent lysates of A375 cells pulsed with (/sup 35/S)methionine contained an immunoreactive form of laminin that migrated on nonreduced SDS-PAGE with an apparent M/sub r/ = 850 kDa. The 850 kDa laminin was clearly resolved from the typical M/sub r/ = 950 kDa laminin composed of A and B subunit types that is produced by a variety of cultured cells such as human choriocarcinoma (JAR) cells. Upon reduction of the intersubunit disulfide bonds of the A375 laminin, a pair of polypeptides co-migrated on SDS-PAGE with the M/sub r/ = 200 kDa B subunit doublet of JAR laminin. The A-deficient A375 laminin does not seem to be a result of the proteolysis of A subunit in cell lysates. No degradation of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled JAR laminin was observed upon incubation with nonradioactive A375 cell lysate supplemented in the usual manner with ten protease inhibitors. Furthermore, A subunit did not appear transiently in A375 cells at any chase time (0-4 hr) following a 10-min biosynthetic pulse with (/sup 35/S)methionine. The authors observations suggest that A375 cells biosynthesize principally the B subunits of laminin and assemble them to form a disulfide-linked macromolecule, possibly a B/sub 4/ tetramer.

Peters, B.P.; Kroll, T.G.; Ruddon, R.W.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Human adrenal tumor cell line SW-13 contains a natriuretic peptide receptor system that responds preferentially to ANP among various natriuretic peptides  

SciTech Connect

A new type of ANP receptor system which clearly distinguishes natriuretic peptides A and B (ANP and BNP) has been identified in the human adrenal tumor cell line SW-13 and characterized. SW-13 cells responded to nanomolar concentrations of ANP with large increases in cGMP levels but in the case of BNP, much higher concentrations were required to produce the same extent of response. This property is unique since the 140-kDa ANP receptors so far characterized do not discriminate between ANP and BNP. For comparison, various natriuretic peptide receptors were also re-characterized using the recently identified CNP.

Mizuno, T.; Katafuchi, T.; Hagiwara, H.; Ito, T.; Kangawa, K.; Matsuo, H.; Hirose, S. (Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan))

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Development of quantitative real time PCR to assess human brain microvascular endothelial cell susceptibility to HIV -1 infection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Quantitative Real Time PCR to Assess Human Brainof the PCR assays.. 18and optimization of qRT-PCR assays specific for different

Chao, Ying Sheng

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Constructs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. Specific aims apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. The project includes research complementary to NASA/HRP space radiation project.

Michael Cornforth

2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

148

Dihydroptychantol A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivative, induces autophagy and following apoptosis associated with p53 pathway in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells  

SciTech Connect

Dihydroptychantol A (DHA), a novel macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound extracted from liverwort Asterella angusta, has antifungal and multi-drug resistance reversal properties. Here, the chemically synthesized DHA was employed to test its anti-cancer activities in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Our results demonstrated that DHA induced autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death accompanied with G{sub 2}/M-phase cell cycle arrest in U2OS cells. DHA-induced autophagy was morphologically characterized by the formation of double membrane-bound autophagic vacuoles recognizable at the ultrastructural level. DHA also increased the levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Surprisingly, DHA-mediated apoptotic cell death was potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, suggesting that autophagy may play a protective role that impedes the eventual cell death. Furthermore, p53 was shown to be involved in DHA-meditated autophagy and apoptosis. In this connection, DHA increased nuclear expression of p53, induced p53 phosphorylation, and upregulated p53 target gene p21{sup Waf1/Cip1}. In contrast, cytoplasmic p53 was reduced by DHA, which contributed to the stimulation of autophagy. In relation to the cell cycle, DHA decreased the expression of cyclin B{sub 1}, a cyclin required for progression through the G{sub 2}/M phase. Taken together, DHA induces G{sub 2}/M-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U2OS cells. DHA-induced apoptosis was preceded by the induction of protective autophagy. DHA-mediated autophagy and apoptosis are associated with the cytoplasmic and nuclear functions of p53.

Li Xia [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); School of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Wu, William K.K. [Institute of Digestive Diseases, LKS Institute of Health Sciences and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Sun Bin [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cui Min; Liu Shanshan [School of Ocean, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Gao Jian [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Lou Hongxiang, E-mail: louhongxiang@sdu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Self-cleaning skin-like prosthetic polymer surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An external covering and method of making an external covering for hiding the internal endoskeleton of a mechanical (e.g., prosthetic) device that exhibits skin-like qualities is provided. The external covering generally comprises an internal bulk layer in contact with the endoskeleton of the prosthetic device and an external skin layer disposed about the internal bulk layer. The external skin layer is comprised of a polymer composite with carbon nanotubes embedded therein. The outer surface of the skin layer has multiple cone-shaped projections that provide the external skin layer with superhydrophobicity. The carbon nanotubes are preferably vertically aligned between the inner surface and outer surface of the external skin layer in order to provide the skin layer with the ability to transmit heat. Superhydrophobic powders may optionally be used as part of the polymer composite or applied as a coating to the surface of the skin layer to enhance superhydrophobicity.

Simpson, John T. (Clinton, TN); Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Shibata, Jason (Manhattan Beach, CA)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

150

Light & Skin Interactions: Simulations for Computer Graphics Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Light and Skin Interactions immerses you in one of the most fascinating application areas of computer graphics: appearance simulation. The book first illuminates the fundamental biophysical processes that affect skin appearance, and reviews seminal related ...

Gladimir V. G. Baranoski; Aravind Krishnaswamy

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Measurements of the Skin Temperature on Small Lakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus to measure the skin temperature and related variables on inland lakes is described. The apparatus is a transparent frame with sensors to measure the skin and bulk water temperature, the wind velocity, and the air temperature and ...

Robert Kurzeja; Malcolm Pendergast; Eliel Villa-Aleman

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Generic-model based human-body modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a generic-model based human-body modeling method which take the anatomical structure of the human body into account. The generic model contains anatomical structure of bones and muscles of the human body. For a given target skin mesh, ... Keywords: anatomically-based modeling, generic model, human body modeling

Xiaomao Wu; Lizhuang Ma; Ke-Sen Huang; Yan Gao; Zhihua Chen

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Physics of Supercooling of Thin Water Skins Covering Gyrating Hailstones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid water skins on spongy deposits of hailstones that grow while gyrating in a wind tunnel environment, have been routinely observed to be supercooled at the water skin–air interface to as low as ?5°C and more. The average water skin thickness ...

Roland List

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

Eum, Sung Yong [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)], E-mail: sungyong.eum@uky.edu; Andras, Ibolya [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Molecular Neuroscience and Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

4-Hydroxyestradiol induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells: possible protection by NF-{kappa}B and ERK/MAPK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catechol estrogens, the hydroxylated metabolites of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), have been considered to be implicated in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE{sub 2}), an oxidized metabolite of E{sub 2} formed preferentially by cytochrome P450 1B1, reacts with DNA to form depurinating adducts thereby exerting genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. 4-OHE{sub 2} undergoes 2-electron oxidation to quinone via semiquinone, and during this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated to cause DNA damage and cell death. In the present study, 4-OHE{sub 2} was found to elicit cytotoxicity in cultured human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cells, which was blocked by the antioxidant trolox. MCF-10A cells treated with 4-OHE{sub 2} exhibited increased intracellular ROS accumulation and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, and underwent apoptosis as determined by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) was transiently activated by 4-OHE{sub 2} treatment. Cotreatment of MCF-10A cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, exacerbated 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cell death. 4-OHE{sub 2} also caused transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) involved in transmitting cell survival or death signals. A pharmacological inhibitor of ERK aggravated the 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity, supporting the pivotal role of ERK in protecting against catechol estrogen-induced oxidative cell death.

Chen Zhihua [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hye-Kyung [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hurh, Yeon-Jin [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Length of cell division/mitosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Length of cell division/mitosis Length of cell division/mitosis Name: Mrs. Goeheler Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are a 5/6 grade class at Lake Louise in Palatine. We are studying cell division- mitosis. We would like to know how long this process takes? Can you please help us with this question? thanks for your help. Replies: For cells that are actively growing and dividing (say, for instance, human skin cells - fibroblasts- that are grown in culture dishes) the entire cell cycle takes about 20-24 hours. The cell cycle is usually described as having four "phases". In the G1 phase, the cell grows and also senses whether the environment is right to go on to divide. The d decision to divide is made in G1 phase. The second phase is S phase, where the DNA of the cell is copied (replicated). It's called S because this is the phase where DNA Synthesis occurs. The third phase is called G2. Here, the cell grows more, makes sure that all of its chromosomes are fully copied, and gets ready to divide. The fourth phase is M phase, where mitosis and cell division occurs. M phase usually takes about 1 hour; G1 phase is variable (depending on growth conditions); S phase usually takes about 6-8 hours, and G2 is normally 2-5 S phase usually takes about 6-8 hours, and G2 is normally 2-5 hours. Just how this cycle is regulated - and how the "decisions" are made - is a very hot topic in cell biology research these days. You're on to something big and exciting here!

157

Effect of Size, shape, and surface modification on cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles to human HEp-2 and canine MDCK cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been increasing interests in applying gold nanoparticles in biological research, drug delivery, and therapy. As the interaction of gold nanoparticles with cells relies on properties of nanoparticles, the cytotoxicity is complex and still under ...

Yinan Zhang; Dan Xu; Wenqin Li; Jun Yu; Yu Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, ...

Alm, Eric J.

159

Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells  

SciTech Connect

Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

Lin, Hui-Hsuan [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fen-Pi [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chau-Jong [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hsuan, Shu-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Kun [E-Chyun Dermatology Clinic, No.70, Sec. 3, Jhonghua E. Rd., East District, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jing-Hsien, E-mail: mk0828@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine and Life Science, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, No.89, Wen Hwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 717, Taiwan (China)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by {approx} 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: > CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. > CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. > The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Andreeff, Michael [Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, John, E-mail: john.digiovanni@austin.utexas.edu [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin  

SciTech Connect

A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

Marra, John J; McNamee, Sara

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Pluripotency-associated genes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells are reactivated by a unique epigenetic sub-microenvironment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for 10 minutes at 4°C before FACS analysis. CNE-2-2 single-cell suspension was fixed in ice-cold 70% ethanol at -20°C for 16 h, labeled with propidium iodide (50 ?g/ml) for at least 15 min in dark and analyzed directly on a FACSCalibur flow cytometer... chamber of a 24- well transwell plate (Corning Inc.) was pretreated with 1% Matrigel™ (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) in PBS and incubated 1 h at RT. Cells (105/ml) were added to the top chambers of the plates. Media with or with- out activated...

Cao, Jun-Xia; Cui, Yu-Xin; Long, Zi-Jie; Dai, Zhong-Min; Lin, Ji-Yan; Liang, Yi; Zheng, Fei-Meng; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Liu, Quentin

2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

163

Skin-Like Prosthetic Polymer Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal  

ORNL scientists combined superhydrophobic polymer inventions with carbon nanotubes to create a self-cleaning skin-like surface material with the ...

164

She, With a Warm Palm, the Skin Over My Spine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??She, with a Warm Palm, the Skin over My Spine is a collection of sixnonfiction essays and three vignettes divided into two parts. The first… (more)

Cambardella, Cara Maria Michele

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Numerical simulation of thermal response of the skin tissues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to develop a numerical model for the simulation the heat transfer process and the heat-induced mechanical response of the skin tissues. We present some models using the finite element method in 2D space. A multilayer model is ... Keywords: biothermomechanics, coupled problems, finite element method, numerical methods, skin tissue, thermal systems

Iulia Maria Cârstea; Ion Cârstea

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Tube skin temperature prediction of catalytic reforming unit (CRU) heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum duty of reformer heaters is governed by the occurance of maximum tube skin temperature of the heaters. The value of maximum tube skin temperatures of the heaters must not exceed theirs' maximum allowable design temperature. The paper highlights ... Keywords: coke formation, finite element, simulations, tube furnance

Suzana Yusup; Nguyen Duy Vinh; Nurhayati Mellon; Abdullah Hassan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Mechanistic investigation of skin barrier perturbation induced by surfactants in the presence of humectants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The stratum corneum (SC) of the skin functions as a barrier between the body and the environment. Surfactants such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are used in skin cleansers and in skin-care formulations because of their ...

Ghosh, Saswata

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Ozone, skin cancer, and the SST  

SciTech Connect

In 1971, the U.S. Congress cut off funding for development of supersonic transport aircraft prototypes when it was argued that the pollution created by SSTs could reduce the stratospheric ozone content and increase the incidence of skin cancer. At present, the theory of ozone depletion is in a rather uncertain state. Two examples of this are cited. First, ozone depletion may depend more on the availability of surfaces of aerosols and particles than on the content of chlorine. Second, it has been discovered that NO(x) can tie up active chlorine and thus reduce depletion from that source. We are therefore left with the paradoxical result that under certain circumstances SSTs flying in the lower stratospheric can actually counteract, at least partially, any ozone-depleting effects of CFCs. A recent study by scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory showed that melanoma rates would not be affected by changes in the ozone layer. If these results are confirmed, then much of the fear associated with ozone depletion disappears. It is difficult to tell how all this will affect a future supersonic transport program, since it is not clear whether a fleet of SSTs will increase or offset ozone depletion.

Singer, S.F.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Kinder, Gentler Cell Capture Method Could Aid Medical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... effective in creating arrays of human liver cells and mouse pluripotent cells—which, similar to stem cells, can develop into more than one cell type. ...

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

171

Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humanized” mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury ...

Thomas, David K.

172

An early function of the adenoviral E1B 55 kDa protein is required for the nuclear relocalization of the cellular p53 protein in adenovirus-infected normal human cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well established that the human subgroup C adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) E1B 55 kDa protein can regulate the activity and concentration of the cellular tumor suppressor, p53. However, the contribution(s) of these functions of the E1B protein to viral reproduction remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined properties of p53 in normal human cells infected by E1B mutant viruses that display defective entry into the late phase or viral late mRNA export. The steady-state concentrations of p53 were significantly higher in cells infected by the E1B 55 kDa null mutant Hr6 or three mutants carrying small insertions in the E1B 55 kDa protein coding sequence than in Ad5-infected cells. Nevertheless, none of the mutants induced apoptosis in infected cells. Rather, the localization of p53 to E1B containing nuclear sites observed during infection by Ad5 was prevented by mutations that impair interaction of the E1B protein with p53 and/or with the E4 Orf6 protein. These results indicate that the E1B protein fulfills an early function that correlates efficient entry into the late phase with the localization of E1B and p53 in the nucleus of Ad5-infected normal human cells.

Cardoso, F.M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca 62209 (Mexico); Kato, Sayuri E.M.; Huang Wenying; Flint, S. Jane [Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Gonzalez, Ramon A. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca 62209 (Mexico)], E-mail: rgonzalez@uaem.mx

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh065, available online at www.alcalc.oupjournals.org DUAL EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON CELL DEATH IN PRIMARY CULTURE OF HUMAN AND RAT HEPATOCYTES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Aims: In-vivo and in-vitro studies have shown that ethanol induces hepatocyte damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a broad range of ethanol concentrations on apoptosis and necrosis in primary culture of human and rat hepatocytes. Methods: Human and rat hepatocytes were isolated from human hepatectomies and male Wistar rats (200–250 g) using the classical collagenase perfusion method. After stabilization of cell culture, ethanol (0–10 mmol/l) was administered and the parameters were measured 24 h after ethanol addition. Apoptosis was studied by DNA fragmentation, iodide propidium–DNA staining, caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding in hepatocytes. Necrosis was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and GSH/GSSG were used as parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Ethanol enhanced dose-dependently all the parameters associated with apoptosis in human and rat hepatocytes. Low or high ethanol concentrations induced an opposite action against cell necrosis in cultured hepatocytes. Low concentrations of ethanol (1–2 mmol/l) reduced LDH release from human and rat hepatocytes. However, the highest ethanol concentration (10 mmol/l) induced a sharp increase in cell necrosis. The effect of ethanol on cell necrosis was related to lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes. Conclusions: Ethanol differentially regulates apoptosis or necrosis in cultured hepatocytes. Although ethanol exerted a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis, low ethanol concentrations were able to reduce basal lipid peroxidation and necrosis in hepatocytes. The highest ethanol concentration (10 mmol/l) induced apoptosis and necrosis in human and rat cultured hepatocytes.

Rafael Castilla; Raúl González; Dalia Fouad; Enrique Fraga; Jordi Muntané

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Cell type dependent radiation induced signaling and its effect on tissue regulation Marianne B. Sowa, Claere von Neubeck, R. Joe Robinson, Paula M. Koehler, Norman J. Karin, Xihai Wang, Katrina M. Waters and Harish Shankaran Ionizing radiation exposure triggers a cell signaling program which includes proliferation, the DNA damage response, and tissue remodeling. The activated signaling pathways lead to the induction of both protective effects as well as adverse consequences. A fundamental question is whether signaling cascades initiated by low doses are fundamentally different than those initiated by high doses. To address this question we have applied a systems biology approach to examine the radiation induced temporal responses of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model. Using microarray-

175

Anisotropy of Land Surface Skin Temperature Derived from Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The land skin temperature, an important feature for agricultural monitoring, convective processes, and the earth’s radiation budget, is monitored from limited-view satellite imagers. The angular dependence of this parameter is examined using ...

Patrick Minnis; Mandana M. Khaiyer

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Analysis of Land Skin Temperature Using AVHRR Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using satellite remote sensing techniques to take quantitative observations of the climate system will advance our knowledge and ability to model the climate system and its changes. Polar-orbiting satellite records of global land surface skin ...

Menglin Jin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Second Skin : motion capture with actuated feedback for motor learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Second Skin aims to combine three-dimensional (3D) motion tracking with tactile feedback for the purpose of improving users' motor-learning ability. Such a system would track a user's body and limb movements as he or she ...

Miaw, Dennis (Dennis R.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solid-State Radiometer Measurements of Sea Surface Skin Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite sea surface skin temperature (SSST) maps are readily available from precisely calibrated radiometer systems such as the ERS along-track scanning radiometer and, in the near future, from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. ...

C. J. Donlon; S. J. Keogh; D. J. Baldwin; I. S. Robinson; I. Ridley; T. Sheasby; I. J. Barton; E. F. Bradley; T. J. Nightingale; W. Emery

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

An analysis of rate-sensitive skin in oil wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents the results of the perforating program for the first forty wells in the Kuparuk River Field in Alaska. Several different types of perforating guns were used to perforate the wells at varying shot densities. Pressure transient tests were conducted on each well to measure skin damage and flow efficiency. A correlation of average flow efficiency with perforating gun type and shot density is presented. This shows that shot densities above 4 shots/ft result in less skin damage, and wells completed with 12 shots/ft have little or no damage. The effect of perforation penetration is also shown to be a factor in reducing damage, but with all other factors being equal, 12 shots/ft is shown to result in the least amount of damage. The above results are explained by a detailed analysis of multiple buildup tests at varying rates which were performed on some of the highly damaged wells completed during the early development of the field. These tests indicated skin damage to be rate sensitive with some true formation damage also present. Non-Darcy flow and gas saturation near the wellbore are shown to contribute to the rate-sensitive skin factors. A method of analysis is presented which allows non-Darcy flow skin factors to be calculated when gas saturation is also causing a skin effect. This can be accomplished without fluid property and relative permeability data, which is necessary to calculate saturation effects using standard analysis methods.

Blacker, L.K.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient  

SciTech Connect

Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China)] [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China)] [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China)] [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China)] [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China)] [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China)] [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China)] [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China) [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Radiation induction of cancer of the skin  

SciTech Connect

The induction of epidermal tumors was studied using exposures to 25 kV x-rays with or without subsequent exposures to 12-0-tetradeconyl phorbol-13 acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet radiation (uvr) 280-400 nm. Fractionation regimens and total exposure up to 4000R produced no squamous cell carcinomas. When these regimes were followed by TPA an incidence of about 80% was obtained, and incidence of 60% when uvr exposures followed the x-irradiation. A dose-dependent increase in fibrosarcomas was found when x-irradiation was followed by 24 weeks of topical treatment with TPA. These results support the contention that uvr can enhance the expression of cells initiated by x-rays. The experimental evidence is compared with the data from the tinea capitis patients treated with x-rays. In C3HF/He male mice exposed to 50, 100, 150 and 200 rads /sup 137/Cs gamma rays the induction rate for fibrosarcomas was 2.9 x 10/sup -4/ per cGy/per mouse. This result compares with 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ transformations per surviving cell per cGy with 10T1/2 cells that are fibroblasts derived from C3H mice. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Burns, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Interstitial brachytherapy of periorificial skin carcinomas of the face: A retrospective study of 97 cases  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy of facial periorificial skin carcinomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 97 skin carcinomas (88 basal cell carcinomas, 9 squamous cell carcinomas) of the nose, periorbital areas, and ears from 40 previously untreated patients (Group 1) and 57 patients who had undergone surgery (Group 2). The average dose was 55 Gy (range, 50-65 Gy) in Group 1 and 52 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) in Group 2 (mean implantation times: 79 and 74 hours, respectively). We calculated survival rates and assessed functional and cosmetic results de visu. Results: Median age was 71 years (range, 17-97 years). There were 29 T1, 8 T2, 1 T3, and 2 Tx tumors in Group 1. Tumors were <2 cm in Group 2. Local control was 92.5% in Group 1 and 88% in Group 2 (median follow-up, 55 months; range, 6-132 months). Five-year disease-free survival was better in Group 1 (91%; range, 75-97) than in Group 2 (80%; range, 62-90; p = 0.23). Of the 34 patients whose results were reassessed, 8 presented with pruritus or epiphora; 1 Group 2 patient had an impaired eyelid aperture. Cosmetic results were better in Group 1 than in Group 2 with, respectively, 72% (8/11) vs. 52% (12/23) good results and 28 (3/11) vs. 43% (10/23) fair results. Conclusions: Brachytherapy provided a high level of local control and good cosmetic results for facial periorificial skin carcinomas that pose problems of surgical reconstruction. Results were better for untreated tumors than for incompletely excised tumors or tumors recurring after surgery.

Rio, Emmanuel [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France)]. E-mail: e-rio@nantes.fnclcc.fr; Bardet, Etienne [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Ferron, Christophe [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France); Peuvrel, Patrick [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Supiot, Stephane [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Campion, Loic [Department of Biostatistics, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Beauvillain De Montreuil, Claude [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France); Mahe, Marc Andre [Department of Radiotherapy, CRLCC-Nantes-Atlantique, Saint Herblain (France); Dreno, Brigitte [Department of Dermatology, CHU Hotel Dieu, Saint Herblain (France)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller 1 , Seema Varma 1 , William Chrisler 2 , Xihai Wang 2 and Marianne Sowa 2 1 Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, WA 2 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electron- beam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDerm TM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variable-

185

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model Simulation of Electron Beam Irradiation of a Skin Tissue Model John Miller Washington State University Tri-Cities Abstract Monte Carlo simulations of electrons stopping in liquid water are being used to model electronbeam irradiation of the full-thickness (FT) EpiDermTM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes from a dermal layer of fibroblasts embedded in collagen. The simulations have shown the feasibility of exposing the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer (Miller et al. 2011). The variableenergy electron microbeam at PNNL (Sowa et al. 2005) was used as a model of device characteristics and

186

Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

Grácio, Filipe

187

Air humidity requirements for human comfort  

SciTech Connect

Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics, and activity level. The respiratory model predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely, the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum permissible humidity level near 100% RH. The requirements for respiratory comfort are much more stringent and result in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g., ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity was less restrictive and the humidity limit based on respiratory comfort was far more restrictive.

Toftum, J.; Fanger, P.O.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The role and regulation of Flice-Like Inhibitory Protein (FLIP) in cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells in vitro .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Human ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Although cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel are the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for ovarian cancer, chemoresistance is a… (more)

Abedini, Mohammad Reza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

190

Flow dynamics in a double-skin façade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamical study of the flow in an asymmetrically heated vertical plane channel was carried out experimentally and numerically. The experiments are carried out in water for modified Rayleigh numbers (Ra*) in a range corresponding to the boundary layer ... Keywords: double skin, laminar flow, natural convection, numerical simulation, recirculation zone, vertical channel, visualization technique, wall flux

Dan Ospir; Cristian Chereches; Catalin Popa; Stéphane Fohanno; Catalin Popovici

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

REGULAR ARTICLE Malleable skin coloration in cephalopods: selective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a fiber optic spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA; spectra recorded on PC, using OOIBase 32 software fiber-optic microscope-light source. The spectral range of measure- ments was limited from 400 nm to 800 spectrum, this study provides an insight into the optical mechanisms employed by the elaborate skin

Hanlon, Roger T.

192

Neutron skin uncertainties of Skyrme energy density functionals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Neutron-skin thickness is an excellent indicator of isovector properties of atomic nuclei. As such, it correlates strongly with observables in finite nuclei that depend on neutron-to-proton imbalance and the nuclear symmetry energy that characterizes the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. A rich worldwide experimental program involving studies with rare isotopes, parity violating electron scattering, and astronomical observations is devoted to pinning down the isovector sector of nuclear models. Purpose: We assess the theoretical systematic and statistical uncertainties of neutron-skin thickness and relate them to the equation of state of nuclear matter, and in particular to nuclear symmetry energy parameters. Methods: We use the nuclear superfluid Density Functional Theory with several Skyrme energy density functionals and density dependent pairing. To evaluate statistical errors and their budget, we employ the statistical covariance technique. Results: We find that the errors on neutron skin increase with neutron excess. Statistical errors due to uncertain coupling constants of the density functional are found to be larger than systematic errors, the latter not exceeding 0.06 fm in most neutron-rich nuclei across the nuclear landscape. The single major source of uncertainty is the poorly determined slope L of the symmetry energy that parametrizes its density dependence. Conclusions: To provide essential constraints on the symmetry energy of the nuclear energy density functional, next-generation measurements of neutron skins are required to deliver precision better than 0.06 fm.

M. Kortelainen; J. Erler; W. Nazarewicz; N. Birge; Y. Gao; E. Olsen

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Computational intelligence techniques: a study of scleroderma skin disease  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of microarray gene expression data from patients with and without scleroderma skin disease using computational intelligence and visual data mining techniques. Virtual reality spaces are used for providing unsupervised ... Keywords: Scleroderma disease, clustering, differential evolution, genetic programming, genomics, grid computing, hybrid evolutionary-classical optimization, particle swarm optimization, rough sets, similarity structure preservation, virtual reality spaces, visual data mining

Julio J. Valdes; Alan J. Barton

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Design of a thermal diffusion sensor for noninvasive assessment of skin surface perfusion and endothelial dysfunction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The skin microcirculation performs a range of vital functions, such as maintaining nutritional perfusion to the tissues and overall thermoregulation. Not only does impairment to the skin blood supply lead to tissue necrosis ...

Li, Vivian V. (Vivian Victoria)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

SkinDeEP: A Profiling Instrument for Upper-Decameter Sea Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Skin Depth Experimental Profiler (SkinDeEP) is an autonomous, self-contained, hydrodynamic instrument capable of making repeated, high-resolution profiles of temperature and conductivity within the ocean's upper decameter. Autonomous ...

Brian Ward; Rik Wanninkhof; Peter J. Minnett; Michael J. Head

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Formulating Detergents and Personal Care ProductsChapter 8 Skin Care Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formulating Detergents and Personal Care Products Chapter 8 Skin Care Products Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of\tChapter 8 Skin Care Products from ...

197

Design and optimization of actuation mechanisms for rapid skin closure device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Innovative mechanism designs were explored for the actuation of critical components in a novel rapid skin closure device used to close long surgical incisions. The rapid skin closure device is designed to speed up the wound ...

Erickson, Andrew T. (Andrew Thomas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The critical roles of pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) component, Cdc6, in DNA replication and checkpoint response in human cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

function as the replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells (a part of the hexameric helicase complex, is a transcriptionDNA-dependent ATPase and helicase activity, functions as a

Lau, Eric Kirk

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Management of Pediatric Skin Abscesses in Pediatric, General Academic and Community Emergency Departments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oral rather than skin flora. The study was approved by each participating site’s institutional review board.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.B. Mikkelsen, Ionizing radiation-induced, mitochondria-W.K. Rorrer, P.B. Chen, Radiation-induced proliferation ofresponse genes to ionizing radiation in human lymphoblastoid

Wyrobek, A. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Threshold Levels for Nonstochastic Skin Effects From Low Energy Discrete Radioactive Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assessment of risk from skin contamination by low-energy discrete radioactive particles (DRPs) is difficult because the particles produce nonuniform external radiation exposures. This study, which provides data on the relationship between DRP dose to the skin and biological skin response, can form the technical basis for developing regulations for controlling exposures.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

CD146 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in human breast tumors and with enhanced motility in breast cancer cell lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Asterand, Detroit, MI, USA). ZR-75-30, T47D, BrCA-MZ-02, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB- 231, MDA-MB-436 and BT549 cells were cultured in RPMI (Cambrex, Verviers, Belgium) supplemented with 10% heat- inactivated FCS (Invitrogen, Paisley, UK). MCF-7 cells were cultured...

Zabouo, Gwladys; Imbert, Anne-Marie; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Finetti, Pascal; Moreau, Thomas; Esterni, Benjamin; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, Francois; Chabannon, Christian

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

203

The use of polarized light for skin cancer detecton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over 50,000 people per year will be diagnosed with skin cancer in one of its various forms, making it the seventh most common form of cancer in the United States. Currently the only method to diagnose suspicious lesions is visual inspection and subsequent biopsy of suspicious lesions. Many cancerous lesions are missed and many benign lesions are biopsied using these techniques. This process is painful and expensive. The proposed research is driven by the need for a non-invasive skin cancer detection system. Presented here is a method for the optical determination of cancerous tissue using polarized light. This thesis describes the development of a polarimetric imaging system including its calibration and testing. In addition, experiments are performed to simulate changes in tissue, such as increased size of scatterers and increased scattering and absorption coefficients that often accompany tissue changes as it becomes cancerous. The effects of these simulated changes are tested on the Polarimetric imaging system in order to quantify changes in the Mueller matrix caused by the perturbations, and ultimately to relate them to observed changes in the Mueller matrices of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. Finally, the Polarimetric imaging system is used to determine the Mueller matrix of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue to assess the system's capabilities for skin cancer diagnosis.

DeLaughter, Aimee Hill

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and 1 man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X-rays or to fission neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S0 = A (1 - (1 - ekD)N), for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single hit model, S/S0 = AekD, fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. There were no differences in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that atomic bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation.

Ban, S.; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.; Ezaki, H.; Hiraoka, T.; Yamane, M.; Nishiki, M.; Dohi, K.; Awa, A.A.; Miller, R.C. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Meeting Report. Assessing Human Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in the Post-Genome Era: A Celebration of the Legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 20 years after Chernobyl. Boice JD Jr, Tawn EJ, Winther2006. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in EstoniaDNA Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in Chernobyl, Japanese, and Animal

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase p72, Mol Cell Biol. A.O.asp-glu-ala-asp/his) RNA helicase that may alter protein-RNA

Wyrobek, A. J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

209

Cytometric Therapies for Cell Delivery  

Stem cell therapies are a viable treatment options for some human diseases. Efficacy of such therapies can be maximized by addressing critical issues ...

210

Role of retinoic acid in the modulation of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts in human hepatoma cells: Implications for cancer prevention  

SciTech Connect

Carcinogen-DNA adducts could lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually resulting in cancer. Many studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in inducing cell apoptosis. Here we have tested the hypothesis that levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts can be diminished by DNA repair and/or by eliminating damaged cells through apoptosis. Our results showed that the levels of total DNA adducts in HepG2 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP, 2 {mu}M) + RA (1 {mu}M) were significantly reduced compared to those treated with BP only (P = 0.038). In order to understand the mechanism of attenuation of DNA adducts, further experiments were performed. Cells were treated with BP (4 {mu}M) for 24 h to initiate DNA adduct formation, following which the medium containing BP was removed, and fresh medium containing 1 {mu}M RA was added. The cells were harvested 24 h after RA treatment. Interestingly, the levels of total DNA adducts were lower in the BP/RA group (390 {+-} 34) than those in the BP/DMSO group (544 {+-} 33), P = 0.032. Analysis of cell apoptosis showed an increase in BP + RA group, compared to BP or RA only groups. Our results also indicated that attenuation of BP-DNA adducts by RA was not primarily due to its effects on CYP1A1 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest a mechanistic link between cellular apoptosis and DNA adduct formation, phenomena that play important roles in BP-mediated carcinogenesis. Furthermore, these results help understand the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, especially in relation to the chemopreventive properties of nutritional apoptosis inducers.

Zhou Guodong, E-mail: gzhou@ibt.tamhsc.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A and M University System, College Station, Texas (United States); Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System, Houston, Texas (United States); Richardson, Molly [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A and M University System, College Station, Texas (United States); Fazili, Inayat S. [Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Jianbo [Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System, Houston, Texas (United States); Donnelly, Kirby C. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A and M University System, College Station, Texas (United States); Wang Fen; Amendt, Brad [Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System, Houston, Texas (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

211

Human Health  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Health Print E-mail Climate change can have a number of direct and indirect effects on human health. For example, rising temperatures can contribute to the number of deaths...

212

Apparatus for testing skin samples or the like  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for testing the permeability of living skin samples has a flat base with a plurality of sample-holding cavities formed in its upper surface, the samples being placed in counterbores in the cavities with the epidermis uppermost. O-rings of Teflon washers are respectively placed on the samples and a flat cover is connected to the base to press the rings against the upper surfaces of the samples. Media to maintain tissue viability and recovery of metabolites is introduced into the lower portion of the sample-holding cavities through passages in the base. Test materials are introduced through holes in the cover plate after assembly of the chamber.

Holland, J.M.

1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Recombinant methods for screening human DNA excision repair proficiency  

SciTech Connect

A method for measuring DNA excision repair in response to ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA damage has been developed, validated, and field-tested in cultured human lymphocytes. The methodology is amenable to population-based screening and should facilitate future epidemiologic studies seeking to investigate associations between excision repair proficiency and cancer susceptibility. The impetus for such endeavors derives from the belief that the high incidence of skin cancer in the genetic disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primarily is a result of the reduced capacity of patients cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage. For assay, UV-irradiated non-replicating recombinant plasmid DNA harboring a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) indicator gene is introduced into lymphocytes using DEAE-dextran short-term transfection conditions. Exposure to UV induces transcriptionally-inactivating DNA photoproducts in the plasmid DNA which inactivate CAT gene expression. Excision repair of the damaged CAT gene is monitored indirectly as a function of reactivated CAT enzyme activity following a 40 hour repair/expression incubation period.

Athas, W.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Shape factor, C /SUB A/ , expressed as skin, S /SUB CA/  

SciTech Connect

This work presents the conversion of the shape factor, C /SUB A/ , to a pseudosteady-state skin term, S /SUB CA/ . When the shape factor is expressed as a skin term, it becomes easier to see the effect that a well placement in a given drainage area will have on the well's performance. Skin factors for published drainage shapes and well locations are given.

Fetkovich, M.J.; Vienot, M.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Human MSH2 protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

216

Human MSH2 protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

de la Chapelle, Albert (Helsingfors, FI); Vogelstein, Bert (Baltimore, MD); Kinzler, Kenneth W. (Baltimore, MD)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Induction of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2 by tanshinones in human HepG2 hepatoma cell line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diterpenoid tanshinones including tanshinone IIA (TIIA), cryptotanshinone (CTS), tanshinone I (TI) and dihydrotanshinone I (DHTI) are the major bioactive components from Danshen. The major aim of our present study was to investigate the induction potential of these four main components of tanshinones (TIIA, CTS, TI, and DHTI) on the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 cells. Our results showed that all of these four tanshinones caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the amount of CYP1A1/2 expression in HepG2 cells. These induction effects were further characterized through transcriptional regulation: the induction of CYP1A1/2 mRNA level by tanshinones was completely blocked by the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D; the expression of CYP1A1/2 heterogeneous nuclear RNA was induced by tanshinone treatment; and CYP1A1 mRNA stability was not influenced by these tanshinones. Interestingly, tanshinones plus B[a]P produced additive/synergistic effect on CYP1A1/2 induction. In addition, the tanshinone-induced CYP1A1/2 expression was abolished by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist resveratrol, suggesting an AhR dependent transcription mechanism. In the reporter gene assay, while TI and DHTI significantly induced AhR-dependent luciferase activity, TIIA and CTS failed to induce this activity. Collectively, the tanshinones could induce CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression through transcriptional activation mechanism and exert differential effects on activating AhR in HepG2 cells. Our findings suggest that rational administration of tanshinones should be considered with respect to their effect on AhR and CYP1A1/2 expression.

Zhang Rong [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Key Unit of SATCM for Pharmacokinetics Methodology of TCM Complex Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Sun Jianguo, E-mail: jgsun_cpucn@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Key Unit of SATCM for Pharmacokinetics Methodology of TCM Complex Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Ma Liping; Wu Xiaolan [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Key Unit of SATCM for Pharmacokinetics Methodology of TCM Complex Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Pan Guoyu [Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics (MAP), Novartis Institute of Biomedical Research (NIBR), 250 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Hao Haiping; Zhou Fang; Jiye, A; Liu Changhui; Ai Hua; Shang Lili; Gao Haiyan; Peng Ying; Wan Ping; Wu Hui [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Key Unit of SATCM for Pharmacokinetics Methodology of TCM Complex Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); Wang Guangji, E-mail: guangjiwang@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Key Unit of SATCM for Pharmacokinetics Methodology of TCM Complex Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effects of radioactive hot particles on pig skin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of these studies was to determine the incidence and severity of lesions resulting from very localized deposition of dose to skin from small (< 0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles as produced in the work environments of nuclear reactors. Hanford mini-pigs were exposed, both on a slightly off the skin, to localized replicate doses from 0.31 to 64 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70 {mu}m depth unless noted otherwise) using Sc-46, Yb-175, Tm-170, and fissioned UC{sub 2} isotopes having maximum beta-particle energies from about 0.3 to 3 MeV. Erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored for up to 71 days post-irradiation. The responses followed normal cumulative probability distributions, and therefore, no true threshold could be defined. Hence, 10 and 50% scab incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. The lowest dose which produced 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for Yb-175 (0.5 MeV maximum energy) beta particle exposures, and about 3 to 9 Gy for other isotopes. The histopathology of lesions was determined at several doses. Single exposures to doses as large as 1,790 Gy were also given, and results were observed for up to 144 days post-exposure. Severity of detriment was estimated by analyzing the results in terms of lesion diameter, persistence, and infection. Over 1,100 sites were exposed. Only two exposed sites became infected after doses near 5000 Gy; the lesions healed quickly on treatment. 105 refs., 145 figs., 47 tabs.

Kaurin, D.G.; Baum, J.W.; Schaefer, C.W. [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Influence of skin effect on the series resistance of millimeter-wave IMPATT devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An attempt is made in this paper to study the influence of skin depth on the parasitic series resistance of millimeter-wave IMPATT devices based on Silicon. The method is based on the concept of depletion width modulation of the device under large-signal ... Keywords: Large-signal simulation, Millimeter-wave IMPATTs, Series resistance, Skin effect

Aritra Acharyya, Suranjana Banerjee, J. P. Banerjee

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Molecular Mechanism Underlying Cellular Response in 3D Skin to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

biological response. At PNNL we are applying a system biology approach to identify molecular targets in complex human tissue exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation. Our goal is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Heritable Genetic Changes in Cells Recovered From Irradiated 3D Tissue Contracts  

SciTech Connect

Combining contemporary cytogenetic methods with DNA CGH microarray technology and chromosome flow-sorting increases substantially the ability to resolve exchange breakpoints associated with interstitial deletions and translocations, allowing the consequences of radiation damage to be directly measured at low doses, while also providing valuable insights into molecular mechanisms of misrepair processes that, in turn, identify appropriate biophysical models of risk at low doses. The aims of this work apply to cells recovered from 3D tissue constructs of human skin and, for the purpose of comparison, the same cells irradiated in traditional 2D cultures. These aims are: to analyze by multi-flour fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) the chromosomes in clonal descendents of individual human fibroblasts that were previously irradiated; to examine irradiated clones from Aim 1 for submicroscopic deletions by subjecting their DNA to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis; and to flow-sort aberrant chromosomes from clones containing stable radiation-induced translocations and map the breakpoints to within an average resolution of 100 kb using the technique of “array painting”.

Cornforth, Michael N [The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

222

The second skin approach : skin strain field analysis and mechanical counter pressure prototyping for advanced spacesuit design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the theory of advanced locomotion mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuits by studying the changes in the human body shape during joint motion. Two experiments take advantage ...

Bethke, Kristen (Kristen Ann)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method for preparing dosimeter for measuring skin dose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with neutron-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Assimilation of Satellite-Derived Skin Temperature Observations into Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface (or “skin”) temperature (LST) lies at the heart of the surface energy balance and is a key variable in weather and climate models. In this research LST retrievals from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are ...

Rolf H. Reichle; Sujay V. Kumar; Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Randal D. Koster; Q. Liu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Surface Skin Temperature and the Interplay between Sensible and Ground Heat Fluxes over Arid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over arid regions, two community land models [Noah and Community Land Model (CLM)] still have difficulty in realistically simulating the diurnal cycle of surface skin temperature. Based on theoretical arguments and synthesis of previous ...

Xubin Zeng; Zhuo Wang; Aihui Wang

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Colonial Faces: Beauty and Skin Color Hierarchy in the Philippines and the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

76, no.4 (1971): 734-742. Herring, Cedric, Verna Keith, andof Illinois Press, 2004. Herring, Cedric. “Skin Deep: RaceEra, edited by Cedric Herring, Verna Keith, and Hayward

Rondilla, Joanne Laxamana

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Explicit integration of identity information from skin regions to improve face recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the possibility of exploiting facial skin texture regions to further improve the performance of face recognition systems. Information extracted from the forehead region is combined with scores produced by a kernel-based face recognition ...

Garsah Farhan Al-Qarni; Farzin Deravi

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Skin-Layer Ocean Heat Flux Instrument (SOHFI). Part I: Design and Laboratory Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An untended instrument to measure ocean surface heat flux has been developed for use in support of field experiments and the investigation of heat flux parameterization techniques. The sensing component of the Skin-Layer Ocean Heat Flux ...

L. A. Sromovsky; J. R. Anderson; F. A. Best; J. P. Boyle; C. A. Sisko; V. E. Suomi

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Variations in Ocean Surface Temperature due to Near-Surface Flow: Straining the Cool Skin Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aqueous thermal boundary layer near to the ocean surface, or skin layer, has thickness O(1 mm) and plays an important role in controlling the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and the ocean. Theoretical arguments and experimental ...

Andrew J. Wells; Claudia Cenedese; J. Thomas Farrar; Christopher J. Zappa

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Percutaneous characterization of the insect repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone from topical skin application  

SciTech Connect

The synergistic percutaneous enhancement between insect repellent DEET and sunscreen oxybenzone has been proven in our laboratory using a series of in vitro diffusion studies. In this study, we carried out an in vivo study to characterize skin permeation profiles from topical skin application of three commercially available repellent and sunscreen preparations. The correlation between skin disposition and drug metabolism was attempted by using data collected. Both DEET and oxybenzone permeated across the skin after the application and achieved substantial systemic absorption. Combined use of DEET and oxybenzone significantly enhanced the percutaneous penetration percentages (ranging 36-108%) due to mutual enhancement effects. Skin disposition indicated that DEET produced a faster transdermal permeation rate and higher systemic absorption extent, but oxybenzone formed a concentrated depot within the skin and delivered the content slowly over the time. In vivo AUC{sub P}/MRT of DEET and oxybenzone was increased by 37%/17% and 63%/10% when the two compounds were used together. No DEET was detected from the urine samples 48 h after the application. Tape stripping seemed to be a satisfactory approach for quantitative assessment of DEET and oxybenzone penetration into the stratum corneum. It was also concluded that pharmacological and toxicological perspectives from concurrent application of insect repellent and sunscreen products require further evaluation to ensure use efficacy and safety of these common consumer healthcare products.

Kasichayanula, Sreeneeranj [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, 50 Sifton Road, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); House, James D. [Department of Animal Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wang Tao [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, 50 Sifton Road, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Gu Xiaochen [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, 50 Sifton Road, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)], E-mail: xgu@cc.umanitoba.ca

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Transcriptional functions of the corepressor Sin3A in skin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will be discussed in more detail below. 1.2.5 Sebaceous gland development SGs are an appendage of the IFE are located above the bulge region of the HF and secrete sebum and lipids [Stewart and Downing, 1991]. These secretions from the SGs provide lubrication... -tracing experiments have demonstrated that Lgr6-positive cells in this region can contribute to the SG, IFE and HF postna- tally (although the HF contribution declines with age) [Snippert et al., 2010]. An additional stem cell population, which is distinguished...

Cox, Claire

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Non-Human Cell Line Authentication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... BMC Biotechnology 2011, 11:102. Mouse STR markers: Submitted for publication. A patent is pending on the mouse primer sequences.

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Effect of the iBEAM Evo Carbon Fiber Tabletop on Skin Sparing  

SciTech Connect

Replicating the attenuation properties of the treatment tabletop are of primary importance for accurate treatment planning; however, the effect of the tabletop on the skin-sparing properties of x-rays can be overlooked. Under some conditions, the reaction of skin to the radiation can be so serious as to be the dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy treatment. Hence, an understanding of the magnitude of the reduction in skin sparing is important. Because of the development of image-guided radiotherapy, modern tabletops have been developed without the use of metal supports that otherwise provided the necessary level of rigidity. Rigidity is instead provided by compressed foam within a carbon-fiber shell, which, although it provides artefact-free imaging and high levels of rigidity, has an adverse affect on the dose in the build-up region. Representative of this type is the iBEAM evo tabletop, whose effect on the skin dose was determined at 6-MV, 10-MV, and 18-MV x-rays. Skin dose was found to increase by 60-70% owing to the tabletop, with the effect increasing with field size and decreasing with energy. By considering an endpoint of erythema, a radiobiological advantage of selecting 10 MV over 6 MV for applicable treatments was demonstrated.

Simpson, John B., E-mail: john.simpson@aro.co.nz; Godwin, Guy A.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Particles and People: Aerosol Movement Into and Around the Human Body  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particles and People: Aerosol Movement Into and Around the Human Body Particles and People: Aerosol Movement Into and Around the Human Body Speaker(s): Miriam Byrne Date: April 14, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Miriam Byrne is a participating guest in the Airflow and Pollutant Transport Group at LBL. She is an academic member of staff in the Physics Department at the National University of Galway, Ireland. Her research interests, primarily funded by European Commission radiation protection programs, focus on the mechanisms of aerosol transport to and from human body surfaces. Over the last ten years, she has been involved in tracer aerosol experiments to determine rates of particle deposition and resuspension from skin, hair and clothing, as well as studying particle transport into skin pores and hair follicles, and contact transfer from

237

Artificial Skin Ridges Enhance Local Tactile Shape Discrimination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the fundamental requirements for an artificial hand to successfully grasp and manipulate an object is to be able to distinguish different objects' shapes and, more specifically, the objects' surface curvatures. In this study, we investigate the possibility of enhancing the curvature detection of embedded tactile sensors by proposing a ridged fingertip structure, simulating human fingerprints. In addition, a curvature detection approach based on machine learning methods is proposed to provide the embedded sensors with the ability to discriminate the surface curvature of different objects. For this purpose, a set of experiments were carried out to collect tactile signals from a 2 \\times 2 tactile sensor array, then the signals were processed and used for learning algorithms. To achieve the best possible performance for our machine learning approach, three different learning algorithms of Na\\"ive Bayes (NB), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented and compared ...

Salehi, Saba; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; 10.3390/s110908626

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field August 2, 2011 - 10:40am Addthis Ramamoorthy Ramesh Former Director, SunShot Initiative & Solar Energy Technologies Program What does this mean for me? Investments by major companies like the Redskins show the growing market demand for solar technology, as the SunShot Initiative works to accelerate this growth to make solar energy cheaper. If solar power could score a touchdown, then this week's news would definitely count. On Wednesday, the Washington Redskins announced they are working with NRG Energy, one of America's largest energy companies, to bring renewable energy to the football franchise. This means more than just a few panels on the roof. Through the partnership, NRG will install 8,000 translucent solar panels to

239

A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field August 2, 2011 - 10:40am Addthis Ramamoorthy Ramesh Former Director, SunShot Initiative & Solar Energy Technologies Program What does this mean for me? Investments by major companies like the Redskins show the growing market demand for solar technology, as the SunShot Initiative works to accelerate this growth to make solar energy cheaper. If solar power could score a touchdown, then this week's news would definitely count. On Wednesday, the Washington Redskins announced they are working with NRG Energy, one of America's largest energy companies, to bring renewable energy to the football franchise. This means more than just a few panels on the roof. Through the partnership, NRG will install 8,000 translucent solar panels to

240

The stabilization of cell proliferation and its reversal in the microgravity environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies conducted on two recent shuttle missions (STS-69 and STS-73) have shown that cell cycle arrest of human myeloma IM-9 cells

Heideh K. Fattaey; Terry C. Johnson

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

New Electronic Sensors Stick to Your Skin -Heart Rate Monitors -Popular Mechanics http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/breakthroughs/new-electronic-sensors-stick-to-your-skin?click=pm_latest[8/14/2011 5:59:45 AM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New Electronic Sensors Stick to Your Skin - Heart Rate Monitors - Popular Mechanics http://www Electronic Sensors That Stick to Your Skin Like Temporary Tattoos Nice tattoo. Or is it a heart-rate monitor to measure the electrical activity of the heart, muscles and brain. And using the same principles behind

Rogers, John A.

242

Cell separator and cell  

SciTech Connect

There is disclosed a novel cell separator made of a grafted membrane comprising a polyethylene film which is graft copolymerized with a monomer having an ion exchange group, characterized in that said membrane has an area which is not grafted at all or an area of low degree grafting. By making use of this membrane, a small size and thin cell having excellent performance as well as satisfactory mechanical strength can be produced at low cost with great advantages.

Ishigaki, I.; Machi, S.; Murata, K.; Okada, T.; Senoo, K.; Sugo, T.; Tanso, S.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

On Sea Surface Salinity Skin Effect Induced by Evaporation and Implications for Remote Sensing of Ocean Salinity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of a cool and salty sea surface skin under evaporation was first proposed by Saunders in 1967, but few efforts have since been made to perceive the salt component of the skin layer. With two salinity missions scheduled to launch in ...

Lisan Yu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

DOI: 10.1007/s10439-010-0190-4 Effect of Surfactant Mixtures on Skin Structure and Barrier Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Associate Editor Daniel Takashi Kamei oversaw the review of this article. Abstract—We investigated the effect of two commonly studied surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C 12TAB), on skin barrier properties. Using skin conductivity, FT-IR of stratum corneum samples, and penetration of radiolabelled SDS, we determined that addition of C12TAB lowers the ability of SDS to perturb skin’s barrier properties. Ultrafiltration experiments revealed that addition of C12TAB serves to decrease the concentration of monomers and sub-micellar aggregates. None of the measured skin properties including enhancement of skin conductivity, perturbation of lipid structure and skin concentration of SDS correlated with the total SDS concentration in the donor compartment (i.e., the total SDS concentration). However, all these parameters correlated well against the concentration of monomers and sub-micellar aggregates. These findings provide the evidence of the importance of monomer and sub-micellar components in altering skin barrier properties.

Monica A. James-smith; Brittney Hellner; Nancy Annunziato; Samir Mitragotri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Climate: monthly and annual average Earth skin temperature GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Earth skin temperature GIS data at Earth skin temperature GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Earth Skin Temperature (° C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Earth Skin Temperature (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

246

The tolerance of skin grafts to postoperative radiation therapy in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma  

SciTech Connect

During the last ten years at the National Cancer Institute, 11 patients have received 12 courses of postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy to skin grafts used for wound closure after the resection of soft-tissue sarcomas. The intervals between grafting and the initiation of radiation ranged between 3 and 20 weeks, and 4 patients received chemotherapy at the same time as their radiation. Ten of the 12 irradiated grafts remained intact after the completion of therapy. One graft had several small persistently ulcerated areas that required no further surgical treatment, and one graft required a musculocutaneous flap for reconstruction of a persistent large ulcer. Acute radiation effects on the grafted skin sometimes developed at slightly lower doses than usually seen with normal skin, but these acute effects necessitated a break in therapy on only five occasions. Concurrent chemotherapy and a relatively short interval between grafting and the initiation of radiation seemed to contribute to more severe radiation reactions. This experience indicates that postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy can be delivered to skin grafted areas without undue fear of complications, especially if the graft is allowed to heal adequately prior to initiating therapy and if chemotherapy is not given in conjunction with radiation.

Lawrence, W.T.; Zabell, A.; McDonald, H.D. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The Interfacial Mechanics of the Thin Oxide Skin on Liquid Gallium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to micromold the metal for these applications is enabled by the ... The oxide skin is elastic and yields under a critical stress, at which point the metal flows. ... Interface Bond Strength of HIP-Clad Depleted Uranium and 6061- Aluminum ... Quantitative NanoSIMS Analysis of Grain Boundary Segregation in Bulk ...

248

Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

Bissell, Mina J. (Berkeley, CA); Weaver, Valerie M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

250

Evaluation and design of double-skin facades for office buildings in hot climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objectives of this research are (a) to investigate the thermal effect of double skin facades in office buildings in hot climates and (b) to propose guidelines for their efficient design based on this evaluation. The study involves the energy performance analysis of two buildings in India. A base case with the existing building skin was simulated for both the cities. The main source for the high cooling loads was found to be heat gain through windows and walls. This led to the evolution of a series of facade strategies with the goals of reducing heat gain, providing ventilation and day-lighting. The buildings were then simulated for their energy performance with the proposed double-skin strategies. Each of these strategies was varied according to the layers constituting the facade, the transparency of the facade and the orientation of the facade to which it is applied. Final comparisons of energy consumption were made between the proposed options and the base case to find the most efficient strategy and also the factors that affected this efficiency. The simulations were done using the building simulation software, Ener-Win. The double skin was simulated as per an approximate and simplistic calculation of the u-value, solar heat gain coefficient and transmissivity properties of the layers constituting the facade. The model relied on logically arrived at assumptions about the facade properties that were approximately within 10% range of measured values. Based on inferences drawn from these simulations, a set of design guidelines comprised of goals and parameters was generated for design of double-skin facades in hot climates typical to most of the Indian subcontinent. It was realized that the double-skin defined typically as a 'pair of glass skins separated by an air corridor' may not be an entirely energy efficient design strategy for hot climates. However, when used appropriately in combination with other materials, in the right orientation and with the right transparency, a double-layered facade turns out to be an energy efficient solution.

Yellamraju, Vijaya

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Nenad M. Markovic Vojislav R. Stamenkovic Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory 1 st Layer 2 nd Layer 3 rd Layer Pt=100 at.% Pt=48 at.% Ni=52 at.% Pt=87 at.% Ni=13 at.% Pt[111]-Skin surface 5 nm (111) (100) 3 nm Size distribution c-15 nm Shape Bulk composition Surface structure ? HR-TEM: Characterization of Nanoscale Pt/C Catalyst x 15 x 5 Surface composition ? 2 Surface Science Approach design, synthesis, characterization, and testing of well-defined interfaces Pt/C H 2 O 2 Real Applications FUEL CELLS / BATTERIES / ELECTROLIZERS Activity and Stability Mapping DFT/MC EC Pt Au Ru Surface Characterization UHV Chemical / Physical Synthesis SXS/HRDFS FTIR HRTEM DOUBLE-LAYER-BY-DESIGN

252

Beta Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells...

253

Transgene Excision Has No Impact on In Vivo Integration of Human iPS Derived Neural Precursors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The derivation of induced human pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) has generated significant enthusiasm particularly for the prospects of cell-based therapy. But there are concerns about the suitability of iPS cells for in vivo ...

Major, Tamara

254

Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

Polat, Baris E.

255

Application of the Aqueous Porous Pathway Model to Quantify the Effect of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate on Ultrasound-Induced Skin Structural Perturbation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigated the effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on skin structural perturbation when utilized simultaneously with low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS). Pig full-thickness skin (FTS) and pig split-thickness ...

Polat, Baris E.

256

Human-machine interactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

IAP Antagonists Promote Cell Death  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IAP Antagonists Promote Cell Death IAP Antagonists Promote Cell Death IAP Antagonists Promote Cell Death Print Thursday, 02 August 2012 11:19 Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a normal process for most cells in multicellular organisms. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins suppress apoptosis and are over-expressed in human cancer cells, causing resistance to cytotoxic therapies. An IAP antagonist can mitigate the anti-apoptotic functions of IAPs, spurring trials on IAP-targeting therapeutics that mimic endogenous IAP antagonists. To understand the mechanisms at work here, Genentech researchers investigated the structure of cellular IAP1 (cIAP1) BIR3-RING (B3R). When IAP antagonists bind to the BIR3 domain of cIAP1, a RING-based dimer forms, stimulating the addition of ubiquitin to the target protein substrate, thus marking it for degradation by the cell's proteasome.

258

Photovoltaic Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, take advantage of the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. PV cells are the building blocks of all PV systems because they are the devices that...

259

ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subjects Protecting Human Subjects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Program exists to ensure that all research conducted at DOE institutions, whether...

260

Human Measure and Architecting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This book bundles the human measure and architecting articles. The articles address the relationship between product creation and humans and the role of the system architect.

Gerrit Muller

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

In vitro models for airway epithelial cell culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is about the development of a physiologically relevant model of the human airway. Various factors such as the cell model, physiochemical factors such as the cell substrate properties including its stiffness, shear ...

Sivathanu, Vivek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

cell tree  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST. cell tree. (data structure). ... Concave objects are decomposed into convex pieces. Each convex piece is indexed in every cell which it overlaps. ...

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

263

(Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)  

SciTech Connect

We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

Nierman, W.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Increasing IFN-[gamma] productivity in CHO cells through CDK inhibition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Approximately 60-70% of all recombinant human glycoproteins are produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Production in CHO cells, however, is often plagued by low productivity when compared with other host cell lines, ...

McClain, David Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel...

266

Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves  

SciTech Connect

Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].

Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Guidelines for the Optimization of Protective Clothing: Heat Stress and Skin Contamination Protection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Protective clothing (PCs) requirements present a challenge to radiation protection managers, particularly in environments that could potentially lead to an increased risk of heat stress. This report presents a guide to the development of a technically sound worker optimization program addressing skin contamination and heat stress risks. Project managers have successfully implemented this approach at one nuclear power plant and two Department of Energy (DOE) remediation sites.

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

268

ATM-Dependent Hyper-Radiosensitivity in Mammalian Cells Irradiated by Heavy Ions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and the later appearing radioresistance (termed induced radioresistance [IRR]) was mainly studied in low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation with survival observation. The aim of this study was to find out whether equivalent hypersensitivity occurred in high LET radiation, and the roles of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Methods and Materials: Survival and mutation were measured by clonogenic assay and HPRT mutation assay. ATM Ser1981 activation was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment of specific ATM inhibitor (10 {mu}M KU55933) and activator (20 {mu}g/mL chloroquine) before carbon radiation were adopted to explore the involvement of ATM. The roles of ATM were also investigated in its G2/M checkpoint function with histone H3 phosphorylation analysis and flow cytometric assay, and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair function measured using {gamma}-H2AX foci assay. Results: HRS/IRR was observed with survival and mutation in normal human skin fibroblast cells by carbon ions, while impaired in cells with intrinsic ATM deficiency or normal cells modified with specific ATM activator or inhibitor before irradiation. The dose-response pattern of ATM kinase activation was concordant with the transition from HRS to IRR. The ATM-dependent 'early' G2 checkpoint arrest and DNA DSB repair efficiency could explain the difference between HRS and IRR. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the HRS/IRR by carbon ion radiation is an ATM-dependent phenomenon in the cellular response to DNA damage.

Xue Lian [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Yu Dong [Tumor Endocrinology Project, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: ydong@ncc.go.jp; Furusawa, Yoshiya [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi (Japan); Cao Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Okayasu, Ryuichi [Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi (Japan); Fan Saijun [School of Radiation Medicine and Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Structural studies of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, pIgR, is a glycosylated type I transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral surface of secretory epithelial cells. pIgR plays a key role in mucosal immunity and, together ...

Hamburger, Agnes Eva, 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Human Performance - Fossil Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All humans make errors. Industrial human errors can result in a loss of life and can significantly impact the productivity and cost effectiveness of any facility or company. Several industries in which human error has had a significant impact (for example, airline, medical, military, nuclear power, aviation, and chemical) have implemented human performance programs with excellent results. Human errors by fossil plant operators can easily challenge plant safety and production. In the fossil operations are...

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Developing an Index to Measure Urban Heat Island Effect Using Satellite Land Skin Temperature and Land Cover Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new index of calculating the intensity of urban heat island effects (UHI) for a city using satellite skin temperature and land cover observations is recommended. UHI, the temperature difference between urban and rural regions, is traditionally ...

Menglin S. Jin

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Skin-Layer Ocean Heat Flux Instrument (SOHFI). Part II: Field Measurements of Surface Heat Flux and Solar Irradiance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Skin-Layer Ocean Heat Flux Instrument (SOHFI) described by Sromovsky et al. (Part I, this issue) was field-tested in a combination of freshwater and ocean deployments. Solar irradiance monitoring and field calibration techniques were ...

L. A. Sromovsky; J. R. Anderson; F. A. Best; J. P. Boyle; C. A. Sisko; V. E. Suomi

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluations of Land–Ocean Skin Temperatures of the ISCCP Satellite Retrievals and the NCEP and ERA Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates the skin temperature (ST) datasets of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D satellite product, the ISCCP FD satellite product, the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis, and the ...

Ben-Jei Tsuang; Ming-Dah Chou; Yuanchong Zhang; Andreas Roesch; Kun Yang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Evaluation of Various CFD Modelling Strategies in Predicting Airflow and Temperature in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

insulation, to shade solar radiation and to provide suitabledouble skin is shown. The solar radiation was not directlyas different values of solar radiation. Nomenclature u i,j,k

Pasut, Wilmer; De Carli, Michele

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Background Error Correlation between Surface Skin and Air Temperatures: Estimation and Impact on the Assimilation of Infrared Window Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper makes use of ensemble forecasts to infer the correlation between surface skin temperature Ts and air temperature Ta model errors. The impact of this correlation in data assimilation is then investigated. In the process of assimilating ...

Louis Garand; Mark Buehner; Nicolas Wagneur

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Spatiotemporal and spatial threshold models for relating UV exposures and skin cancer in the central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some ...

Laura A. Hatfield; Richard W. Hoffbeck; Bruce H. Alexander; Bradley P. Carlin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Toward an Integrated Land–Ocean Surface Skin Temperature Analysis from the Variational Assimilation of Infrared Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-East and -West window channel radiances are directly assimilated using a 1D variational technique, providing surface skin temperature (Ts) estimates over all surface types (land, water, or ...

Louis Garand

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Overexpression of the JmjC histone demethylase KDM5B in human carcinogenesis: involvement in the proliferation of cancer cells through the E2F/RB pathway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

expression and cell growth. Results KDM5B expression is up-regulated in clinical cancer tissues We first examined expression levels of five jumonji his- tone demethylase genes included in JARID family, KDM5A (JARID1A), KDM5B (JARID1B), KDM5C (JAR- ID1C), KDM5...

Hayami, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Masanori; Veerakumarasivam, Abhimanyu; Unoki, Motoko; Iwai, Yukiko; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Field, Helen I; Kelly, John D; Neal, David E; Yamaue, Hiroki; Ponder, Bruce AJ; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

2010-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

279

doi:10.5402/2011/617082 Research Article Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and the Occurrence of Skin Cancer in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Catharina C. van Niekerk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. A cross-sectional study within a large populationbased dataset. Results. Skin cancer was found in 2.7 % (95 % CI: 2.3–3.1) of the 5366 individuals forming our dataset. The odds ratio (OR) for endometrioid cancer in the ovary to skin cancer in the under 50 age group was 8.9 (95 % CI: 3.2–25.0). The OR decreased in older patients to 1.2. Conclusions. Patients with epithelial ovarian malignancies show an increased risk of skin cancer. A significantly increased risk (4.3%) for endometrioid ovarian cancer was found in the group aged under 50. 1.

Isrn Obstetrics; Catharina C. Van Niekerk; Johan Bulten; Andrél. M. Verbeek

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?  

SciTech Connect

A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Skin-to-Skin Replenishment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The proposed approach of resupplying the Sea Base may be unconventional from current US Navy operational methods, but is not without ...

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

282

The effect of Stromal cell Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and collagen-GAG (Glycosaminoglycan) scaffold on skin wound healing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wound healing is an intricate biological process requiring the appropriate balance of matrix and growth factors. Apart from causing physical deformity, adult wound healing results in the formation of scar tissue, which can ...

Sarkar, Aparajita

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m{sup 2} i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For disease-specific survival, recurrent disease was the only significant factor. Primary site on the lower limb had an adverse effect on locoregional control. For distant control, the only significant factor was residual disease. Conclusions: The multivariate analysis suggests chemotherapy has no effect on survival, but because of the wide confidence limits, a chemotherapy effect cannot be excluded. A study of this size is inadequately powered to detect small improvements in survival, and a larger randomized study remains the only way to truly confirm whether chemotherapy improves the results in high-risk MCC.

Poulsen, Michael G. [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia)]. E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au; Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Clinic, Melbourne (Australia); Porter, Ian [Andrew Love Cancer Centre, Geelong (Australia); Walpole, Euan [Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Harvey, Jennifer [University of Queensland, Southern Zone Radiation Oncology, Raymond Tce, South Brisbane (Australia); Hamilton, Chris [Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle Mater Misericordia Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Tripcony, Lee [Division of Oncology Statistics, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane (Australia)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Human Rights and Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, Human Rights and Security...............................................................................................58 #12;3 "Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe", MRU Student Conference Proceedings

Saunders, Mark

285

Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To determine (a) whether a wound dressing gel that contains acemannan extracted from aloe leaves affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in C3H mice; (b) if so, whether other commercially available gels such as a personal lubricating jelly and a healing ointment have similar effects; and (c) when the wound dressing gel should be applied for maximum effect. Male C3H mice received graded single doses of gamma radiation ranging from 30 to 47.5 Gy to the right leg. In most experiments, the gel was applied daily beginning immediately after irradiation. Dose-response curves were obtained by plotting the percentage of mice that reached or exceeded a given peak skin reaction as a function of dose. Curves were fitted by logit analysis and ED{sub 50} values, and 95% confidence limits were obtained. The average peak skin reactions of the wound dressing gel-treated mice were lower than those of the untreated mice at all radiation doses tested. The ED{sub 50} values for skin reactions of 2.0-2.75 were approximately 7 Gy higher in the wound dressing gel-treated mice. The average peak skin reactions and the ED{sub 50} values for mice treated with personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment were similar to irradiated control values. Reduction in the percentage of mice with skin reactions of 2.5 or more was greatest in the groups that received wound dressing gel for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. There was no effect if gel was applied only before irradiation or beginning 1 week after irradiation. Wound dressing gel, but not personal lubricating jelly or healing ointment, reduces acute radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice if applied daily for at least 2 weeks beginning immediately after irradiation. 31 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Roberts, D.B.; Travis, E.L. [Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparency in architecture is desirable for many reasons. In order to build transparent buildings with high levels of occupant comfort without compromising energy performance, facade technology and integration of facade and environmental systems become still more advanced. The present paper deals with the development and construction of mechanically ventilated double skin facade with HVAC integration for hot and humid climate like UAE. A case study is presented, illustrating potential benefits of careful application of the available technologies adopting an integrated approach from the early design phases. Moreover, the paper gives an introduction to test and demonstrate the performance of the facade and HVAC integration.

Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cells Search Search Help Fuel Cells EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cells...

288

ORISE: Human Subjects Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Protection Human Subjects Protection The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performs technical assessments to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories involved in human subjects research projects. Under DOE Order and Policy 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, and 10 CFR 745, DOE employees and contractors are expected to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects. In support of the DOE Office of Science and the Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP), ORISE has most recently assisted with the development and distribution of tools to address classified research and to track potential human social cultural behavior systems (HSCB) research conducted by DOE laboratories. Examples of products that ORISE has developed in support of the HSPP

289

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

290

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

291

Nuclear matter symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei RID A-2398-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlations between the thickness of the neutron skin in finite nuclei and the nuclear matter symmetry energy are studied in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. From the most recent analysis of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions based on an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model with in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, a value of L = 88 +/- 25 MeV for the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density is extracted, and this imposes stringent constraints on both the parameters in the Skyrme effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei. Predicted thickness of the neutron skin is 0.22 +/- 0.04 fm for (208)Pb, 0.29 +/- 0.04 fm for (132)Sn, and 0.22 +/- 0.04 fm for (124)Sn.

Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices.

293

Electrochemical cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is disclosed that has a lithium anode, a thionyl chloride depolarizer and a sulphur dioxide passivation control agent which further includes having the pressure relieved to substantially reduce the internal pressure of the cell. The internal cell pressure is relieved by venting for sufficient time at an elevated temperature to reduce the internal cell pressure to less than five psi at room temperature, preferably by a plurality of venting cycles and a temperature ranging from room temperature to the elevated temperature. Normally, the elevated temperature ranges from at least 100/sup 0/ to greater than 150/sup 0/ F.

Chua, D.L.; Garoutte, K.F.; Levy, L.L.

1982-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Animation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation on...

295

Human In Vivo Dose Response to Controlled,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exposure of LDIR in the normal skin of men undergoing therapeutic radiation for prostate cancer (research protocol: HIPAA compliant, IRB approved). Using newly developed...

296

Contact List, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Resources & Occupational Medicine Division Human Resources & Occupational Medicine Division Contact List Human Resources Guest, User, Visitor (GUV) Center Occupational Medicine Training and Qualifications Office Note: All listed phone extensions are in the format of (631) 344-xxxx. Human Resources Robert Lincoln, Chief Human Resources Officer x7435 rlincoln@bnl.gov Margaret Hughes x2108 hughes@bnl.gov Elizabeth Gilbert x2315 gilbert@bnl.gov Human Resources Generalists Christel Colon, HR Manager - BES, GARS & ELS x8469 ccolon@bnl.gov Joann Williams, HR Manager - Support Operations x8356 williamsj@bnl.gov Joanna Hall, HR Manager - Photon Sciences x4410 jhall@bnl.gov Donna Dowling, HR Manager - Nuclear & Particle Physics x2754 dowling@bnl.gov Terrence Buck x8715 tbuck@bnl.gov

297

Human Error Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing human error is recognized in the power-generation industry as a key factor in reducing safety-related events as well as improving asset availability. Achieving a sustainable culture change that leads to human error reduction in plant operations and maintenance remains a significant challenge to the industry. This report presents a behavior-based approach to human performance improvement and error reduction. The report explains fundamental elements of culture change and describes proven practices...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

298

Human and Gorilla Genes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human and Gorilla Genes Name: Eileen B Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the differences between the genetic mechanisms which affect...

299

Human Reliability Program (HRP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Office of SecurityHRP Training Certification- HTML- Flash10 CFR 712, Human Reliability ProgramHRP HandbookTools for Clinicians- Medication List- Medical Records Checklist

300

HQ - Human Resources Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

HQs Human Recources Operations delivers services, including position management, recruitment, staffing and classification, and reduction in force at Headquarters.  Click the "Contacts" Link to find...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Publications & Resources, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or approved by Brookhaven National Laboratory or the Human Resources Division. Manuals Scientific Staff Manual Supervisors Personnel Manual SBMS Subject Areas Compensation...

302

Human Radiation Experiments: Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the oral histories of researchers and others possessing firsthand knowledge of human radiation experimentation during World War II and the Cold War. Film Clips: Document...

303

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

304

Mouse skin tumor initiation-promotion and complete carcinogenesis bioassays: mechanisms and biological activities of emission samples. Environ. Health Perspect. 47  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extracts of soots obtained from various sources were applied to the skin of mice in an effort to identify carcinogens in these mixtures and to link these materials to the etiology of human cancer. Samples of coal chimney soot, coke oven materials, industrial carbon black, oil shale soot, and gasoline vehicle exhaust materials have been examined by this method. The studies reported here have been constructed to compare the carcinogenic and tumorigenic potency of extracts from various particulate emissions: coke ovens, diesel and gasoline vehicles and a roofing tar pot. Automobile emission samples were obtained by collecting the diluted and cooled exhaust on Teflon-coated glass fiber filters. Coke oven and roofing tar samples were particulate emission samples collected by impaction and filtration. The organic components associated with each of the particles were extracted with dichloromethane and dermally applied to SENCAR mice. All agents were applied as tumor initiators by using a five-dose protocol. Selected extracts were also applied as complete carcinogens and as tumor promotors. Statistical analyses of the resulting tumor data were performed by using nonlinear Poisson and probit models. The results from these experiments provide a suitable data base for comparative potency estimation of complex mixtures.

S. Nesnow; L. L. Triplettt; T. J. Slagat

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

306

Density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expressing explicitly the parameters of the standard Skyrme interaction in terms of the macroscopic properties of asymmetric nuclear matter, we show in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach that unambiguous correlations exist between observables of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. We find that existing data on neutron skin thickness Delta r(np) of Sn isotopes give an important constraint on the symmetry energy E(sym)(rho(0)) and its density slope L at saturation density rho(0). Combining these constraints with those from recent analyses of isospin diffusion and the double neutron/proton ratio in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies leads to a more stringent limit on L approximately independent of E(sym)(rho(0)). The implication of these new constraints on the Delta r(np) of (208)Pb as well as the core-crust transition density and pressure in neutron stars is discussed.

Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Phorbol myristate acetate and catechol as skin cocarcinogens in SENCAR mice. Environ. Health Perspect. 68  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The enhancement of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and 3-propiolactone (BPL) by the mouse skin cocarcinogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and catechol were examined in female SEN-CAR mice, 30 per group. The carcinogen and cocarcinogen were applied simultaneously, three times weekly for 490-560 days. B(a)P and BPL were used at constant doses of 5 and 50 jig, respectively, in all experiments. PMA was used at three doses, 2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 p.g per application, and catechol was used at one dose, 2 mg per application. Control groups included animals that received carcinogen only, cocarcinogen only, acetone only, and no treatment. The carcinogenicity of B(a)P and BPL were enhanced by the cocarcinogens, particularly in terms of tumor multiplicity. For both carcinogens, the most marked cocarcinogenic effects were observed at the lowest dose of PMA used (0.5,ug per application). This observation applied for days to first tumor, animals with tumors, tumor multiplicity, and incidence of malignant skin tumors. Catechol applied alone did not induce any tumors; with PMA alone there were significant incidences of benign and malignant tumors, e.g., at a dose of only 0.5,ug per application, 15 of 30 animals had 28 tumors, 5 of which were squamous carcinomas. In two-stage carcinogenesis experiments with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and PMA as promoter, SENCAR mice showed a greater susceptibility to tumor induction when compared to ICR/Ha mice used in earlier work. This susceptibility was most notable in terms of rate of tumor appearance and tumor multiplicity.

Benjamin L. Van Duuren; Susan Melchionne; Irving Seidmant

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability  

SciTech Connect

It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

309

Interacting with human physiology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a novel system that incorporates physiological monitoring as part of the human-computer interface. The sensing element is a thermal camera that is employed as a computer peripheral. Through bioheat modeling of facial imagery almost the full ... Keywords: Blood flow, Breath rate, Cardiac pulse, Facial tracking, Human-computer interaction, Sleep apnea, Stress, Thermal imaging

I. Pavlidis; J. Dowdall; N. Sun; C. Puri; J. Fei; M. Garbey

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Humans and Gills  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Humans and Gills Humans and Gills Name: Shelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is it true that some babies are born with some sort of gills? How and when do humans adapt from breathing inside to breathing outside of the womb? Replies: Whoa! You have received a great deal of false information. First, babies are not born with gills! Get that out of your thinking! Babies do not "breath" for oxygen in the womb. They do "practice breathing" using the amniotic fluid of the womb, but it is not doing them any good otherwise. All of the embryo and fetal needs are received through the placenta. The mother provides everything that is needed. As for the gills, there is a stage in the early human embryo development whereby humans do show gill slits, but not functional gills. Slits are not gills!! As a matter of fact, all vertebrates show these same gill slits.

311

In depth comparison of an individual's DNA and its lymphoblastoid cell line using whole genome sequencing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yeung G, et al: Human genome sequencing using unchained basecell line using whole genome sequencing. BMC Genomics 2012cell line using whole genome sequencing Dorothee Nickles 1 ,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Antitumor effects of combined carboplatin and gemcitabine in canine transitional cell carcinoma.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gemcitabine has demonstrated synergistic antitumor activity in a variety of human cancer cells when combined with carboplatin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate… (more)

De Brito Galvao, Joao Felipe

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cell Image Visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Biological cell image analysis projects include methods to measure cell segmentation accuracy and new segmentation methods to track live cells. ...

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

314

Generating immunological signatures of diseases by multiplex analysis of single cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The large diversity of cells that comprise the human immune system requires methods that can resolve the contributions of individual cells to an immunological response. The release of cytokines is one of several important ...

Han, Qing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Mechanical stiffness-defined matrices for stem cell research and drug screening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthetic polymer matrices or subtrata with tailored elastic properties provide a powerful method to direct biological cell' differentiation and foster cell multiplication. By changing the stiffness of the substrate, human ...

Ha, Vu Nguyen Tuan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cell mitosis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the nuclear membrane in each of the daughter cells would conclude the cycle. Chromatin needs to uncoil and key genes become active again via transcription of mRNA. Lou...

317

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

318

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

325

Ocean Health and Human Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 2002. Indicators of ocean health and human health:Nature 423:280–283. Oceans and Human Health Act. 2003. S.Editorial Guest Editorial Ocean Health and Human Health

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Spontaneous Human Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spontaneous Human Combustion Spontaneous Human Combustion Name: S. Phillips. Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: One of our 8th grade students has tried to find information in our library about spontaneous human combustion, but to no avail. Could you tell us where we might locate a simple reference, or provide some in information about this subject for him. Replies: Sorry, but this is definitely "fringe science"...try asking in bookstores. I seem to recall one of those "believe it or not" type of TV shows did an episode on spontaneous human combustion a few years ago in which they reported on some British scientists who investigated this purported phenomenon. Remember that people (back in the Dark Ages, and before) used to believe in "spontaneous generation" of certain plants and animals because they were not aware of the reproduction methods used by those plants and animals.

327

Macintosh human interface guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines describes the way to create products that optimize the interaction between people and Macintosh computers. It explains the whys and hows of the Macintosh interface in general terms and specific details. Macintosh ...

Apple Computer, Inc.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Medical Humanities Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the making: Memoirs and medical education. Iowa City, IA:shoes: empathy and othering in medical students' education.through the thread of medical humanities 1 . The essay by

Shapiro, Johanna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

KRFTWRK – Global Human Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

Prohaska, Rainer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dogs and Human Diseases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diseases Name: Doris Status: Other Grade: 9-12 Location: OK Date: NA Question: Can a dog contact the shingles or chicken pox virus from a human? Replies: Hi Doris, Great...

331

Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments This database contains information on records collections related to human radiation...

332

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 900 in either direction while maintaining the working-and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, Hoydoo; Melendres, C.A.

1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

333

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Human Radiation Experiments: What's New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Defense Report Finding Aids Department of Defense Report on Search for Human Radiation Experiments Records 1944-1994 Exit Human Radiation Experiments Site This...

335

Human Factors Review Plan  

SciTech Connect

''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90-99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

337

Global Environmental Change and Human Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &

Kunnas, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Engineering Mammalian Cells for Improved Recombinant Protein Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The production of recombinant glycoproteins from mammalian cell cultures requires robust processes that can achieve high protein yield while ensuring the efficacy of these proteins as human therapeutics. We describe two ...

Wong, Niki S.C.

339

Microfluidic devices for analysis of red blood cell mechanical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Decreased deformability of human red blood cells (RBCs) is both a cause of disease and biomarker for disease (1). To traverse blood capillaries, the biconcave disk-shaped RBC must deform dramatically, since the diameter ...

Bow, Hansen Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Developing Human Performance Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a framework, 3) how our use of modeling and simulation techniques could be used to develop and validate measures of human performance, and 4) what the possible outcomes are from this research as the modeling and simulation efforts generate results.

Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells  

SciTech Connect

In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

[Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

Nierman, W.C.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Photoelectrodialytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

A Primer to Human Threading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human Threading(TM) is new approach in developing innovative computing technologies. It uses novel physiologic combinations to measure the human brain and body in an effort to create greater efficiency among human and machine. A divergent group of measurement ... Keywords: BCI, EEG, HCI, Human ThreadingTM, Information systems

Christopher Liapis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph Communication Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

Claudia P. Peregrino; Myriam V. Moreno; Silvia V. Mir; Alma D. Rubio; Luz O. Leal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Turkey vs. human digestion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Turkey vs. human digestion Turkey vs. human digestion Name: wallyb Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How is the digestive system of turkeys different from that of humans? Replies: Hmmm.. been a while since I had sophomore biology, so I can't completely answer this one, but I can say a few things. One, since turkeys are birds, and birds as a general rule have not had teeth for several million years at least, the turkey needs a way to mash up its food -- thus, the crop, which is essentially like another stomach: the turkey (and many other birds, for that matter) swallows small stones which serve in lieu of teeth, mashing up food via muscular action in the crop, from whence the "chewed" food moves on into the rest of the digestive tract. As for any other differences, I'll have to leave that to someone else with more ornithological experience...

349

THE HUMAN FACTOR* By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*I gratefully acknowledge the advice, encouragement, and inspiration of Nuria Chinchilla from IESE who encouraged me to think about the issue of human sustainability in both societies and companies. The helpful comments of the editor and the reviewers substantially clarified the arguments. ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES, (in press) Although most of the research and public pressure concerning sustainability has been focused on the effects of business and organizational activity on the physical environment, companies and their management practices profoundly affect the human and social environment as well. This article briefly reviews the literature on the direct and indirect effects of organizations and their decisions about people on human health and mortality. It then considers some possible explanations for why social sustainability has received relatively short shrift in management writing, and outlines a research agenda for investigating the links between social sustainability and organizational effectiveness as well as the role

Jeffrey Pfeffer; R Esearch; P Aper; S Eries; Building Sustainable Organizations; Jeffrey Pfeffer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Relocation Guide, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Relocation Information Guide Relocation Information Guide The Human Resources Division is providing this Information Guide to you to help ease the transition of relocating to Long Island. Relocating to a new place can be an exciting as well as stressful time. We have compiled information that can be very helpful with the many issues you may face. You may also seek assistance from the recruiter you work with in Human Resources. Service Disclaimer - This web page contains links to other Internet sites. These links are not endorsements of any products or services and no information in such site has been endorsed or approved by Brookhaven National Laboratory or the Human Resources Division. Here are some of the issues: Cost of living Buying or renting a home Schools in the area

351

Conservation and divergence in the transcriptional programs of the human and mouse immune systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much of the knowledge about cell differentiation and function in the immune system has come from studies in mice, but the relevance to human immunology, diseases, and therapy has been challenged, perhaps more from anecdotal ...

Shay, Tal

352

Stability, unfolding, and aggregation of the gamma D and gamma S human eye lens crystallins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparency of the human eye lens depends on the properties of the a- crystallin and py-crystallin families of proteins, which accumulate to very high concentrations in mature lens fiber cells. The 0- and y-crystallins ...

Mills-Henry, Ishara Amenti Rakem

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans  

SciTech Connect

It has been difficult to establish whether we are limited to the heart muscle cells we are born with or if cardiomyocytes are generated also later in life. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, into DNA to establish the age of cardiomyocytes in humans. We report that cardiomyocytes renew, with a gradual decrease from 1% turning over annually at the age of 20 to 0.3% at the age of 75. Less than 50% of cardiomyocytes are exchanged during a normal lifespan. The capacity to generate cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart suggests that it may be rational to work towards the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to stimulate this process in cardiac pathologies.

Bergmann, O; Bhardwaj, R D; Bernard, S; Zdunek, S; Barnabe-Heider, F; Walsh, S; Zupicich, J; Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Jovinge, S; Frisen, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Integrated Ocean Skin and Bulk Temperature Measurements Using the Calibrated Infrared In Situ Measurement System (CIRIMS) and Through-Hull Ports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and performance of a shipboard-integrated system for underway skin and bulk temperature is presented. The system consists of the Calibrated Infrared In situ Measurement System (CIRIMS) and through-hull temperature sensors. The CIRIMS ...

A. T. Jessup; R. Branch

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Retrieval of Lake Bulk and Skin Temperatures Using Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2) Data: A Case Study Using Lake Tahoe, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1999, four monitoring stations were permanently moored on Lake Tahoe, California–Nevada. Each monitoring station provides near-real-time measurements of the surface skin temperature and bulk temperature on a near-continuous basis. Day and ...

Simon J. Hook; Fred J. Prata; Ronald E. Alley; Ali Abtahi; Robert C. Richards; S. Geoffrey Schladow; SveinnÓ Pálmarsson

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Human Diversity: Our Genes Tell Where we Live  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human Diversity: Our Genes Tell Where we Live Dispatch Laurent Excoffier A detailed genetic. The novelty of the recent work of Rosenberg et al. [7] is precisely that they have checked the validity of the analysis of a cell-line panel of 52 worldwide popu- lations [9] managed by the French Center for the Study

Rosenberg, Noah

357

DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adipose) tissue from [72]. Data set 61 consists of humanheart tissue from [27]. Data set 62 consists of kidney (tissue from TCGA (KIRC). Data set 63 consists of liver (

Horvath, Steve

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a human thyroid cancer cell line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gland during the Chernobyl catastrophe. Environmental Healthradiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. Cancer 76,1986 nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine. In the twelve

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Human Liver Cell Culturing in Porous Hydroxyapatite/Hydrogel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Cold Work and Aging on a Cobalt-Nickel Based Multiphase Alloy ... Freeze-Cast Preparation of Porous Bioceramics with Controlled Silver Release.

360

Molecular mediators of radio-adaptation in human cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which in turn is thought to result from a senescence-associated reorganization of chromatin. To understand the molecular pathways responsible for this ability of low IR doses...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tracking the mechanical dynamics of human embryonic stem cell chromatin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

auto-correlation function (ACF) and standard deviation ofscan time. By plotting the ACF on a log scale, we are able

Hinde, Elizabeth; Cardarelli, Francesco; Chen, Aaron; Khine, Michelle; Gratton, Enrico

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Identifying and Understanding the Functional Significance of Cancer Stem Cells in Prostate and Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Chemoresistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prostate tumorigenesis. Cancer Research, 71: 3459-3470. Kongprogenitor cells. Cancer Research, 72: 1878-89. Murtaughin human brain tumors. Cancer Research, 63: 5821-5828. Steer

Hindoyan, Antreas Agop

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of various intrinsic cell properties. In the microwave region beyond 1 GHz, the reorientational motion of water molecules in the blood plasma leads to another relaxation feature (gamma-relaxation). Between beta- and gamma-relaxation, significant dispersion is observed, which, however, can be explained by a superposition of these relaxation processes and is not due to an additional delta-relaxation often found in biological matter. Our measurements provide dielectric data on human blood of so far unsurpassed precision for a broad parameter range. All data are provided in electronic form to serve as basis for the calculation of the absorption rate of electromagnetic radiation and other medical purposes. Moreover, by investigating an exceptionally broad frequency range, valuable new information on the dynamic processes in blood is obtained.

M. Wolf; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

364

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Animation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE Home | Programs & Offices | Consumer Information Fuel Cell Technologies Office Search Search Help Fuel Cell Technologies Office HOME ABOUT...

366

Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy J. Tyson McDonald Steward St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center Abstract Primary tissue represents a better model for studies than immortalized cell lines that are adapted to culture conditions and may no longer reflect a realistic biological state. In this study, normal tissues from clinically indicated robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were grossly identified, sectioned into frozen or formalin fixed samples, and processed as primary cultures. Normal epithelial and fibroblast primary cell cultures were derived from regions of normal tissue, as confirmed by analysis on adjacent tissue by hematoxylin and eosin staining, were exposed to acute

367

Electrorefining cell evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

1989-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

368

Corrosion and Electrochemical Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Cell conditions for commercial and industrial electrode processes...fuel cells Electrolytic e cell > e cell,rev I � 0 (impressed current

369

Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

2007-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

Microfluidic Cell Culture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... microfluidic device with access to optical imaging, electrochemical interrogation, controlled lysis of desired cells, and collection of cell contents for ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: a survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing ... Keywords: affective computing, analysis, human behavior understanding, human sensing, multimodal data, socially-aware computing

Maja Pantic; Alex Pentland; Anton Nijholt; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Chromatin States Accurately Classify Cell Differentiation Stages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gene expression is controlled by the concerted interactions between transcription factors and chromatin regulators. While recent studies have identified global chromatin state changes across cell-types, it remains unclear to what extent these changes are co-regulated during cell-differentiation. Here we present a comprehensive computational analysis by assembling a large dataset containing genome-wide occupancy information of 5 histone modifications in 27 human cell lines (including 24 normal and 3 cancer cell lines) obtained from the public domain, followed by independent analysis at three different representations. We classified the differentiation stage of a cell-type based on its genome-wide pattern of chromatin states, and found that our method was able to identify normal cell lines with nearly 100 % accuracy. We then applied our model to classify the cancer cell lines and found that each can be unequivocally classified as differentiated cells. The differences can be in part explained by the differential activities of three regulatory modules associated with embryonic stem cells. We also found that the ‘‘hotspot’ ’ genes, whose chromatin states change dynamically in accordance to the differentiation stage, are not randomly distributed across the genome but tend to be embedded in multi-gene chromatin

Jessica L. Larson; Guo-cheng Yuan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Eye Color in Humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eye Color in Humans Eye Color in Humans Name: Kristi Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: The dominant characteristic is the one most likely to appear in the offspring. In human beings, brown is the dominant color for eyes. The children who inherit at least on dominant gene will have either brown, green, or hazel eyes. Only childten who inherit two recessive genes will have pure blue eyes. If there are eight children in the family, what color eyes will most of them have? Replies: http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/archive.htm Search under eye color Steve Sample You answer is of course dependent on the genes of the parents. If both parents do not have the recessive gene, then no children will have light colored eyes. If one has a recessive gene and the other not, then still no children will have light color eyes and on the average 25% of the eight children could have the recessive gene. If both parents have the recessive gene, then 25% of the eight children could have light color eyes.

374

Dog vs. human language  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dog vs. human language Dog vs. human language Name: Michelle Conte Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why can't dogs talk like humans? Replies: In very simple terms, they aren't made for it. In order to produce any kind of vocal sound, we not only need a set of vocal chords (or vibratory organs of some sort), we also need an air pipe and cranium shaped to deliver the vibrations in the right way -- you actually use your own head as a sort of sounding plate for several primary sounds (non-percussive) Dogs don't have the right shaped heads for the job, as well as the inability to vocalize many of the percussive sounds which make up a good percentage of our languages due to a differently shaped mouth. However, all things considered, we'd be ill-equipped to call meetings over long distances by simply howling, like dogs and their kin are wont to do in the wild.

375

Human factoring administrative procedures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following.

Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Modelling postures of human movements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this paper is to present a novel modelling of postures of human activities such us walk, run... Effectively, human action is, in general, characterized by a sequence of specific body postures. So, from an incoming sequence video, we determine ... Keywords: human activities, modelling, shape matching, skeleton, thinning

Djamila Medjahed Gamaz; Houssem Eddine Gueziri; Nazim Haouchine

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Photoelectrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photoelectrochemical cell comprising a sealed container having a light-transmitting window for admitting light into the container across a light-admitting plane, an electrolyte in the container, a photoelectrode in the container having a light-absorbing surface arranged to receive light from the window and in contact with the electrolyte, the surface having a plurality of spaced portions oblique to the plane, each portion having dimensions at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum wavelength of incident sunlight, the total surface area of the surface being larger than the area of the plane bounded by the container, and a counter electrode in the container in contact with the electrolyte.

Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Boudreau, Robert A. (Norton, MA)

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Human Capital Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plan Human Capital Plan More Documents & Publications Strategic Use of Human Capital DOE Strategic Human Capital Plan (FY 2011 - 2015) Energy.gov Careers & Internships For Staff &...

380

Intracellular calcium-expression-display (ICED) device operated by compressive stimulation of cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of steady compressive stimulation on intracellular calcium expression in MG-63 human osteoblast-like bone cells were examined using a fabricated micro cell chip with a microchannel array. A computer-controlled pneumatic system was used to ... Keywords: Cell chip, Compressive stress, Intracellular calcium-expression-display (ICED)

Tae Kyung Kim; Ok Chan Jeong

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Virtual Human Problem Solving Environments  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Interest in complex integrated digital or virtual human modeling has seen a significant increase over the last decade. Coincident with that increased interest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated the development of a human simulation tool, the Virtual Human. The Virtual Human includes a problem-solving environment (PSE) for implementing the integration of physiological models in different programming languages and connecting physiological function to anatomy. The Virtual Human PSE (VHPSE) provides the computational framework with which to develop the concept of a "Virtual Human." Supporting the framework is a data definition for modeling parameters, PhysioML, a Virtual Human Database (VHDB), and a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed using Java. Following description of the VHPSE, we discuss four example implementations of models within the framework. Further expansion of a human modeling environment was carried out in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. SCIRun served as the Virtual Soldier problem solving environment (VSPSE). We review and compare specific developments in these projects that have significant potential for the future of Virtual Human modeling and simulation. We conclude with an evaluation of areas of future work that will provide important extensions to the VHPSE and VSPSE and make possible a fully-integrated environment for human anatomical and physiological modeling: the Virtual Human.

Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Fischer, Sarah Kathleen [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Objective method to report planner-independent skin/rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: An objective method was proposed and compared with a manual selection method to determine planner-independent skin and rib maximal dose in balloon-based high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy planning. Methods: The maximal dose to skin and rib was objectively extracted from a dose volume histogram (DVH) of skin and rib volumes. A virtual skin volume was produced by expanding the skin surface in three dimensions (3D) external to the breast with a certain thickness in the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Therefore, the maximal dose to this volume occurs on the skin surface the same with a conventional manual selection method. The rib was also delineated in the planning CT images and its maximal dose was extracted from its DVH. The absolute (Abdiff=|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|) and relative (Rediff[%]=100x(|D{sub max}{sup Man}-D{sub max}{sup DVH}|)/D{sub max}{sup DVH}) maximal skin and rib dose differences between the manual selection method (D{sub max}{sup Man}) and the objective method (D{sub max}{sup DVH}) were measured for 50 balloon-based HDR (25 MammoSite and 25 Contura) patients. Results: The average{+-}standard deviation of maximal dose difference was 1.67%{+-}1.69% of the prescribed dose (PD). No statistical difference was observed between MammoSite and Contura patients for both Abdiff and Rediff[%] values. However, a statistically significant difference (p value dose difference compared with maximal skin dose difference for both Abdiff (2.30%{+-}1.71% vs 1.05%{+-}1.43%) and Rediff[%] (2.32%{+-}1.79% vs 1.21%{+-}1.41%). In general, rib has a more irregular contour and it is more proximally located to the balloon for 50 HDR patients. Due to the inverse square law factor, more dose difference was observed in higher dose range (D{sub max}>90%) compared with lower dose range (D{sub max}low dose ranges. Conclusions: The objective method using volumetric information of skin and rib can determine the planner-independent maximal dose compared with the manual selection method. However, the difference was dose point in 3D planning CT images.

Kim, Yongbok; Trombetta, Mark G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States) and Drexel University College of Medicine, Allegheny Campus, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Human portable preconcentrator system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The first cell sorter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The first cell sorter The first cell sorter 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit The first cell sorter About fifty years ago, a Los Alamos scientist invented a method-still important in cellular biology labs today-to separate out particular types of cells. November 25, 2013 The first cell sorter Flow cytometry (cell measurement) uses cell sorting to divert cells of a chosen type out of a mixed stream of cells, like the blood cells shown here, for collection and study. Los Alamos invented, and has regularly improved upon, the technology to isolate different kinds of cells. In the early-mid 1960s, Los Alamos physicist Mack Fulwyler invented a device to isolate different types of cells. His invention, still a vital aspect of flow cytometry (cell measurement) in biological laboratories

385

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fuel cell arrangement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

387

Human activity recognition based on surrounding things  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes human activity recognition based on the actual semantics of the human’s current location. Since predefining the semantics of location is inadequate to identify human activities, we process information about things to automatically ...

Naoharu Yamada; Kenji Sakamoto; Goro Kunito; Kenichi Yamazaki; Satoshi Tanaka

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

How HIV Infects Cells | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simulating Deep Earthquakes in the Laboratory Simulating Deep Earthquakes in the Laboratory A "Sponge" Path to Better Catalysts and Energy Materials Metal Model Mimics Metalloenzymes New Physics in a Copper-Iridium Compound A Key Target for Diabetes Drugs Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed How HIV Infects Cells September 26, 2013 Bookmark and Share The structure of the CCR5 cell surface receptor, which most strains of HIV use to enter human immune cells. This image shows the HIV drug maraviroc grabbing hold of CCR5 in an inactive conformation that prevents HIV from using the receptor to enter cells. (Image by Katya Kadyshevskaya, The Scripps Research Institute)

389

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tiny Conspiracies: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria. Purpose: Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate ...

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

390

PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory More Documents & Publications PIA - Human Resources Information...

391

Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fuel Cell Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Links Fuel Cell Links The links below are provided as additional resources for fuel-cell-related information. Most of the linked sites are not part of, nor affiliated with, fueleconomy.gov. We do not endorse or vouch for the accuracy of the information found on such sites. Fuel Cell Vehicles and Manufacturers Chevrolet General Motors press release about the Chevrolet Fuel Cell Equinox Ford Ford overview of their hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Honda FCX Clarity official site Hyundai Hyundai press release announcing the upcoming Tucson Fuel Cell Mercedes-Benz Ener-G-Force Fuel-cell-powered concept SUV Nissan Nissan TeRRA concept SUV Toyota Overview of Toyota fuel cell technology Hydrogen- and Fuel-Cell-Related Information and Tools Fuel Cell Vehicles Brief overview of fuel cell vehicles provided by DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)

393

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Fuel Cells Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells are an emerging technology that can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for...

394

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operation of a Solid Polymer Fuel Cell: A Parametric Model,"1991). G. Bronoel, "Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cells Without PreciousG. Abens, "Development of a Fuel Cell Power Source for Bus,"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

NETL: Fuel Cells - Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel CellsSolid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Contacts For information on the Fuel CellsSECA program, contact: Fuel Cells Technology Manager: Shailesh Vora 412-386-7515...

397

Report: EM Human Capital Initiatives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL September 25, 2008 Submitted by the EMAB Human Capital Subcommittee Background: The enhancement of the Office of Environmental Management's (EM) human capital has been a central tenet of the Assistant Secretary's tenure, reflecting the critical nature of this resource to the achievement of EM's mission. Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2006, the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) has reviewed the program's human capital issues and the plans EM has developed to address them. This review produced a number of recommendations that were presented in the Board's FY 2006 report to the Assistant Secretary and were later approved and implemented to varying degrees. * Recommendation 2006-01: Develop accountability for the Human Capital Plan

398

The role of let-7 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 days in NPCs carrying doxycycline-inducible SOX2 shRNA (7, induced with 2µg/ml doxycycline at day 8 (to allow for7, induced with 2µg/ml doxycycline without purmorphamine at

Chen, Connie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standards Partnership (CSP) recommends new or revisedcomment period concurrent with CSP Review ATCC SDO respondsthen forwards to ANSI and CSP for concurrent 45 day public

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mucin granule-associated proteins in human bronchial epithelial cells: the airway goblet cell "granulome"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of cysteine string protein (CSP) in regulated exocytosis.Cysteine string protein [CSP]) and cytoskeletal (actin,that MARCKS, HSP70, CSP and hCLCA1 were present on the

Raiford, Kimberly L; Park, Joungjoa; Lin, Ko-Wei; Fang, Shijing; Crews, Anne L; Adler, Kenneth B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sun Protection Intervention for Highway Workers: Long-Term Efficacy of UV Photography and Skin Cancer Information on Men’s Protective Cognitions and Behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

# The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Background The risk for skin cancer is increased among older males and outdoor workers who have high levels of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Purpose This study was designed to examine the long-term efficacy of UV photography interventions on male outdoor workers, the potential mediators of its impact, and the efficacy of UV photography and skin cancer vs. aging information with this population. Methods One hundred forty-eight male outdoor workers were randomly assigned to one of four intervention conditions or a control condition in a two by two plus one

Frederick X. Gibbons; Laura A. Walsh; James A. Kulik, Ph.D.; M. Gerrard; F. X. Gibbons; J. L. Dykstra; H. I. M. Mahler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Energy Basics: Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Fuel Cells Photo of...

403

Parabolic cell analyzer  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a cell analysis apparatus incorporating a paraboloidal cavity for maximum utilization for improved cell characteristic monitoring.

Salzman, Gary C. (Los Alamos, NM); Skogen Hagenson, Mary J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Photovoltaic Cell Materials  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Although crystalline silicon cells are the most common type, photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells, can be made of many semiconductor materials. Each material has unique strengths and characteristics...

405

Quantum physics and human values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the following concepts: the quantum conception of nature; the quantum conception of man; and the impact upon human values. (LSP).

Stapp, H.P.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

Robbins, E.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cell Technical Cell Technical Publications to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technical Publications on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Hydrogen Fuel Cells Safety, Codes & Standards Market Analysis Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings

408

Induction of growth factor RNA expression in human malignant melanoma: markers of transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alteration in the expression of growth factors is widely accepted as being one of several critical defects in the generation of the malignant cell. In the present study, 19 human metastatic melanoma cell lines were compared to 14 normal human foreskin melanocyte cell lines for the production of RNA transcripts specific for 11 different growth factors. Using the extremely sensitive technique of polymerase chain reaction to amplify growth factor-specific complementary DNAs, we analyzed the following: transforming growth factor (TGF) types a, fi,, ti¡.and /i.,,acidic (a) fibroblast growth factor (FGF), basic (b) FGF, FGF-5, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), HST, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) types A and B. There were clear distinctions among the patterns of growth factor RNA expression by normal melanocytes and malignant melanoma cells. The prototypic melanocyte pattern of expression in cluded TGF0!, TGF/Sj, and KGF. A subset of melanocyte cell lines also

Anthony P. Albino; Brigid M. Davis; David M. Nanus; Contact The Aacr Publications; Anthony P. Albino; Brigid M. Davis; David M. Nanus

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.  

SciTech Connect

This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

MYC transcriptional functions controlling epidermal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cells divide in the hair bulb after receiving signals from the dermal papilla (DP); a region in the HF that aggregates dermal cells and capillaries. Their progeny moves upwards and differentiates into the seven different lineages that will constitute... , 1982]. When cultured in vitro, human epidermal stem cells express high levels of ?1 integrin and show high clonogenicity [Jones and Watt, 1993]. These observations led to another hypothesis in which these cells might be located at the tips of the dermal...

Nascimento, Elisabete

411

Molecular and somatic-cell genetic analysis of metal-resistance mechanisms in mammalian cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined molecular genetic analyses and somatic cell systems were utilized to delineate factors involved in metal metabolism. Somatic cells derived by selection procedures using toxic heavy metals were used to define primary factors involved in acquisition of metal resistance. Such cell variants permitted isolation of the specific genes involved in conferring heavy metal binding proteins, the metallothioneins. (MT). These isolated genes provided the molecular probes to dissect the multiple levels of control and organization of this one set of genes responsible for metal resistance. Studies on the roles of MT in metal resistance used these variants and cell lines derived from human tumors to illustrate that MTs play an important but not exclusive role in cadmium detoxification. Studies on Cd/sup + +/ responses in human tumor derived cell lines showed several orders of magnitude differences in Cd/sup + +/ sensitivity in lines having similar MT responses. Analysis of cultured normal blood cell responses showed that the most Cd/sup + +/ resistant population, the granulocytes, did not produce significant quantities of MT. The results presented here further show a lack of correlation between MT and cytotoxic responses to Cd/sup + +/ in freshly cultured human leukemic peripheral blood cells. In these, enhanced Cd/sup + +/ uptake may be a factor determining enhanced sensitivity. Theses results together indicate that an adequate understanding of cellular responses to toxic metals will not be provided by elucidation of the role(s) of one or a few known metal binding proteins such as MT. Other factors and systems that modulate cellular uptake and sensitivity must first be defined.

Enger, M.D.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Walters, R.A.; Seagrave, J.C.; Barham, S.S.; Hoagland, H.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Low-energy E1 strength in select nuclei: Possible constraints on the neutron skins and the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlations between low-lying electric dipole (E1) strength and neutron skin thickness are systematically investigated with the fully self-consistent random-phase approximation using the Skyrme energy functionals. The presence of strong correlation among these quantities is currently under dispute. We find that the strong correlation is present in properly selected nuclei, namely in spherical neutron-rich nuclei in the region where the neutron Fermi levels are located at orbits with low orbital angular momenta. The significant correlation between the fraction of the energy-weighted sum value and the slope of the symmetry energy is also observed. The deformation in the ground state seems to weaken the correlation.

Tsunenori Inakura; Takashi Nakatsukasa; Kazuhiro Yabana

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

413

Proper Setup of HVAC System in Conjunction with Sound Building 'Skin' Design for Alleviation of IAQ and Energy Performance Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy consumption in buildings is a growing concern. Many buildings are energy hogs simply because they were not set up properly to begin with. The building envelope and infiltration of unconditioned air is also a major concern in hot and humid climates, not only because of the loss of energy, but also because of damage that can result to insulation, drywall, and structure in addition to promotion of mold and mildew growth. Proper setup of the HVAC system, in conjunction with sound building “skin” design, can alleviate many of these problems. This paper will explain how most mixed air HVAC systems are set up with problems to begin with and how to identify and solve those problems. It will explain different control schemes that specifically deal with proper building pressurization

Rosenberg, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hippocampal Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans Kirsty L. Spalding, 1,8 Olaf Bergmann, 1,8 Kanar Alkass, 1,2 Samuel Bernard, 3 Mehran Salehpour, 4 Hagen B. Huttner, 1,5 Emil Bostro ¨ m, 1 Isabelle Westerlund, 1 Ce ´ line Vial, 3 Bruce A. Buchholz, 6 Go ¨ ran Possnert, 4 Deborah C. Mash, 7 Henrik Druid, 2 and Jonas Frise ´ n 1, * 1 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology 2 Department of Oncology-Pathology Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden 3 Institut Camille Jordan, CNRS UMR 5208, University of Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne, France 4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, 751 20 Sweden 5 Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany 6 Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue L-397, Livermore, CA 94550, USA 7 Department of Neurology,

415

Human Error in Airway Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report examines human errors in Airway Facilities (AF) with the intent of preventing these errors from being passed on to the new Operations Control Centers. To effectively manage errors, they first have to be identified. Human factors engineers researched human error literature, analyzed human errors recorded in AF databases, and conducted structured interviews with AF representatives. This study enabled them to categorize the types of human errors, identify potential causal factors, and recommend strategies for their mitigation. The results provide preventative measures that designers, developers, and users can take to reduce human error. 17. Key Words Human Error Error Mitigation Operations Control Centers Error Mitigation Strategies 18. Distribution Statement This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161. 19. Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 23 22. Price Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was accomplished under the sponsorship of the Office of Chief Scientist for Human Factors, AAR-100. The research team greatly appreciates the support supplied by Beverly Clark of AOP-30 and our subject matter expert, Kermit Grayson of Grayson Consulting. We also wish to extend our thanks to the people interviewed at the facilities who gave their valuable time in helping us to achieve the goals of our project. iv v Table of Contents Page Acknowledgments..........................................................................................................................iii Executive Summary......................................................................................

Vicki Ahlstrom; Vicki Ahlstrom Act; Donald G. Hartman

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Fuel Cells Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings Annual Merit Review Proceedings Workshop & Meeting Proceedings

417

Single Cell Mechanics BIOMATERIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single Cell Mechanics BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to develop fundamental tools to measure the response of live cells to mechanical stimulation. The mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical forces evaluate the underlying mechanisms of cell mechanics. Objective Impact and Customers · Cancer, heart

418

A fuel cell overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an overview of the fuel cell as an efficient and environmentally benign energy conversion technology. The topics of the paper include their physical arrangement, types of fuel cells, status of commercial development, applications of the fuel cell power plants and comparison with existing alternatives, and good design practice for fuel cell safety.

Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Reiser, C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with Additional Information Charles DeLisi As head of DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, Charles DeLisi played a pivotal role in proposing and initiating the Human Genome Program in 1986. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has historically been active in supporting human genome research. On September 10, 2003, Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham presented the Secretary's Gold Award to Aristides Patrinos and Francis Collins for their leadership of the government's Human Genome Project. At DOE's Office of Science, Dr. Patrinos is the Associate Director for Biological and Environmental Research. He has been a researcher at the department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

420

FCT Fuel Cells: Fuel Cell R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Fuel Cell R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Fuel Cell R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Molten carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Molten carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

1986-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

423

Fuel cells seminar  

SciTech Connect

This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A quantum mechanical derivation of the Schwarzschild radius and its quantum correction using a model density distribution: Skin of a black hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a single particle density distribution for a system of self-gravitating particles which ultimately forms a black hole, we from a condensed matter point of view derive the Schwarzschild radius and by including the quantum mechanical exchange energy we find a small correction to the Schwarzschild radius, which we designate as the skin of the black hole.

Subodha Mishra

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

425

Active hypothermic growth : a novel means for increasing total recombinant protein production by CHO cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recombinant human glycoproteins produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are an important class of therapeutic molecules and investigating means of improving the production rate and product quality of these glycoproteins ...

Fox, Stephen Richard

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

offering cleaner, more-efficient alternatives to the combustion of gasoline and other fossil fuels. Fuel cells have the potential to replace the internal-combustion engine in...

427

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Fuel Cell - Solid Oxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolyzer Research and Development Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid oxide diagram In an SOFC, oxygen from air is reduced to ions at the cathode, which diffuse through the...

428

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue John Ford Department of Nuclear Engineering Texas A & M University Why this Project? Using the well-established rat trachea model to test the hypothesis that normal respiratory epithelial cells transmit signals to neighboring cells in response to very low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals By comparing the responses shown by cells in these normal rodent respiratory tissues to those seen for human respiratory epithelial cells in reconstituted tissue constructs, it will be possible to better understand the responds in human respiratory cells in vivo. These studies will characterize responses after exposure to a variety of radiation types and dose distributions. Experimental Approach

429

Human genome. 1993 Program report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to update the Human Genome 1991-92 Program Report and provide new information on the DOE genome program to researchers, program managers, other government agencies, and the interested public. This FY 1993 supplement includes abstracts of 60 new or renewed projects and listings of 112 continuing and 28 completed projects. These two reports, taken together, present the most complete published view of the DOE Human Genome Program through FY 1993. Research is progressing rapidly toward 15-year goals of mapping and sequencing the DNA of each of the 24 different human chromosomes.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

FCT Fuel Cells: Basics  

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Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Fuel Cells: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with water and heat as byproducts. (How much water?) Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide energy for systems as large as a utility

431

A framework for human microbiome research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project ...

Friedman, Jonathan

432

Human Genome Education Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The funds from the DOE Human Genome Program, for the project period 2/1/96 through 1/31/98, have provided major support for the curriculum development and field testing efforts for two high school level instructional units: Unit 1, ''Exploring Genetic Conditions: Genes, Culture and Choices''; and Unit 2, ''DNA Snapshots: Peaking at Your DNA''. In the original proposal, they requested DOE support for the partial salary and benefits of a Field Test Coordinator position to: (1) complete the field testing and revision of two high school curriculum units, and (2) initiate the education of teachers using these units. During the project period of this two-year DOE grant, a part-time Field-Test Coordinator was hired (Ms. Geraldine Horsma) and significant progress has been made in both of the original proposal objectives. Field testing for Unit 1 has occurred in over 12 schools (local and non-local sites with diverse student populations). Field testing for Unit 2 has occurred in over 15 schools (local and non-local sites) and will continue in 12-15 schools during the 96-97 school year. For both curricula, field-test sites and site teachers were selected for their interest in genetics education and in hands-on science education. Many of the site teachers had no previous experience with HGEP or the unit under development. Both of these first-year biology curriculum units, which contain genetics, biotechnology, societal, ethical and cultural issues related to HGP, are being implemented in many local and non-local schools (SF Bay Area, Southern California, Nebraska, Hawaii, and Texas) and in programs for teachers. These units will reach over 10,000 students in the SF Bay Area and continues to receive support from local corporate and private philanthropic organizations. Although HGEP unit development is nearing completion for both units, data is still being gathered and analyzed on unit effectiveness and student learning. The final field testing result from this analysis will contribute to the final revisions of each unit during the second-year of this grant.

Richard Myers; Lane Conn

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation  

SciTech Connect

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information that will be useful in estimating human health risks due to radiation that may occur during exposures in the work environment, nuclear/radiological catastrophes, as well as radiotherapy. Several papers have been published, accepted for publication or are in preparation. A number of poster and oral presentations have been made at scientific conferences and workshops. Archived tissues of various types will continue to be evaluated via funding from other sources (the DoE Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science and this specific grant will be appropriately included in the Acknowledgements of all subsequent publications/presentations). A post-doc and several students have participated in this study. More detailed description of the accomplishments is described in attached file.

Daila S. Gridley, PhD

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

ORISE: Human Subjects Research Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Research Database Section 10, Part 745 of the Code of Federal Regulations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 443.1 and 481.1 require the maintenance of...

435

Human Errors in Information Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the paper is to target audience and stakeholder individuals whom are in charge of securing the assets of their organisations and institutions. This paper starts by providing a brief overview of information security, outlining the main goals and techniques of the discipline. The paper also discusses the role of human factors and how the information security research community has recognised the increasingly crucial role of human behaviour in many security failures. This is followed by a literature review of human errors in information security. Finally, this paper discusses Reason's Generic Error Modelling System (GEMS) as a potential model for explaining human errors in information security [18]. The terms computer security, network security and information security are used interchangeably in this paper.

Munir Ahmed; Lukman Sharif; Muhammad Kabir; Maha Al-maimani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Coördinating human-robot communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As robots begin to emerge from the cloisters of industrial and military applications and enter the realms of coöperative partners for people, one of the most important facets of human-robot interaction (HRI) will be ...

Brööks, Andrëw G. (Brööks Zoz)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool  

A new software tool enables the easy and quick selection of applicable regulatory guidelines as a starting point for human factors engineering (HFE) analyses.  Once selected, each guideline can be viewed on screen.  The software tracks and reports the ...

438

HVAC Sensors, Controls, and Human Feedback Interfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Sensors, HVAC Sensors, Controls, and Human Controls, and Human Feedback Interfaces Feedback Interfaces April 26, 2010 Dr. Amr Gado Emerson Climate Technologies Heating And...

439

Homeland Security/Forensics/Human Identity News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Humans spend greater than 90 percent of their time indoors, but we ... Experts Recommend Measures to Reduce Human Error in Fingerprint Analysis ...

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Robbins, E.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human skin cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office...  

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November 2012 to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter: November 2012 on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies...

442

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Newsletter Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Fuel Cell Technologies Office Newsletter Archives on Facebook Tweet abo