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Sample records for human radiation experiments

  1. Interim report of the Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-21

    The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was created by President Clinton to advise the Human Radiation Interagency Working Group on the ethical and scientific criteria applicable to human radiation experiments carried out or sponsored by the U.S. Government. The Committee seeks to answer several fundamental question: What ethics criteria should be used to evaluate human radiation experiments? What was the Federal Government`s role in human radiation experiments? What are the criteria for determining appropriate Federal responses where wrongs or harms have occurred? What lessons learned from studying past and present research standards and practices should be applied to the future? The Committee has been gathering vast amounts of information and working to render it orderly and accessible. In the next six months, the Committee will continue with the tasks of data gathering and organizing. The focus of the work, however, will be developing criteria for judging historical and contemporary experiments, policies, and procedures, as well as criteria for remedies that may be appropriate where harms or wrongs have ocurred. Based on findings, the Committee will make specific recommendations regarding policies for the future.

  2. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    When the Advisory Committee began work in April 1994 we were charged with determining whether the radiation experiments design and administration adequately met the ethical and scientific standards, including standards of informed consent, that prevailed at the time of the experiments and that exist today and also to determine the ethical and scientific standards and criteria by which it shall evaluate human radiation experiments. Although this charge seems straightforward, it is in fact difficult to determine what the appropriate standards should be for evaluating the conduct and policies of thirty or fifty years ago. First, we needed to determine the extent to which the standards of that time are similar to the standards of today. To the extent that there were differences we needed to determine the relative roles of each in making moral evaluations. In Chapter 1 we report what we have been able to reconstruct about government rules and policies in the 1940s and 1950s regarding human experiments. We focus primarily on the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense. In Chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this period. Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research.

  3. Los Alamos Science: Number 23, 1995. Radiation protection and the human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the ionizing radiation that surrounds and penetrates us all. Dispel a few of these by taking a leisurely tour of radiation and its properties, of the natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation, and of the way doses are calculated. By damaging DNA and inducing genetic mutations, ionizing radiation can potentially initiate a cell on the road to cancer. The authors review what is currently known about regulation of cellular reproduction, DNA damage and repair, cellular defense mechanisms, and the specific cancer-causing genes that are susceptible to ionizing radiation. A rapid survey of the data on radiation effects in humans shows that high radiation doses increase the risk of cancer, whereas the effects of low doses are very difficult to detect. The hypothetical risks at low doses, which are estimated from the atomic-bomb survivors, are compared to the low-dose data so that the reader can assess the present level of uncertainty. As part of the openness initiative, ten individuals who have worked with plutonium during various periods in the Laboratory`s history were asked to share their experiences including their accidental intakes. The history and prognosis of people who have had plutonium exposures is discussed by the Laboratory`s leading epidemiologist.

  4. Human radiation experiments associated with the US Department of Energy and its predecessors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This document contains a listing, description, and selected references for documented human radiation experiments sponsored, supported, or performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors, including the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), and the Off ice of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). The list represents work completed by DOE`s Off ice of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) through June 1995. The experiment list is available on the Internet via a Home Page on the World Wide Web (http://www.ohre.doe.gov). The Home Page also includes the full text of Human Radiation Experiments. The Department of Energy Roadmap to the Story and the Records (DOE/EH-0445), published in February 1995, to which this publication is a supplement. This list includes experiments released at Secretary O`Leary`s June 1994 press conference, as well as additional studies identified during the 12 months that followed. Cross-references are provided for experiments originally released at the press conference; for experiments released as part of The DOE Roadmap; and for experiments published in the 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on US Citizens. An appendix of radiation terms is also provided.

  5. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  6. Executive summary and guide to final report: Advisory committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    On January 15, 1994, President Clinton appointed the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments to investigate reports of possibly unethical experiments funded by the government decades ago. The Committee was directed to uncover the history of human radiation experiments during the period 1944 through 1974 and to examine cases in which the government had intentionally released radiation into the environment for research purposes. The Committee was further charged with identifying the ethical and scientific standards for evaluating these events, and with making recommendations to ensure that whatever wrongdoing may have ocurred in the past cannot be repeated. The Committee undertook three projects: A review of how each agency of the federal government that currently conducts or funds research involving human subjects regulates this activity or oversees it; An examination of the documents and consent forms of research projects that are today sponsored by the federal government in order to develop insight into the current status of protections for the rights and interests of human subjects; and, Interviews of nearly 1,900 patients receiving out-patient medical care in private hospitals and federal facilities throughout the country. This booklet provides an overview of the Final Report, summarizing each chapter.

  7. Human radiation experiments: The Department of Energy roadmap to the story and the records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The role of the US Government in conducting or sponsoring human radiation experiments has become the subject of public debate. Questions have been raised about the purpose, extent, and health consequences of these studies, and about how subjects were selected. The extent to which subjects provided informed consent is also under scrutiny. To respond to these questions, the Clinton administration has directed the US Department of Energy (DOE), along with other Federal agencies, to retrieve and inventory all records that document human radiation experiments. Many such records are now publicly available and will permit an open accounting and understanding of what took place. This report summarizes the Department`s ongoing search for records about human radiation experiments. It is also a roadmap to the large universe of pertinent DOE information. DOE is working to instill greater openness--consistent with national security and other appropriate considerations--throughout its operations. A key aspect of this effort is opening DOE`s historical records to independent research and analysis.

  8. Building public trust: Actions to respond to the report of the Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    Democratic government requires trust: people need to know and believe that the government is telling the truth. Without information about what the government is doing and why, citizens cannot exercise democratic control over government institutions. During his first year in office, President Clinton became concerned about reports that the government had conducted unethical secret human radiation experiments during the Cold War. To address this issue, in January 1994, President Clinton established the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), chaired by bioethicist Dr. Ruth Faden of Johns Hopkins University. The President also directed all Federal agencies to search for records related to human subjects radiation research and provide them to the Advisory Committee. This report presents the Administration`s actions to respond to the ACHRE`s findings and recommendations.

  9. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  10. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    West Antarctic Radiation Experiment of the most advanced atmospheric research ... From the fall of 2015 to early 2017, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West ...

  11. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013 January 29, 2015 OE-3 2015-01: DOE Occupational Radiation...

  12. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else Gwyn Williams ... experiment that generated nearly 20 watts of terahertz radiation - a world record. ...

  13. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER ...

  14. Acoustic emission sensor radiation damage threshold experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeson, K.M.; Pepper, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Determination of the threshold for damage to acoustic emission sensors exposed to radiation is important in their application to leak detection in radioactive waste transport and storage. Proper response to system leaks is necessary to ensure the safe operation of these systems. A radiation impaired sensor could provide ``false negative or false positive`` indication of acoustic signals from leaks within the system. Research was carried out in the Radiochemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the beta/gamma radiation damage threshold for acoustic emission sensor systems. The individual system consisted of an acoustic sensor mounted with a two part epoxy onto a stainless steel waveguide. The systems were placed in an irradiation fixture and exposed to a Cobalt-60 source. After each irradiation, the sensors were recalibrated by Physical Acoustics Corporation. The results were compared to the initial calibrations performed prior to irradiation and a control group, not exposed to radiation, was used to validate the results. This experiment determines the radiation damage threshold of each acoustic sensor system and verifies its life expectancy, usefulness and reliability for many applications in radioactive environments.

  15. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  16. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan D Lubin J Verlinde DH ... DOESC-ARM-15-040 ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan D Lubin J ...

  17. Channeling Radiation Experiment at Fermilab ASTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalcea, D.; Edstrom, D. R.; Piot, P.; Rush, W.; Sen, T.

    2015-06-01

    Electron beams with moderate energy ranging from 4 to 50 MeV can be used to produce x-rays through the Channeling Radiation (CR) mechanism. Typically, the xray spectrum from these sources extends up to 140 keV and this range covers the demand for most practical applications. The parameters of the electron beam determine the spectral brilliance of the x-ray source. The electron beam produced at the Fermilab new facility Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) meets the requirements to assemble an experimental high brilliance CR xray source. In the first stage of the experiment the energy of the beam is 20 MeV and due to the very low emittance ($\\approx 100$ nm ) at low bunch charge (20 pC) the expected average brilliance of the x-ray source is about $10^9$ photons/[s- $(mm-mrad)^2$-0.1% BW]. In the second stage of the experiment the beam energy will be increased to 50 MeV and consequently the average brilliance will increase by a factor of five. Also, the x-ray spectrum will extend from about 30 keV to 140 keV

  18. Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgen, Gerald P.; Peterson, William W.

    2009-06-11

    Testing and valuation of the Human Portable Radiation Detection System Communications Package for the US Coast Guard.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - The ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Observations in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment Campaign Data Sets IOP Participant Data Source Description Final Data Tooman WSI Order Data Westwater ftirraob...

  20. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both

  1. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; ... 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; MAN; RADIOBIOLOGY; US DOD; HISTORICAL ASPECTS; ETHICAL ASPECTS; ...

  2. Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  4. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment Science Objective The overarching objective of this field campaign is to make observations of the surface broadband radiative fluxes in combination with other measurements useful in characterizing cloud and aerosol properties. In addition to having large uncertainties, satellite data sets for the Southern Ocean are incomplete because they are not continuous, rarely sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems. This is

  5. Radiation damage in silicon trackers at the Tevatron experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; /Madrid, CIEMAT

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the studies performed on the radiation damage affecting the silicon detectors at the CDF and D0 experiments is presented. These detectors have been exposed to a much larger radiation dose (and operating for a longer time) than originally planned and therefore these studies are fundamental to assess the status and future of the sensors. Results are summarized with special emphasis on the techniques used and their complementarity to achieve a complete picture of the effect of the radiation on the sensors and their performance for physics analysis.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MICRE) govCampaignsMacquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Campaign Links Science Plan Backgrounder Baseline Instruments and Data Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) 2016.03.01 - 2018.03.31 Lead Scientist : Roger Marchand Abstract Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model

  7. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University's Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth's surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project's first two years of experimentation.

  8. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  9. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    82 Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan RT Marchand SP Alexander A Protat December 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents

  10. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else Gwyn Williams Gwyn Williams, JLab's FEL Basic Research Program manager, led a multi-lab experiment that generated nearly 20 watts of terahertz radiation - a world record. Experiment generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else January 27, 2003 An experiment conducted by the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab generates THz radiation 20,000 times brighter than anyone else; breakthrough

  11. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, K.; Chen, H.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Rescia, S.; Hu, X.; Xu, H.; Mead, J.; Lanni, F.; Minelli, M.

    2015-08-17

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detectormore » front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. We discuss mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) for their use in the large hadron collider environment.« less

  12. Evaluation of commercial ADC radiation tolerance for accelerator experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, K.; Chen, H.; Kierstead, J.; Takai, H.; Rescia, S.; Hu, X.; Xu, H.; Mead, J.; Lanni, F.; Minelli, M.

    2015-08-17

    Electronic components used in high energy physics experiments are subjected to a radiation background composed of high energy hadrons, mesons and photons. These particles can induce permanent and transient effects that affect the normal device operation. Ionizing dose and displacement damage can cause chronic damage which disable the device permanently. Transient effects or single event effects are in general recoverable with time intervals that depend on the nature of the failure. The magnitude of these effects is technology dependent with feature size being one of the key parameters. Analog to digital converters are components that are frequently used in detector front end electronics, generally placed as close as possible to the sensing elements to maximize signal fidelity. We report on radiation effects tests conducted on 17 commercially available analog to digital converters and extensive single event effect measurements on specific twelve and fourteen bit ADCs that presented high tolerance to ionizing dose. We discuss mitigation strategies for single event effects (SEE) for their use in the large hadron collider environment.

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Julie Langham Grilly, February 3, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Julie Langham Grilly was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE) being the widow of Dr. Wright Langham, an investigator of principal interest of the committee. Her extensive experience with research at LANL was also of interest to the committee. Following a brief biographical sketch, Ms. Grilly relates her early postwar experience and her knowledge of Wright Langham`s involvement in animal research at Los Alamos, radiolanthanum tests on monkeys, Eniwetok tissue examinations, research on tritium uptake in humans, plutonium injections, tritium injections, EDTA, and etc. In addition to illuminating her former husband as a researcher and as an individual, she also relates her remembrances of Louis Hempelman, Enrico Fermi, Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and many others.

  14. Conversion of short optical pulses to terahertz radiation in a nonlinear medium: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinov'ev, N. N.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.; Dudley, R. A.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2007-12-15

    We report on the frequency and time domain analysis of electromagnetic terahertz radiation generated by nonlinear conversion of short optical pulses crossing boundaries of nonlinear material. Analysis and comparison with experiment have unequivocally established that the nature of collinear radiation at terahertz frequencies relates to the phenomenon of transition radiation produced by the instantaneous creation (at the input interface) and extinction (at the output interface) of the moving polarization charge formed by the nonlinear coupling of the pump electromagnetic fields. The mechanism is analogous to the phenomena of transition radiation of moving free charges, in particular, to the radiation mechanism discussed in the Tamm problem.

  15. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments final report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper ... Subject: 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; 29 ENERGY PLANNING AND POLICY; ...

  16. The effect of low dose ionizing radiation on homeostasis and functional integrity in an organotypic human skin model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Joseph E.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-05-01

    Outside the protection of earth’s atmosphere, astronauts are exposed to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Future NASA plans for deep space missions or a permanent settlement on the moon are limited by the health risks associated with space radiation exposures. There is a paucity of direct epidemiological data for low dose exposures to space radiation-relevant high LET ions. Health risk models are used to estimate the risk for such exposures, though these models are based on high dose experiments. There is increasing evidence, however, that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events at the molecular level, and may involve different response mechanisms. Further, despite their low abundance, high LET particles have been identified as the major contributor to health risk during manned space flight. The human skin is exposed in every external radiation scenario, making it an ideal epithelial tissue model in which to study radiation induced effects. Here, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional (3-D) human organotypic skin tissue model to low doses of high LET oxygen (O), silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) ions. We measured proliferation and differentiation profiles in the skin tissue and examined the integrity of the skin’s barrier function. We discuss the role of secondary particles in changing the proportion of cells receiving a radiation dose, emphasizing the possible impact on radiation-induced health issues in astronauts.

  17. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D., January 16, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    Dr. Cornelius A. Tobias was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). He was chosen for this interview because of his extensive biophysics and medical physics research activities while he was employed by the University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco and at the Donner Laboratory. He discusses his involvement in wartime studies of effects of high altitude on aviators, carbon monoxide with radioactive tracers, blood studies with radioactive iron, human use committees, heavy-ion research with the Bevatron, boron isotope research, classified research involving human subjects, heavy-particle radiography, heavy- particle beams and medical research, and pituitary irradiation studies,.

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    California, Berkeley and his biomedical work at Lawrence Livermore Radiation Laboratory. ... LIPOPROTEINS; RADIOTHERAPY; LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY; LOW DOSE ...

  19. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  20. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, D; Bromwich, DH; Russell, LM; Verlinde, J; Vogelmann, AM

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  1. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  2. Radiative reverse shock laser experiments relevant to accretion processes in cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Sweeney, R.; Grosskopf, M.; Klein, S.; Gillespie, R.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.

    2013-05-15

    We discuss the production of radiative reverse shocks in experiments at the Omega-60 laser facility. The ability of this high-intensity laser to impart large energy densities on micron-thin foils makes it feasible to create supersonic plasma flows. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires a sufficiently fast flow (∼100 km/s) of a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable shocked layers. The reverse shock forms in the flow once it is impeded. This paper presents the first radiographic data of normal incidence, reverse shockwaves. These experiments are primarily motivated by the contribution of radiative reverse shock waves to the evolving dynamics of the cataclysmic variable (CV) system in which they reside. We show similarity properties to suggest that the experimental production of radiative reserve shocks in the laboratory may be scalable to such astrophysical systems.

  3. REVERSE RADIATIVE SHOCK LASER EXPERIMENTS RELEVANT TO ACCRETING STREAM-DISK IMPACT IN INTERACTING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauland, C. M.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Huntington, C. M.; Kaczala, D. N.; Klein, S.; Sweeney, R.; Young, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Villette, B.; Plewa, T. E-mail: rpdrake@umich.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the hydrodynamic and radiative properties of a reverse shock relevant to a cataclysmic variable system. A reverse shock is a shock wave that develops when a freely flowing, supersonic plasma is impeded. In our experiments, performed on the Omega Laser Facility, a laser pulse is used to accelerate plasma ejecta into a vacuum. This flow is directed into an Al plate in front of which a shock forms in the rebounding plasma. The plasma flow is moving fast enough that it is shocked to high enough temperatures that radiative cooling affects the shock structure. These are the first experiments to produce a radiative reverse shock wave.

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. ...

  5. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazan, Jose G.; Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D'Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis; Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J.; Cooper, David E.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  6. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$ and $^{12}C$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  7. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed formore » $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $$\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$$ and $$^{12}C$$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.« less

  8. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of medical physicist Katherine L. Lathrop and physician Paul V. Harper, conducted January 26, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview with Ms. Katherine L. Lathrop and Dr. Paul V. Hopper by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Research. Ms. Lathrop and Dr. Hopper were chosen for this interview because of their long-standing interest and research experience in the development of nuclear medicine. After brief biographical sketches the researchers provide a broad and interesting description of their roles in the initial uses of many radiopharmaceuticals, their experiences in human experimentation, and interactions with many other pioneers in nuclear medicine.

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Effects in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hengel, Shawna; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Waters, Katrina M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2014-07-29

    To assess molecular responses to low doses of radiation that may be encountered during medical diagnostic procedures, nuclear accidents, or terrorist acts, a quantitative global proteomic approach was used to identify protein alterations in a reconstituted human skin tissue treated with 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Subcellular fractionation was employed to remove highly abundant structural proteins and provide insight on radiation induced alterations in protein abundance and localization. In addition, peptides were post-fractionated using high resolution 2-dimensional liquid chromatography to increase the dynamic range of detection of protein abundance and translocation changes. Quantitative data was obtained by labeling peptides with 8-plex isobaric iTRAQ tags. A total of 207 proteins were detected with statistically significant alterations in abundance and/or subcellular localization compared to sham irradiated tissues. Bioinformatics analysis of the data indicated that the top canonical pathways affected by low dose radiation are related to cellular metabolism. Among the proteins showing alterations in abundance, localization and proteolytic processing was the skin barrier protein filaggrin which is consistent with our previous observation that ionizing radiation alters profilaggrin processing with potential effects on skin barrier functions. In addition, a large number of proteases and protease regulators were affected by low dose radiation exposure indicating that altered proteolytic activity may be a hallmark of low dose radiation exposure. While several studies have demonstrated altered transcriptional regulation occurs following low dose radiation exposures, the data presented here indicates post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundance, localization, and proteolytic processing play an important role in regulating radiation responses in complex human tissues.

  10. Electroweak Radiative Corrections to the Parity-violating Asymmetry for SLAC Experiment E158

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zykunov, Vladimir A.; /Gomel State Tech. U.

    2012-04-04

    Electroweak radiative corrections to observable quantities of Moeller scattering of polarized particles are calculated. We emphasize the contribution induced by infrared divergent parts of cross section. The covariant method is used to remove infrared divergences, so that our results do not involve any unphysical parameters. When applied to the kinematics of SLAC E158 experiment, these corrections reduce the parity violating asymmetry by about -6.5% at E = 48 GeV and y = 0.5, and kinematically weighted 'hard' bremsstrahlung effect for SLAC E158 is {approx} 1%.

  11. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  12. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  13. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Review of Department of Energy research on human health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy research program on the human health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation consists of 16 projects conducted under the sponsorship of the Human Health and Assessments Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. Each of these projects was reviewed by the Committee with the project's principal investigators and associated scientific personnel and with the DOE staff and the associate directors of the national laboratories where appropriate. The principal objectives of this research program include the determination of the risks from exposure to external radiation and from internally deposited radionuclides and the use of this information in the development of standards to protect the health of nuclear workers at DOE and related facilities and of the population at large. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  16. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, Jr., C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.; Fisher, J. H.; Seiler, S. W.; Hinshelwood, D.; Compton, S.; Holdener, F. R.; Kemp, G. E.; Newlander, C. D.; et al

    2016-08-10

    Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the NIF’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight.more » We discuss the measured accuracy of sample responses, as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette.« less

  17. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiologist Hymer L. Friedell, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.; Melamed, E.

    1995-07-01

    NThis report is a transcript of an interview with Hymer L. Friedell by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Friedell was selected for this interview because of his participation in the early stages of the medical use of radioisotopes, his important role in the Manhattan Engineer District Medical Division, and his distinguished medical career and his involvement in the distribution of isotopes and the approval for their use in humans. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Friedell discusses his remembrances on a wide range of subjects. Topics discussed include pre-war radiation therapy, information provided to patients, the Army Medical Corps and the Manhattan Project, his work at the Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, inspection visits of Manhattan Project facilities and proposed sites, Plutonium injection studies, and actions of the AEC Isotope Distribution Committee.

  18. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  19. CMOS Imaging Detectors as X-ray Detectors for Synchrotron Radiation Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro; Inoue, Katsuaki

    2004-05-12

    CMOS imagers are matrix-addressed photodiode arrays, which have been utilized in devices such as commercially available digital cameras. The pixel size of CMOS imagers is usually larger than that of CCD and smaller than that of TFT, giving them a unique position. Although CMOS x-ray imaging devices have already become commercially available, they have not been used as an x-ray area detector in synchrotron radiation experiments. We tested performance of a CMOS detector from Rad-icon (Shad-o-Box1024) in medical imaging, small-angle scattering, and protein crystallography experiments. It has pixels of 0.048 mm square, read-out time of 0.45 sec, 12-bit ADC, and requires a frame grabber for image acquisition. The detection area is 5-cm square. It uses a Kodak Min-R scintillator screen as a phosphor. The sensitivity to x-rays with an energy less than 15 keV was low because of the thick window materials. Since the readout noise is high, the dynamic range is limited to 2000. The biggest advantages of this detector are cost-effectiveness (about 10,000 US dollars) and compactness (thickness < 3 cm, weight < 2 kg)

  20. Network-Centric Maritime Radiation Awareness and Interdiction Experiments: C2 Experimentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordetsky, A; Dougan, A D; Nekoogar, F

    2006-08-07

    The paper addresses technological and operational challenges of developing a global plug-and-play Maritime Domain Security testbed for the Global War on Terrorism mission. This joint NPS-LLNL project is based on the NPS Tactical Network Topology (TNT) composed of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to air, surface, ground, and underwater unmanned vehicles. This long-haul network is combined with ultra-wideband (UWB) communications systems for wireless communications in harsh radio propagation channels. LLNL's UWB communication prototypes are designed to overcome shortcomings of the present narrowband communications systems in heavy metallic and constricted corridors inside ships. In the center of our discussion are networking solutions for the Maritime Interdiction Operation (MIO) Experiments in which geographically distributed command centers and subject matter experts collaborate with the Boarding Party in real time to facilitate situational understanding and course of action selection. The most recent experiment conducted via the testbed extension to the Alameda Island exercised several key technologies aimed at improving MIO. These technologies included UWB communications from within the ship to Boarding Party leader sending data files and pictures, advanced radiation detection equipment for search and identification, biometric equipment to record and send fingerprint files to facilitate rapid positive identification of crew members, and the latest updates of the NPS Tactical Network Topology facilitating reachback to LLNL, Biometric Fusion Center, USCG, and DTRA experts.

  1. Experimental demonstration of early time, hohlraum radiation symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E. L.; Milovich, J.; Thomas, C.; Sorce, C.; Glenn, S.; Landen, O. L.; Kline, J.

    2011-09-15

    Early time radiation symmetry at the capsule for indirect drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] will be inferred from the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern of a high-Z sphere replacing the ignition capsule. This technique was tested on the OMEGA laser facility [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, T. Boehly et al., Laser Part. Beams 11, 317 (1991)] in near full ignition scale vacuum hohlraums using an equivalent experimental setup to the one planned for NIF. Two laser cones entering each laser entrance hole heat the hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 100 eV, mimicking the NIF ignition pulse foot drive. The experiments have demonstrated accuracies of {+-}1.5% ({+-}2%) in inferred P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} (P{sub 4}/P{sub 0}) Legendre mode incident flux asymmetry and consistency between 900 eV and 1200 eV re-emission patterns. We have also demonstrated the expected tuning capability of P{sub 2}/P{sub 0}, from positive (pole hot) to negative (waist hot), decreasing linearly with the inner/outer beams power fraction. P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} on the other hand shows very little variation with power fraction. We developed a simple analytical viewfactor model that is in good agreement with both measured P{sub 2}/P{sub 0} and P{sub 4}/P{sub 0} and their dependence on inner beam power fraction.

  2. Beta Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beta Radiation 1. Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating. 2. Beta radiation can penetrate human skin to the "germinal layer," where new skin cells ...

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

  4. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  5. Preliminary analysis of ground-based microwave and infrared radiance observations during the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, E.R.; Han, Y.; Churnside, J.H.; Snider, J.B.

    1995-04-01

    During Phase Two of the Pilot Radiation OBservation Experiment (PROBE) held in Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) operated both microwave and infrared radiometers. Phase Two lasted from January 6 to February 28, 1993. The dramatic differences in the water vapor environment between the tropics and mid-latitudes were illustrated by Westwater et al. (1994) who presented PROBE data as well as additional data that were taken during the 1991 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) 11 experiment in Coffeyville, Kansas. We present an analysis of microwave data and a preliminary analysis of infrared data obtained during PROBE.

  6. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  7. Human Factors Engineering (HFE) insights for advanced reactors based upon operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, J.; Nasta, K.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (HFE PRM, NUREG-0711) was developed to support a design process review for advanced reactor design certification under 10CFR52. The HFE PRM defines ten fundamental elements of a human factors engineering program. An Operating Experience Review (OER) is one of these elements. The main purpose of an OER is to identify potential safety issues from operating plant experience and ensure that they are addressed in a new design. Broad-based experience reviews have typically been performed in the past by reactor designers. For the HFE PRM the intent is to have a more focussed OER that concentrates on HFE issues or experience that would be relevant to the human-system interface (HSI) design process for new advanced reactors. This document provides a detailed list of HFE-relevant operating experience pertinent to the HSI design process for advanced nuclear power plants. This document is intended to be used by NRC reviewers as part of the HFE PRM review process in determining the completeness of an OER performed by an applicant for advanced reactor design certification. 49 refs.

  8. Electroweak radiative corrections for polarized Møller scattering at the future 11 GeV JLab experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aleksejevs, Aleksandrs; Barkanova, Svetlana; Ilyichev, Alexander; Zykunov, Vladimir

    2010-11-01

    We perform updated and detailed calculations of the complete NLO set of electroweak radiative corrections to parity violating e- e- --> e- e- (gamma) scattering asymmetries at energies relevant for the ultra-precise Moller experiment coming soon at JLab. Our numerical results are presented for a range of experimental cuts and relative importance of various contributions is analyzed. We also provide very compact expressions analytically free from non-physical parameters and show them to be valid for fast yet accurate estimations.

  9. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  10. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  11. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R.

    1996-04-01

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  12. Improved radiative corrections to (e,e{sup '}p) experiments: Explicit treatment of kinematical corrections in multiphoton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissbach, Florian; Hencken, Kai; Kiselev, Daniela; Trautmann, Dirk

    2009-08-15

    Radiative processes lead to important corrections to (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. While radiative corrections can be calculated exactly in QED and to a good accuracy also including hadronic corrections, these corrections cannot be included into data analyses to arbitrary orders exactly. Nevertheless consideration of multiphoton bremsstrahlung above the low-energy cutoff is important for many (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. To date, higher-order bremsstrahlung effects concerning electron scattering experiments have been implemented approximately by employing the soft-photon approximation (SPA). In this paper we propose a novel approach to multiphoton emission which partially removes the SPA from (e,e{sup '}p) experiments. In this combined approach one hard photon is treated exactly; and additional (softer) bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account resorting to the soft-photon approximation. This partial removal of the soft-photon approximation is shown to be relevant for the missing-energy distribution for several kinematic settings at MAMI and TJNAF energies.

  13. The inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on Fc and C3 receptors on mouse and human leukocytes, and the protective potential of human albumin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera, M.A.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Gutierrez, M.; Gamminio, E.; Liera, C.; Nieto, P.; Weiss-Steider, B. )

    1990-08-01

    The effect that ionizing radiation has in vitro on Fc and C3 receptors was evaluated at various doses and measured by means of erythrocytes coated with antibody (EA) and erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement (EAC) rosettes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and on mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) and PBL. We found that the number of cells with either EA and EAC rosettes decreased as the radiation doses increased, and that they were almost absent when the highest doses were employed. We obtained evidence that albumin is a natural source of radio-protection for Fc and C3 receptors, and we showed that by increasing the amount of this molecule we could completely protect receptors for EA and EAC in vitro. Finally, the possible therapeutic value of the administration of human albumin to patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  15. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; et al

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment tomore » the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.« less

  17. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 μm/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  18. The shock/shear platform for planar radiation-hydrodynamics experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Perry, T. S.; DeVolder, B. G.; Tregillis, I.; Loomis, E. N.; Merritt, E. C.; Murphy, T. J.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

    2015-04-17

    An indirectly-driven shock tube experiment fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was used to create a high-energy-density hydrodynamics platform at unprecedented scale. Scaling up a shear-induced mixing experiment previously fielded at OMEGA, the NIF shear platform drives 130 ?m/ns shocks into a CH foam-filled shock tube (~ 60 mg/cc) with interior dimensions of 1.5 mm diameter and 5 mm length. The pulse-shaping capabilities of the NIF are used to extend the drive for >10 ns, and the large interior tube volumes are used to isolate physics-altering edge effects from the region of interest. The scaling of the experiment to the NIF allows for considerable improvement in maximum driving time of hydrodynamics, in fidelity of physics under examination, and in diagnostic clarity. Details of the experimental platform and post-shot simulations used in the analysis of the platform-qualifying data are presented. Hydrodynamic scaling is used to compare shear data from OMEGA with that from NIF, suggesting a possible change in the dimensionality of the instability at late times from one platform to the other.

  19. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  20. How to Detect Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How to Detect Radiation How to Survey Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Detection How to Detect Radiation Radiation cannot be detected by human senses. A variety of instruments are available for detecting and measuring radiation. Examples of radiation survey meters: photos of survey meters alphacounter1.JPG (28857 bytes) This probe is used for the detection of alpha radiation. The most common type of

  1. Human factors in telemanipulation: Perspectives from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel at the Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have extensive experience designing, building, and operating teleoperators for a variety of settings, including space, battlefields, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and hazardous waste retrieval. In the course of the last decade and a half, the RPSD designed, built, and operated 4 telemanipulators (M-2, ASM, LTM, CESAR arm) and operated another half dozen (M-8, Model 50, TOS SM-229, RM-10, PaR 5000, BilArm 83A). During this period, human factors professionals have been closely integrated with RPSD design teams, investigating telemanipulator feedback and feed forward, designing cockpits and control rooms, training users and designers, and helping to develop performance specifications for telemanipulators. This paper presents a brief review of this and other work, with an aim towards providing perspectives on some of the human factors aspects of telemanipulation. The first section of the paper examines user tasks during supervisory control and discusses how telemanipulator responsiveness determines the appropriate control metaphor for continuous manual control. The second section provides an ecological perspective on telemanipulator feedback and feed-forward. The third section briefly describes the RPSD control room design approach and how design projects often serve as systems integrators.

  2. Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of radiologist Earl R. Miller, M.D., August 9 and 17, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Dr. Earl R. Miller was interviewed by representatives of US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research (OHRE). The interview covers Dr. Miller`s involvement with the Manhattan Engineer District, with total body irradiation, and heavy-ion therapy. Dr. Miller`s remembrances include wartime work on radiation exposure, Joe Hamilton, Neutron Therapy research, means of obtaining isotopes, consent forms, infinite laminograms, invention of a baby holder to alleviate exposure of radiological technicians in diagnostic procedures involving infants, and several personages.

  4. Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MiniBooNE Experiment September, 2002 SeptemMyungkee Sung (LSU/MiniBooNE) 4th International Workshop on the Identification of Dark Matter Cosmologically Interesting Region; Hot Dark Matter? LSND Signal at High ∆m 2 KARMEN II narrowed the signal region MiniBooNE will fully address this signal. Neutrino Osillation at High ∆m 2 LSND: Searching for ν µ →ν e ν µ - From µ + decay at rest with endpoint energy 53 MeV L = 30m, L/E ~ 1m/MeV, 167 tons of Mineral Oil Look for ν e Appearance: ν

  5. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  6. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Neil B.; Stein, Nicholas F.; LaQuaglia, Michael P.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M.; Goodman, Karyn; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves

  7. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    Radioecology in the United States can be traced back to the early 1950s when small research programs were established to address the fate and effects of radionuclides released in the environment from activities at nuclear facilities. These programs focused primarily on local environmental effects, but global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing and the potential for larger scale local releases of radioisotopes resulted in major concerns about the threat, not only to humans, but to other species and to ecosystems that support all life. These concerns were shared by other countries and it was quickly recognized that a multi-disciplinary approach would be required to address and understand the implications of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment. The management, clean-up and long-term monitoring of legacy wastes at Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-regulated facilities continues to be of concern as long as nuclear operations continue. Research conducted through radioecology programs provides the credible scientific data needed for decision-making purposes. The current status of radioecology programs in the United States are: fragmented with little coordination to identify national strategies and direct programs; suffering from a steadily decreasing funding base; soon to be hampered by closure of key infrastructure; hampered by aging and retiring workforce (loss of technical expertise); and in need of training of young scientists to ensure continuation of the science (no formal graduate education program in radioecology remaining in the U.S.). With these concerns in mind, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) took the lead to establish the National Center for Radioecology (NCoRE) as a network of excellence of the remaining radioecology expertise in the United States. As part of the NCoRE mission, scientists at SRNL are working with six key partner universities to re-establish a

  8. A radiation hybrid map of the distal short arm of human chromosome II, containing the Beckwith-Weidemann and associated embroyonal tumor disease loci

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, C.W. III; Berg, D.J.; Meeker, T.C.; Myers, R.M.; Cox, D.R. ); Boehnke, M.; Hauser, E. ); Lichy, J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    The authors describe a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) map of the distal short arm of human chromosome 11 containing the Beckwith-Weidemann gene and the associated embryonal tumor disease loci. Thirteen human 11p15 genes and 17 new anonymous probes were mapped by a statistical analysis of the cosegregation of markers in 102 rodent-human radiation hybrids retaining fragments of human chromosome 11. The 17 anonymous probes were generated from lambda phage containing human 11p15.5 inserts, by using ALU-PCR. A comprehensive map of all 30 loci and a framework map of nine clusters of loci ordered at odds of 1,000:1 were constructed by a multipoint maximum-likelihood approach by using the computer program RHMAP. This RH map localizes one new gene to chromosome 11p15 (WEE1), provides more precise order information for several 11p15 genes (CTSD, H19, HPX,.ST5, RNH, and SMPD1), confirms previous map orders for other 11p15 genes (CALCA, PTH, HBBC, TH, HRAS, and DRD4), and maps 17 new anonymous probes within the 11p15.5 region. This RH map should prove useful in better defining the positions of the Beckwith-Weidemann and associated embryonal tumor disease-gene loci. 41 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Effects of Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of the Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Gene in Experimental Radiation-Induced Heart Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Shunying; Chen Yundai; Li Libing; Chen Jinlong; Wu Bin; Zhou, Xiao; Zhi Guang; Li Qingfang; Wang Rongliang; Duan Haifeng; Guo Zikuan; Yang Yuefeng; Xiao Fengjun; Wang Hua; Wang Lisheng

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: Irradiation to the heart may lead to late cardiovascular complications. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adenovirus-mediated delivery of the human hepatocyte growth factor gene could reduce post-irradiation damage of the rat heart and improve heart function. Methods and Materials: Twenty rats received single-dose irradiation of 20 Gy gamma ray locally to the heart and were randomized into two groups. Two weeks after irradiation, these two groups of rats received Ad-HGF or mock adenovirus vector intramyocardial injection, respectively. Another 10 rats served as sham-irradiated controls. At post-irradiation Day 120, myocardial perfusion was tested by myocardial contrast echocardiography with contrast agent injected intravenously. At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was assessed using the Langendorff technique with an isolated working heart model, after which heart samples were collected for histological evaluation. Results: Myocardial blood flow was significantly improved in HGF-treated animals as measured by myocardial contrast echocardiography at post-irradiation Day 120 . At post-irradiation Day 180, cardiac function was significantly improved in the HGF group compared with mock vector group, as measured by left ventricular peak systolic pressure (58.80 +- 9.01 vs. 41.94 +- 6.65 mm Hg, p < 0.05), the maximum dP/dt (5634 +- 1303 vs. 1667 +- 304 mm Hg/s, p < 0.01), and the minimum dP/dt (3477 +- 1084 vs. 1566 +- 499 mm Hg/s, p < 0.05). Picrosirius red staining analysis also revealed a significant reduction of fibrosis in the HGF group. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer can attenuate radiation-induced cardiac injury and can preserve cardiac function.

  10. (Basic radiation protection criteria). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ney, W.R.

    1982-12-03

    Progress in the following areas directly related to nuclear waste management is summarized: (1) a radiation protection system based on risk per rad of dose; (2) assessment of the accumulation and biological significance of industrial waste discharges and estimation of concentrations present in the environment; (3) assessment of exposure resulting from nuclear power; (4) internal emitter standards; (5) human radiation exposure experience; (6) the identification of national needs related to the estimation of exposure of the public from ionizing radiation; and (7) acceptable risk for management of radioactive waste. (ACR)

  11. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  12. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  13. Radiation chemical effects in experiments to study the reaction of glass in an environment of gamma-irradiated air, groundwater, and tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1986-05-02

    The results of experiments performed by John K. Bates et al. on the reaction of nuclear waste glass with a gamma-irradiated 90{sup 0}C aqueous solution were analyzed using theory developed from past research in radiation chemistry. The aqueous solution they used is similar to what would be expected in a water-saturated environment in a nuclear waste repository in tuff. The purpose of our study was to develop an understanding of the radiation-chemical processes that occurred in the Bates et al. experiments so the results could be applied to the design and performance analysis of a proposed repository in unsaturated tuff in Nevada. For the Bates et al. experiments at the highest dose (269 Mrad), which originally contained about 16 ml of "equilibrated" water taken from Nevada Test Site Well J-13 and 5.4 ml of air, we predicted that water decomposition to H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} would produce a pressure increase of at least 1.0 MPa at 20{sup 0}C. We also predicted that nitrogen fixation from the air would occur, producing an increase of 1.6 x 10{sup -4} M in total fixed nitrogen concentration in solution. In addition, an equimolar production of H{sup +} would occur, which would be buffered by the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} in the water. The fixed nitrogen in solution was predicted to be present as NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} with the ratio influenced by the presence of materials catalytic to the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. We found reasonable agreement between our predictions and the observations of Bates et al., where comparisons were possible. We apply the results to the proposed Nevada repository to the degree possible, given the different expected conditions.

  14. Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

    2013-05-14

    Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) took place at Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX). The objective of this field campaign was to obtain data about liquid and mixed-phase clouds using AMF2 instruments in conjunction with Storm Peak Laboratory (located at an elevation of 3220 meters on Mt. Werner), a cloud and aerosol research facility operated by the Desert Research Institute. STORMVEX datasets are freely available for viewing and download. Users are asked to register with the ARM Archive; the user's email address is used from that time forward as the login name.

  16. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  17. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  18. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  19. The Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Meningeal HemangiopericytomaExperience From the SEER Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stessin, Alexander M.; Sison, Cristina; Nieto, Jaime; Raifu, Muri; Li, Baoqing

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) on cause-specific survival in patients with meningeal hemangiopericytomas. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1990-2008 was queried for cases of surgically resected central nervous system hemangiopericytoma. Patient demographics, tumor location, and extent of resection were included in the analysis as covariates. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to analyze cause-specific survival. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors were associated with cause-specific survival. Results: The mean follow-up time is 7.9 years (95 months). There were 76 patients included in the analysis, of these, 38 (50%) underwent gross total resection (GTR), whereas the other half underwent subtotal resection (STR). Postoperative RT was administered to 42% (16/38) of the patients in the GTR group and 50% (19/38) in the STR group. The 1-year, 10-year, and 20-year cause-specific survival rates were 99%, 75%, and 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, postoperative RT was associated with significantly better survival (HR = 0.269, 95% CI 0.084-0.862; P=.027), in particular for patients who underwent STR (HR = 0.088, 95% CI: 0.015-0.528; P<.008). Conclusions: In the absence of large prospective trials, the current clinical decision-making of hemangiopericytoma is mostly based on retrospective data. We recommend that postoperative RT be considered after subtotal resection for patients who could tolerate it. Based on the current literature, the practical approach is to deliver limited field RT to doses of 50-60 Gy while respecting the normal tissue tolerance. Further investigations are clearly needed to determine the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  20. The Impact of New Technologies on Radiation Oncology Events and Trends in the Past Decade: An Institutional Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Margie A.; Pastrana, Gerri; Amols, Howard I.; Killen, Aileen; Alektiar, Kaled

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To review the type and frequency of patient events from external-beam radiotherapy over a time period sufficiently long to encompass significant technology changes. Methods and Materials: Ten years of quality assurance records from January 2001 through December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the frequency of events affecting patient treatment from four radiation oncology process steps: simulation, treatment planning, data entry/transfer, and treatment delivery. Patient events were obtained from manual records and, from May 2007 onward, from an institution-wide database and reporting system. Events were classified according to process step of origination and segregated according to the most frequently observed event types. Events from the institution-wide database were evaluated to determine time trends. Results: The overall event rate was 0.93% per course of treatment, with a downward trend over time led by a decrease in treatment delivery events. The frequency of certain event types, particularly in planning and treatment delivery, changed significantly over the course of the study, reflecting technologic and process changes. Treatments involving some form of manual intervention carried an event risk four times higher than those relying heavily on computer-aided design and delivery. Conclusions: Although the overall event rate was low, areas for improvement were identified, including manual calculations and data entry, late-day treatments, and staff overreliance on computer systems. Reducing the incidence of pretreatment events is of particular importance because these were more likely to occur several times before detection and were associated with larger dosimetric impact. Further improvements in quality assurance systems and reporting are imperative, given the advent of electronic charting, increasing reliance on computer systems, and the potentially severe consequences that can arise from mistakes involving complex intensity

  1. Pregnancy and Parenthood in Radiation Oncology, Views and Experiences Survey (PROVES): Results of a Blinded Prospective Trainee Parenting and Career Development Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Stentz, Natalie Clark; Woodward, Wendy A.; Fuller, Clifton D.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Medical training spans nearly a decade, during which many physicians traditionally begin families. Although childrearing responsibilities are shared by men and women in the modern era, differences in time allocated to child care by sex and its potential impact on residency experience merit discussion. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, voluntary, 102-item survey was distributed to 540 current radiation oncology residents and 2014 graduates that asked about marital and parental status, pregnancy during residency, publication productivity, career aspirations, and experiences working with pregnant co-residents. Respondents with children were asked about childcare arrangements, and women who were pregnant during residency were asked about radiation safety, maternity leave, and breastfeeding experiences. Results: A total of 190 respondents completed the survey, 107 men (56.3%) and 84 women (43.7%). Ninety-seven respondents (51.1%) were parents, and 84 (44.2%) reported a pregnancy during residency. Respondents with children more often were male (65% vs 47.3%; P=.014), in a higher level of training (79.3% vs 54.8% were PGY4 or higher; P=.001), were older (median age of 32, interquartile range [IQR]:31-35] vs age 30 [IQR: 29-33]; P<.001), had a PhD (33% vs 19.3%, respectively; P=.033), were married (99% vs 43%, respectively; P<.001), and had a partner who did not work (24.7% vs 1.9%, respectively; <.001). There were no differences in the number of manuscripts published or the number of residents who expressed likelihood of pursing an academic career by parental status. Among parents, men more frequently had partners who did not work (38.1% vs 0%, respectively; P<.001) and reported that their partner performed a greater percentage of childcare duties (70% [IQR: 60%-80%] vs 35% [IQR: 20%-50%], respectively; P<.001). Conclusions: Pregnancy and parenthood are common during residency. Female residents are frequently responsible for more childcare duties than males

  2. Radiative widths of resonances (experiments)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-07-01

    After a hiatus of several years, this conference brings us considerable new data on resonance production in photon photon interactions. I will first discuss the contributions concerning the tensor, pseudoscalar and scalar mesons, then review the current status of the (c/ovr string/c /eta//sub c/) and finally summarize the exciting new results concerning the spin 1 mesons. 40 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Support - Facilities - Radiation Effects Facility / Cyclotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    During experiments at the Radiation Effects Facility users are assisted by the experienced ... shops are available to the users of the Radiation Effects Facility for design, ...

  4. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator and Experimental Schedule Beam Time Request Form Experiment Scheduling and General Information Radiation Budget Form (pdf) Interactive beam request form (for contact...

  5. Radiation Effects In Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2011-06-01

    Protecting space missions from severe exposures from radiation, in general, and long duration/deep space human missions, in particular, is a critical design driver, and could be a limiting factor. The space radiation environment consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar particle events (SPE), trapped radiation, and includes ions of all the known elements over a very broad energy range. These ions penetrate spacecraft materials producing nuclear fragments and secondary particles that damage biological tissues and microelectronic devices. One is required to know how every element (and all isotopes of each element) in the periodic table interacts and fragments on every other element in the same table as a function of kinetic energy ranging over many decades. In addition, the accuracy of the input information and database, in general and nuclear data in particular, impacts radiation exposure health assessments and payload penalty. After a brief review of effects of space radiation on materials and electronics, human space missions to Mars is discussed.

  6. A high-resolution whole genome radiation hybrid map of human chromosome 17q22-q25.3 across the genes for GH and TK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, J.W.; Schafer, A.J.; Critcher, R.

    1996-04-15

    We have constructed a whole genome radiation hybrid (WG-RH) map across a region of human chromosome 17q, from growth hormone (GH) to thymidine kinase (TK). A panel of 128 WG-RH hybrid cell lines generated by X-irradiation and fusion has been tested for the retention of 39 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers by the polymerase chain reaction. This genome mapping technique has allowed the integration of existing VNTR and microsatellite markers with additional new markers and existing STS markers previously mapped to this region by other means. The WG-RH map includes eight expressed sequence tag (EST) and three anonymous markers developed for this study, together with 23 anonymous microsatellites and five existing ESTs. Analysis of these data resulted in a high-density comprehensive map across this region of the genome. A subset of these markers has been used to produce a framework map consisting of 20 loci ordered with odds greater than 1000:1. The markers are of sufficient density to build a YAC contig across this region based on marker content. We have developed sequence tags for both ends of a 2.1-Mb YAC and mapped these using the WG-RH panel, allowing a direct comparison of cRay{sub 6000} to physical distance. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  8. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models: Comparison of Clear-Sky Calculations with Observations from the Spectral Radiation Experiment and the ...

  10. Five-year Results of Whole Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer: The Fox Chase Cancer Center Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Lanea M.M.; Sopka, Dennis M.; Li Tianyu; Klayton, Tracy; Li Jinsheng; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Freedman, Gary M.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year outcomes using whole-breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of early-stage-breast cancer at the Fox Chase Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: A total of 946 women with early-stage breast cancer (stage 0, I, or II) were treated with IMRT after surgery with or without systemic therapy from 2003-2010. Whole-breast radiation was delivered via an IMRT technique with a median whole-breast radiation dose of 46 Gy and median tumor bed boost of 14 Gy. Endpoints included local-regional recurrence, cosmesis, and late complications. Results: With a median follow-up of 31 months (range, 1-97 months), there were 12 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and one locoregional recurrence. The 5-year actuarial IBTR and locoregional recurrence rates were 2.0% and 2.4%. Physician-reported cosmestic outcomes were available for 645 patients: 63% were considered 'excellent', 33% 'good', and <1.5% 'fair/poor'. For physician-reported cosmesis, boost doses {>=}16 Gy, breast size >900 cc, or boost volumes >34 cc were significantly associated with a 'fair/poor' cosmetic outcome. Fibrosis, edema, erythema, and telangectasia were also associated with 'fair/poor' physician-reported cosmesis; erythema and telangectasia remained significant on multivariate analysis. Patient-reported cosmesis was available for 548 patients, and 33%, 50%, and 17% of patients reported 'excellent', 'good', and 'fair/poor' cosmesis, respectively. The use of a boost and increased boost volume: breast volume ratio were significantly associated with 'fair/poor' outcomes. No parameter for patient-reported cosmesis was significant on multivariate analysis. The chances of experiencing a treatment related effect was significantly associated with a boost dose {>=}16 Gy, receipt of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, large breast size, and electron boost energy. Conclusions: Whole-breast IMRT is associated with very low rates of local recurrence at 5 years, 83

  11. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or

  12. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  13. The Impact of Abrupt Suspension of Solar Radiation Management (Termination Effect) in Experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Andrew; Haywood, J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Kristjansson, Jon E.; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Robock, Alan; Schmidt, Hauke; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-09-11

    We have examined changes in climate which result from the sudden termination of geoengineering after 50 years of offsetting a 1% per annum increase in CO2 concentra- tions as simulated by 11 different climate models in experiment G2 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. The models agree on a rapid rate of global-mean warming following termination, accompanied by increases in global-mean precipitation rate and in plant net primary productivity, and decreases in sea-ice cover. While there is a considerable degree of consensus for the geographical distribution of warming, there is much less of an agreement regarding the patterns of change in the other quantities.

  14. Multi-Institutional Experience of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Black vs White Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Carl; Bai, Harrison; Neboori, Hanmanth; Takita, Cristiane; Motwani, Sabin; Wright, Jean L.; Hobeika, Georges; Haffty, Bruce G.; Jones, Tiffanie; Goyal, Sharad; Moran, Meena S.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Given the paucity of data on racial disparities in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the data from a multi-institutional cohort of DCIS patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast radiation therapy (RT) were analyzed to determine whether racial disparities or differences exist. Methods and Materials: A total of 533 white and 76 black DCIS patients from 3 university-based cancer centers were uniformly treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT. All patient data were collected and analyzed as a function of race. Results: The median follow-up was 5.2 years. No significant racial differences were seen in tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, necrosis, or grade (all P>.05). Of the treatment parameters, the RT dose delivered, boost, positive margin rates, frequency of hormone receptor status assessment, and receipt of hormonal therapy for the 2 cohorts did not significantly differ (all P>.05). The local relapse-free survival was similar at 5 years (96.1% and 98.1%, P=.399) and 10 years (92.8% vs 95.8%, P=.360), with no significant overall survival difference at 10 years (94.0% vs 88.9%, P=.290) between the white and black patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, race was not an independent predictor of local relapse-free survival or overall survival when accounting for age, grade, and margin status. Conclusion: In our large cohort of DCIS patients uniformly treated at 3 institutions with breast conservation without any apparent differences in treatment delivery parameters, we demonstrated that the clinical and pathologic features and local survival outcomes did not differ as a function of race. Our results suggest that when black patients with DCIS are appropriately selected for breast conservation and receive adjuvant RT without racial disparities in the treatment parameters, differences in the outcomes as a function of race do not exist.

  15. Symptomatic Outcomes in Relation to Tumor Expansion After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Single-Institutional Long-Term Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata ; Onodera, Shunsuke; Takeichi, Norihito; Onimaru, Rikiya; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: The effect of transient tumor expansion after conventionally fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) on the symptomatic outcomes is not well-known. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 201 consecutive patients who received SRT for vestibular schwannoma. A conventional fractionation schedule was applied in 194 patients (97%), and 142 (71%) received a total dose of 50 Gy. The median follow-up time was 72 months. Results: The maximum diameter was 9 mm or less in 13 patients, 10-19 mm in 79 patients, 20-29 mm in 87 patients, and 30 mm or greater in 22 patients. At presentation, tumor size of 20 mm or greater was significantly associated with loss of serviceable hearing and trigeminal neuropathy. After SRT, tumor expansion was observed in 42 patients (21%). By tumor size, tumor expansion was observed in 0%, 11.4%, 25.6%, and 50% of patients with tumors of 9 mm or less, 10-19 mm, 20-29 mm, and 30 mm or greater, respectively, in diameter. The tumor expansion was significantly associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement (P=.004), loss of serviceable hearing (P=.0064), and worsening of facial (P<.0001) and trigeminal nerve (P<.0001) functions. Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was observed in 29 of those 42 patients, mostly within 2 years after the expansion, and the majority of the worsened symptoms except for hearing resolved once the tumor had shrunk. As a result, salvage surgical resection for symptomatic relief was required in only 5% of patients. Conclusions: Fractionated SRT could be safely applied even for medium- to large-sized ({>=}20 mm) tumors. However, greater knowledge of the risks and consequences, including transient symptomatic worsening, and the time span of expansion will be required for the follow-up of patients after SRT to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  16. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  17. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Home MSDS Search MSDS Help Safety Training and Tests Contact Links LSU Campus Safety Glossary Radiation Safety Manual Radiation Safety Test NOTE: All Training and Testing Material is for LSU CAMD Users ONLY! **Please allow two weeks for your badge to be processed.** Regulations and Hierarchy The CAMD Safety Officer reports to two separate individuals regarding safety. These are the Radiation Safety Officer for the University, and the Campus Safety Officer in all other matters. Thus safety

  18. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these. 2. Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. It readily penetrates most materials and is sometimes called "penetrating radiation." 3. X-rays are like gamma rays.

  19. Risk of Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation to Humans Symposium at the EMS 2009 Annual Meeting - September 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; von Borstel, Robert C.; Brenner, David; Redpath, J. Leslie; Erickson, Barbra E.; Brooks, Antone L.

    2009-11-12

    The low dose symposium thoughtfully addressed controversy of risk from low dose radiation exposure, hormesis and radon therapy. The stem cell symposium cogently considered the role of DNA damage and repair in hematopoietic stem cells underlying aging and malignancy and provocatively presented evidence that stem cells may have distinct morphologies and replicative properties, as well as special roles in cancer initiation. In the epigenetics symposium, studies illustrated the long range interaction of epigenetic mechanisms, the roles of CTCF and BORIS in region/specific regulation of epigenetic processes, the impact of DNA damage on epigenetic processes as well as links between epigenetic mechanisms and early nutrition and bystander effects.

  20. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  1. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  2. Definition of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of ...

  3. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  4. Radiation dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  5. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  6. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations inmore » steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, soft and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  7. Induction of stable p53 oncoprotein and of c-myc overexpression in cultured normal human uroepithelium by radiation and N-nitrosodiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B. ); Harney, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Uroepithelium cultured from normal patients without cancer (60 individuals) was found to segregate into four subtypes based on the level of carcinogen treatment needed to induce abnormal p53 and c-myc. Twenty-two percent of patient cultures never showed abnormal p53 expression, even after chronic exposure to nitrosamines, while a further 26% required only a single dose of radiation to induce the abnormal protein. The remaining patients had tissues which, while initially negative for stable p53, became positive when put into culture and stimulated to grow. The c-myc protein was overexpressed in all cultures with abnormal p53. It would appear that elevated expression of conformationally inactive p53 and of high levels of c-myc represents an early response of normal uroepithelial cells to carcinogen challenge. It also appears that a relatively high number of patients without cancer express these proteins when their cells are challenged to grow; a pre-exposure to environmental carcinogens such as nitrosamines in cigarette smoke is likely to be involved. 30 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    One solution is the incorporation of collocated acoustic monitoring that can provide ... The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment (NAME) took place at the Atmospheric Radiation ...

  9. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  10. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  11. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  12. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  13. radiation.p65

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that ...

  14. Stack Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2009-05-01

    Stack monitors are used to sense radioactive particulates and gases in effluent air being vented from rooms of nuclear facilities. These monitors record the levels and types of effluents to the environment. This paper presents the results of a stack monitor operating experience review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database records from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly described. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. DOE and in engineering literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Electrical faults, radiation instrumentation faults, and human errors are the three leading causes of failures. A representative “all modes” failure rate is 1E-04/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 17.5 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 160 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of stack monitors in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER project.

  15. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  16. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Protection and Safety Training (3 hrs) Instructors: John Seaman and Neil Miller ... with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. ...

  17. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contacts Hirohito Ogasawara, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Dennis Nordlund, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Anders Nilsson, Stanford Synchrotron ...

  18. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  19. STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MODELING Citation Details In-Document Search Title: STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE ON FILLED ELASTOMERS - RECENT INSIGHTS FROM EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING ...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - RAdiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    could not be obtained. A fundamental problem with all airborne experiments is the limited spatial and temporal sampling of the variability of the radiative fluxes, because of the...

  1. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  2. HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    George Voelz, M.D. Conducted November 29,1994 United States ... program at time of death, analyzing the amount of ... had they died at the rate of U.S. males, adjusted ...

  3. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment In northeastern India, the fertile land around the Ganges River supports several hundred million people. This river, the largest in India, is fed by monsoon rains and runoff from the nearby Himalayan Mountains. Through an intergovernmental agreement with India, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed its portable laboratory, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF), to Nainital, India, in June 2011. During

  4. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  5. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  6. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  7. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiment Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report Every 30-90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall.

  9. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sheep Cortical Bone Using Synchrotron Radiation Transmission X-ray Microscopy", PLoS ONE ... Garry R. Brock, Cornell University Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation ...

  10. Radiation Effects Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Reasearch Facility Geomechanics and ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Radiation Effects Sciences Home...

  11. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  12. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  13. Measurements of the radiation environment on the APEX satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Watson, C.J.; Peerless, C.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry experiment was built to accompany the CRUX (Cosmic Ray Upset) experiment on the USAF APEX satellite, launched in August 1994. Results of measurements of the space radiation environment are presented here while a companion paper presents CRUX measurements of upsets correlated with proton flux.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile Facility, GERB, and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Beginning in January 2006, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) began supporting RADAGAST to provide the first well-sampled direct esti- mates of the energy balance across the atmosphere. The experiment is part of an ongoing international study of the West African monsoon system and Saharan dust storms. Stationed outside the Niger Meteo- rological Office at the Niamey International Airport, the AMF is located

  15. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  16. Wireless radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  17. Experiments ✚ Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments + Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research Experiments ✚ Simulations = Better Nuclear Power Research Atomic Level Simulations Enhance Characterization of Radiation Damage July 31, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Radiation Damage PNNL In a study featured on the cover of a Journal of Materials Research focus issue, an international research collaboration used molecular dynamics simulations run at NERSC to identify atomic-level details of early-stage

  18. Soliton molecules: Experiments and optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitschke, Fedor

    2014-10-06

    Stable compound states of several fiber-optic solitons have recently been demonstrated. In the first experiment their shape was approximated, for want of a better description, by a sum of Gaussians. Here we discuss an optimization strategy which helps to find preferable shapes so that the generation of radiative background is reduced.

  19. Radiation shielding properties of barite coated fabric by computer programme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarslan, F.; Molla, T.; nc, I. S.; K?l?ncarslan, S.; Akkurt, I.

    2015-03-30

    With the development of technology radiation started to be used in variety of different fields. As the radiation is hazardous for human health, it is important to keep radiation dose as low as possible. This is done mainly using shielding materials. Barite is one of the important materials in this purpose. As the barite is not used directly it can be used in some other materials such as fabric. For this purposes barite has been coated on fabric in order to improve radiation shielding properties of fabric. Determination of radiation shielding properties of coated fabric has been done by using computer program written C# language. With this program the images obtained from digital Rontgen films is used to determine radiation shielding properties in terms of image processing numerical values. Those values define radiation shielding and in this way the coated barite effect on radiation shielding properties of fabric has been obtained.

  20. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  1. Ignition Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ignition experiments Ignition Experiments The goal of many NIF experiments is to create a self-sustaining "burn" of fusion fuel (the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium) that produces as much or more energy than the energy required to initiate the fusion reaction-an event called ignition. In moving closer to achieving ignition, NIF researchers are fulfilling the vision of early laser pioneers who conceived of using the x rays generated by a powerful, brief laser pulse to fuse

  2. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  3. Dosimetry experiments at the MEDUSA Facility (Little Mountain).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Schwank, James Ralph

    2010-10-01

    A series of experiments on the MEDUSA linear accelerator radiation test facility were performed to evaluate the difference in dose measured using different methods. Significant differences in dosimeter-measured radiation dose were observed for the different dosimeter types for the same radiation environments, and the results are compared and discussed in this report.

  4. Radiation stability of graphene under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sunil, E-mail: kumar.sunil092@gmail.com; Tripathi, Ambuj; Khan, Saif A.; Pannu, Compesh; Avasthi, Devesh K. [Materials Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-09-29

    In this letter, we report radiation stability of graphene under extreme condition of high energy density generated by 150?MeV Au ion irradiation. The experiment reveals that graphene is radiation resistant for irradiation at 10{sup 14?}ions/cm{sup 2} of 150?MeV Au ions. It is significant to note that annealing effects are observed at lower fluences whereas defect production occurs at higher fluences but significant crystallinity is retained. Our results demonstrate applicability of graphene based devices in radiation environment and space applications.

  5. Radiation Safety Poster | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster Radiation Safety Poster

  6. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  7. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Janier, Josefina B. Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-10-24

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  8. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface ...

  9. Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics (Book...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: Modern Methods in Collisional-Radiative Modelling of Plasmas, Collisional-Radiative Modeling for Radiation Hydrodynamics, Springer International Publishing, unknown, ...

  10. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  11. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental in Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1983-01-20

    Research supported by OHER and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  12. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFee, M.C.; Kirkham, T.J.; Johnson, T.H.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a ''shield plate'' or shell, and an opposing ''source plate'' containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects. 3 figures.

  13. Device for calibrating a radiation detector system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mc Fee, Matthew C.; Kirkham, Tim J.; Johnson, Tippi H.

    1994-01-01

    A device for testing a radiation detector system that includes at least two arrays of radiation detectors that are movable with respect to each other. The device includes a "shield plate" or shell, and an opposing "source plate" containing a source of ionizing radiation. Guides are attached to the outer surface of the shell for engaging the forward ends of the detectors, thereby reproducibly positioning the detectors with respect to the source and with respect to each other, thereby ensuring that a predetermined portion of the radiation emitted by the source passes through the shell and reaches the detectors. The shell is made of an hydrogenous material having approximately the same radiological attenuation characteristics as composite human tissue. The source represents a human organ such as the lungs, heart, kidneys, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testes, prostate, or ovaries. The source includes a source of ionizing radiation having a long half-life and an activity that is within the range typically searched for in human subjects.

  14. Mixture Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  15. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Squamous Cell Carcinomas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Squamous Cell Carcinomas Arising From the ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and ...

  16. Genome Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wide Evaluation of Normal Human Tissue in Response to Controlled, In vivo Low-Dose Low LET Ionizing Radiation Exposure: Pathways and Mechanisms Final Report, September 2013 Rocke,...

  17. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Radiation Exposure Data Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How ORISE is Making a Difference Overview Argonne Electronic Medical Records System Beryllium Testing and Surveillance Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) DOE IISP 10-Year Summary Report Resources Overview Reports Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles Human Subjects Resource Book How to Work With Us Contact Us Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Radiation Exposure Data Collection ORISE manages large,

  18. Radiation.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation is a natural part of our everyday environment. Cosmic rays showering the Earth ... and radon gas seeping up from the soil are only two examples of natural radiation. ...

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  20. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  1. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH ...

  2. THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH MIMETIC DIFFUSION FOR EXAFLAG Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE VEX RADIATION MODULE: 2D RADIATION TRANSPORT WITH...

  3. Epigenomic Adaptation to Low Dose Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Michael N.

    2015-06-30

    The overall hypothesis of this grant application is that the adaptive responses elicited by low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) result in part from heritable DNA methylation changes in the epigenome. In the final budget period at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we will specifically address this hypothesis by determining if the epigenetically labile, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that regulate parental-specific expression of imprinted genes are deregulated in agouti mice by low dose radiation exposure during gestation. This information is particularly important to ascertain given the 1) increased human exposure to medical sources of radiation; 2) increased number of people predicted to live and work in space; and 3) enhanced citizen concern about radiation exposure from nuclear power plant accidents and terrorist ‘dirty bombs.’

  4. The carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for subnuclear assembly of RAD51 after treatment with cisplatin but not ionizing radiation in human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Chenyi; Huang Peng; Liu Jinsong . E-mail: jliu@mdanderson.org

    2005-10-28

    BRCA1 plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability through its involvement in DNA repair. Although it is known that BRCA1 and RAD51 form distinct DNA repair subnuclear complexes, or foci, following environmental insults to the DNA, the role of BRCA1 in this process remains to be characterized. The purpose of the study was therefore to determine the role of BRCA1 in the formation of RAD51 foci following treatment with cisplatin and ionizing radiation. We found that although a functional BRCA1 is required for the subnuclear assembly of BRCA1 foci following treatment with either ionizing radiation or cisplatin, a functional BRCA1 is required for RAD51 foci to form following treatment with cisplatin but not with ionizing radiation. Similar results were obtained in SKOV-3 cells when the level of BRCA1 expression was knocked down by stable expression of a retrovirus-mediated small-interfering RNA against BRCA1. We also found that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 contains uncharacterized phosphorylation sites that are responsive to cisplatin. The functional BRCA1 is also required for breast and ovarian cancer cells to mount resistance to cisplatin. These results suggest that the carboxyl-terminal of BRCA1 is required for the cisplatin-induced recruitment of RAD51 to the DNA-damage site, which may contribute to cisplatin resistance.

  5. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  6. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  7. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  9. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  10. Transient Radiation Darkening Features in VISAR Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. D. Stevens; K. J. Moy

    2001-06-01

    We have studied and characterized radiation-induced changes in the index of refraction of materials used in Z experiments. Interferometric measurements of the radiation-induced change in the real part, n, of the complex index of refraction, N = n + iK, have been made in lithium fluoride (LiF), sapphire, and fused silica samples. Our results indicate that the index changes are small, with {delta}n/n {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}/kGy. In addition, we have characterized the dose dependence of the radiation-induced transient radiation darkening (TRD) of these materials, which is related to K, the imaginary part of the refractive index. We have also measured time-resolved spectral profiles of TRD in LiF and sapphire, and have examined the results in terms of known color centers and possible colloid aggregation.

  11. Current Schedule of Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current schedule of experiments Current Schedule of Experiments Current Schedule of Experiments - Updated 4/2016

  12. Sci—Fri AM: Mountain — 04: Label-free Raman spectroscopy of single tumour cells detects early radiation-induced glycogen synthesis associated with increased radiation resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Q; Lum, JJ; Isabelle, M; Harder, S; Jirasek, A; Brolo, AG

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To use label-free Raman spectroscopy (RS) for early treatment monitoring of tumour cell radioresistance. Methods: Three human tumour cell lines, two radioresistant (H460, SF{sub 2} = 0.57 and MCF7, SF{sub 2} = 0.70) and one radiosensitive (LNCaP, SF{sub 2} = 0.36), were irradiated with single fractions of 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 Gy. In additional experiments, H460 and MCF7 cells were irradiated under co-treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin, a known radiosensitizing agent. Treated and control cultures were analyzed with RS daily for 3 days post-treatment. Single-cell Raman spectra were acquired from 20 live cells per sample, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. The combined data sets were analyzed with principal component analysis using standard algorithms. Cells from each culture were also subjected to standard assays for viability, proliferation, cell cycle, and radiation clonogenic survival. Results: The radioresistant cells (H460, MCF7) exhibited a RS molecular radiation response signature, detectable as early as 1 day post-treatment, of which radiation-induced glycogen synthesis is a significant contributor. The radiosensitive cells (LNCaP) exhibited negligible glycogen synthesis. Co-treatment with metformin in MCF7 cells blocked glycogen synthesis, reduced viability and proliferation, and increased radiosensitivity. Conversely, metformin co-treatment in H460 cells did not produce these same effects; importantly, both radiation-induced synthesis of glycogen and radiosensitivity were unaffected. Conclusions: Label-free RS can detect early glycogen synthesis post-irradiation, a previously undocumented metabolic mechanism associated with tumour cell radioresistance that can be targeted to increase radiosensitivity. RS monitoring of intratumoral glycogen may provide new opportunities for personalized combined modality radiotherapy treatments.

  13. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the ...

  14. Reception of longitudinal vector potential radiation with a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Robert K. Jr.

    2013-07-28

    To help resolve the long-running debate between physicists and engineers regarding the existence of the magnetic vector potential, herewith we describe an experiment demonstrating reception of time-harmonic vector potential radiation at 1.3 GHz.

  15. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  16. ORISE Video: What is the difference between radiation exposure and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation contamination?

  17. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  18. Human Resources | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Resources

  19. Multiwell experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, A.R.; Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Hart, C.M.; Branagan, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    The Multiwell Experiment is a research-oriented field laboratory. Its overall objectives are to characterize lenticular, low-permeability gas reservoirs and to develop technology for their production. This field laboratory has been established at a site in the east-central Piceance basin, Colorado. Here the Mesaverde formation lies at a depth of 4000 to 8250 ft. This interval contains different, distinct reservoir types depending upon their depositional environments. These different zones serve as the focus of the various testing and stimulation programs. Field work began in late 1981 and is scheduled through mid-1988. One key to the Multiwell Experiment is three closely spaced wells. Core, log, well testing, and well-to-well seismic data are providing a far better definition of the geological setting than has been available previously. The closely spaced wells also allow interference and tracer tests to obtain in situ reservoir parameters. The vertical variation of in situ stress throughout the intervals of interest is being measured. A series of stimulation experiments is being conducted in one well and the other two wells are being used as observation wells for improved fracture diagnostics and well testing. Another key to achieving the Multiwell Experiment objectives is the synergism resulting from a broad spectrum of activities: geophysical surveys, sedimentological studies, core and log analyses, well testing, in situ stress determination, stimulation, fracture diagnostics, and reservoir analyses. The results from the various activities will define the reservoir and the hydraulic fracture. These, in turn, define the net pay stimulated: the intersection of a hydraulic fracture of known geometry with a reservoir of known morphology and properties. Accomplishments of the past year are listed. 4 refs.

  20. SANE experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Baghdasaryan, SANE Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) is a measurement of parallel and near-perpendicular double spin asymmetries in an inclusive electron scattering. The main goal of the experiment was to measure A{sub {parallel}} and A{sub 80} and extract the spin asymmetries of the proton A{sub 1}{sup p}, A{sub 2}{sup p} and spin structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup p}. Using the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's polarized electron beam and the University of Virginia's polarized frozen ammonia ({sup 14}NH{sub 3}) target in Hall C, the experiment ran in 2009, collecting data in a Q{sup 2} region from 2.5 to 6.5 GeV{sup 2} and between Bjorken x of 0.3 to 0.8. Particle detection was accomplished using the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), a novel non-magnetic detector. This talk will address the progress of the analysis designed to extract the proton spin asymmetries and structure functions. Preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRLUO functions include: sponsoring and presenting the Annual Farrel W. Lytle Award to promote important technical or scientific accomplishments in synchrotron radiation-based ...

  2. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  3. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  4. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now the Synchrotron Medical Imaging Team, a group of Canadian, US, and European scientists (including scientists from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource) are using ...

  5. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work demonstrates that synchrotron radiation-based spectroscopies provide invaluable, atom-specific tools to determine the electronic properties of different dopant and defect ...

  6. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  7. Approved Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycle 31OCT97 Exp# Spokesperson Experiment Title Days 666 Clark Magnetic Rotation in 104Sn 5 667 Janssens Unsafe COULEX of the 240Pu Nucleus 3 670 Smith Exotic Structures in very Neutron-Deficient 55 < Z < 59, A ~ 120 Nuclei 6 671LI Butler The Feasibility of Studying Octupole Correlations in 224,226U using Gammasphere and the FMA 1 672 Svensson Superdeformation in 3060Zn30 and Proton-Decay from Excited States in 3366As33 5 677 Woods Structure of Deformed Ho Isotopes Beyond the Proton

  8. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  9. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  10. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  11. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  12. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  13. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A.; Lutz, Stephen S.; Lyons, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  14. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  15. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  16. Underwater radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  17. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  18. TH-A-BRD-01: Radiation Biology for Radiation Therapy Physicists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, C; Borras, C; Carlson, D

    2014-06-15

    Mechanisms by which radiation kills cells and ways cell damage can be repaired will be reviewed. The radiobiological parameters of dose, fractionation, delivery time, dose rate, and LET will be discussed. The linear-quadratic model for cell survival for high and low dose rate treatments and the effect of repopulation will be presented and discussed. The rationale for various radiotherapy techniques such as conventional fractionation, hyperfractionation, hypofractionation, and low and high dose rate brachytherapy, including permanent implants, will be presented. The radiobiological principles underlying radiation protection guidelines and the different radiation dosimetry terms used in radiation biology and in radiation protection will be reviewed. Human data on radiation induced cancer, including increases in the risk of second cancers following radiation therapy, as well as data on radiation induced tissue reactions, such as cardiovascular effects, for follow up times up to 20–40 years, published by ICRP, NCRP and BEIR Committees, will be examined. The latest risk estimates per unit dose will be presented. Their adoption in recent radiation protection standards and guidelines and their impact on patient and workers safety in radiotherapy will be discussed. Biologically-guided radiotherapy (BGRT) provides a systematic method to derive prescription doses that integrate patient-specific information about tumor and normal tissue biology. Treatment individualization based on patient-specific biology requires the identification of biological objective functions to facilitate the design and comparison of competing treatment modalities. Biological objectives provide a more direct approach to plan optimization instead of relying solely on dose-based surrogates and can incorporate factors that alter radiation response, such as DNA repair, tumor hypoxia, and relative biological effectiveness. We review concepts motivating biological objectives and provide examples of how

  19. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  20. Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  1. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  2. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases ... properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top ...

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, enabling identification of organic functional groups and trace metal species, (2) characterization of the particles that serve as cloud...

  4. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  5. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has ... WAIS as well. At the same time, we will send basic ... Authors: Lubin, D 1 ; Bromwich, DH 2 ; Russell, LM 3 ; ...

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cloud Radar Browse Data KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data LDIS Laser Disdrometer Browse Data MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data Browse Plots MFR ...

  7. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  8. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  9. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  10. Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: An Evaluation of the State of the Field ... Maxwell's equations show that electromagnetic radiation is generated when charged ...

  11. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : ... Safety Office (namesignaturedate) Radiation Physics (namesignaturedate) Section 4: ...

  12. ARM-99-005 Science and Experiment Plan Spring 1999 Flight Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM - UAV Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Science and Experiment Plan Spring 1999 Flight Series Robert Ellingson and Tim Tooman, eds. Version 1.2 - ...

  13. Radiation Resistant Foams | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Radiation Resistant Foams Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Radiation Resistant Foams Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement Experiments and computer simulations demonstrate that nanoscale gold foams can be designed for radiation resistanceSignificance and Impact May lead to the design of new radiation resistant materials that extend

  14. Acquired Tumor Cell Radiation Resistance at the Treatment Site Is Mediated Through Radiation-Orchestrated Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Khan, Faizan H.; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Natt, Praveen; Natarajan, Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation resistance induced in cancer cells that survive after radiation therapy (RT) could be associated with increased radiation protection, limiting the therapeutic benefit of radiation. Herein we investigated the sequential mechanistic molecular orchestration involved in radiation-induced radiation protection in tumor cells. Results: Radiation, both in the low-dose irradiation (LDIR) range (10, 50, or 100 cGy) or at a higher, challenge dose IR (CDIR), 4 Gy, induced dose-dependent and sustained NFκB-DNA binding activity. However, a robust and consistent increase was seen in CDIR-induced NFκB activity, decreased DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity and attenuation of CDIR-inhibited clonal expansion when the cells were primed with LDIR prior to challenge dose. Furthermore, NFκB manipulation studies with small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing or p50/p65 overexpression unveiled the influence of LDIR-activated NFκB in regulating CDIR-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. LDIR significantly increased the transactivation/translation of the radiation-responsive factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), cMYC, and SOD2. Coculture experiments exhibit LDIR-influenced radiation protection and increases in cellular expression, secretion, and activation of radiation-responsive molecules in bystander cells. Individual gene-silencing approach with siRNAs coupled with coculture studies showed the influence of LDIR-modulated TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 in induced radiation protection in bystander cells. NFκB inhibition/overexpression studies coupled with coculture experiments demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 are selectively regulated by LDIR-induced NFκB. Conclusions: Together, these data strongly suggest that scattered LDIR-induced NFκB-dependent TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 mediate radiation protection to the subsequent challenge dose in tumor cells.

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If you have any questions regarding the completion of this process please contact Matt Padilla (mpadilla@slac.stanford.edu, 1-650-926-3861 or Radiation Protection Field Operations ...

  16. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  17. RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . <' ," . . * . RADIATION APPLICATIONS INCORPORATED . 370 Lexl.ngton Avenue New York 17 New York jq.5' L- Contract No. A T (30-l)-2093 with the United States Atom ic Energy ...

  18. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 2021-08-11 SHANGHAI INST OF APPLIED PHYSICS CHINA 2020-10-23 SHANGHAI SYNCHROTRON RADIATION FACILITY 2020-10-23 SHANGHAI TECH UNIVERSITY 2019-01-23 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ...

  19. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey, University of Texas at El Paso Joy C. Andrews, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Jose A. Hernandez-Viezcas, University of Texas at El Paso 2575 ...

  20. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  2. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  3. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  4. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  5. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  6. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  7. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  8. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  9. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future.

  10. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dosimetry Report Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835),

  11. Issues in Low Dose Radiation Biology: The Controversy Continues. A Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Bair, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Both natural and man-made sources of ionizing radiation contribute to human exposure and consequently pose a risk to human health. Much of this is unavoidable, e.g., natural background radiation, and as the use of radiation in modern medicine and industry increases so does the potential health risk. This perspective reflects the authors view of current issues in low dose radiation biology research, highlights some of the controversies therein, and suggests areas of future research to address these issues. The views expressed here are the authors own and do not represent any institution, organization or funding body.

  12. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle (HTGR-SC) unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor (LWR) experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor (GCR) stations.

  13. Space Radiation and Cataracts (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Blakely, Eleanor

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Eleanor Blakely, radiation biologist of the Life Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has been a scientist at Berkeley Lab since 1975. She is studying the effect of radiation on cataracts which concerns not only cancer patients, but also astronauts. As astronauts spend increasingly longer time in space, the effects of cosmic radiation exposure will become an increasingly important health issue- yet there is little human data on these effects. Blakely reviews this emerging field and the contributions made at Berkeley Lab

  14. Safety Around Sources of Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Keeping Exposure Low Working Safely Around Radioactive Contamination Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Is it safe to be around sources? Too much radiation exposure is harmful. The degree of radiation injury depends on the amount of radiation received and the time involved. In general, the higher the amount, the greater the severity of early effects (occurring within a few weeks) and the greater the possibility of late effects such as cancer. The

  15. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  16. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  17. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  18. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  19. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  20. An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to

  1. Semiconductor radiation detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  2. Audible radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  3. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  4. A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadeesan, Vikrant S.; Raleigh, David R.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.; Golden, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon ranksum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results

  5. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  6. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  7. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  8. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  9. Spectral brilliance of channeling radiation at the ASTA photoinjector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Tanaji; Lynn, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We study channeling radiation from electron beams with energies under 100 MeV. We introduce a phenomenological model of dechanneling, correct non-radiative transition rates from thermal scattering, and discuss in detail the population dynamics in low order bound states. These are used to revisit the X-ray properties measured at the ELBE facility in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rosenstock (FZDR), extract parameters for dechanneling states, and obtain satisfactory agreement with measured photon yields. The importance of rechanneling phenomena in thick crystals is emphasized. The model is then used to calculate the expected X-ray energies, linewidths and brilliance for forthcoming channeling radiation experiments at Fermilab's ASTA photoinjector.

  10. Spectral brilliance of channeling radiation at the ASTA photoinjector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sen, Tanaji; Lynn, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We study channeling radiation from electron beams with energies under 100 MeV. We introduce a phenomenological model of dechanneling, correct non-radiative transition rates from thermal scattering, and discuss in detail the population dynamics in low order bound states. These are used to revisit the X-ray properties measured at the ELBE facility in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rosenstock (FZDR), extract parameters for dechanneling states, and obtain satisfactory agreement with measured photon yields. The importance of rechanneling phenomena in thick crystals is emphasized. The model is then used to calculate the expected X-ray energies, linewidths and brilliance for forthcoming channeling radiation experiments at Fermilab's ASTAmorephotoinjector.less

  11. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the cytoskeleton. In their study, published in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Rangarajan and Izard reported the structure of nearly full-length human...

  12. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  13. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  14. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  15. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  16. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  17. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  18. Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing

  19. Fire Intensity Data for Validation of the Radiative Transfer Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Jernigan, Dann A.

    2016-01-01

    A set of experiments and test data are outlined in this report that provides radiation intensity data for the validation of models for the radiative transfer equation. The experiments were performed with lightly-sooting liquid hydrocarbon fuels that yielded fully turbulent fires 2 m diameter). In addition, supplemental measurements of air flow and temperature, fuel temperature and burn rate, and flame surface emissive power, wall heat, and flame height and width provide a complete set of boundary condition data needed for validation of models used in fire simulations.

  20. SU-E-T-320: The Effect of Survivin Perturbation On the Radiation Response of Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D; Debeb, B; Woodward, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Survivin is the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family and is well-known for its universal over-expression in human cancers. Due to its role in apoptosis and cellular proliferation, survivin is implicated in the radiation response in several cancer types, and antisurvivin treatments have had success as a radiation sensitizer in many preclinical cancer models. As no studies to date have reported survivin as a factor affecting radiation resistance in breast cancer models, we sought to evaluate the synergistic relationship between survivin function and irradiation in breast cancer cell lines. Methods: Information regarding survivin protein expression in breast cancer was retrieved from three public databases: Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and GOBO. For the in vitro studies, survivin function was compromised by transducing a non-functional mutant form (survivin-DN) into two breast cancer cell lines, the estrogen receptor-positive MCF7 and the triple-negative, inflammatory SUM149. Cell growth was compared in the survivin-DN and control populations with colony-formation assays. To assess how survivin affects radiation response, clonogenic assays were performed by irradiating the cell lines up to 6 Gy. Results: From the public databases, survivin is more highly expressed in triple-negative breast cancer compared to all other subtypes, and is prognostic of poor survival in all breast cancer patients. In MCF7, the survivin-DN population had decreased colony-formation potential; the opposite was true in SUM149. In the clonogenic assays, abrogation of survivin function radio-protected MCF7 cells in monolayer and 3D growth conditions, while SUM149 survivin-DN cells were radiosensitized in monolayer conditions. Conclusion: We observed synergy between survivin function and radiation, although the results between the two cell lines were disparate. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanism of this discrepancy, including evaluation

  1. Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use of In Situ Observations to Characterize Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties: Application to Climate Studies G. M. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois M. S. Timlin, S. F. Iacobellis, and R. C. J. Somerville Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cloud radiative feedback is the most important effect determining climate response to human activity. Ice clouds reflect solar radiation and

  2. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Since 1981, NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components, ...

  3. Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course Kentucky National Guard Radiation Specialist Course (628.78 KB) More ...

  4. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Medicine - Continuing Medical Education...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Emergency Medicine Dates Scheduled Register Online August 9-12, 2016 Fee: 200 ... The course begins with a discussion of the fundamentals of radiation physics, radiation ...

  5. ORISE: The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents provides the basic information needed for the medical management of victims of radiation ...

  6. ORISE: Radiation Treatment Medication Package Inserts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training RANET Asset Resources Overview Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Understanding Radiation Video Series The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents Dose Estimates ...

  7. Radiation Effects Facility - Facilities - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Effects Facility Typical DUT(device under test) set-up at the end of the Radiation Effects beamline. The Radiation Effects Facility is available for commercial, ...

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports November 17, 2015 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report The...

  9. Apparatus for generating partially coherent radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-02-22

    Techniques for generating partially coherent radiation and particularly for converting effectively coherent radiation from a synchrotron to partially coherent EUV radiation suitable for projection lithography.

  10. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  11. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are ...

  12. Trigger processor for the APEX experiment at Argonne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J.W.; Freedman, S.J.; Haberichter, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    An electron-positron spectrometer is being constructed at Argonne to search for correlated pairs emitted after heavy ion collisions. The trigger for this experiment requires the detection of a positron in either arm of the spectrometer. We describe the trigger for the experiment which selects events with positron annihilation radiation detected in an array of NaI crystals. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  13. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  14. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  15. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  16. radiation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    radiation NNSA to conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Boston area BOSTON - On April 12 through April 15, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) will conduct low-altitude helicopter flights around Boston to measure naturally occurring background radiation. Officials from NNSA announced that the... NNSA to Participate in Aerial Radiation Training Exercise in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - On March 21 through March 24, the

  17. Radiation Damage/Materials Modification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation damage materials modification Radiation Damage/Materials Modification High-energy ion irradiation is an important tool for studying radiation damage effects Materials in a nuclear reactor are exposed to extreme temperature and radiation conditions that degrade their physical properties to the point of failure. For example, alpha-decay in nuclear fuels results in dislocation damage to and accumulation of helium and fission gasses in the material. Similarly, neutrons interacting with

  18. ARM - Measurement - Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPhotosynthetically Active Radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Photosynthetically Active Radiation Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  19. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  20. Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTACTS Division Leader Shawna Eisele Office Administrator Shirley D. Martinez Senior Advisor Paul Hoover Special Assistant and Issues Management Coordinator Elinor Gwynn Radiation Protection Radiation Protection The Radiation Protection Division supports the Laboratory in accomplishing its mission by helping to ensure radiological work is conducted safely and within requirements established by Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835) and enforced under the Price Anderson Amendments Act.

  1. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  2. Low Dose Radiation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD) Genomic Science DOE Bioenergy Research Centers Bioimaging Technology DOE Joint Genome Institute Structural Biology Radiochemistry & Imaging Instrumentation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Human Subjects Protection Program Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) Research Abstracts Searchable Archive of BER Highlights

  3. Dual carbon-labeled isotope experiments using D-(6-/sup 14/C) glucose and L-(1,2,3-/sup 13/C3) lactate: a new approach for investigating human myocardial metabolism during ischemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W.; Neese, R.A.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    Simultaneous lactate production and extraction have been previously demonstrated in the myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease. To quantitate this lactate production and determine its source, dual carbon-labeled isotope experiments were performed. L-(1,2,3-/sup 13/C3) lactate and D-(6-/sup 14/C) glucose were infused in 10 patients with significant coronary artery disease. Metabolic samples were obtained at rest and during atrial pacing. Despite net chemical myocardial lactate extraction in the 10 patients at rest and no evidence of clinical ischemia, the L-(1,2,3-/sup 13/C3) lactate analysis demonstrated that lactate was being released by the myocardium. During atrial pacing, seven patients did not develop clinical symptoms of ischemia, and the chemical lactate analysis showed net lactate extraction. However, tracer analysis demonstrated that there was a significant increase in the lactate released during atrial pacing. In these seven patients, circulating glucose was the source of 23 of the lactate released at rest, and there was no significant change during pacing. The remaining three patients had mild chest pain and net chemical lactate production during pacing. In these patients, the contribution of glucose to lactate production increased significantly during pacing-induced clinical ischemia from 25 to 67%. Thus, dual carbon-labeled isotopic experiments are powerful tools for investigating myocardial metabolic pathways.

  4. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiman, Norman Jay

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9

  5. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  6. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  7. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J.

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  8. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2000-12-26

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  9. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  10. Radiation shielding composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  11. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  12. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  13. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  14. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.; Vilkelis, Gintas

    2002-01-01

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

  15. Terahertz radiation mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C.; Allen, S. James; Lee, Mark

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  16. RADIATION SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-23

    ABS>A radiation shield that is suitable for the protection of personnel from both gamma rays and nentrons is described. The shield is comprised of a hollow wall and an aggregate consisting of iron and water in approximately equal amounts by volume substantially filling the wall. A means is provided to circulate the water through the wall to cool the shield when in use.

  17. Hyperon radiative decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaxiras, Efthimios; Moniz, Ernest J.; Soyeur, Madeleine

    1985-08-01

    The radiative decay widths of the low-lying strange baryons are calculated both within the relativistic quark bag model and the nonrelativistic potential model. These widths are found to depend sensitively upon the quark-model dynamics through multiplet mixing and q4q-bar admixtures. The comparison between our calculated results and the very limited experimental data is discussed.

  18. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Format for Proposal Extension Request Proposals are eligible for a one-time extension request. Submit extension requests by Email as a Word or PDF attachment to: Michelle Steger (steger@slac.stanford.edu) Proposal Number: Date of Extension Request: Spokesperson: 1. PROGRESS: Provide a progress report describing work accomplished at SSRL on this proposal to date (1-2 pages) 2. NEW ELEMENTS: Describe any new elements that may add interest to extending the

  19. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  20. Principles of the radiative ablation modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saillard, Yves; Arnault, Philippe; Silvert, Virginie

    2010-12-15

    Indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) rests on the setting up of a radiation temperature within a laser cavity and on the optimization of the capsule implosion ablated by this radiation. In both circumstances, the ablation of an optically thick medium is at work. The nonlinear radiation conduction equations that describe this phenomenon admit different kinds of solutions called generically Marshak waves. In this paper, a completely analytic model is proposed to describe the ablation in the subsonic regime relevant to ICF experiments. This model approximates the flow by a deflagrationlike structure where Hugoniot relations are used in the stationary part from the ablation front up to the isothermal sonic Chapman-Jouguet point and where the unstationary expansion from the sonic point up to the external boundary is assumed quasi-isothermal. It uses power law matter properties. It can also accommodate arbitrary boundary conditions provided the ablation wave stays very subsonic and the surface temperature does not vary too quickly. These requirements are often met in realistic situations. Interestingly, the ablated mass rate, the ablation pressure, and the absorbed radiative energy depend on the time history of the surface temperature, not only on the instantaneous temperature values. The results compare very well with self-similar solutions and with numerical simulations obtained by hydrodynamic code. This analytic model gives insight into the physical processes involved in the ablation and is helpful for optimization and sensitivity studies in many situations of interest: radiation temperature within a laser cavity, acceleration of finite size medium, and ICF capsule implosion, for instance.

  1. (Radiation carcinogenesis in the whole body system)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-12-14

    The objectives of the trip were: to take part in and to give the summary of a Symposium on Radiation Carcinogenesis at Tokyo, and to give a talk at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences at Chiba. The breadth of the aspects considered at the conference was about as broad as is possible, from effects at the molecular level to human epidemiology, from the effects of tritium to cancer induction by heavy ions. The events induced by cancer that lead to cancer and the events that are secondary are beginning to come into better focus but much is still not known. Interest in suppressor genes is increasing rapidly in the studies of human tumors and many would predict that the three or four suppressor genes associated with cancer are only the first sighting of a much larger number.

  2. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Spanne, Per O.

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  3. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  4. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  5. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites ...

  7. Degradation of silicon ac-coupled microstrip detectors induced by radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacchetta, N.; Gotra, Yu.; Bisello, D.; Canali, C.; Fuochi, P.G.; Paccagnella, A.; Verzellesi, G.

    1993-12-01

    Results are presented showing the radiation response of ac-coupled FOXFET biased microstrip detectors and related test patterns to be used in the microvertex detector of the CDF experiment at Fermi National Laboratory. Radiation tolerance of detectors to gamma and proton irradiation has been tested and the radiation induced variations of the dc electrical parameters have been analyzed. Long term post-irradiation behavior of detector characteristics have been studied, and the relevant room temperature annealing phenomena have been discussed.

  8. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

  9. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. )

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

  10. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earths surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  11. Beam Echo Effect for Generation of Short-Wavelength Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    The Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation starting with a relatively small initial energy modulation of the beam. After presenting the concept of the EEHG, we address several practically important issues, such as the effect of coherent and incoherent synchrotron radiation in the dispersion sections. Using a representative realistic set of beam parameters, we show how the EEHG scheme enhances the FEL performance and allows one to generate a fully (both longitudinally and transversely) coherent radiation. We then discuss application of the echo modulation for generation of attosecond pulses of radiation, and also using echo for generation of terahertz radiation. We present main parameters of a proof-of-principle experiment currently being planned at SLAC for demonstration of the echo modulation mechanism.

  12. Apparatuses for large area radiation detection and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W; Drigert, Mark W

    2015-04-28

    Apparatuses and a related method relating to radiation detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first scintillator and a second scintillator adjacent to the first scintillator, with each of the first scintillator and second scintillator being structured to generate a light pulse responsive to interacting with incident radiation. The first scintillator is further structured to experience full energy deposition of a first low-energy radiation, and permit a second higher-energy radiation to pass therethrough and interact with the second scintillator. The apparatus further includes a plurality of light-to-electrical converters operably coupled to the second scintillator and configured to convert light pulses generated by the first scintillator and the second scintillator into electrical signals. The first scintillator and the second scintillator exhibit at least one mutually different characteristic for an electronic system to determine whether a given light pulse is generated by the first scintillator or the second scintillator.

  13. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-12-02

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  14. Radiation-induced gene responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Paunesku, T.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Oryhon, J.

    1996-12-31

    In the process of identifying genes that are differentially regulated in cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV), we identified a transcript that was repressed following the exposure of cells to a combination of UV and salicylate, a known inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Sequencing this band determined that it has identify to lactate dehydrogenase, and Northern blots confirmed the initial expression pattern. Analysis of the sequence of the LDH 5` region established the presence of NF-kappaB, Sp1, and two Ap-2 elements; two partial AP- 1; one partial RE, and two halves of E-UV elements were also found. Electromobility shift assays were then performed for the AP-1, NF- kappaB, and E-UV elements. These experiments revealed that binding to NF-kappaB was induced by UV but repressed with salicylic acid; UV did not affect AP-1 binding, but salicylic acid inhibited it alone or following UV exposure; and E-UV binding was repressed by UV, and salicylic acid had little effect. Since the binding of no single element correlated with the expression pattern of LDH, it is likely that multiple elements govern UV/salicylate-mediated expression.

  15. Human Genome: DOE Origins

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    produced the first atomic bombs, and concern about how radiation caused genetic damage. ... Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology; DOE Technical Report; July ...

  16. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, D.T. ); Ingersoll, J.K. )

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  17. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Biology And Medicine | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Daniela Rodica Radu (2005) 84 Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. ... (2002) 68 Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments final report NONE (1995) 60 ...

  18. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  19. Radiation Chemistry of Advanced TALSPEAK Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce; Peterman, Dean; Mcdowell, Rocklan; Olson, Lonnie; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes the results of initial experiments designed to understand the radiation chemistry of an Advanced TALSPEAK process for separating trivalent lanthanides form the actinides. Biphasic aerated samples were irradiated and then analyzed for post-irradiation constituent concentrations and solvent extraction distribution ratios. The effects of irradiation on the TALSPEAK and Advanced TALSPEAK solvents were similar, with very little degradation of the organic phase extractant. Decomposition products were detected, with a major product in common for both solvents. This product may be responsible for the slight increase in distribution ratios for Eu and Am with absorbed dose, however; separation factors were not greatly affected.

  20. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  1. Janus Experiments: Data from Mouse Irradiation Experiments 1972 - 1989

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Janus Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1972 to 1989 and supported by grants from the US Department of Energy, investigated the effects of neutron and gamma radiation on mouse tissues primarily from B6CF1 mice. 49,000 mice were irradiated: Death records were recorded for 42,000 mice; gross pathologies were recorded for 39,000 mice; and paraffin embedded tissues were preserved for most mice. Mouse record details type and source of radiation [gamma, neutrons]; dose and dose rate [including life span irradiation]; type and presence/absence of radioprotector treatment; tissue/animal morphology and pathology. Protracted low dose rate treatments, short term higher dose rate treatments, variable dose rates with a same total dose, etc. in some cases in conjunction with radioprotectors, were administered. Normal tissues, tumors, metastases were preserved. Standard tissues saved were : lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, any with gross lesions (including mammary glands, Harderian gland with eye, adrenal gland, gut, ovaries or testes, brain and pituitary, bone). Data are searchable and specimens can be obtained by request.

  2. Experiment Indicates Sound Waves Can Trigger Quakes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'memory' could spur aftershocks January 3, 2008 Experiment Indicates Sound Waves Can Trigger Quakes LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, January 3, 2008-Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher and his colleagues have shown that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. In a letter

  3. ORISE: Research Experiences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Experiences Research Experiences The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) administers more than 150 science education programs on behalf of the U.S....

  4. Tritium Plasma Experiment and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plasma Experiment and its role in PHENIX program Masashi Shimada, Chase Taylor Fusion ... ID Outline: 1. Motivation 2. Tritium Plasma Experiment 3. INLSTAR's role on US-Japan ...

  5. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility ...

  6. How Do We Know that Human Activities Have Influenced Global Climate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santer, Benjamin D.

    2007-11-05

    Human activities have significantly altered not only the chemical composition of Earth's atmosphere, but also the climate system. Human influences have led to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases, decreases in stratospheric ozone, and changes in the atmospheric burdens of sulfate and soot aerosols. All of these atmospheric constituents interact with incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation. Human-induced changes in the concentrations of these constituents modify the natural radiative balance of Earth's atmosphere, and therefore perturb climate. Quantifying the size of the human effect on climate is a difficult statistical problem. 'Fingerprint' methods are typically used for this purpose. These methods involve rigorous statistical comparisons of modeled and observed climate change patterns. Fingerprinting assumes that each individual influence on climate has a unique signature in climate records. The climate fingerprints in response to different forcing factors are typically estimated with computer models, which can be used to perform the controlled experiments that we cannot conduct in the real world. One criticism of the findings of previous scientific assessments is that they have relied heavily on fingerprint studies involving changes in near-surface temperature. Recent fingerprint work, however, has considered a variety of other climate variables, such as ocean heat content, stratospheric temperatures, Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent, sea level pressure, atmospheric water vapor, and the height of the tropopause. These studies illustrate that a human-induced climate change signal is identifiable in many different variables and geographic regions, and that the climate system is telling us an internally- and physically-consistent story.

  7. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  9. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anger, Hal O.; Martin, Donn C.; Lampton, Michael L.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  10. RADIATION SHIELDING COMPOSITION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunegan, H.L.

    1963-01-29

    A light weight radiation shielding composition is described whose mechanical and radiological properties can be varied within wide limits. The composition of this shielding material consists of four basic ingredients: powder of either Pb or W, a plastic resin, a resin plasticizer, and a polymerization catalyst to promote an interaction of the plasticizer with the plastic resin. Air may be mixed into the above ingredients in order to control the density of the final composition. For equivalent gamma attenuation, the shielding composition weighs one-third to one-half as much as conventional Pb shielding. (AEC)

  11. RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

  12. Analysis of Contribution from Edge Radiation to Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Liu, P. Evtushenko, A. Freyberger, C. Liu, A.H. Lumpkin

    2009-05-01

    Beam size measurement with near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been carried out successfully at CEBAF. The ODR station is installed on the Hall-A beam line after eight bending magnets. The ODR images were affected by an unexpected radiation. Some calculations for analyzing the source of the radiation will be presented. Furthermore, two schemes will be proposed to alleviate the contamination.

  13. Pulsed reactor experiments at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes dynamic experiments for 3 pulsed reactors. 1st reactor was pulsed from some average power by rotating a partial Be reflector past an unreflected core face; the other 2 reactors were pulsed by rapid insertion of a fuel rod into the unmoderated and unreflected reactor at essentially zero neutron level with no significant neutron source present. The first reactor was a mockup of an EURATOM design (never constructed) of the proposed SORA Reactor, and the other two were the Health Physics Research Reactor and the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor (APRFR). This paper describes the experiments performed in initial testing of these systems, including destructive tests of APRFR, to set operating limits for this type of reactor in pulsed operation. All the experiments described were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility.

  14. Pleiades Experiments on the NIF: Phase II-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benstead, James; Morton, John; Guymer, Thomas; Garbett, Warren; Stevenson, Mark; Moore, Alastair; Kline, John; Schmidt, Derek; Perry, Ted; Lanier, Nick; Workman, Jonathan

    2015-06-08

    Pleiades was a radiation transport campaign fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) between 2011 and 2014. The primary goals of the campaign were to develop and characterise a reproducible ~350eV x-ray drive and to constrain a number of material data properties required to successfully model the propagation of radiation through two low-density foam materials. A further goal involved the development and qualification of diagnostics for future radiation transport experiments at NIF. Pleiades was a collaborative campaign involving teams from both AWE and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  15. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  16. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T; Phillips, Rick; Erickson, Marjorie A; Kirk, Mark T; Stevens, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format, for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.

  17. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  18. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  19. Operating Experience Committee Charter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Operating Experience Committe Charter explains the purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE) Operating Experience Committee (OEC), which is to support line management within DOE and the DOE community in developing and sustaining effective oeprating experience programs so that lessons from inernal and external operating experience lead to improvement in future operational and safety performance.

  20. Deterministic methods in radiation transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  2. CASL - Radiation Transport Methods Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Transport Methods Update The Radiation Transport Methods (RTM) focus area is responsible for the development of methods, algorithms, and implementations of radiation transport methods as they apply to the design and analysis of light water nuclear reactors. the fundamental areas of investigation in RTM include high-order deterministic transport low-order transport approximations multigroup cross section generation depletion as it applies to in-core neutronics and material coupling

  3. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer

  4. Modulation and amplification of radiative far field heat transfer: Towards a simple radiative thermal transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joulain, Karl; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-03-30

    We show in this article that phase change materials (PCM) exhibiting a phase transition between a dielectric state and a metallic state are good candidates to perform modulation as well as amplification of radiative thermal flux. We propose a simple situation in plane parallel geometry where a so-called radiative thermal transistor could be achieved. In this configuration, we put a PCM between two blackbodies at different temperatures. We show that the transistor effect can be achieved easily when this material has its critical temperature between the two blackbody temperatures. We also see that the more the material is reflective in the metallic state, the more switching effect is realized, whereas the more PCM transition is stiff in temperature, the more thermal amplification is high. We finally take the example of VO{sub 2} that exhibits an insulator-metallic transition at 68 °C. We show that a demonstrator of a radiative transistor could easily be achieved in view of the heat flux levels predicted. Far-field thermal radiation experiments are proposed to back the results presented.

  5. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  6. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  7. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  8. Presentation: Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A briefing to the Secretary's Energy Advisory Board on Synchrotron Radiation Light Sources delivered by Patricia Dehmer, U.S. Department of Energy

  9. Radiator Labs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority estimates that 15 to 30 percent of the heat is wasted by overheating of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a ...

  10. Minibeam radiation therapy for the management of osteosarcomas: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martnez-Rovira, I.; Prezado, Y.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) exploits the well-established tissue-sparing effect provided by the combination of submillimetric field sizes and a spatial fractionation of the dose. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility and potential therapeutic gain of MBRT, in comparison with conventional radiotherapy, for osteosarcoma treatments. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (PENELOPE/PENEASY code) were used as a method to study the dose distributions resulting from MBRT irradiations of a rat femur and a realistic human femur phantoms. As a figure of merit, peak and valley doses and peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDR) were assessed. Conversion of absorbed dose to normalized total dose (NTD) was performed in the human case. Several field sizes and irradiation geometries were evaluated. Results: It is feasible to deliver a uniform dose distribution in the target while the healthy tissue benefits from a spatial fractionation of the dose. Very high PVDR values (?20) were achieved in the entrance beam path in the rat case. PVDR values ranged from 2 to 9 in the human phantom. NTD{sub 2.0} of 87 Gy might be reached in the tumor in the human femur while the healthy tissues might receive valley NTD{sub 2.0} lower than 20 Gy. The doses in the tumor and healthy tissues might be significantly higher and lower than the ones commonly delivered used in conventional radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained dose distributions indicate that a gain in normal tissue sparing might be expected. This would allow the use of higher (and potentially curative) doses in the tumor. Biological experiments are warranted.

  11. JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JOINT EPADOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPADOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No ...

  12. RADIATION TRANSPORT FOR EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS: OPACITY REGROUPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollaeger, Ryan T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison 1500 Engineering Drive, 410 ERB, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Van Rossum, Daniel R., E-mail: wollaeger@wisc.edu, E-mail: daan@flash.uchicago.edu [Flash Center for Computational Science, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) and Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) are methods used to stochastically solve the radiative transport and diffusion equations, respectively. These methods combine into a hybrid transport-diffusion method we refer to as IMC-DDMC. We explore a multigroup IMC-DDMC scheme that in DDMC, combines frequency groups with sufficient optical thickness. We term this procedure ''opacity regrouping''. Opacity regrouping has previously been applied to IMC-DDMC calculations for problems in which the dependence of the opacity on frequency is monotonic. We generalize opacity regrouping to non-contiguous groups and implement this in SuperNu, a code designed to do radiation transport in high-velocity outflows with non-monotonic opacities. We find that regrouping of non-contiguous opacity groups generally improves the speed of IMC-DDMC radiation transport. We present an asymptotic analysis that informs the nature of the Doppler shift in DDMC groups and summarize the derivation of the Gentile-Fleck factor for modified IMC-DDMC. We test SuperNu using numerical experiments including a quasi-manufactured analytic solution, a simple 10 group problem, and the W7 problem for Type Ia supernovae. We find that opacity regrouping is necessary to make our IMC-DDMC implementation feasible for the W7 problem and possibly Type Ia supernova simulations in general. We compare the bolometric light curves and spectra produced by the SuperNu and PHOENIX radiation transport codes for the W7 problem. The overall shape of the bolometric light curves are in good agreement, as are the spectra and their evolution with time. However, for the numerical specifications we considered, we find that the peak luminosity of the light curve calculated using SuperNu is ?10% less than that calculated using PHOENIX.

  13. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  14. Radiation imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  15. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of Human Argonaute2: A Programmable Ribonuclease July 2013 SSRL Science Summary by Manuel Gnida, SLAC Office of Communications Figure RNA degradation is an important process in all organisms with functions including cellular clean-up of unwanted RNA, defense against RNA viruses, and a variety of other cellular strategies involving RNA modifications. RNA degradation is mediated by ribonucleases (RNases), which are for the most part relatively non-specific. However, Argonaute proteins

  16. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  17. Spectral brilliance of channeling radiation at the ASTA photoinjector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sen, Tanaji; Lynn, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We study channeling radiation from electron beams with energies under 100 MeV. We introduce a phenomenological model of dechanneling, correct nonradiative transition rates from thermal scattering, and discuss in detail the population dynamics in low-order bound states. These are used to revisit the X-ray properties measured at the ELBE facility in Forschungszentrum Dresden–Rosenstock (FZDR), extract parameters for dechanneling states, and obtain satisfactory agreement with measured photon yields. The importance of rechanneling phenomena in thick crystals is emphasized. The model is then used to calculate the expected X-ray energies, linewidths and brilliance for forthcoming channeling radiation experiments at Fermilab's ASTA photoinjector.

  18. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  19. Trichodermin induces cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chondrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Chen-Ming; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Tzeng, Wen-Pei; Hsiao, Che-Jen; Liu, Shih-Chia; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-10-15

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor, and it responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Nalanthamala psidii was described originally as Myxosporium in 1926. This is the first study to investigate the anti-tumor activity of trichodermin (trichothec-9-en-4-ol, 12,13-epoxy-, acetate), an endophytic fungal metabolite from N. psidii against human chondrosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that trichodermin induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353 cells) instead of primary chondrocytes. In addition, trichodermin triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein levels of IRE1, p-PERK, GRP78, and GRP94, which were characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels. Furthermore, trichodermin induced the upregulation of Bax and Bid, the downregulation of Bcl-2, and the dysfunction of mitochondria, which released cytochrome c and activated caspase-3 in human chondrosarcoma. In addition, animal experiments illustrated reduced tumor volume, which led to an increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and an increased level of cleaved PARP protein following trichodermin treatment. Together, this study demonstrates that trichodermin is a novel anti-tumor agent against human chondrosarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. - Highlights: Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma apoptosis. ER stress is involved in trichodermin-induced cell death. Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma death in vivo.

  20. Modeling of laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitomer, S.; Jones, R.D.; Howsare, C.

    1989-01-01

    The large-scale radiation-hydrodynamics computer code LASNEX, has been used to model experimental results in the laser ablation and fragmentation of renal and biliary calculi. Recent experiments have demonstrated laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi in vitro and in vivo. In the interaction, laser light incident upon the calculus is of sufficient intensity to produce a plasma (a hot ionized gas). The physical picture which emerges is as follows. The plasma couples to acoustic and shear waves which then propagate through the dense stone material, causing spall and fracture by reflection from material discontinuities or boundaries. Experiments have thus far yielded data on the interaction against which models can be tested. Data on the following have been published: (1) light emission, (2) absorption and emission spectra, (3) fragmentation efficiency, (4) cavitation bubble dynamics and (5) mass removal. We have performed one dimensional simulations of the laser-matter interaction to elucidate the important physical mechanisms. We find that good quantitative fits between simulation and experiment are obtained for visible light emission, electron temperature, electron density, plasma pressure and cavitation bubble growth. With regard to mass removal, experiment and simulation are consistent with each other and give an excellent estimate of the ablation threshold. The modeling indicates that a very small ablation layer at the surface of the calculus is responsible for significant mass loss by fragmentation within the bulk of the calculus. With such quantitative fits in hand, we believe this type of modeling can now be applied to the study of other procedures involving plasma formation of interest to the medical community. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of epidemiologic studies using multistage

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 1999 ARM Facilities Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, a multiprogram laboratory operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Technical Contact: Douglas L. Sisterson Editor: Donna J. Holdridge What's New The month of March will be busy at the ARM SGP CART site. Several Intensive Observation Period (IOP) experiments will be taking place concurrently. These include the Spring Single-Column Model (SCM) IOP on

  3. Operating Experience Committee Charter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Operating Experience Committee (OEC) charter provides a description of the OEC's purpose, background, membership, functions, and operations.

  4. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  5. Non-Targeted Effects Induced by Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Potential Impact on Radiation Induced Health Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-01-01

    Not-targeted effects represent a paradigm shift from the "DNA centric" view that ionizing radiation only elicits biological effects and subsequent health consequences as a result of an energy deposition event in the cell nucleus. While this is likely true at higher radiation doses (> 1Gy), at low doses (< 100mGy) non-targeted effects associated with radiation exposure might play a significant role. Here definitions of non-targeted effects are presented, the potential mechanisms for the communication of signals and signaling networks from irradiated cells/tissues are proposed, and the various effects of this intra- and intercellular signaling are described. We conclude with speculation on how these observations might lead to and impact long-term human health outcomes.

  6. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riedel, Richard A.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Clonts, Lloyd G.; Cooper, Ronald G.

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  7. Radiation-induced lung injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

  8. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  9. ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protecting Human Subjects Protecting Human Subjects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Program exists to ensure that all research conducted at DOE ...

  10. Human Resources Specialist (Human Resources Development)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Leadership and Organizational Development group of Learning and Development (NHT), Human Capital Management (NH), Chief Administrative Officer (N). Human Capital...

  11. RADIATION DETECTING AND TELEMETERING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, H.K.

    1959-12-15

    A system is presented for measuring ionizing radiation at several remote stations and transmitting the measured information by radio to a central station. At each remote station a signal proportioned to the counting rate is applied across an electrical condenser made of ferroelectric material. The voltage across the condenser will vary as a function of the incident radiation and the capacitance of the condenser will vary accordingly. This change in capacitance is used to change the frequency of a crystalcontrolled oscillator. The output of the oscillator is coupled to an antenna for transmitting a signal proportional to the incident radiation.

  12. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  13. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  14. Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS), ORAU Director Oak Rigde Associated Universities (ORAU) Radiation Emergency ...

  15. STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE The Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STANFORD SYNCHROTRON RADIATION LIGHTSOURCE The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory produces extremely bright X-rays used to study our ...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-027 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  17. AUDIT REPORT Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility OAI-M-16-10 May 2016 U.S. ... Audit Report on the "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility" ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-037 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  19. Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Radiation Budget from ARM Satellite Retrievals P. Minnis, D. P. Kratz, and T. P. ... Hampton, Virginia Introduction Since the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ...

  20. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Registries The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) maintains a number of radiation ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  2. Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation DetectionFluorescent Nanoparticles for Radiation Detection Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL ...

  3. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Treatment Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Medications The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) is a valuable resource in the use of drug therapies to treat radiation exposure. REACTS ...

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-069 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation ...

  6. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rapidly estimate internal and external radiation dose magnitudes that can be used to help ... (PDF) Health Concerns Related to Radiation Exposure of the Female Nuclear Medicine ...

  7. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource: SPEAR3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In 1990, the machine was dedicatedto synchrotron radiation research. Two particular SPEAR ... SPEAR also produces intense beam of synchrotron radiation -- ultraviolet and x-ray photons ...

  8. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2014 Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2014.

  9. DOE 2014 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    available on the U.S. Department of Energy Radiation Exposure Monitoring System Program Web Site at: http:energy.govehssoccupational-radiation-exposure Foreword iii MATTHEW B....

  10. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Preparedeness Conference | How ORISE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Emergency Preparedness Conference White House thanks ORISE for assisting CDC in hosting radiation emergency preparedness conference How ORISE is Making a Difference The...

  11. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2009 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2009.

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1996 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1996.

  13. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2010 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2010.

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2003 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE 2003 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report analyzes occupational radiation exposures at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during 2003.

  15. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1995 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1995 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities during the calendar year 1995.

  16. 10 CFR 835- Occupational Radiation Protection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The rules in this part establish radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of DOE activities.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1998 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1998 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at DOE facilities during the calendar year 1998.

  18. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Apparatus, systems, and methods for...

  19. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting You are accessing a document from...

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  1. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of ...

  2. Hybrid Radiator Cooling System | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiator Cooling System Technology available for licensing: Hybrid radiator cooling system uses conventional finned air cooling under most driving conditions that would be...

  3. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search DOE Data Explorer Search Results Page 1 of 70 Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" 697 results for: "atmospheric radiation ...

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ...

  5. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. ... Our result can find applications in radiative thermal management. Authors: Ding, Ding 1 ...

  6. Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metamaterials - new opportunity in manipulating terahertz radiation...

  7. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems - Other Related Sites Other Related Sites DOE - Main Home Page - the home page for ...

  8. Radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy of condensed media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyamshev, L.M.; Chelnokov, B.I.

    1984-07-01

    Possibilities are discussed for the application of scanning radiation-thermoacoustic microscopy, using different types of radiation, for microstructure analysis. (AIP)

  9. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  10. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    employees during 1985. May 19, 2006 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor...

  11. A model code for the radiative theta pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Saw, S. H.; Lee, P. C. K.; Akel, M.; Damideh, V.; Khattak, N. A. D.; Mongkolnavin, R.; Paosawatyanyong, B.

    2014-07-15

    A model for the theta pinch is presented with three modelled phases of radial inward shock phase, reflected shock phase, and a final pinch phase. The governing equations for the phases are derived incorporating thermodynamics and radiation and radiation-coupled dynamics in the pinch phase. A code is written incorporating correction for the effects of transit delay of small disturbing speeds and the effects of plasma self-absorption on the radiation. Two model parameters are incorporated into the model, the coupling coefficient f between the primary loop current and the induced plasma current and the mass swept up factor f{sub m}. These values are taken from experiments carried out in the Chulalongkorn theta pinch.

  12. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  13. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagomarsino, Stefano Sciortino, Silvio; Bellini, Marco; Corsi, Chiara; Cindro, Vladimir; Kanxheri, Keida; Servoli, Leonello; Morozzi, Arianna; Passeri, Daniele; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-05-11

    The three-dimensional concept in particle detection is based on the fabrication of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solid state radiation sensor. It permits to improve the radiation resistance characteristics of a material by lowering the necessary bias voltage and shortening the charge carrier path inside the material. If applied to a long-recognized exceptionally radiation-hard material like diamond, this concept promises to pave the way to the realization of detectors of unprecedented performances. We fabricated conventional and three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors, and tested them before and after neutron damage up to 1.2 ×10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, 1 MeV-equivalent neutron fluence. We found that the signal collected by the three-dimensional detectors is up to three times higher than that of the conventional planar ones, at the highest neutron damage ever experimented.

  14. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  15. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  16. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  17. Multiple-mode radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claus, Liam D.; Derzon, Mark S.; Kay, Randolph R.; Bauer, Todd; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Henry, Michael David

    2015-08-25

    An apparatus for detecting radiation is provided. In embodiments, at least one sensor medium is provided, of a kind that interacts with radiation to generate photons and/or charge carriers. The apparatus also includes at least one electrode arrangement configured to collect radiation-generated charge from a sensor medium that has been provided. The apparatus also includes at least one photodetector configured to produce an electrical output in response to photons generated by radiation in such a sensor medium, and an electronic circuit configured to produce an output that is jointly responsive to the collected charge and to the photodetector output. At least one such electrode arrangement, at least one such photodetector, and at least one such sensor medium are combined to form an integral unit.

  18. Radiative capture reactions in astrophysics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brune, Carl R.; Davids, Barry

    2015-08-07

    Here, the radiative capture reactions of greatest importance in nuclear astrophysics are identified and placed in their stellar contexts. Recent experimental efforts to estimate their thermally averaged rates are surveyed.

  19. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  20. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a ...

  2. In-Ground Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stromswold, David C.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    2006-10-29

    Vertically oriented radiation detectors may not provide sufficient screening in rail or aviation applications. Railcars can be heavily shielded on the sides, reducing the sensitivity of vertically mounted monitors. For aviation, the distance required for wingspan clearance reduces a vertical detector’s coverage of the fuselage. To surmount these, and other, challenging operational and sensitivity issues, we have investigated the use of in-ground radiation detectors. (PIET-43741-TM-605).

  3. Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    overview Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility was established in 1990 to improve global climate models by increasing understanding of clouds and radiative feedbacks. Through the ARM Facility, DOE funded the development of highly instrumented research sites at strategic locations around the world: the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and North Slope of Alaska (NSA).

  4. Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment Water sampling and analysis at Idaho National Lab Water sampling and analysis at Idaho National Lab Idaho National Lab(INL) in partnership with the US Geological Service(USGS) sample, collect and analyze data in order to ensure that exposure to the public and the environment within and around the INL Complex are below the required authorized limits set by DOE. Read more

  5. Ultraviolet radiation as disinfection for fish surgical tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Geist, David R.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.

    2013-04-04

    Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelomic cavity of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When fish are implanted consecutively, as in large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. To determine the efficacy for this application, ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used to disinfect surgical tools exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agents of furunculosis, coldwater disease, bacterial kidney disease, and saprolegniasis (water mold), respectively. Four experiments were conducted to address the question of UV efficacy. In the first experiment, forceps were exposed to the three bacteria at three varying concentrations. After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods – 2, 5, or 15 min. UV radiation exposures at all durations were effective at killing all three bacteria on forceps at the highest bacteria concentrations. In the second experiment, stab scalpels, sutures, and needle holders were exposed to A. salmonicida using the same methodology as used in Experiment 1. UV radiation exposure at 5 and 15 min was effective at killing A. salmonicida on stab scalpels and sutures but not needle holders. In the third experiment, S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV radiation was effective at killing the water mold at all three exposure durations. Collectively, this study shows that UV

  6. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanal, Vandana [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2011-11-23

    At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

  7. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the

  8. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  9. The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: A review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wishart, James F.

    2014-07-03

    Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based on a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquidmore » radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.« less

  10. The radiation chemistry of ionic liquids: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Wishart, James F.

    2014-07-03

    Ionic liquids have received increasing attention as media for radiochemical separations. Recent literature includes examinations of the efficiencies and mechanisms of the solvent extraction of lanthanides, actinides and fission products into ionic liquid solutions. For radiochemical applications, including as replacement solvents for nuclear fuel reprocessing, a thorough understanding of the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids will be required. Such an understanding can be achieved based on a combination of steady-state radiolysis experiments coupled with post-irradiation product identification and pulse-radiolysis experiments to acquire kinetic information. These techniques allow for the elucidation of radiolytic mechanisms. This contribution reviews the current ionic liquid radiation chemistry literature as it affects separations, with these considerations in mind.

  11. Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to the control systems at the LANL plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, J.C.; Pope, N.

    1997-04-01

    The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for almost 20 years. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of several systems, including: HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, and electrical. The FCS was failing and needed to be replaced expeditiously. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility.

  12. Scalings for radiation from plasma bubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A. G. R.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, electron trajectories are studied analytically in the rest frame of a plasma bubble using nonevolving, linear, radial electric and azimuthal magnetic fields in a spherical structure. The electron motion is broken into two distinct periods; one where it orbits around the periphery to the rear of the bubble, and one where it performs oscillations within the bubble interior. By using the first period as an initial condition for the second, general scalings are developed for the x-ray radiation produced by the electron oscillations. The equations are also analyzed to give self-trapping conditions for the electron and to examine the sensitivity of the transverse momentum to small variations from an orbit that is a circular arc. The scalings are in reasonable agreement with recent experiments on x-ray generation and predict a peak spectral brightness of S{approx_equal}6x10{sup 27} photons/s mrad mm 0.1%BW of radiation with a critical energy of 300 MeV using a single stage accelerator driven by a 120 PW laser.

  13. Focusing monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suortti, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Bent crystals are introduced as monochromators for high energy synchrotron radiation. The reflectivity of the crystal can be calculated reliably from a model where the bent crystal is approximated by a stack of lamellas, which have a gradually changing angle of reflection. The reflectivity curves of a 4 mm thick, asymmetrically cut ({chi}=9.5{degree}) Si(220) crystal are measured using 150 keV radiation and varying the bending radius from 25 to 140 m. The width of the reflectivity curve is up to 50 times the Darwin width of the reflection, and the maximum reflectivity exceeds 80%. The crystal is used as a monochromator in Compton scattering measurements. The source is on the focusing circle, so that the resolution is limited essentially by the detector/analyzer. A wide bandpass, sharply focused beam is attained when the source is outside the focusing circle in the transmission geometry. In a test experiment. 10{sup 12} photons on an area of 2 mm{sup 2} was observed. The energy band was about 4 keV centered at 40 keV. A powder diffraction pattern of a few reflections of interest was recorded by an intrinsic Ge detector, and this demonstrated that a structural transition can be followed at intervals of a few milliseconds.

  14. ORISE: Faculty Research Experiences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faculty Research Experiences The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) provides short- and long-term programs for either faculty or faculty-student teams to...

  15. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Colloquium Experiment Research UserResearcher Information print version Research Highlights Public Interest Nuclear Physics Accelerator Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging ...

  16. Operating Experience Summaries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (AU) Office of Analysis publishes the Operating Experience Summary to exchange lessons-learned information between DOE facilities.

  17. ORISE: Research Team Experiences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Team Experiences The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) brings together mentors and research teams to serve as a bridge between the classroom and the...

  18. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Experiment ...

  19. ARM - Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links RHUBC Home NSA Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning RHUBC Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (pdf, 420kb) Science Plan (pdf) Operations Plan (pdf, 144kb) Instruments Contacts News ARM Press Release (Feb. 26, 2007) Images flickr_dots Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) Now available: RHUBC-II website Between February and March 2007 at the ACRF North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, high-spectral-resolution observations were collected by two

  20. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences...

  1. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1987-01-01

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  2. Liquid cooled fiber thermal radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1985-03-29

    A radiation-to-thermal receiver apparatus for collecting radiation and converting it to thermal energy is disclosed. The invention includes a fibrous mat material which captures radiation striking the receiver. Captured radiation is removed from the fibrous mat material by a transparent fluid within which the material is bathed.

  3. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  4. International Conference Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation SRI `94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report contains abstracts for the international conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. Computational and experimental research on infrared trace by human being contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong Zonglong; Yang Kuntao; Ding Wenxiu; Zhang Nanyangsheng; Zheng Wenheng

    2010-06-20

    The indoor detection of the human body's thermal trace plays an important role in the fields of infrared detecting, scouting, infrared camouflage, and infrared rescuing and tracking. Currently, quantitative description and analysis for this technology are lacking due to the absence of human infrared radiation analysis. To solve this problem, we study the heating and cooling process by observing body contact and removal on an object, respectively. Through finite-element simulation and carefully designed experiments, an analytical model of the infrared trace of body contact is developed based on infrared physics and heat transfer theory. Using this model, the impact of body temperature on material thermal parameters is investigated. The sensitivity of material thermal parameters, the thermal distribution, and the changes of the thermograph's contrast are then found and analyzed. Excellent matching results achieved between the simulation and the experiments demonstrate the strong impact of temperature on material thermal parameters. Conclusively, the new model, simulation, and experimental results are beneficial to the future development and implementation of infrared trace technology.

  6. Simulation-based computation of dose to humans in radiological environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breazeal, N.L.; Davis, K.R.; Watson, R.A.; Vickers, D.S.; Ford, M.S.

    1996-03-01

    The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans working in radiological environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO simulation software. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide radiation exposure information to, and collect radiation dose information from, workcell simulations. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these databases to compute and accumulate dose to programmable human models operating around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. The entire REMS capability can be operated from a single graphical user interface.

  7. Carcinoma of the anal canal: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sale, Charlotte; Moloney, Phillip; Mathlum, Maitham

    2013-12-15

    Patients with anal canal carcinoma treated with standard conformal radiotherapy frequently experience severe acute and late toxicity reactions to the treatment area. Roohipour et al. (Dis Colon Rectum 2008; 51: 14753) stated a patient's tolerance of chemoradiation to be an important prediction of treatment success. A new intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for anal carcinoma cases has been developed at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre aimed at reducing radiation to surrounding healthy tissue. A same-subject repeated measures design was used for this study, where five anal carcinoma cases at the Andrew Love Cancer Centre were selected. Conformal and IMRT plans were generated and dosimetric evaluations were performed. Each plan was prescribed a total of 54 Gray (Gy) over a course of 30 fractions to the primary site. The IMRT plans resulted in improved dosimetry to the planning target volume (PTV) and reduction in radiation to the critical structures (bladder, external genitalia and femoral heads). Statistically there was no difference between the IMRT and conformal plans in the dose to the small and large bowel; however, the bowel IMRT dosevolume histogram (DVH) doses were consistently lower. The IMRT plans were superior to the conformal plans with improved dose conformity and reduced radiation to the surrounding healthy tissue. Anecdotally it was found that patients tolerated the IMRT treatment better than the three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy. This study describes and compares the planning techniques.

  8. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benesch, Jay F.; Franklin, Gregg B.; Quinn, Brian P.; Paschke, Kent D.

    2015-11-30

    Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Labs Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5moreT. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR) from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.less

  9. BooNE Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Goals of BooNE BooNE in a Nutshell Making Neutrinos Detecting Neutrinos schematic of BooNE experiment A sample event (3M animated PDF file) A cosmic ray event as displayed by the MiniBooNE detector.

  10. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jrgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  12. Experiment summary for n/y attenuation through materials (Environments 1A).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2006-05-01

    The Radiation Effects Sciences (RES) program is responsible for conducting Neutron Gamma Energy Transport (NuGET) code validation. In support of this task, a series of experiments were conducted in the annular core research reactor (ACRR) to investigate the modification of the incident neutron/gamma environment by aluminum (Al6061) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spheres with 4-in and 7-in-diameter. The experiment series described in this report addresses several NuGET validation concerns. The validation experiment series also addresses the design and execution of proper reactor testing to match the hostile radiation environments and to match the component stresses that arise from the hostile radiation environments. This report summarizes the RES Validation: n/{gamma} Attenuation through Materials, Environments 1A, experiments conducted at the ACRR in FY 2003 using ACRR Experiment Plans 933 and 949.

  13. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  14. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring System (REMS) ORISE maintains large database of radition exposure records for the U.S. Department of Energy ORISE staff monitoring radiation data for DOE Rule 10 CFR 835 establishes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) occupational protection rule and requires assessment and recording of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or contamination. The Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) database is the radiation exposure data repository for all

  15. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  16. Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship: Implementation and Evaluation of a Bi-institutional Pilot Curriculum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Daniel W.; Spektor, Alexander; Rudra, Sonali; Ranck, Mark C.; Krishnan, Monica S.; Jimenez, Rachel B.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a structured didactic curriculum to complement clinical experiences during radiation oncology clerkships at 2 academic medical centers. Methods and Materials: A structured didactic curriculum was developed to teach fundamentals of radiation oncology and improve confidence in clinical competence. Curriculum lectures included: (1) an overview of radiation oncology (history, types of treatments, and basic clinic flow); (2) fundamentals of radiation biology and physics; and (3) practical aspects of radiation treatment simulation and planning. In addition, a hands-on dosimetry session taught students fundamentals of treatment planning. The curriculum was implemented at 2 academic departments in 2012. Students completed anonymous evaluations using a Likert scale to rate the usefulness of curriculum components (1 = not at all, 5 = extremely). Likert scores are reported as (median [interquartile range]). Results: Eighteen students completed the curriculum during their 4-week rotation (University of Chicago n=13, Harvard Longwood Campus n=5). All curriculum components were rated as extremely useful: introduction to radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); radiation biology and physics (5 [5-5]); practical aspects of radiation oncology (5 [4-5]); and the treatment planning session (5 [5-5]). Students rated the curriculum as “quite useful” to “extremely useful” (1) to help students understand radiation oncology as a specialty; (2) to increase student comfort with their specialty decision; and (3) to help students with their future transition to a radiation oncology residency. Conclusions: A standardized curriculum for medical students completing a 4-week radiation oncology clerkship was successfully implemented at 2 institutions. The curriculum was favorably reviewed. As a result of completing the curriculum, medical students felt more comfortable with their specialty decision and better prepared to begin radiation oncology residency.

  17. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilincarslan, S.; Akkurt, I.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-09-06

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  18. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference

  19. Booster Neutrino Experiment - Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    close The MiniBooNE Experiment next The Oscillating Neutrino The first phase of the Booster Neutrino Experiment (BooNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a smaller version of the final planned experiment, and has been dubbed "MiniBooNE." The physicists working on MiniBooNE are trying to find out more about the fundamental properties of neutrinos. But, what exactly is a neutrino? To answer that question, we need to look at what's called the Standard Model of particles and

  20. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  1. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  2. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  3. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1982-07-21

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  4. Imaging radiation detector with gain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1984-01-01

    A radiation imaging device which has application in x-ray imaging. The device can be utilized in CAT scanners and other devices which require high sensitivity and low x-ray fluxes. The device utilizes cumulative multiplication of charge carriers on the anode plane and the collection of positive ion charges to image the radiation intensity on the cathode plane. Parallel and orthogonal cathode wire arrays are disclosed as well as a two-dimensional grid pattern for collecting the positive ions on the cathode.

  5. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  6. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an...

  7. ATLAS APPROVED EXPERIMENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8MAY98 Exp Spokesperson Experiment Title Days 433-9 Miller Ion Irradiations of Anisotropic High-Tc Superconductors: Probing Dynamics of Magnetic Vortices 2 651-2 Paul...

  8. Experiment Scheduling Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Scheduling Committee Title Name Phome Email Deputy Director for Research Bob McKeown (757) 269-6481 bmck@jlab.org Physics Division AD (co-chair) Rolf Ent (757) 269-7373...

  9. Corporate Operating Experience Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program helps to prevent the recurrence of significant adverse events/trends by sharing performance information, lessons learned and good practices across the DOE complex.

  10. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  11. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  12. Fermilab | Tevatron | Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiments In this Section: Tevatron Experiments CDF DZero Energy Frontier Tevatron Before shutting down on Sept. 29, 2011, the Tevatron was the world's largest proton-antiproton collider. Residing at Fermilab, the Tevatron accelerated and stored beams of protons and antiprotons traveling in opposite directions around an underground ring four miles in circumference at almost the speed of light before colliding them at the center of two detectors. The detectors, called CDF, for Collider Detector

  13. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  14. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  15. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  16. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  17. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Kephart, J. D.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. III [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H. O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A. S.; Konovalov, S. I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Loach, J. C. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

    2011-12-16

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  18. Experiment Research | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Research Jefferson Lab has an ongoing and ambitious experimental program. Most experiments carried out with the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) are in the field of nuclear physics and can be described in terms of the following. Structure of the Nucleus Here at Jefferson Lab, we study the structure of nuclear matter: how protons and neutrons (called nucleons) combine to make the nucleus and what forces bind nucleons together. We also peer deep inside nucleons to

  19. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Safety Requirements Print Safety at the ALS The mission of the ALS is to "Support users in doing outstanding science in a safe environment." How Do I...? Complete an Experiment Safety Sheet? (Do this upon receiving beam time.) Complete Safety Training? Bring and Use Electrical Equipment at the ALS? Determine what Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Wear? Get Authorization to Work with Lasers at the ALS? Ship Radioactive Materials to LBNL for Use at the ALS? Ship Samples

  20. Tritium Plasma Experiment and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plasma Experiment and its role in PHENIX program Masashi Shimada, Chase Taylor Fusion Safety Program Idaho National Laboratory Rob Kolasinski Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Tritium Focus Group meeting September 23-25, 2014 at Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID Outline: 1. Motivation 2. Tritium Plasma Experiment 3. INL/STAR's role on US-Japan collaboration 4. Role of TPE in PHENIX project 5. TPE modification and development of plasma-driven permeation M.Shimada | Tritium Focus