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1

Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells  

SciTech Connect

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

1997-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

2

4-Hydroxyestradiol induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells: possible protection by NF-{kappa}B and ERK/MAPK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catechol estrogens, the hydroxylated metabolites of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), have been considered to be implicated in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE{sub 2}), an oxidized metabolite of E{sub 2} formed preferentially by cytochrome P450 1B1, reacts with DNA to form depurinating adducts thereby exerting genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. 4-OHE{sub 2} undergoes 2-electron oxidation to quinone via semiquinone, and during this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated to cause DNA damage and cell death. In the present study, 4-OHE{sub 2} was found to elicit cytotoxicity in cultured human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cells, which was blocked by the antioxidant trolox. MCF-10A cells treated with 4-OHE{sub 2} exhibited increased intracellular ROS accumulation and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, and underwent apoptosis as determined by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) was transiently activated by 4-OHE{sub 2} treatment. Cotreatment of MCF-10A cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, exacerbated 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cell death. 4-OHE{sub 2} also caused transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) involved in transmitting cell survival or death signals. A pharmacological inhibitor of ERK aggravated the 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity, supporting the pivotal role of ERK in protecting against catechol estrogen-induced oxidative cell death.

Chen Zhihua [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hye-Kyung [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hurh, Yeon-Jin [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

4

Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cellsmodulate the expression of ICE remain to be elucidated, asdo the in vivo substrates for ICE or related enzymes and the

Boudreau, Nancy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Persistence of gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in proliferating and nonproliferating human mammary epithelial cells after exposure to gamma-rays or iron ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate {gamma}-H2AX (phosphorylated histone H2AX) and 53BP1 (tumour protein 53 binding protein No. 1) foci formation and removal in proliferating and non-proliferating human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) after exposure to sparsely and densely ionizing radiation under different cell culture conditions. HMEC cells were grown either as monolayers (2D) or in extracellular matrix to allow the formation of acinar structures in vitro (3D). Foci numbers were quantified by image analysis at various time points after exposure. Our results reveal that in non-proliferating cells under 2D and 3D cell culture conditions, iron-ion induced {gamma}-H2AX foci were still present at 72 h after exposure, although 53BP1 foci returned to control levels at 48 h. In contrast in proliferating HMEC, both {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci decreased to control levels during the 24-48 h time interval after irradiation under 2D conditions. Foci numbers decreased faster after {gamma}-ray irradiation and returned to control levels by 12 h regardless of marker, cell proliferation status, and cell culture condition. Conclusions: The disappearance of radiation induced {gamma}-H2AX and 53BP1 foci in HMEC have different dynamics that depend on radiation quality and proliferation status. Notably, the general patterns do not depend on the cell culture condition (2D versus 3D). We speculate that the persistent {gamma}-H2AX foci in iron-ion irradiated non-proliferating cells could be due to limited availability of double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in G0/G1-phase, or that repair of complex DSB requires replication or chromatin remodeling.

Groesser, Torsten; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Chen, James; Costes, Sylvain V.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Parvin, Bahram; Rydberg, Bjorn

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

6

The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

7

Stepwise DNA Methylation Changes Are Linked to Escape from Defined Proliferation Barriers and Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization  

SciTech Connect

The timing and progression of DNA methylation changes during carcinogenesis are not completely understood. To develop a timeline of aberrant DNA methylation events during malignant transformation, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model of transformation. To acquire immortality and malignancy, the cultured finite lifespan HMEC must overcome two distinct proliferation barriers. The first barrier, stasis, is mediated by the retinoblastoma protein and can be overcome by loss of p16(INK4A) expression. HMEC that escape stasis and continue to proliferate become genomically unstable before encountering a second more stringent proliferation barrier, telomere dysfunction due to telomere attrition. Rare cells that acquire telomerase expression may escape this barrier, become immortal, and develop further malignant properties. Our analysis of HMEC transitioning from finite lifespan to malignantly transformed showed that aberrant DNA methylation changes occur in a stepwise fashion early in the transformation process. The first aberrant DNA methylation step coincides with overcoming stasis, and results in few to hundreds of changes, depending on how stasis was overcome. A second step coincides with immortalization and results in hundreds of additional DNA methylation changes regardless of the immortalization pathway. A majority of these DNA methylation changes are also found in malignant breast cancer cells. These results show that large-scale epigenetic remodeling occurs in the earliest steps of mammary carcinogenesis, temporally links DNA methylation changes and overcoming cellular proliferation barriers, and provides a bank of potential epigenetic biomarkers that mayprove useful in breast cancer risk assessment.

Novak, Petr; Jensen, Taylor J.; Garbe, James C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Futscher, Bernard W.

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

8

EGF-Receptor-Mediated Mammary Epithelial Cell Migration is Driven by Sustained ERK Signaling from Autocrine Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family ligands, as well as the receptors themselves, has been implicated in various types of cancers. EGF family ligands are synthesized as membrane-anchored proteins requiring proteolytic release to form the mature soluble factor. Despite the pathophysiological importance of autocrine systems, how the rate of protease-mediated ligand release quantitatively influences receptor-mediated signaling and consequent cell behavior is poorly understood. Therefore, we explored the relationship between autocrine EGF release rates and receptor-mediated ERK activation and migration in human mammary epithelial cells. A quantitative spectrum of EGF release rates was achieved using a set of chimeric transmembrane EGF ligand precursors modulated by the addition of the metalloprotease inhibitor batimastat. We found that ERK activation increased with increasing ligand release rates despite concomitant EGF receptor downregulation. Cell migration speed depended linearly on the steady-state phospho-ERK level obtained from either autocrine or exogenous ligand, but was much greater at any given phospho-ERK level for autocrine compared to exogenous stimulation. In contrast, cell proliferation rates were relatively constant across the various treatment conditions. Thus, in these cells, ERK-mediated migration stimulated by EGF receptor signaling is most sensitively regulated by autocrine ligand control mechanisms.

Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Opresko, Lee; Wells, Alan; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

GLUCOSE METABOLITE PATTERNS AS MARKERS OF FUNCTIONAL DIFFERENTIATION IN FRESHLY ISOLATED AND CULTURED MOUSE MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

In the mammary gland of nonruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lactation. We have measured the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U-{sup 14}C] glucose into intermediary metabolites and metabolic products in mammary epithelial cells from virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice and demonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate were important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells from pregnant mice have a pattern similar to freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. The pattern of cells from lactating mice is different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of the cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state.

Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissell, M.J.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage commitment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage commitment Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage commitment following radiation and TGFβ I. Fernandez-Garcia New York University School of Medicine Abstract In the present study, we evaluated cell lineage plasticity and its phenotypic effects in the non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A in response to ionizing radiation and TGFΒ. We have recently shown that the molecular profiles of mammary tumors and normal mammary gland from irradiated mice are distinct from those arising in unirradiated mice by virtue of enriched stem cell and progenitor markers. Consistent with this, we found that radiation (10-100 cGy) increases the mammary repopulation capacity in a functional and marker assays (Nguyen et al. Cancer Cell 2011). Some studies have shown that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

11

Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy J. Tyson McDonald Steward St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center Abstract Primary tissue represents a better model for studies than immortalized cell lines that are adapted to culture conditions and may no longer reflect a realistic biological state. In this study, normal tissues from clinically indicated robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were grossly identified, sectioned into frozen or formalin fixed samples, and processed as primary cultures. Normal epithelial and fibroblast primary cell cultures were derived from regions of normal tissue, as confirmed by analysis on adjacent tissue by hematoxylin and eosin staining, were exposed to acute

13

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

14

1 Integrin Deletion from the Basal Compartment of the Mammary Epithelium Affects Stem Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1386 (2002). 24. Matulka, L. A., Triplett, A. A., and Wagner, K. U. Parity-induced mammary epithelial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage commitment following radiation and TGFβ  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage Disrupted epithelial morphogenesis and aberrant lineage commitment following radiation and TGFβ I. Fernandez-Garcia and M.H. Barcellos-Hoff Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NY. In the present study, we evaluated cell lineage plasticity and its phenotypic effects in the non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A in response to ionizing radiation and TGFβ. We have recently shown that the molecular profiles of mammary tumors and normal mammary gland from irradiated mice are distinct from those arising in unirradiated mice by virtue of enriched stem cell and progenitor markers. Consistent with this, we found that radiation (10-100 cGy) increases the mammary repopulation capacity in a functional and marker assays (Nguyen et al. Cancer Cell

16

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary glandas a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Ju Han 1 , Sandhya Bhatnagar 1 , Nadire Duru 1 , Zhi Hu 1 , Jian-Hua Mao 1 , Mina Bissell 1 , Joe Gray 1,2 , Gary H. Karpen 1 , Priscilla K. Cooper 1 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 Current affiliation: Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health Science Univ, Portland, OR Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer.

17

Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections  

SciTech Connect

Real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of breast cancer initiation and progression. In this paper we present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced, and sections are stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy and their background is corrected using a phantom image. We then use the Fast-Marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the Level-Set method which converges to an accurate (sub-pixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tim H.-M., E-mail: Tim.Huang@osumc.ed [Human Cancer Genetics Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta [Centre for Applied Medical Research, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Rouzaut, Ana [Centre for Applied Medical Research, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, Avenida Pio XII, 55, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)], E-mail: arouzaut@unav.es

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells  

SciTech Connect

In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Continuous human cell lines and method of making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

Stampfer, Martha R. (Oakland, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends low dose damage response pathways in the mouse mammary glands depends on genotype, tissue compartment, exposure regimen, and sampling times Joe Gray & Andrew Wyrobek Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The objectives of this research are to characterize the early and persistent low-dose and adaptive response (AR) damage surveillance networks in mammary glands of radiation sensitive and resistant strains of mice to identify the molecular signatures/mechanisms associated with nonlinear modifications of risk for mammary gland cancer. Our approach uses low-dose exposure regimens that have been reported to induce mammary gland cancer in sensitive strains to determine whether low-dose induced pathways are differentially expressed in epithelial or stromal cells and to determine

24

Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

Regulation of Mammary Lactogenic Differentiation by Singleminded-2s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sim2s is a basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) transcription factor. In Drosophila, the Sim2 homolog, sim, is necessary for cell fate determination during central nervous system (CNS) development. In mammals, both Sim2 isoforms are involved in development of various tissues, including muscle, cartilage, and mammary gland. Loss-of-function studies revealed a role for Sim2s in specifying epithelial cell fate during mammary development and inhibiting growth and invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells. This study determined the role of Sim2s in mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Our hypothesis is that Sim2s is sufficient to promote lactogenic differentiation in vivo, characterized by expression of lactation-specific genes. Two models were used to test this hypothesis: (1) a transgenic mouse, expressing Sim2s under control of the MMTV-LTR, and (2) the mouse mammary epithelial cell line HC11. Together, these models allow analysis of the effect of Sim2s on global mammary gland differentiation and the mechanism through which it accomplishes this in a relatively homogenous population of cells. We determined that precocious expression of Sim2s in vivo is associated with upregulation of a subset of milk protein genes in nulliparous females. During early pregnancy, Sim2s regulation of lactogenic differentiation extended to a larger group of genes. Following pup removal, Sim2s appears to promote survival of alveolar epithelial cells. In vitro, Sim2s expression is necessary for maximal Csn2 expression, as determined by loss-of-function studies. Overexpression of Sim2s is sufficient to enhance prolactin-mediated Csn2 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed in HC11 cells revealed enhanced recruitment of Stat5a and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) to the regulatory region of Csn2 in the presence of Sim2s. In addition, Sim2s and RNAPII were found in a complex that was localized to both the promoter and coding region of the Csn2 gene. These studies support the idea that Sim2s is upregulated in a developmental stage-specific manner in the mouse mammary gland to promote the survival and differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells expressing high levels of milk protein genes. Further, Sim2s may regulate the function of a specific subset of alveolar cells by targeting the RNAPII holoenzyme complex to genes expressed during lactogenic differentiation.

Wellberg, Elizabeth

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A tool for the quantitative spatial analysis of mammary gland epithelium  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a method for the spatial analysis of complex cellular systems based on a multiscale study of neighborhood relationships. A function to measure those relationships, M, is introduced. The refined Relative Neighborhood Graph is then presented as a method to establish vicinity relationships within layered cellular structures, and particularized to epithelial cell nuclei in the mammary gland. Finally, the method is illustrated with two examples that show interactions within one population of epithelial cells and between two different populations.

Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

2004-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

27

Higher order nuclear organization in growth arrest of human mammary epithelial cells: A novel role for telomere-associated protein TIN2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program ( DAMD17-02-1-0438California Breast Cancer Research Program (7FB0018 toJoyce Fox Jordan Cancer Research Program at the Purdue

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Biomolecular interactions and responses of human epithelial and macrophage cells to engineered nanomaterials.  

SciTech Connect

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in commercial products, particularly in the biomedical, cosmetic, and clothing industries. For example, pants and shirts are routinely manufactured with silver nanoparticles to render them 'wrinkle-free.' Despite the growing applications, the associated environmental health and safety (EHS) impacts are completely unknown. The significance of this problem became pervasive within the general public when Prince Charles authored an article in 2004 warning of the potential social, ethical, health, and environmental issues connected to nanotechnology. The EHS concerns, however, continued to receive relatively little consideration from federal agencies as compared with large investments in basic nanoscience R&D. The mounting literature regarding the toxicology of ENMs (e.g., the ability of inhaled nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier; Kwon et al., 2008, J. Occup. Health 50, 1) has spurred a recent realization within the NNI and other federal agencies that the EHS impacts related to nanotechnology must be addressed now. In our study we proposed to address critical aspects of this problem by developing primary correlations between nanoparticle properties and their effects on cell health and toxicity. A critical challenge embodied within this problem arises from the ability to synthesize nanoparticles with a wide array of physical properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, surface chemistry, etc.), which in turn creates an immense, multidimensional problem in assessing toxicological effects. In this work we first investigated varying sizes of quantum dots (Qdots) and their ability to cross cell membranes based on their aspect ratio utilizing hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy. We then studied toxicity of epithelial cell lines that were exposed to different sized gold and silver nanoparticles using advanced imaging techniques, biochemical analyses, and optical and mass spectrometry methods. Finally we evaluated a new assay to measure transglutaminase (TG) activity; a potential marker for cell toxicity.

Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Brozik, Susan Marie; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Bachand, George David; Bachand, Marlene; Aaron, Jesse S.; Allen, Amy; Seagrave, Jean-Clare

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1  

SciTech Connect

An intact basement membrane (BM) is essential for the proper function, differentiation and morphology of many epithelial cells. The disruption or loss of this BM occurs during normal development as well as in the disease state. To examine the importance of BM during mammary gland development in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that inappropriately express autoactivating isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. The mammary glands from these mice are both functionally and morphologically altered throughout development. We have now documented a dramatic incidence of breast tumors in several independent lines of these mice. These data suggest that overexpression of stromelysin-1 and disruption of the BM may be a key step in the multi-step process of breast cancer.

Sympson, Carolyn J; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

26, 2011 26, 2011 Gene expression analysis of human primary prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell cultures to an acute dose of 10cGy J. Tyson McDonald, Julia Fox, Heather Szelag, Annie Kang, Heiko Enderling, Peter Nowd, Douglas Scheinder, Giannoula Lakka Klement, Ingolf Tuerk, and Lynn Hlatky Center of Cancer Systems Biology, Steward St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, 736 Cambridge Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02135. Primary tissue represents a better model for studies than immortalized cell lines that are adapted

31

Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression  

SciTech Connect

Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.

Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J..

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Concurrent expression of heme oxygenase-1 and p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO activity on the expression of p53 in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced the expression of both HO-1 and p53 without significant toxicity to the cells. In addition, the blockage of HO activity with the iron chelator DFO or with HO-1 siRNA inhibited the CoPP-induced expression of p53. Similarly, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO, suppressed p53 expression in ARPE-19 cells, although ZnPP increased the level of HO-1 protein while inhibiting HO activity. Also, CoPP-induced p53 expression was not affected by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these results, we conclude that HO activity is involved in the regulation of p53 expression in a ROS-independent mechanism, and also suggest that the expression of p53 in ARPE-19 cells is associated with heme metabolites such as biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and iron produced by the activity of HO.

Lee, Sang Yull [Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hong Jae [Department of General Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kang Mi; Song, Ju Dong [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 1-10 Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun Taeg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Chonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chul [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, 1-10 Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ycpark@pusan.ac.kr

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expression of many genes, such as {beta}-casein, c-myc, and cyclin D1, is altered by lactogenic hormone stimulation during mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role to establish gene expression required to initiate milk production as well as transcriptional control. AUF1 protein, a member of the AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein family, plays a role in ARE-mRNA turnover by regulating mRNA stability and/or translational control. Cytoplasmic localization of AUF1 protein is critically linked to function. We show that as the mammary gland differentiates, AUF1 protein moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, in mammary gland epithelial cells (HC11), stimulation by lactogenic hormone decreased cytoplasmic and increased nuclear AUF1 levels. Direct binding of AUF1 protein was observed on c-myc mRNA, but not {beta}-casein or cyclin D1 mRNA. AUF1 downregulation in HC11 cells increased the expression of {beta}-casein mRNA and decreased the expression of c-myc mRNA by lactogenic hormone. Conversely, overexpression of AUF1 inhibited these effects of lactogenic hormone stimulation in HC11 cells. These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals.

Nagaoka, Kentaro [Laboratory of Animal Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)]. E-mail: akenaga@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Tetsuya [Laboratory of Animal Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Imakawa, Kazuhiko [Laboratory of Animal Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Sakai, Senkiti [Laboratory of Animal Breeding, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia  

SciTech Connect

In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

35

Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia  

SciTech Connect

In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer. Background and Significance: It is increasingly believed that individuals differ in their genetic susceptibilities to environmental insults for diseases such as cancer. This concern is especially important for the large numbers of individuals receiving low-dose exposures in the nuclear energy

37

A Cytogenetic Footprint for Mammary Carcinomas Induced by PhIP in Rats  

SciTech Connect

PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), a mutagen/carcinogen belonging to the class of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meats, is a mammary gland carcinogen in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of certain human cancers including breast cancer. To gain insight into the genomic alterations associated with PhIP-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis, we used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to examine chromosomal abnormalities in rat mammary carcinomas induced by PhIP, and for comparison, by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), a potent experimental mammary carcinogen. There was a consistent and characteristic pattern of chromosome-region loss in PhIP-induced carcinomas that clearly distinguished them from carcinomas induced by DMBA.

Christian, A T

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Differential response of nontumorigenic and tumorigenic human papillomavirus type 16-positive epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta 1. Cancer Res  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transforming growth factor (TGF) ßsare multifunctional polypeptide growth factors with diverse biological effects, including inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the possible role of 1<,!•/<, in the regulation of papillomavirus infection and papillomavirus-associated transformation, we compared the response to TGF/SI of normal keratinocytes, human papillomavirus, type 16 (HPV 16)-positive-immortalized keratinocytes (nontumorigenic), and HPV 16positive cervical carcinoma cells (tumorigenic) with respect to DNA synthesis and protooncogene expression. All HPV 16-immortalized cell lines were nearly as inhibited by TGF/3, as normal keratinocytes, whereas two cervical carcinoma cell lines (Cask! and Siha) were refractory to growth inhibition by TGF/9]. Cell surface receptors for TGF/9, were present on both normal and carcinoma cell lines. In all cases, growth

L. Braun; M. Drst; R. Mikumo; Et Al; Cancer Res; Contact The Aacr Publications; L. Braun; M. Durst; R. Mikumo

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways  

SciTech Connect

Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin-1 and uPA were weakly induced, if at all, in hydrocortisonetreated mice. Furthermore, mRNA for membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase decreased after hydrocortisone treatment and paralleled the almost complete inhibition of activation of latent gelatinase A. Concomitantly, the gland filled with an overabundance of milk. Our data support the hypothesis that there are at least two distinct phases of involution: an initial phase, characterized by induction of the apoptosis-associated genes SGP-2 and ICE and apoptosis of fully differentiated mammary epithelial cells without visible degradation of the extracellular matrix, and a second phase, characterized by extracellular matrix remodeling and altered mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, followed by apoptosis of cells that are losing differentiated functions.

Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta  

SciTech Connect

We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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41

Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development  

SciTech Connect

Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal cells produce fibronectin, collagens, proteoglycans, and some components of the BM, as well as a number of proteinases that can effectively degrade BM constituents. Stromal and epithelial cells of the mammary gland interact to regulate BM synthesis and degradation and, thus, mammary function. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes involved in mammary gland morphogenesis and involution. During late pregnancy and lactation, when the gland becomes fully functional, the expression of MMPs is low however, during involution, when the gland loses function and is remodeled, synthesis of ECM-degrading proteinases increases dramatically.11 Disturbance of the balance between MMPs and MMP inhibitors leads to either unscheduled involution or prolonged lactation. Mammary glands of virgin mice expressing an autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene display supernumerary branches and precocious alveolar development, accompanied by the synthesis of {beta}-casein at levels found normally only during early pregnancy. During late pregnancy, increased expression of the SL-1 transgene leads to a reduction in expression of pregnancy-specific genes. Later in life, some SL-1 transgenic mice develop hyperplastic, dysplastic, and ductal carcinoma in situ-like lesions, as well as malignant tumors. Little is known about the sequence of changes that occurs before formation of an overt reactive stroma in breast cancer. In the present study, we address the question of whether and how the stromal compartment is altered as a consequence of inappropriate SL-1 transgene expression in the epithelium.

Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

1998-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

42

Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology  

SciTech Connect

The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane  

SciTech Connect

An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar-like multicellular architecture. This culture system is unique among models of epithelial cell polarity in that it demonstrates several aspects of epithelial cell polarization: vectorial secretion, apical junctions, a sequestered compartment and formation of a basal lamina. These lumina-containing structures therefore reproduce the dual role of mammary epithelia to secrete vectorially and to sequester milk proteins. Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression of tissue-like morphogenesis.

BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mammary gland tumor formation in transgenic mice overexpressing stromelysin-1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 (SL-1) in the mammary gland.the mammary glands from SL-1 transgenic mice, which expressThe mechanism by which SL-1 acts as a morphogen, leading to

Sympson, Carolyn J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression  

SciTech Connect

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene expression and morphogenesis in vivo.

Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Misregulation of Stromelysin-1 in Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells Accompanies Acquisition of Stromelysin-1 dependent Invasive Properties  

SciTech Connect

Stromelysin-1 is a member of the metalloproteinase family of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes that regulates tissue remodeling. We previously established a transgenic mouse model in which rat stromelysin-1 targeted to the mammary gland augmented expression of endogenous stromelysin-1, disrupted functional differentiation, and induced mammary tumors. A cell line generated from an adenocarcinoma in one of these animals and a previously described mammary tumor cell line generated in culture readily invaded both a reconstituted basement membrane and type I collagen gels, whereas a nonmalignant, functionally normal epithelial cell line did not. Invasion of Matrigel by tumor cells was largely abolished by metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of other proteinase families. Inhibition experiments with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides revealed that Matrigel invasion of both cell lines was critically dependent on stromelysin-1 expression. Invasion of collagen, on the other hand, was reduced by only 40-50%. Stromelysin-1 was expressed in both malignant and nonmalignant cells grown on plastic substrata. Its expression was completely inhibited in nonmalignant cells, but up-regulated in tumor cells, in response to Matrigel. Thus misregulation of stromelysin-1 expression appears to be an important aspect of mammary tumor cell progression to an invasive phenotype. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes that have been implicated in a variety of normal developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis. The MMP family comprises at least 15 members with different, albeit overlapping, substrate specificities. During activation of latent MMPs, their propeptides are cleaved and they are converted to a lower molecular weight form by other enzymes, including serine proteinases, and by autocatalytic cleavage. Among the MMPs, stromelysin-1 (SL1) possesses the broadest substrate specificity. Despite increasing knowledge about its enzymatic properties and the regulation of its expression, little is known about its function. We have generated transgenic animals that express an autoactivating mutant of rat SL1 targeted to the epithelial compartment of the mammary gland. Phenotypically, SL1 transgenic mice display increased branching morphogenesis and lactogenic differentiation at prepubertal stages and premature involution during late pregnancy. Branching morphogenesis requires the invasion of epithelial cells into the adipose tissue, a process reminiscent of invasion of stromal compartments by tumor cells. Strikingly, a large number of SL1 transgenic animals also develop mammary tumors of various histotypes, including invasive adenocarcinomas. Because tumor development is a late response of SL1 transgenic mice to overexpression of the transgene, it remains unclear whether SL1 plays a direct role in tumor growth and/or invasion or whether the observed tumors are a consequence of other molecular alterations in the microenvironment of the mammary gland before the onset of tumor growth. Studies performed with synthetic inhibitors of MMP activity and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have shown that suppression of MMP activity also suppresses tumor growth and metastasis. In many cases, the level of SL1 expression in tumors of the mammary gland and other tissues is positively correlated with the degree of malignancy. However, the only direct evidence for the nature of the MMPs involved was provided by the demonstration that function-blocking antibodies against gelatinase A and antisense inhibition of matrilysin expression decreased the invasiveness of tumor cells in a reconstituted basement membrane assay. These studies encouraged us to investigate whether SL1 plays a direct role in invasion of ECM. We used two carcinoma cell lines, TCL1 and SCg6 that formed rapidly growing, invasive tumors in vivo and migrated through Matrigel and collagen gels in culture. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) against SL1 inhibited Matrigel invasion by TCL1 and SCg

Lochter, A.; Srebrow, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Terracio, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

1997-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

47

Normal Tissue Injury Responses in Mammary Glands After Low Doses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

we take advantage of the variation in sensitivity to radiation induced mammary gland cancer in three genetically defined inbred strains of mice (BALBc: sensitive; C57BL6...

48

MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in differentiation, proliferation and tumorigenesis by binding to messenger RNAs (mRNA) and inhibiting translation. To initiate an investigation into the identification of miRNAs in the domestic dog, an emerging model for human disease, a comparison of the human and canine genetic databases was conducted. The bioinformatics work revealed significant conservation of miRNA genes between the two species. Proof of principle experiments, including serial dilutions and sequencing, were performed to verify that primers made to amplify human mature miRNAs can be used to amplify canine miRNAs, providing that the mature sequences are conserved. TaqMan Real-time RT-PCR, a sensitive and specific method, was used to isolate the first miRNA mature products from canine tissues. The expression levels of miR-17-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-18, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20, and miR-92 were evaluated in five canine tissues (heart, lung, brain, kidney, and liver). Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancer were compared between malignant canine mammary tumors (n=6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n=10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p<0.05) up-regulation in cancerous samples. Overall expression patterns showed nine of the ten miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression in the domestic dog as the human, while the miR-145 expression does not show a difference between the normal and cancerous samples.

Boggs, Rene' Michelle

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland  

SciTech Connect

The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

50

Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.

Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)] [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Mondal, Sumona [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States); Woodworth, Craig D., E-mail: woodworth@clarkson.edu [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5805 (United States)

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

51

Regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and DNA damage responses by singleminded-2s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Virtually all signaling pathways that play key roles in development such as the transfroming growth factor (TGF)-beta, notch, and wnt pathways also influence tumor formation, implying that cancer is in a sense development gone awry. Therefore, identification and elucidation of developmental pathways has great potential for generating new diagnostic tools and molecular therapy targets. Singleminded-2s (SIM2s), a splice variant of the basic helilx-loop-helix / PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH/PAS) transcriptional repressor Singleminded-2, is lost or repressed in approximately 70% of human breast tumors and has a profound influence on normal mammary development. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which SIM2s restricts malignant transformation and progression in breast cancer, we depleted SIM2 RNA in MCF-7 cells using a retroviral shRNA system and examined gene expression and functional abilities of the SIM2-depleted MCF-7 cells (SIM2i) relative to a control MCF line expressing a non-specific scrambled shRNA (SCR). Depletion of SIM2 resulted in an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like effect characterized by increased migration and invasion, altered morphology, and loss of epithelial markers concomitant with gain of mesenchymal markers. The root of this effect may be loss of SIM2- mediated repression of the E-cadherin repressor slug, as SIM2 is able to bind and repress transcription from the slug promoter, and slug expression is dramatically elevated in SIM2i MCF-7 cells. Consistent with the previously established role of slug in resistance to various cancer therapies, SIM2i cells are resistant to the radiomimetic doxorubicin and appear to have elevated self-renewal capacity under certain conditions. Intriguingly, SIM2 protein levels are elevated by treatment with DNA damaging agents, and SIM2 interacts with the p53 complex via co-regulation of specific p53- target gene such as p21/WAF1/CIP1. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the tumor suppressor activity of SIM2, and provide insight into a novel tumor suppressive transcriptional circuit that may have utility as a therapeutic target.

Laffin, Brian Edward

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

The Role of single minded 2 short in mammary gland development and breast cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single minded 2 (Sim2) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-ARNT-Sim (Period-Arylhydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator-Single minded) family. Human SIM2 is involved in the etiology of the Downs phenotype. In addition to the physical and mental deficiencies associated with DS, it has become apparent that women with DS are 10-25 times less likely to develop breast cancer in comparison to age-matched normal populations. Such significant effects on breast cancer susceptibility are thought to result from gene dosage effects of one or more tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 21. Here we report the identification and transcriptional characterization of mouse Sim2s, a splice variant of Sim2, which is missing the carboxyl Pro/Ala-rich repressive domain. Similar to full-length Sim2, Sim2s interacts with ARNT and to a lesser extent, ARNT2. The effects of Sim2s on transcriptional regulation through hypoxia-, dioxin- and central midline response elements are different than that of full length Sim2. Specifically, Sim2s exerts a less repressive effect on hypoxia-induced gene expression than full length Sim2, but is just as effective as Sim2 at repressing TCDD-induced gene expression from a dioxin response element. Interestingly, Sim2s binds to and activates expression from a central midline response element-controlled reporter through an ARNT transactivation domain-dependent mechanism. Forced expression of SIM2s in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells significantly inhibited proliferation, reduced anchorage-independent growth, and decreased invasive potential. SIM2s directly decreased expression of matrix metalloprotease-3, a known mediator of breast cancer metastasis. In addition, loss of Sim2 in the mouse mammary gland increased ductal branching, accelerated lobuloalveolar-like precocious hyperplasia, and decreased cell apoptosis, suggesting that SIM2s is a mammary tumor suppressor. Sim2-/- mammary glands lose E-cadherin expression, suggesting that Sim2s plays a role in regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin signaling. Loss of Sim2 in the mammary glands also resulted in dramatically increased MMP3 expression. The mechanism of SIM2smediated repression of MMP3 was found to be due to its ability to inhibit AP-1 binding to the MMP3 promoter. These results suggest that SIM2s contributes to the breast cancer protective effects observed in DS individuals.

Kwak, Hyeong-il

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

TBX3 over-expression causes mammary gland hyperplasia and increases mammary stem-like cells in an inducible transgenic mouse model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study, we created doxycycline inducible double transgenicexpression of TBX3 in our doxycycline inducible mouse modelthe mammary glands of doxycycline induced double transgenic

Liu, Jing; Esmailpour, Taraneh; Shang, Xiying; Gulsen, Gultekin; Liu, Andy; Huang, Taosheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor {beta}  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-{beta} (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-{beta}-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-{beta} treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) {sup 56}Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for {sup 56}Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy {sup 56}Fe ion or 2-Gy {sup 137}Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of {sup 56}Fe ion underwent TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is neither radiation dose nor quality dependent at the doses examined.

Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Chou, William S. [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen, E-mail: mhbarcellos-hoff@nyumc.or [Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The hemopexin domain of MMP3 is responsible for mammary ...  

During this process, epithelial cells have to mobilize the necessary machinery for invasion of the growing ... heat and other stresses on the proteome (Taipale et al.

57

Matrix Metalloproteinase Stromelysin-1 Triggers a Cascade of Molecular Alterations that leads to stable epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Conversion and a Premalignant Phenotype in Mammary Epithelial Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FIGURE 1 Effects of SL-1 on cell scattering, lactogenicgood candidates for mediating SL-1 effects, because laminin-that KGF is upregulated after SL-1 induction. KGF belongs to

Lochter, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Radiation Alters Epithelial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

digital fluorescence microscopy. Typical integrin immunolocalization in mouse mammary gland is shown in Figure 2. text needed Figure 3 Relative immunoreactivity of a6 integrin...

59

Optimizing dual detection of epithelial cell markers and EGFP...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mammary explants from transgenic mice that contain an expression cassette with two disabled EGFP genes will be transplanted in this protocol, and these tissue fragments include...

60

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

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61

Annexin A9 (ANXA9) biomarker and therapeutic target in epithelial cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.

Hu, Zhi (El Cerrito, CA); Kuo, Wen-Lin (San Ramon, CA); Neve, Richard M. (San Mateo, CA); Gray, Joe W. (San Francisco, CA)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

Tissue architecture: the ultimate regulator of breast epithelial function  

SciTech Connect

A problem in developmental biology that continues to take center stage is how higher organisms generate diverse tissues and organs given the same cellular genotype. In cell and tumor biology, the key question is not the production of form, but its preservation: how do tissues and organs maintain homeostasis, and how do cells within tissues lose or overcome these controls in cancer? Undoubtedly, mechanisms that maintain tissue specificity should share features with those employed to drive formation of the tissues. However, they are unlikely to be identical. At a simplistic level, developmental pathways may be thought of as a series of extremely rapid short-term events. Each new step depends on what came before, and the outcome is the organism itself at birth. All organs, with a few notable exceptions, such as the mammary gland and the brain, 'arrive' together and are complete when the organism is born. In mice and humans, these events occur in a mere 21 days and 9 months respectively. The stability of the differentiated state and the homeostasis of the organism, on the other hand, will last 40-110 times longer. How does the organism achieve this feat? How are tissues maintained? These questions also relate fundamentally to how tissues become malignant and, although not discussed here, to aging. While there is much literature on differentiation - loosely defined as the gain of a single or a series of functions - we know much less about the forces and the pathways that maintain organ morphology and function as a unit. This may be partly because it is difficult to study a tissue as a unit in vivo and there are few techniques that allow maintenance of organs in vitro long enough and in such a way as to make cell and molecular biology experiments possible. Techniques for culturing cells in three-dimensional gels (3D) as a surrogate for tissues, however, have been steadily improving and the method is now used by several laboratories. In this commentary we discuss the following: first, how our laboratory came to develop a model of the mammary gland acinus; second, what this model has told us about mechanisms that govern tissue specificity and malignancy; and third, possible directions for future studies. We summarize the evidence for the central role of ECM signaling in the maintenance of mammary function in culture and (more briefly) its role in tumorigenesis. This is followed by a discussion of the role that tissue architecture and tissue polarity (as opposed to cell polarity) may play in these processes. In an elegantly written and reasoned essay, Kirschner et al. coined the new science of developmental biology 'molecular vitalism'. They framed new concepts for self-organization as well as schemes for information flow in biological organization. Rao et al. reviewed and elaborated on differential-equation-based models of biochemical reaction networks and intracellular noise, with emphasis on bacteria and phage. Similarly, Hartwell et al. discussed the synergy between experiment and theory in elucidating 'modules' - collections of interacting molecules - and in unraveling how these modules collaborate to perform cellular functions such as signal transduction. We believe that many of these ideas will also be applicable to the maintenance of tissue specificity. As much as we agree with Kirschner et al. regarding the limitations of the machine analogy to biological systems, we conclude with thoughts on how we may proceed to model the complex tissue networks that govern breast tissue architecture. We suggest that our understanding of the structure and function of breast tissue would benefit from examining recent techniques for modeling large complex networks such as the World Wide Web and the Internet backbone among others.

Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mian, Saira

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

[CANCER RESEARCH 64, 31713178, May 1, 2004] Activation of Akt-1 (PKB-) Can Accelerate ErbB-2-Mediated Mammary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[CANCER RESEARCH 64, 3171­3178, May 1, 2004] Activation of Akt-1 (PKB- ) Can Accelerate ErbB-2 is associated with activation of Akt-1. To directly assess the importance of Akt-1 activation in ErbB-2 mammary tumor progression, we interbred separate strains of transgenic mice carrying mouse mammary tumor virus/activated

Woodgett, Jim

64

Store-Independent Activation of Orai1 by SPCA2 in Mammary Tumors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Store-Independent Activation of Orai1 by SPCA2 in Mammary Tumors Mingye Feng,1 Desma M. Grice,3 in cytosolic Ca2+ trigger events critical for tumorigenesis, such as cellular motility, proliferation activity of SPCA2. Binding of the SPCA2 amino terminus to Orai1 enabled access of its carboxyl terminus

Kenny, Paraic

65

Original article RT-PCR detection of lentiviruses in milk or mammary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article RT-PCR detection of lentiviruses in milk or mammary secretions of sheep or goats ― In this study we evaluated a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique on seven goats infected with cloned caprine arthritis- encephalitis virus (CAEV) showed that RT-PCR on milk

Recanati, Catherine

66

Structural studies of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, pIgR, is a glycosylated type I transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral surface of secretory epithelial cells. pIgR plays a key role in mucosal immunity and, together ...

Hamburger, Agnes Eva, 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A {beta}-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the {beta}-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the {beta}-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal {beta}-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the {beta}-casein gene.

Robinson, Claire [Molecular Recognition Group, Hannah Research Institute, Ayr KA6 5HL (United Kingdom); Kolb, Andreas F. [Molecular Recognition Group, Hannah Research Institute, Ayr KA6 5HL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.kolb@rowett.ac.uk

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Extracellular matrix control of mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis: insights from imaging  

SciTech Connect

The extracellular matrix (ECM), once thought to solely provide physical support to a tissue, is a key component of a cell's microenvironment responsible for directing cell fate and maintaining tissue specificity. It stands to reason, then, that changes in the ECM itself or in how signals from the ECM are presented to or interpreted by cells can disrupt tissue organization; the latter is a necessary step for malignant progression. In this review, we elaborate on this concept using the mammary gland as an example. We describe how the ECM directs mammary gland formation and function, and discuss how a cell's inability to interpret these signals - whether as a result of genetic insults or physicochemical alterations in the ECM - disorganizes the gland and promotes malignancy. By restoring context and forcing cells to properly interpret these native signals, aberrant behavior can be quelled and organization re-established. Traditional imaging approaches have been a key complement to the standard biochemical, molecular, and cell biology approaches used in these studies. Utilizing imaging modalities with enhanced spatial resolution in live tissues may uncover additional means by which the ECM regulates tissue structure, on different length scales, through its pericellular organization (short-scale) and by biasing morphogenic and morphostatic gradients (long-scale).

Ghajar, Cyrus M; Bissell, Mina J

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantitative Analysis of Connexin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Authors: B. Parvin, Q. Yang, R. L. Henshall-Powell and M.H. Barcellos Hoff We are studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the signaling between human mammary epithelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. To do so we use an assay based on the ability of the cells to organize into three-dimensional acini when embedded into an extracellular matrix. Although tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells are nearly indistinguishable when cultured as monolayers, their biological character readily diverge when tissue-specific morphogenesis is analyzed. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane organize into acinar-like structures with

70

Lymphoscintigraphy Can Select Breast Cancer Patients for Internal Mammary Chain Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Given the risk of undesired toxicity, prophylactic internal mammary (IM) chain irradiation should be offered only to patients at high risk of occult involvement. Lymphoscintigraphy for axillary sentinel node biopsy might help in selecting these patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed published studies with the following selection criteria: {>=}300 breast cancer patients referred for axilla sentinel node biopsy; scintigraphy performed after peritumoral or intratumoral tracer injection; IM biopsy in the case of IM drainage; and axilla staged routinely independent of IM status. Results: Six prospective studies, for a total of 3,876 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Parasternal drainage was present in 792 patients (20.4%). IM biopsy was performed in 644 patients and was positive in 111 (17.2%). Of the positive IM biopsies, 40% were associated with tumors in the lateral breast quadrants. A major difference in the IM positivity rate was found according to the axilla sentinel node status. In patients with negative axilla, the IM biopsy was positive in 7.8% of cases. In patients with positive axilla, however, the IM biopsy was positive in 41% (p < .00001). Because biopsy of multiple IM hot nodes is difficult, the true risk could be even greater, probably close to 50%. Conclusions: Patients with IM drainage on lymphoscintigraphy and a positive axilla sentinel node have a high risk of occult IM involvement. These women should be considered for IM radiotherapy.

Hindie, Elif, E-mail: elif.hindie@sls.aphp.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU de Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux-Segalen, Bordeaux (France); Groheux, David [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Hennequin, Christophe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Vercellino, Laetitia; Berenger, Nathalie; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris 7 University, Paris (France); Maylin, Claude [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France); Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hartmann Hospital, Neuilly sur Seine (France); Espie, Marc [Breast Diseases Unit, Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris (France)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Automatic segmentation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a ''phantom.'' Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravi; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

2003-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

72

Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation Contributes to Heart Dose in Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

We assessed the impact of internal mammary chain radiotherapy (IMC RT) to the radiation dose received by the heart in terms of heart dose-volume histogram (DVH). Thirty-six consecutive breast cancer patients presenting with indications for IMC RT were enrolled in a prospective study. The IMC was treated by a standard conformal RT technique (50 Gy). For each patient, a cardiac DVH was generated by taking into account the sole contribution of IMC RT. Cardiac HDV were compared according to breast cancer laterality and the type of previous surgical procedure, simple mastectomy or breast conservative therapy (BCT). The contribution of IMC RT to the heart dose was significantly greater for patients with left-sided versus right-sided tumors (13.8% and 12.8% for left-sided tumors versus 3.9% and 4.2% for right-sided tumors in the BCT group and the mastectomy group, respectively; p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in IMC contribution depending on the initial surgical procedure. IMC RT contributes to cardiac dose for both left-sided and right-sided breast cancers, although the relative contribution is greater in patients with left-sided tumors.

Chargari, Cyrus [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Oncology, Hopital d'Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Paris (France); Castadot, Pierre [Department of Radio-Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); MacDermed, Dhara [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vandekerkhove, Christophe [Department of Medical Physics, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Bourgois, Nicolas; Van Houtte, Paul [Department of Radio-Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Magne, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.magne@igr.f [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radio-Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Determination of the functional size of oxytocin receptors in plasma membranes from mammary gland and uterine myometrium of the rat by radiation inactivation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gel filtration of detergent-solubilized oxytocin (OT) receptors in plasma membrane fractions from both regressed mammary gland and labor myometrium of the rat, showed that specific (/sup 3/H)OT binding was associated with a heterogeneously sized population of macromolecules. As radiation inactivation is the only method available to measure the apparent molecular weights of membrane proteins in situ, we used this approach to define the functional sizes of OT receptors. The results indicate that both mammary and myometrial receptors are uniform in size and of similar molecular mass. Mammary and myometrial receptors were estimated to be 57.5 +/- 3.8 (SD) and 58.8 +/- 1.6 kilodaltons, respectively. Knowledge of the functional size of OT receptors will be useful in studies involving the purification and characterization of the receptor and associated membrane components.

Soloff, M.S.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff - 2003  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV Abstract Title: TGF-β Protects Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Radiation-Induced Centrosome Amplification Authors: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Bahram Parvin, Anna C. Erickson and Rishi Gupta Institutions: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Life Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California In recent studies we have shown that ionizing radiation (IR), a known carcinogen of human and murine mammary gland, compromises human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) polarity and multicellular organization in a manner characteristic of neoplastic progression through a heritable, non-mutational mechanism (1). Thus, when all cells are irradiated with a significant dose (2 Gy), the daughters of irradiated cells lose their

75

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by [alpha] particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

Robbins, E.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The MAPKERK-1,2 pathway integrates distinct and antagonistic signals from TGF alpha and FGF7 in morphogenesis of mouse mammary epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor-{alpha} (TGF{alpha}) and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7) exhibit distinct expression patterns in the mammary gland. Both factors signal through mitogen-activated kinase/extracellular regulated kinase-1,2 (MAPK{sup ERK1,2}); however, their unique and/or combined contributions to mammary morphogenesis have not been examined. In ex vivo mammary explants, we show that a sustained activation of MAPK{sup ERK1,2} for 1 h, induced by TGF{alpha}, was necessary and sufficient to initiate branching morphogenesis, whereas a transient activation (15 min) of MAPK{sup ERK1,2}, induced by FGF7, led to growth without branching. Unlike TGF{alpha}, FGF7 promoted sustained proliferation as well as ectopic localization of, and increase in, keratin-6 expressing cells. The response of the explants to FGF10 was similar to that to FGF7. Simultaneous stimulation by FGF7 and TGF{alpha} indicated that the FGF7-induced MAPK{sup ERK1,2} signaling and associated phenotypes were dominant: FGF7 may prevent branching by suppression of two necessary TGF{alpha}-induced morphogenetic effectors, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3/stromelysin-1), and fibronectin. Our findings indicate that expression of morphogenetic effectors, proliferation, and cell-type decisions during mammary organoid morphogenesis are intimately dependent on the duration of activation of MAPK{sup ERK1,2} activation.

Fata, Jimmie E; Mori, Hidetoshi; Ewald, Andrew J; Zhang, Hui; Yao, Evelyn; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to mesenchymal conversion Ole William Petersen * , Helgaalso become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymalconsequences of such a conversion. It is clear that defining

Petersen, Ole William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Mucin granule-associated proteins in human bronchial epithelial cells: the airway goblet cell "granulome"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of cysteine string protein (CSP) in regulated exocytosis.Cysteine string protein [CSP]) and cytoskeletal (actin,that MARCKS, HSP70, CSP and hCLCA1 were present on the

Raiford, Kimberly L; Park, Joungjoa; Lin, Ko-Wei; Fang, Shijing; Crews, Anne L; Adler, Kenneth B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

1998-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

80

Effect of dietary fat on uptake of lysine, phenylalanine, leucine and methionine by bovine mammary tissue slices in vitro  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four mature Holstein cows in late lactation were blocked in two groups based on milk production, in a 2x2 reversal with 21-day periods, and fed: (A) control diet; (B) A plus 1 kg/day tallow. Cows were fed sorghum silage ad libitum. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on day 15, 17, and 19 of each period. Fat did not effect DM intake or milk yield, however milk CP yield was 20% lower. Plasma lipids increased 33.6%, glucose decreased 9% and insulin/glucagon ratio decreased 21.2% in cow fed fat. After period two, cows were slaughtered and mammary tissue sampled for incubation in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 22 AA at arterial concentration and .225 {mu}Ci/ml of {sup 14}C-labelled L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Lys or D/L Met. Dietary fat decreased tissue AA uptake rate by 21.2%. Uptake was 4.8, 10.3, 17.8 and 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} {mu}M/min/gm of tissue DM for Phe, Lys, Leu and Met, respectively. Results suggest that dietary fat may decrease milk protein synthesis by lowering the rate of AA uptake.

Nianogo, A.J.; Amos, H.E.; Dean, R.; Froetschel, A. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA)); Fernandez, J.M. (Langston Univ., OK (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

In vitro models for airway epithelial cell culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is about the development of a physiologically relevant model of the human airway. Various factors such as the cell model, physiochemical factors such as the cell substrate properties including its stiffness, shear ...

Sivathanu, Vivek

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Using ex vivo organ culture models as surrogates to investigate morphological and functional differences of mammary glands derived from mouse strains that differ in cancer susceptibility to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation sensitivity or resistance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ex vivo organ culture models as surrogates to investigate morphological and functional ex vivo organ culture models as surrogates to investigate morphological and functional differences of mammary glands derived from mouse strains that differ in cancer susceptibility to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation sensitivity or resistance Alvin Lo, Joni D. Mott, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Low Dose SFA, as part of Project 2, we are using a systems genetics approach to determine the contribution of non-targeted and targeted radiation effects for risk of mammary carcinogenesis. The goal of this work is to characterize the mammary gland of the parental mouse strains, and the F1 and F2 generations used in these studies with respect to tissue

83

Resistance to Cry toxins and epithelial healing Anas Castagnola, Juan Luis Jurat-Fuentes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resistance to Cry toxins and epithelial healing Anaïs Castagnola, Juan Luis Jurat: Resistance to Cry toxins can develop by alterations in any of the steps in the Cry toxin mode of action. Most characterized mechanisms of resistance to Cry toxins involve alterations in enzymatic toxin processing or toxin

Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

84

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs. Annual progress report, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The locations and other parameters of the nuclei which may be damaged by {alpha} particles must be determined and compared in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human epithelium of defined airway generations and in parallel on electron micrographs of the dog bronchial lining. The second part of this proposal describes studies to quantitate the cycling bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on frozen and paraffin sections and similar labeling of isolated bronchial epithelial cells sorted flow cytometry.

Robbins, E.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Robbins, E.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About this Project About this Project Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation Damage Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Low-LET Bystander Effects in Cells In Vitro Are Significantly Less Than Published For High-LET Radiation Blakely, E.A., Thompson, A.C., Chang, P., Schwarz, R.I., Bjornstad, K., Rosen, C., Wisnewski, C., and Mocherla, D. 2005 Workshop: X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., Sudar, D., Romano, R., and Parvin, B. 2003 Workshop: 12.5 keV X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., and Sudar, D. 2001 Workshop:

87

A Role for Id-1 in the Aggressive Phenotype and Steroid ...  

Desprez, P. Y., Hara E., Bissell, M. J., and Campisi, J. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1. Mol. Cell.

88

Human Health  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Health Print E-mail Climate change can have a number of direct and indirect effects on human health. For example, rising temperatures can contribute to the number of deaths...

89

Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Discovery of a Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Characterized by the Mesenchymal-epithelial Transition Factor (c-Met) Protein Autophosphorylation by ARQ 197  

SciTech Connect

A number of human malignancies exhibit sustained stimulation, mutation, or gene amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinase human mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met). ARQ 197 is a clinically advanced, selective, orally bioavailable, and well tolerated c-Met inhibitor, currently in Phase 3 clinical testing in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Herein, we describe the molecular and structural basis by which ARQ 197 selectively targets c-Met. Through our analysis we reveal a previously undisclosed, novel inhibitory mechanism that utilizes distinct regulatory elements of the c-Met kinase. The structure of ARQ 197 in complex with the c-Met kinase domain shows that the inhibitor binds a conformation that is distinct from published kinase structures. ARQ 197 inhibits c-Met autophosphorylation and is highly selective for the inactive or unphosphorylated form of c-Met. Through our analysis of the interplay between the regulatory and catalytic residues of c-Met, and by comparison between the autoinhibited canonical conformation of c-Met bound by ARQ 197 to previously described kinase domains of type III receptor tyrosine kinases, we believe this to be the basis of a powerful new in silico approach for the design of similar inhibitors for other protein kinases of therapeutic interest.

S Eathiraj; R Palma; E Volckova; M Hirschi; D France; M Ashwell; T Chan

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

A Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damagein Human Cells, and Insights into the Adaptive Response Mechanism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damage Critical Examination of the Adaptive Response for Cytogenetic Damage in Human Cells, and Insights into the Adaptive Response Mechanism Björn E. Rydberg, Torsten Groesser, Antoine Snijders, Kelly Trego, Ju Han, Do Yup Lee, Bahram Parvin, Trent Northen, Andrew J. Wyrobek, and Priscilla K. Cooper Berkeley Lab SFA P.I.: Gary Karpen Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 Goal: Task 1 of the Berkeley Lab SFA is designed to identify adaptive response (AR) mechanisms that may affect risk of developing radiation-induced cancer and to assess the linearity with dose of processes that influence mammary gland carcinogenesis. We use both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems in a parallelogram strategy. Our human cell culture

92

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Authors: E. A. Blakely1, R. I. Schwarz1, A. C. Thompson2, K. A. Bjornstad1, P. Y. Chang1,3 C.J. Rosen1, and D. Sudar1 Institutions: Divisions of 1Life Sciences and 2Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. and 3SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. We are using a novel x-ray Microprobe Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL to investigate bystander effects of low doses in well characterized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human skin fibroblasts (HSF). The ALS facility is capable of producing a beam of 12.5 keV x-rays with a focussed spot size of __m_ and a wide range of doses and dose-rates. Unlike normal x-ray sources, this beam has a very small background of either low-

93

Biological Basis for Radiation Adaptive Responses that Protect Against Bronchial Epithelial Cell Transformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basis for Radiation Adaptive Responses that Protect Against Bronchial Basis for Radiation Adaptive Responses that Protect Against Bronchial Epithelial Cell Transformation Wenshu Chen, Xiuling Xu, Lang Bai, Mabel T. Padilla, Carmen Tellez, Katherine M. Gott, Shuguang Leng, Julie A. Wilder, Steven A. Belinsky, Bobby R. Scott and Yong Lin, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 The major hypothesis in this project is that low-dose, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation stimulates an adaptive response that protects cells from neoplastic transformation involving modulation of paracrine factors (e.g., cytokines), cell survival/death signaling pathways, and reprogramming of the epigenome. To test this hypothesis, a validated, sensitive in vitro transformation model and a media transfer

94

doi:10.5402/2011/617082 Research Article Epithelial Ovarian Cancer and the Occurrence of Skin Cancer in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright 2011 Catharina C. van Niekerk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. A cross-sectional study within a large populationbased dataset. Results. Skin cancer was found in 2.7 % (95 % CI: 2.33.1) of the 5366 individuals forming our dataset. The odds ratio (OR) for endometrioid cancer in the ovary to skin cancer in the under 50 age group was 8.9 (95 % CI: 3.225.0). The OR decreased in older patients to 1.2. Conclusions. Patients with epithelial ovarian malignancies show an increased risk of skin cancer. A significantly increased risk (4.3%) for endometrioid ovarian cancer was found in the group aged under 50. 1.

Isrn Obstetrics; Catharina C. Van Niekerk; Johan Bulten; Andrl. M. Verbeek

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Influence of transmembrane potential differences of renal tubular epithelial cell on ANG II binding  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrated specific high-affinity binding sites of rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). The time course of angiotensin II ((/sup 125/I) ANG II) binding in the presence of a NaCl gradient demonstrated an overshoot characteristic of electrogenic sodium-dependent d-(/sup 14/C) glucose uptake. The time course of ANG II binding to membrane vesicles equilibrated with NaCl did not exhibit such overshoot and was lower in magnitude. Therefore, studies were designed to test the hypothesis that ANG II binding to BBMV was enhanced by a transmembrane potential difference in a manner similar to sodium-dependent D-glucose uptake. The effects of sodium salts with differing rates of anion equilibration were compared on ANG II binding. ANG II binding in the presence of a KCl gradient was similar to NaCl. The overshoot was abolished in the presence of an inwardly directed KCl gradient plus valinomycin. Magnesium salts with differing rates of anion permeabilities had similar effects on binding, as did sodium salts. Scatchard analysis revealed that the receptor density was fourfold higher in the presence of an electrochemical gradient compared with nongradient conditions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that ANG II binding to BBMV is enhanced by a transmembrane potential difference, and suggest that this may be an important modulator of tubular epithelial responses to ANG II in vivo.

Brown, G.P.; Douglas, J.G.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Epithelial Membrane Protein-2 Promotes Endometrial Tumor Formation through Activation of FAK and Src  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy diagnosed among women in developed countries. One recent biomarker strongly associated with disease progression and survival is epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2), a tetraspan protein known to associate with and modify surface expression of certain integrin isoforms. In this study, we show using a xenograft model system that EMP2 expression is necessary for efficient endometrial tumor formation, and we have started to characterize the mechanism by which EMP2 contributes to this malignant phenotype. In endometrial cancer cells, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src pathway appears to regulate migration as measured through wound healing assays. Manipulation of EMP2 levels in endometrial cancer cells regulates the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, and promotes their distribution into lipid raft domains. Notably, cells with low levels of EMP2 fail to migrate and poorly form tumors in vivo. These findings reveal the pivotal role of EMP2 in endometrial cancer carcinogenesis, and suggest that the association of elevated EMP2 levels with endometrial cancer prognosis may be causally linked to its effect on integrin-mediated signaling.

Maoyong Fu; Rajiv Rao; Deepthi Sudhakar; Claire P. Hogue; Zach Rutta; Shawn Morales; Lynn K; Jonathan Braun; Lee Goodglick; Madhuri Wadehra

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Does the Intent to Irradiate the Internal Mammary Nodes Impact Survival in Women With Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Analysis in British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82% (p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87% (p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83% (p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88% (p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92% (p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88% (p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). Conclusions: After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.

Olson, Robert A., E-mail: rolson2@bccancer.bc.ca [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline [BC Cancer Agency, Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lau, Jeffrey [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lo, Andrea; Truong, Pauline T. [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott; Olivotto, Ivo A. [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Weir, Lorna [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A link between stem cells and the EMT phenotype induced by IR and TGFβ  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

link between stem cells and the EMT phenotype induced by IR and TGFβ link between stem cells and the EMT phenotype induced by IR and TGFβ Ignacio Fernandez-Garcia New York University School of Medicine Abstract Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) occurs as key developmental program but is also often activated during cancer progression. EMT is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity, loss of cell-cell contacts, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers and phenotypic traits that include increased cell motility1. Approximately 18% of breast cancers exhibit evidence of EMT. We have shown that the progeny of irradiated human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) undergo EMT when exposed to transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ). Additionally, recent publication from Weinberg and colleagues showed that induction of EMT through engineered expression of

99

Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs. Progress report, April 1, 1991--October 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect

One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Robbins, E.S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Shaojin You,2 Zheng-Jin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been shown to reduce the incidence of carcinogen-induced rat mammary tumors. Because connexin 26 (Cx26), a tumor suppressor gene candidate, can be up-regulated in mammary epithelial cells during lactation, we examined the in vivo and ex vivo effects of hCG on Cx26 expression in rat mammary tissues and used its effect on the expressions of ß-caseinand Cx43 as controls. The Cx26 mRNA and protein expressions were up-regulated by daily administra tions of 100 units of hCG, starting on day 5 and reaching a 14-fold maximum increment on days 16 through 21. It remained elevated above the basal level even 20 days after hCG withdrawal. The changes in ß-caseinexpression ran parallel to that of Cx26, whereas the expression of Cx43 was down-regulated. There was no correlation between steroidal hormone levels and Cx26 expression, except for the first 5 days of hCG treatment. In the ex vivo organ culture system, exposure of mammary

Shaojin You; Zheng-jin Tu; David T. Kiang; Contact The Aacr Publications; Gonadotropin Rat; Mammary Glands; David T. Kiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Berkeley Lab A to Z Index: M  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Macintosh Computer Backups Macintosh Computer Backups Macintosh User Group (LBNL-MUG) Mac support/MPSG (formerly known as the workstation group) Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (MCF) Mailing Addresses for Lab Mail (electronic); Email Support, Documentation, etc. Mail Services (Facilities Dep't.) malware (computer virus) protection and "How to Handle Suspected Malware" Mammary: Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) Map: Berkeley Lab Global Talent Map Maps: Directions and Maps on How to Get to the Lab Maps: Berkeley Lab Interactive Site Map Maps: Berkeley Lab Printable Site Map Maps: Offsite Lab Shuttle Bus Map Maps: Onsite Lab Shuttle Bus Map Massage, Onsite Chair Mass Storage System (MSS) Material Safety Data Sheets: MSDS Materials Sciences Division (MSD) Materials Science: Technology Transfer

102

High LET radiatSpace Radiation Can Enhance the TGFβ InducedEpithelial-Mesenchymal Transitionion can enhance TGFβ induced EMT and cross-talk with ATM pathways  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Can Enhance the TGFβ Induced Radiation Can Enhance the TGFβ Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Minli Wang 1 , Megumi Hada 1 , Janice Huff 1 , Janice M. Pluth 2 , Jennifer Anderson 3 , Peter O'Neill 3 and Francis A. Cucinotta 4 1 USRA Division of Life Sciences, Houston TX USA; 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA, USA, 3 Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology & Biology, University of Oxford, UK, 4 NASA, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston TX, USA TGFβ is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis, which involve classic Smad or non-Smad signaling pathways, leading to the suppression of epithelial genes and promoted expression of mesenchymal proteins. Ionizing radiation was found to specifically induce expression of

103

Human-machine interactions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subjects Protecting Human Subjects The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Program exists to ensure that all research conducted at DOE institutions, whether...

105

Human Measure and Architecting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This book bundles the human measure and architecting articles. The articles address the relationship between product creation and humans and the role of the system architect.

Gerrit Muller

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Cellular morphometry and cycling cell populations of human and dog bronchi. Annual progress report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data of the human bronchial epithelial cells at possible risk for malignant transformation in lung cancer is crucial for accurate radon dosimetry and risk analysis. The nuclei of these cells may be targets for damage by {alpha} particles. Then it is important to determine the locations and other parameters of these nuclei in different airway generations, among smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers, between men and women and in people of different ages. This proposal includes extended morphometric studies on electron micrographs of human bronchial epithelium of defined airway generations. The second part of this proposal describes the continuation of studies to quantitate the cycling tracheo-bronchial epithelial population(s) using proliferation markers and immunocytochemistry on paraffin sections. The proliferative potential of the airway mucosa of smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers, men and women, as well as individuals of different ages are being compared. Normal human bronchial linings are also being compared with normal adult dog bronchi and metaplastic and repairing human airways. Since cycling cells can be more sensitive to damage from carcinogens and radioactivity, the quantitative data from this project will allow the development of more accurate radon risk analysis.

Robbins, E.S.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Human Performance - Fossil Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All humans make errors. Industrial human errors can result in a loss of life and can significantly impact the productivity and cost effectiveness of any facility or company. Several industries in which human error has had a significant impact (for example, airline, medical, military, nuclear power, aviation, and chemical) have implemented human performance programs with excellent results. Human errors by fossil plant operators can easily challenge plant safety and production. In the fossil operations are...

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

Putting Tumors in Context  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cells 49 . Stromelysin-1 (SL-1, also known as MMP-3), is anof mammary epithelial cells to SL-1 treatment: when grown intreatment of these cells with SL-1 causes apoptosis 52 .

Bissell, Mina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USA 92:1332-1336. 10. Barcellos-Hoff, M.H., and Ravani, S.A. 2000. Irradiated mammary gland stroma promotes the expression of tumorigenic potential by unirradiated epithelial...

110

Biological Response to Radiation Mediated through the Microenvironment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USA 92:1332-1336. 10. Barcellos-Hoff, M.H., and Ravani, S.A. 2000. Irradiated mammary gland stroma promotes the expression of tumorigenic potential by unirradiated epithelial...

111

IL-27 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenic factor production in a STAT1-dominant pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 2013, 32:97 http://Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 2013 32:97. SubmitExperimental & Clinical Cancer Research 2013, 32:97 http://

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Human Rights and Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe MRU Student Conference Proceedings 2012 Edited by Siril Berglund, Helen McCarthy and Agata Patyna #12;2 "Migration, Human Rights and Security...............................................................................................58 #12;3 "Migration, Human Rights and Security in Europe", MRU Student Conference Proceedings

Saunders, Mark

113

ORISE: Human Subjects Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Protection Human Subjects Protection The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performs technical assessments to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories involved in human subjects research projects. Under DOE Order and Policy 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, and 10 CFR 745, DOE employees and contractors are expected to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects. In support of the DOE Office of Science and the Human Subjects Protection Program (HSPP), ORISE has most recently assisted with the development and distribution of tools to address classified research and to track potential human social cultural behavior systems (HSCB) research conducted by DOE laboratories. Examples of products that ORISE has developed in support of the HSPP

114

Contact List, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Resources & Occupational Medicine Division Human Resources & Occupational Medicine Division Contact List Human Resources Guest, User, Visitor (GUV) Center Occupational Medicine Training and Qualifications Office Note: All listed phone extensions are in the format of (631) 344-xxxx. Human Resources Robert Lincoln, Chief Human Resources Officer x7435 rlincoln@bnl.gov Margaret Hughes x2108 hughes@bnl.gov Elizabeth Gilbert x2315 gilbert@bnl.gov Human Resources Generalists Christel Colon, HR Manager - BES, GARS & ELS x8469 ccolon@bnl.gov Joann Williams, HR Manager - Support Operations x8356 williamsj@bnl.gov Joanna Hall, HR Manager - Photon Sciences x4410 jhall@bnl.gov Donna Dowling, HR Manager - Nuclear & Particle Physics x2754 dowling@bnl.gov Terrence Buck x8715 tbuck@bnl.gov

115

Human Error Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing human error is recognized in the power-generation industry as a key factor in reducing safety-related events as well as improving asset availability. Achieving a sustainable culture change that leads to human error reduction in plant operations and maintenance remains a significant challenge to the industry. This report presents a behavior-based approach to human performance improvement and error reduction. The report explains fundamental elements of culture change and describes proven practices...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

Human and Gorilla Genes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human and Gorilla Genes Name: Eileen B Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What are the differences between the genetic mechanisms which affect...

117

Human Reliability Program (HRP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Office of SecurityHRP Training Certification- HTML- Flash10 CFR 712, Human Reliability ProgramHRP HandbookTools for Clinicians- Medication List- Medical Records Checklist

118

HQ - Human Resources Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

HQs Human Recources Operations delivers services, including position management, recruitment, staffing and classification, and reduction in force at Headquarters. Click the "Contacts" Link to find...

119

Publications & Resources, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or approved by Brookhaven National Laboratory or the Human Resources Division. Manuals Scientific Staff Manual Supervisors Personnel Manual SBMS Subject Areas Compensation...

120

Human Radiation Experiments: Multimedia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the oral histories of researchers and others possessing firsthand knowledge of human radiation experimentation during World War II and the Cold War. Film Clips: Document...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Interacting with human physiology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a novel system that incorporates physiological monitoring as part of the human-computer interface. The sensing element is a thermal camera that is employed as a computer peripheral. Through bioheat modeling of facial imagery almost the full ... Keywords: Blood flow, Breath rate, Cardiac pulse, Facial tracking, Human-computer interaction, Sleep apnea, Stress, Thermal imaging

I. Pavlidis; J. Dowdall; N. Sun; C. Puri; J. Fei; M. Garbey

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Humans and Gills  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Humans and Gills Humans and Gills Name: Shelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is it true that some babies are born with some sort of gills? How and when do humans adapt from breathing inside to breathing outside of the womb? Replies: Whoa! You have received a great deal of false information. First, babies are not born with gills! Get that out of your thinking! Babies do not "breath" for oxygen in the womb. They do "practice breathing" using the amniotic fluid of the womb, but it is not doing them any good otherwise. All of the embryo and fetal needs are received through the placenta. The mother provides everything that is needed. As for the gills, there is a stage in the early human embryo development whereby humans do show gill slits, but not functional gills. Slits are not gills!! As a matter of fact, all vertebrates show these same gill slits.

123

Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?  

SciTech Connect

Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

124

Ocean Health and Human Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 2002. Indicators of ocean health and human health:Nature 423:280283. Oceans and Human Health Act. 2003. S.Editorial Guest Editorial Ocean Health and Human Health

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Spontaneous Human Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spontaneous Human Combustion Spontaneous Human Combustion Name: S. Phillips. Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: One of our 8th grade students has tried to find information in our library about spontaneous human combustion, but to no avail. Could you tell us where we might locate a simple reference, or provide some in information about this subject for him. Replies: Sorry, but this is definitely "fringe science"...try asking in bookstores. I seem to recall one of those "believe it or not" type of TV shows did an episode on spontaneous human combustion a few years ago in which they reported on some British scientists who investigated this purported phenomenon. Remember that people (back in the Dark Ages, and before) used to believe in "spontaneous generation" of certain plants and animals because they were not aware of the reproduction methods used by those plants and animals.

126

Macintosh human interface guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines describes the way to create products that optimize the interaction between people and Macintosh computers. It explains the whys and hows of the Macintosh interface in general terms and specific details. Macintosh ...

Apple Computer, Inc.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Medical Humanities Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the making: Memoirs and medical education. Iowa City, IA:shoes: empathy and othering in medical students' education.through the thread of medical humanities 1 . The essay by

Shapiro, Johanna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

KRFTWRK Global Human Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

Prohaska, Rainer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Dogs and Human Diseases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diseases Name: Doris Status: Other Grade: 9-12 Location: OK Date: NA Question: Can a dog contact the shingles or chicken pox virus from a human? Replies: Hi Doris, Great...

130

Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments Disposition Schedule: Human Radiation Experiments This database contains information on records collections related to human radiation...

131

Human Radiation Experiments: What's New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Defense Report Finding Aids Department of Defense Report on Search for Human Radiation Experiments Records 1944-1994 Exit Human Radiation Experiments Site This...

132

Human Factors Review Plan  

SciTech Connect

''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Global Environmental Change and Human Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &

Kunnas, Jan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Developing Human Performance Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRCs risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a framework, 3) how our use of modeling and simulation techniques could be used to develop and validate measures of human performance, and 4) what the possible outcomes are from this research as the modeling and simulation efforts generate results.

Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Primer to Human Threading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human Threading(TM) is new approach in developing innovative computing technologies. It uses novel physiologic combinations to measure the human brain and body in an effort to create greater efficiency among human and machine. A divergent group of measurement ... Keywords: BCI, EEG, HCI, Human ThreadingTM, Information systems

Christopher Liapis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Turkey vs. human digestion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Turkey vs. human digestion Turkey vs. human digestion Name: wallyb Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How is the digestive system of turkeys different from that of humans? Replies: Hmmm.. been a while since I had sophomore biology, so I can't completely answer this one, but I can say a few things. One, since turkeys are birds, and birds as a general rule have not had teeth for several million years at least, the turkey needs a way to mash up its food -- thus, the crop, which is essentially like another stomach: the turkey (and many other birds, for that matter) swallows small stones which serve in lieu of teeth, mashing up food via muscular action in the crop, from whence the "chewed" food moves on into the rest of the digestive tract. As for any other differences, I'll have to leave that to someone else with more ornithological experience...

137

THE HUMAN FACTOR* By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*I gratefully acknowledge the advice, encouragement, and inspiration of Nuria Chinchilla from IESE who encouraged me to think about the issue of human sustainability in both societies and companies. The helpful comments of the editor and the reviewers substantially clarified the arguments. ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVES, (in press) Although most of the research and public pressure concerning sustainability has been focused on the effects of business and organizational activity on the physical environment, companies and their management practices profoundly affect the human and social environment as well. This article briefly reviews the literature on the direct and indirect effects of organizations and their decisions about people on human health and mortality. It then considers some possible explanations for why social sustainability has received relatively short shrift in management writing, and outlines a research agenda for investigating the links between social sustainability and organizational effectiveness as well as the role

Jeffrey Pfeffer; R Esearch; P Aper; S Eries; Building Sustainable Organizations; Jeffrey Pfeffer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Relocation Guide, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Relocation Information Guide Relocation Information Guide The Human Resources Division is providing this Information Guide to you to help ease the transition of relocating to Long Island. Relocating to a new place can be an exciting as well as stressful time. We have compiled information that can be very helpful with the many issues you may face. You may also seek assistance from the recruiter you work with in Human Resources. Service Disclaimer - This web page contains links to other Internet sites. These links are not endorsements of any products or services and no information in such site has been endorsed or approved by Brookhaven National Laboratory or the Human Resources Division. Here are some of the issues: Cost of living Buying or renting a home Schools in the area

139

Human MSH2 protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Human MSH2 protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

de la Chapelle, Albert (Helsingfors, FI); Vogelstein, Bert (Baltimore, MD); Kinzler, Kenneth W. (Baltimore, MD)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Unconventional human computer interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This course focuses on how we can use the potential of the human body in experimental or unconventional interface techniques. It explores the biological or physiological characteristics of the separate parts of the body, from head to toe, and from skin ...

Steffi Beckhaus; Ernst Kruijff

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Automatic registration of serial mammary gland sections  

SciTech Connect

We present two new methods for automatic registration of microscope images of consecutive tissue sections. They represent two possibilities for the first step in the 3-D reconstruction of histological structures from serially sectioned tissue blocks. The goal is to accurately align the sections in order to place every relevant shape contained in each image in front of its corresponding shape in the following section before detecting the structures of interest and rendering them in 3D. This is accomplished by finding the best rigid body transformation (translation and rotation) of the image being registered by maximizing a matching function based on the image content correlation. The first method makes use of the entire image information, whereas the second one uses only the information located at specific sites, as determined by the segmentation of the most relevant tissue structures. To reduce computing time, we use a multiresolution pyramidal approach that reaches the best registration transformation in increasing resolution steps. In each step, a subsampled version of the images is used. Both methods rely on a binary image which is a thresholded version of the Sobel gradients of the image (first method) or a set of boundaries manually or automatically obtained that define important histological structures of the sections. Then distance-transform of the binary image is computed. A proximity function is then calculated between the distance image of the image being registered and that of the reference image. The transformation providing a maximum of the proximity function is then used as the starting point of the following step. This is iterated until the registration error lies below a minimum value.

Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of female C3H mice. Cancer Research, 19, 515520. 2. Kordon,for breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Research, 56, 402404. 4.breast tissue. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 67, 93

LaBarge, Mark A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: a survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing ... Keywords: affective computing, analysis, human behavior understanding, human sensing, multimodal data, socially-aware computing

Maja Pantic; Alex Pentland; Anton Nijholt; Thomas S. Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A Systems Genetics Approach to Analyze the Metabolic Responses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

identified using metabolite profiling. These data are being extended to the mammary gland of mice as well as human breast cells in 3D cutlures. Together, this comprehensive...

146

MECHANISTIC STUDY OF LOW DOSE RADIATION INDUCED PROTEOLYTIC CASCADES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells organize into tissue-like structures which recapitulate the intact human mammary gland morphology (Figure 1) enabling molecular level study of how normal tissues respond...

147

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

148

Eye Color in Humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eye Color in Humans Eye Color in Humans Name: Kristi Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: The dominant characteristic is the one most likely to appear in the offspring. In human beings, brown is the dominant color for eyes. The children who inherit at least on dominant gene will have either brown, green, or hazel eyes. Only childten who inherit two recessive genes will have pure blue eyes. If there are eight children in the family, what color eyes will most of them have? Replies: http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/archive.htm Search under eye color Steve Sample You answer is of course dependent on the genes of the parents. If both parents do not have the recessive gene, then no children will have light colored eyes. If one has a recessive gene and the other not, then still no children will have light color eyes and on the average 25% of the eight children could have the recessive gene. If both parents have the recessive gene, then 25% of the eight children could have light color eyes.

149

Dog vs. human language  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dog vs. human language Dog vs. human language Name: Michelle Conte Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why can't dogs talk like humans? Replies: In very simple terms, they aren't made for it. In order to produce any kind of vocal sound, we not only need a set of vocal chords (or vibratory organs of some sort), we also need an air pipe and cranium shaped to deliver the vibrations in the right way -- you actually use your own head as a sort of sounding plate for several primary sounds (non-percussive) Dogs don't have the right shaped heads for the job, as well as the inability to vocalize many of the percussive sounds which make up a good percentage of our languages due to a differently shaped mouth. However, all things considered, we'd be ill-equipped to call meetings over long distances by simply howling, like dogs and their kin are wont to do in the wild.

150

Human factoring administrative procedures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following.

Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Modelling postures of human movements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this paper is to present a novel modelling of postures of human activities such us walk, run... Effectively, human action is, in general, characterized by a sequence of specific body postures. So, from an incoming sequence video, we determine ... Keywords: human activities, modelling, shape matching, skeleton, thinning

Djamila Medjahed Gamaz; Houssem Eddine Gueziri; Nazim Haouchine

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Human Capital Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Plan Human Capital Plan More Documents & Publications Strategic Use of Human Capital DOE Strategic Human Capital Plan (FY 2011 - 2015) Energy.gov Careers & Internships For Staff &...

153

Virtual Human Problem Solving Environments  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Interest in complex integrated digital or virtual human modeling has seen a significant increase over the last decade. Coincident with that increased interest, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) initiated the development of a human simulation tool, the Virtual Human. The Virtual Human includes a problem-solving environment (PSE) for implementing the integration of physiological models in different programming languages and connecting physiological function to anatomy. The Virtual Human PSE (VHPSE) provides the computational framework with which to develop the concept of a "Virtual Human." Supporting the framework is a data definition for modeling parameters, PhysioML, a Virtual Human Database (VHDB), and a Web-based graphical user interface (GUI) developed using Java. Following description of the VHPSE, we discuss four example implementations of models within the framework. Further expansion of a human modeling environment was carried out in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. SCIRun served as the Virtual Soldier problem solving environment (VSPSE). We review and compare specific developments in these projects that have significant potential for the future of Virtual Human modeling and simulation. We conclude with an evaluation of areas of future work that will provide important extensions to the VHPSE and VSPSE and make possible a fully-integrated environment for human anatomical and physiological modeling: the Virtual Human.

Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; Fischer, Sarah Kathleen [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Human portable preconcentrator system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Human activity recognition based on surrounding things  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes human activity recognition based on the actual semantics of the humans current location. Since predefining the semantics of location is inadequate to identify human activities, we process information about things to automatically ...

Naoharu Yamada; Kenji Sakamoto; Goro Kunito; Kenichi Yamazaki; Satoshi Tanaka

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory More Documents & Publications PIA - Human Resources Information...

157

Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

NONE

1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Report: EM Human Capital Initiatives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HUMAN CAPITAL HUMAN CAPITAL September 25, 2008 Submitted by the EMAB Human Capital Subcommittee Background: The enhancement of the Office of Environmental Management's (EM) human capital has been a central tenet of the Assistant Secretary's tenure, reflecting the critical nature of this resource to the achievement of EM's mission. Beginning in Fiscal Year (FY) 2006, the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) has reviewed the program's human capital issues and the plans EM has developed to address them. This review produced a number of recommendations that were presented in the Board's FY 2006 report to the Assistant Secretary and were later approved and implemented to varying degrees. * Recommendation 2006-01: Develop accountability for the Human Capital Plan

159

Quantum physics and human values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the following concepts: the quantum conception of nature; the quantum conception of man; and the impact upon human values. (LSP).

Stapp, H.P.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.  

SciTech Connect

This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Origins and consequences of radiation…induced centrosome aberrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Origins and consequences of radiation-induced centrosome aberrations Origins and consequences of radiation-induced centrosome aberrations Sangeetha Vijayakumar, Nisarg Shah, Ignacio Fernandez-Garcia, Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NY, NY. Centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in pre-neoplastic breast lesions and are known to drive chromosomal instability (Lingle et al., 2002). Previous studies from our lab have shown that human mammary epithelial cells exposed to low doses of radiation exhibit centrosome aberrations (CAs) in a dose dependent manner from 10-200 cGy (Maxwell et al., 2008). These data demonstrated that radiation-induced CAs actually precede and generate genomic instability and that TGFβ is a key mediator

162

Origins and consequences of radiation–induced centrosome aberrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Origins and consequences of radiation–induced centrosome aberrations Origins and consequences of radiation–induced centrosome aberrations Sangeetha Vijayakumar New York University School of Medicine Abstract Centrosome aberrations are frequently observed in pre-neoplastic breast lesions and are known to drive chromosomal instability (Lingle et al., 2002). Previous studies from our lab have shown that human mammary epithelial cells exposed to low doses of radiation exhibit centrosome aberrations (CAs) in a dose dependent manner from 10-200 cGy (Maxwell et al., 2008). These data demonstrated that radiation-induced CAs actually precede and generate genomic instability and that TGFβ is a key mediator of genomic surveillance by eliminating genomically unstable cells through p53-dependent apoptosis. While high dose radiation has been shown to cause centrosome aberrations

163

Gene Expression in the Third Dimension: The ECM-nucleus Connection  

SciTech Connect

Decades ago, we and others proposed that the dynamic interplay between a cell and its surrounding environment dictates cell phenotype and tissue structure. Whereas much has been discovered about the effects of extracellular matrix molecules on cell growth and tissue specific gene expression, the nuclear mechanisms through which these molecules promote these physiological events remain unknown. Using mammary epithelial cells as a model, the purpose of this review is to discuss how the extracellular matrix influences nuclear structure and function in a three-dimensional context to promote epithelial morphogenesis and function in the mammary gland.

Spencer, Virginia A; Xu, Ren; Bissell, Mina

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Human Error in Airway Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report examines human errors in Airway Facilities (AF) with the intent of preventing these errors from being passed on to the new Operations Control Centers. To effectively manage errors, they first have to be identified. Human factors engineers researched human error literature, analyzed human errors recorded in AF databases, and conducted structured interviews with AF representatives. This study enabled them to categorize the types of human errors, identify potential causal factors, and recommend strategies for their mitigation. The results provide preventative measures that designers, developers, and users can take to reduce human error. 17. Key Words Human Error Error Mitigation Operations Control Centers Error Mitigation Strategies 18. Distribution Statement This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 22161. 19. Security Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21. No. of Pages 23 22. Price Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was accomplished under the sponsorship of the Office of Chief Scientist for Human Factors, AAR-100. The research team greatly appreciates the support supplied by Beverly Clark of AOP-30 and our subject matter expert, Kermit Grayson of Grayson Consulting. We also wish to extend our thanks to the people interviewed at the facilities who gave their valuable time in helping us to achieve the goals of our project. iv v Table of Contents Page Acknowledgments..........................................................................................................................iii Executive Summary......................................................................................

Vicki Ahlstrom; Vicki Ahlstrom Act; Donald G. Hartman

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with Additional Information Charles DeLisi As head of DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, Charles DeLisi played a pivotal role in proposing and initiating the Human Genome Program in 1986. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has historically been active in supporting human genome research. On September 10, 2003, Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham presented the Secretary's Gold Award to Aristides Patrinos and Francis Collins for their leadership of the government's Human Genome Project. At DOE's Office of Science, Dr. Patrinos is the Associate Director for Biological and Environmental Research. He has been a researcher at the department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

166

Analysis of cis-elements that facilitate extrachromosomal persistence of human papillomavirus genomes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are maintained latently in dividing epithelial cells as nuclear plasmids. Two virally encoded proteins, E1, a helicase, and E2, a transcription factor, are important players in replication and stable plasmid maintenance in host cells. Recent experiments in yeast have demonstrated that viral genomes retain replication and maintenance function independently of E1 and E2 [Angeletti, P.C., Kim, K., Fernandes, F.J., and Lambert, P.F. (2002). Stable replication of papillomavirus genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol. 76(7), 3350-8; Kim, K., Angeletti, P.C., Hassebroek, E.C., and Lambert, P.F. (2005). Identification of cis-acting elements that mediate the replication and maintenance of human papillomavirus type 16 genomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Virol. 79(10), 5933-42]. Flow cytometry studies of EGFP-reporter vectors containing subgenomic HPV fragments with or without a human ARS (hARS), revealed that six fragments located in E6-E7, E1-E2, L1, and L2 regions showed a capacity for plasmid stabilization in the absence of E1 and E2 proteins. Interestingly, four fragments within E7, the 3' end of L2, and the 5' end of L1 exhibited stability in plasmids that lacked an hARS, indicating that they possess both replication and maintenance functions. Two fragments lying in E1-E2 and the 3' region of L1 were stable only in the presence of hARS, that they contained only maintenance function. Mutational analyses of HPV16-GFP reporter constructs provided evidence that genomes lacking E1 and E2 could replicate to an extent similar to wild type HPV16. Together these results support the concept that cellular factors influence HPV replication and maintenance, independently, and perhaps in conjunction with E1 and E2, suggesting a role in the persistent phase of the viral lifecycle.

Pittayakhajonwut, Daraporn [Nebraska Center for Virology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0666 (United States); Angeletti, Peter C. [Nebraska Center for Virology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0666 (United States)], E-mail: Pangeletti2@unl.edu

2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Human genome. 1993 Program report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to update the Human Genome 1991-92 Program Report and provide new information on the DOE genome program to researchers, program managers, other government agencies, and the interested public. This FY 1993 supplement includes abstracts of 60 new or renewed projects and listings of 112 continuing and 28 completed projects. These two reports, taken together, present the most complete published view of the DOE Human Genome Program through FY 1993. Research is progressing rapidly toward 15-year goals of mapping and sequencing the DNA of each of the 24 different human chromosomes.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humanized mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury ...

Thomas, David K.

169

A framework for human microbiome research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project ...

Friedman, Jonathan

170

Human Genome Education Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The funds from the DOE Human Genome Program, for the project period 2/1/96 through 1/31/98, have provided major support for the curriculum development and field testing efforts for two high school level instructional units: Unit 1, ''Exploring Genetic Conditions: Genes, Culture and Choices''; and Unit 2, ''DNA Snapshots: Peaking at Your DNA''. In the original proposal, they requested DOE support for the partial salary and benefits of a Field Test Coordinator position to: (1) complete the field testing and revision of two high school curriculum units, and (2) initiate the education of teachers using these units. During the project period of this two-year DOE grant, a part-time Field-Test Coordinator was hired (Ms. Geraldine Horsma) and significant progress has been made in both of the original proposal objectives. Field testing for Unit 1 has occurred in over 12 schools (local and non-local sites with diverse student populations). Field testing for Unit 2 has occurred in over 15 schools (local and non-local sites) and will continue in 12-15 schools during the 96-97 school year. For both curricula, field-test sites and site teachers were selected for their interest in genetics education and in hands-on science education. Many of the site teachers had no previous experience with HGEP or the unit under development. Both of these first-year biology curriculum units, which contain genetics, biotechnology, societal, ethical and cultural issues related to HGP, are being implemented in many local and non-local schools (SF Bay Area, Southern California, Nebraska, Hawaii, and Texas) and in programs for teachers. These units will reach over 10,000 students in the SF Bay Area and continues to receive support from local corporate and private philanthropic organizations. Although HGEP unit development is nearing completion for both units, data is still being gathered and analyzed on unit effectiveness and student learning. The final field testing result from this analysis will contribute to the final revisions of each unit during the second-year of this grant.

Richard Myers; Lane Conn

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

ORISE: Human Subjects Research Database  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Research Database Section 10, Part 745 of the Code of Federal Regulations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 443.1 and 481.1 require the maintenance of...

172

Human Errors in Information Security  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of the paper is to target audience and stakeholder individuals whom are in charge of securing the assets of their organisations and institutions. This paper starts by providing a brief overview of information security, outlining the main goals and techniques of the discipline. The paper also discusses the role of human factors and how the information security research community has recognised the increasingly crucial role of human behaviour in many security failures. This is followed by a literature review of human errors in information security. Finally, this paper discusses Reason's Generic Error Modelling System (GEMS) as a potential model for explaining human errors in information security [18]. The terms computer security, network security and information security are used interchangeably in this paper.

Munir Ahmed; Lukman Sharif; Muhammad Kabir; Maha Al-maimani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Cordinating human-robot communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As robots begin to emerge from the cloisters of industrial and military applications and enter the realms of coperative partners for people, one of the most important facets of human-robot interaction (HRI) will be ...

Brks, Andrw G. (Brks Zoz)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Human Factors Engineering Analysis Tool  

A new software tool enables the easy and quick selection of applicable regulatory guidelines as a starting point for human factors engineering (HFE) analyses. Once selected, each guideline can be viewed on screen. The software tracks and reports the ...

175

HVAC Sensors, Controls, and Human Feedback Interfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC Sensors, HVAC Sensors, Controls, and Human Controls, and Human Feedback Interfaces Feedback Interfaces April 26, 2010 Dr. Amr Gado Emerson Climate Technologies Heating And...

176

Homeland Security/Forensics/Human Identity News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Humans spend greater than 90 percent of their time indoors, but we ... Experts Recommend Measures to Reduce Human Error in Fingerprint Analysis ...

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Strategic Use of Human Capital | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

use of human capital. Strategic Use of Human Capital More Documents & Publications DOE Strategic Human Capital Plan (FY 2011 - 2015) Inspection Report: DOEIG-0888 Human Capital...

178

Celebrating Excellence in Humanities 2012 Celebrating Excellence in Humanities 2012 Celebrating Excellence in Humanities 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-1950" Brian Catlos History University of Texas at Arlington 47th Annual Walter Prescott Webb Essay Competition. Guerrero Literature/Creative Writing Humanities Undergraduate Research Award "I Once Was Lost: The (Found

California at Santa Cruz, University of

179

FTCP Human Factors Engineering Supplemental Competencies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Human Factors Engineering Functional Area Qualification Competencies Examples for DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel

180

Five design challenges for human computation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human computation systems, which draw upon human competencies in order to solve hard computational problems, represent a growing interest within HCI. Despite the numerous technical demonstrations of human computation systems, however, there are few design ... Keywords: citizen science, crowdsourcing, design framework, games with a purpose, human computation

Stuart Reeves; Scott Sherwood

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Human Capital Management | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Human Capital Management Human Capital Management Human Capital Management The strategic management of human capital requires comprehensive planning and analysis in order to develop, implement, and evaluate programs that support every facet of employee work life. DOE human capital initiatives are designed to support continuous improvement and accountability in accordance with the DOE Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP), which is an internal DOE audit process of servicing human resources offices and addresses those documents that require coordination with the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer before being implemented; Human Resource Directors; the Department's 5-year Strategic Human Capital Management Plan; Departmental element workforce plans; the Department's personnel accountability program that is used

182

Reprogramming stem cells is a microenvironmental task  

SciTech Connect

That tumor cells for all practical purposes are unstable and plastic could be expected. However, the astonishing ability of the nuclei from cells of normal adult tissues to be reprogrammed - given the right embryonic context - found its final truth even for mammals in the experiments that allowed engineering Dolly (1). The landmark experiments showed that nuclei originating from cells of frozen mammary tissues were capable of being reprogrammed by the embryonic cytoplasm and its microenvironment to produce a normal sheep. The rest is history. However, whether microenvironments other than those of the embryos can also reprogram adult cells of different tissue origins still containing their cytoplasm is of obvious interest. In this issue of PNAS, the laboratory of Gilbert Smith (2) reports on how the mammary gland microenvironment can reprogram both embryonic and adult stem neuronal cells. The work is a follow-up to their previous report on testis stem cells that were reprogrammed by the mammary microenvironment (3). They demonstrated that cells isolated from the seminiferous tubules of the mature testis, mixed with normal mammary epithelial cells, contributed a sizable number of epithelial progeny to normal mammary outgrowths in transplanted mammary fat pads. However, in those experiments they were unable to distinguish which subpopulation of the testis cells contributed progeny to the mammary epithelial tree. The current work adds new, compelling, and provocative information to our understanding of stem cell plasticity. Booth et al. (2) use neuronal stem cells (NSCs) isolated from WAP-cre/R26R mice combined with unlabeled mammary epithelial cells that subsequently are implanted in cleared mammary fat pads. In this new microenvironment, the NSCs that are incorporated into the branching mammary tree make chimeric glands (Fig. 1) that remarkably can also express the milk protein {beta}-casein, progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor {alpha}. Remarkably, the primary transplants are capable of maintaining chimerism through serial transplantation. When the chimeric glands are explanted back into NSC growth media, cells with NSC markers were present only in explants from the first transplant and not from explants in the subsequent serial transplants, suggesting that there is a window of time and an unknown but specific context for becoming NSC again.

Bissell, Mina J; Inman, Jamie

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

183

Human gene sequencing makes advances  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Project is a federal project that is on the scale of the Manhattan Project of the 1940s. The focus of this project is to map and sequence the 100,000 plus genes and 3 billion base pairs that comprise the human genome. This effort has made two recent advances. First, two of the major companies involved in this project formed a strategic alliance that will pump up to 125 million dollars into this project. Second, researchers at Argonne National Lab. have tested a new sequencing technique that could identify 100 million base pairs a day when fully implemented.

Alper, J.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Collective migration of epithelial sheets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The varied movements of the epithelium play vital roles in the development and renewal of complex tissues, from the separation of tissues in the early embryo, to homeostasis in the adult. Their movement is intricately ...

Murrell, Michael Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Pulmonary macrophage and epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Separate abstracts were prepared for the 41 papers presented at the conference. Abstracts of two papers have appeared in previous issues of Energy Research Abstracts. (HLW)

Sanders, C.L.; Schneider, R.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A. (eds.)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A Literary Human Exinction Scenario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly's (MWS) novel, The Last Man, published in 1826, is an epic narrative about the destruction of the human race. This paper provides a synopsis of this book and assesses its relationships to contemporary future studies. The paper also delves into the history of apocalyptic writing and thinking, using this book an entry point to past literature.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The human agent virtual environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we describe a multi-agent simulation called the Human Agent Virtual Environment (or HAVE). HAVE is a test bed to explore agent-environment interaction in multi-agent simulation for defence applications. The primary research driver in the ... Keywords: agents and cognitive models, defence, multi-agent simulation and modeling

Michael Papasimeon; Adrian R. Pearce; Simon Goss

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Human and unhuman commonsense reasoning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ford has introduced a non-monotonic logic, System LS, inspired by an empirical study of human non-monotonic reasoning. We define here a defeasible logic FDL based on Fordh's logic, and in doing so identify some similarities and differences between Ford's ...

Michael J. Maher

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Human retroviruses and AIDS 1994  

SciTech Connect

This compendium, including accompanying floppy diskettes, is the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts it comprises: (I) Nucleic Acid Alignments and Sequences; (II) Amino Acid Alignments; (III) Analysis; (IV) Related Sequences; (V) Database communications.

Myers, G.; Korber, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wain-Hobson, S.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh; Henderson, L.E.; Pavlakis, G.N. [eds.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Human-Machine Function Allocation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Human-machine function comparison...ability Comparatively slow and poor computers. Excellent and very rapid computers. Memory storage Poor short-term storage. Excellent long-term storage. Excellent short-term storage. Long-term storage very

191

Evolutionarily conserved sequences on human chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of human sequences with the DNA of other mammals is an excellent means of identifying functional elements in the human genome. Here we describe the utility of high-density oligonucleotide arrays as a rapid approach for comparing human sequences with the DNA of multiple species whose sequences are not presently available. High-density arrays representing approximately 22.5 Mb of nonrepetitive human chromosome 21 sequence were synthesized and then hybridized with mouse and dog DNA to identify sequences conserved between humans and mice (human-mouse elements) and between humans and dogs (human-dog elements). Our data show that sequence comparison of multiple species provides a powerful empiric method for identifying actively conserved elements in the human genome. A large fraction of these evolutionarily conserved elements are present in regions on chromosome 21 that do not encode known genes.

Frazer, Kelly A.; Sheehan, John B.; Stokowski, Renee P.; Chen, Xiyin; Hosseini, Roya; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Fodor, Stephen P.A.; Cox, David R.; Patil, Nila

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Contractor Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contractor Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Contractor Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Contractor Human Resources Home > About Us > Our Operations > Acquisition and Project Management > Contractor Human Resources Contractor Human Resources Welcome The Contractor Human Resources mission is to provide expert advice and

193

Human Errors: Disadvantages and Advantages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The traditional paradigm for learning and training of operators in complex systems is discussed and criticised to react on the strong influence (the doctrine of 'mental logic') coming from research carried out in artificial intelligence (AI). The most well known arguments against the AI-approach are presented and discussed in relation to expertise, intuition and implicit knowledge. The importance of faults and errors are discussed in the context of a new metaphor for cognitive structures to describe expertise, and how knowledge about unsuccessful behavior influences the actual decision making process of experts. Keywords: human error, meta learning, mental model, experience, expertise 1. INTRODUCTION Why is this type of statements "I learned more from my defeats than from my victories" (Napoleon, ca. 1819) sometimes (or always) true? To answer this question we need a new understanding of human errors, inefficient behavior, and expertise. In this paper we will discuss the importance of...

Matthias Rauterberg; Daniel Felix

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cloning humans, increasing intelligence, and AIDS money  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloning humans, increasing intelligence, and AIDS money Name: Eric T Jenes Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: How close are we to cloning humans?...

195

Integrating Human Performance and Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Bioscience & Health Homeland Security/Forensics/Human ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... vehicle Experts Recommend Measures to Reduce Human Error in Fingerprint Analysis. 13DO003_oles_fingerprintmap_CS ...

2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

197

From here to human-level AI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human-level AI will be achieved, but new ideas are almost certainly needed, so a date cannot be reliably predicted-maybe five years, maybe five hundred years. I'd be inclined to bet on this 21st century. It is not surprising that human-level AI has proved ... Keywords: Elaboration tolerance, Human-level AI

John McCarthy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Human activities recognition using depth images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new method to classify human activities by leveraging on the cues available from depth images alone. Towards this end, we propose a descriptor which couples depth and spatial information of the segmented body to describe a human pose. Unique ... Keywords: depth image segmentation, human activity detection

Raj Gupta; Alex Yong-Sang Chia; Deepu Rajan

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Computer (and Human) Perfection at Checkers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1989 the Chinook project began with the goal of winning the human World Checkers Championship. There was an imposing obstacle to success ?the human champion, Marion Tinsley. Tinsley was as close to perfection at the game as was humanly possible. To ...

Jonathan Schaeffer

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Climate Human Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate Human Capital Climate Human Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Human Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip W1K 6NG Sector Carbon, Renewable Energy, Services Product Green executive search company, listed in London's PLUS marketplace since 30 MArch 2010, focusing on the following target sectors: Carbon Markets, Environmental Sciences, Research and Advisory, Financial Services, Renewable Energy Generation and Policy. References Climate Human Capital[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Climate Human Capital is a company located in London, United Kingdom . References ↑ "Climate Human Capital" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_Human_Capital&oldid=343709

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201

Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

Ronald Laurids Boring

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Human Resources & Occupational Medicine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Job Opportunities Benefits Office • Work-Life Balance Programs • International Services • Occupational Medicine • Salaries & Awards • Training & Qualifications The Human Resources and Occupational Medicine Division handles scientific and non-scientific employment, benefits, employee and labor relations, staff development, salaries and awards, employee records, and occupational medicine. For more information, click on the one of the services listed above. Brookhaven National Laboratory has a long-standing commitment to a policy of equal opportunity and diversity. Our goal is equality of opportunity in all aspects of employment, including placement, development programs, job assignments, transfers and promotions, without regard to race, color,

203

Guessing human-chosen secrets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guessing human-chosen secrets Joseph Bonneau University of Cambridge Churchill College May 2012 This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Declaration This dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing... , including tables and footnotes. To Fletcher, for teaching me the value of hard work. Im glad youre back. Joseph Bonneau, May 2012 Acknowledgements I am grateful to my supervisor Ross Anderson for help every step of the way, from answering my emails when I...

Bonneau, Joseph

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Simulation of human decision making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Sabina E. (Albuquerque, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

205

Human exposure through food chains:  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using information collected under the community right to know'' provision of the Superfund reauthorization act, the US Environmental Protection Agency has revealed that some two to three billion pounds of toxic chemicals are released annually to the atmosphere from industries in the US. Human populations can contact these environmental pollutants through food, water, and air in varying amounts each day throughout a lifetime. A realistic strategy for managing the potential health risks of industrial emissions requires a comprehensive approach with adequate attention to uncertainties. Using contaminant transfers from air to milk and as a case study, I consider here two important issues in exposure assessment --- (1) estimation of and (2) reduction of uncertainty in exposure estimates. This case study provides a distinction between variability, ignorance and uncertainty. For the air/milk pathways, I explore the use of exposure models that combine information on environmental partitioning with data on human diet, behavior patterns, and physiology into a numerical expression that links ambient air concentrations with chronic daily intake. I examine how uncertainty limits current exposure modeling efforts and suggest research to reduce these uncertainty. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

McKone, T.E.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Structural Stability of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 Is Essential for Protective Effects Against Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) has radioprotective effects on the intestine, although its structural instability limits its potential for practical use. Several stable FGF1 mutants were created increasing stability in the order, wild-type FGF1, single mutants (Q40P, S47I, and H93G), Q40P/S47I, and Q40P/S47I/H93G. This study evaluated the contribution of the structural stability of FGF1 to its radioprotective effect. Methods and Materials: Each FGF1 mutant was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 h before or after total body irradiation (TBI) with {gamma}-rays at 8-12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Q40P/S47I/H93G could activate all subtypes of FGF receptors in vitro much more strongly than the wild-type without endogenous or exogenous heparin. Preirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G significantly increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1 after TBI at 10 or 12 Gy, and postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G was effective in promoting crypt survival after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. In addition, crypt cell proliferation, crypt depth, and epithelial differentiation were significantly promoted by postirradiation treatment with Q40P/S47I/H93G. The level of stability of FGF1 mutants correlated with their mitogenic activities in vitro in the absence of heparin; however, preirradiation treatment with the mutants increased the crypt number to almost the same level as Q40P/S47I/H93G. When given 24 h after TBI at 10 Gy, all FGF1 mutants increased crypt survival more than wild-type FGF1, and Q40P/S47I/H93G had the strongest mitogenic effects in intestinal epithelial cells after radiation damage. Moreover, Q40P/S47I/H93G prolonged mouse survival after TBI because of the repair of intestinal damage. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the structural stability of FGF1 can contribute to the enhancement of protective effects against radiation-induced intestinal damage. Therefore, Q40P/S47I/H93G is pharmacologically one of the most promising candidates for clinical applications for radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Motomura, Kaori; Suzuki, Masashi [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Zakrzewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland)] [Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Signaling Molecules Research Laboratory, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

DOE O 328.1, Human Capital Management Accountability Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Order establishes requirements, roles and responsibilities for the Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) for human resources programs and ...

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations in the mean compositions of tissues affect low energy brachytherapy dosimetry. Dose differences between mean and one standard deviation of the mean composition increasing with distance from the source are observed. It is established that the {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs sources are the least sensitive to variations in elemental compositions while {sup 103}Pd is most sensitive. The EBS falls in between and exhibits complex behavior due to significant spectral hardening. Results from simulation (2) show that two prostate compositions are dosimetrically equivalent to water while the third shows D{sub 90} differences of up to 4%. Results from simulation (3) show that breast is more sensitive than prostate with dose variations of up to 30% from water for 70% adipose/30% gland breast. The variability of the breast composition adds a {+-}10% dose variation. Conclusions: Low energy brachytherapy dose distributions in tissue differ from water and are influenced by density, mean tissue composition, and patient-to-patient composition variations. The results support the use of a dose calculation algorithm accounting for heterogeneities such as MC. Since this work shows that variations in mean tissue compositions affect MC dosimetry and result in increased dose uncertainties, the authors conclude that imaging tools providing more accurate estimates of elemental compositions such as dual energy CT would be beneficial.

Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, de l'Universite Laval, CHUQ, Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Human Resources Home > About Us > Our Operations > Management and Budget > Human Resources Human Resources The Human Resources function in NNSA is a vital partnership between all levels of NNSA management. It requires effective collaboration with the

210

Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Human Resources Home > About Us > Our Operations > Management and Budget > Human Resources Human Resources The Human Resources function in NNSA is a vital partnership between all levels of NNSA management. It requires effective collaboration with the

211

Improving human forensics through advances in genetics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 98. Liu, B. et al. Expression of membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC4 in major human salivary glands. J. Histochem. Cytochem. ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

Apparatus and methods for a human extender  

SciTech Connect

A human extender controller for interface between a human operator and a physical object through a physical plant. The human extender controller uses an inner-feedback loop to increase the equivalent damping of the operating system to stabilize the system when it contacts with the environment and reduces the impact of the environment variation by utilizing a high feedback gain, determined by a root locus sketch. Because the stability of the human extender controller of the present invention is greatly enhanced over that of the prior art, the present invention is able to achieve a force reflection ratio 500 to 1 and capable of handling loads above the two (2) ton range.

Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The complete sequence of human chromosome 5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initialof problem solving in genome sequencing. Genome Res. 8, 562-8 (2001). 23. Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Office of Human Resource Services (HC-30)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This organization provides a full range of human capital management (HCM) operational functions, employee work life programs, workforce service delivery, and day-to-day operational support for...

215

Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) is an online program which serves as the vehicle for identifying and measuring these three factors, effectiveness, efficiency, and timeliness...

216

Health Information Technology (IT), Human Factor Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on a research program aimed at developing human factors guidelines for ... technical guidelines will help support safe, effective, error-free EHR use ...

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

217

Automatic Recognition of Human Team Behaviors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a methodology for recording, representing, and recognizing team behaviors performed by human players in an Unreal Tournament MOUT (Military Operations in Urban Terrain) scenario.

Gita Sukthankar; Katia Sycara

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Employee and Guest Records, Human Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Guest Records Verification of Employment (see below) Guest Information System (GIS) Request for Access to Human Resources Systems (pdf) Staff Information Verification of...

219

Human Resources & EEO/Diversity Symposium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Resources & EEODiversity Symposium Table of Contents Disclaimer Presentations Track I - The HR Environment Track II - The HR Response Track III - Training & Career Track IV...

220

New human resources division leader selected  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and most recently, as the Human Resources Division Manager at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. Hampton has been successful in implementing policies and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

The Pathology of EMT in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of experimental cancer research. A review. New York:London: Imperial Cancer Research Fund; 1911. 17. Jensen CO.of The Imperial Cancer Research Fund. London: Taylor and

Cardiff, Robert Darrell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Emotion induction during human-robot interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the presented study was to measure physiological correlates of emotions that are of particular interest in the field of human-robot interaction (HRI). Therefore, we did not focus on self-induced basic emotions but rather evoked states that ... Keywords: emotion recognition, human-robot interaction, joint construction, stress induction

Cornelia Wendt; Michael Popp; Berthold Faerber

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstedes (1991) cultural factors and Davis (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Human-aware computer system design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we argue that human-factors studies are critical in building a wide range of dependable systems. In particular, only with a deep understanding of the causes, types, and likelihoods of human mistakes can we build systems that prevent, hide, ...

Ricardo Bianchini; Richard P. Martin; Kiran Nagaraja; Thu D. Nguyen; Fbio Oliveira

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Hierarchical pose estimation for human gait analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Articulated structures like the human body have many degrees of freedom. This makes an evaluation of the configuration's likelihood very challenging. In this work we propose new linked hierarchical graphical models which are able to efficiently evaluate ... Keywords: Gait analysis, Hierarchical graphical model, Human pose estimation, Markov random fields

Jens Spehr; Simon Winkelbach; Friedrich M. Wahl

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Real-time individualized virtual humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This tutorial will present the latest techniques to model fast individualized animatable virtual humans for Real-Time applications. As a human is composed of a head and a body, we will analyze how these two parts can be modeled and globally animated ...

Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Daniel Thalmann

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Human Resource Management on Social Capital  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past years, several researchers have analysed the relational dynamics that takes place inside and between organizations concept, mediating and moderating variables, effects, etc. considering it as a resource capable of contributing to the orientation ... Keywords: Human Resource Policy, Human Resources Management, Information Technology, Proposed a Model, Social Capital

Macarena Lpez-Fernndez; Fernando Martn-Alczar; Pedro Miguel Romero-Fernndez

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Human mobility modeling at metropolitan scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models of human mobility have broad applicability in fields such as mobile computing, urban planning, and ecology. This paper proposes and evaluates WHERE, a novel approach to modeling how large populations move within different metropolitan areas. ... Keywords: call detail records, human mobility patterns

Sibren Isaacman; Richard Becker; Ramn Cceres; Margaret Martonosi; James Rowland; Alexander Varshavsky; Walter Willinger

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Diversity at Fermilab - Human Rights Policy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Rights Policy Human Rights Policy Fermilab attracts scientists, not only from this country, but from many other nations all over the world. Foreign visitors, laypersons, as well as scientists, come to the laboratory to participate in its work. They represent a wide variety of races, nationalities, cultures and beliefs. It is essential that we provide an environment and maintain an atmosphere in which both staff and visitors can live and work with pride and dignity without regard to such differences as race, religion, sex, or national origin. In any conflict between technical expediency and human rights we will stand on the side of human rights. This is because of our dedication to science. The support of human rights in our laboratory and its environs is inextricably intertwined with our goal of making the Laboratory a center of technical and scientific excellence. The latter is not likely to be achieved without success of the former.

230

ORISE: Human Subjects Protection Resource Protection Book  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Subjects Protection Resource Book Human Subjects Protection Resource Book The Human Subjects Protection Resource Book synthesizes information currently available on the protection of human subjects in research, the continuing application of such information to new areas of endeavor, and ever-changing rules, regulations, and guidance. This resource, to which the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contributed, is for investigators, institutional review boards, research organizations, research subjects and others. The book contains chapters that provide background information on the history and development of federal regulations; chapters that discuss procedural and substantive issues regarding the review and conduct of human subjects research; and chapters that are specific to one type of research

231

History of the DOE Human Genome Program  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

History of the DOE Human Genome Program History of the DOE Human Genome Program The following history is taken from the U.S. Department of Energy 1991-91 Human Genome Program Report (June 1992). This is an archived item. A brief history of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Genome Program will be useful in a discussion of the objectives of the DOE program as well as those of the collaborative U.S. Human Genome Project. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of DOE and its predecessor agencies--the Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration--have long sponsored research into genetics, both in microbial systems and in mammals, including basic studies on genome structure, replication, damage, and repair and the consequences of genetic

232

Habitat for Humanity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Habitat for Humanity Habitat for Humanity Jump to: navigation, search Name Habitat for Humanity Place Americus, GA Website http://www.habitat.org/ References NREL Technical Report: Zero Energy Home[1] Fact Sheet: Zero Energy Demonstration Home[2] Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL Electricity Resources & Building Systems Integration Partnership Year 2005 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Habitat for Humanity is a company located in Americus, GA. References ↑ "NREL Technical Report: Zero Energy Home" ↑ "Fact Sheet: Zero Energy Demonstration Home" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Habitat_for_Humanity&oldid=38172

233

Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Deformable human body model development  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of CAD gene expression and inhibition by Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in human breast cancer cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CAD gene is trifunctional and expresses carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate carbamyltransferase/dihydroorotase, which are required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. CAD gene activities are induced in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and treatment of MCF-7 or ZR-75 cells with 17b-estradiol (E2) resulted in a 3-5 fold increase in CAD mRNA levels in both cell lines. E2 induced reporter gene activity in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells transfected with a construct containing the growth-responsive -90/+115 (pCAD1) region of the CAD gene promoter, which contains three upstream GC-rich and two downstream E-box motifs. Deletion and mutation analysis of the CAD gene promoter demonstrated that only the GC boxes that bind Sp1 protein were required for E2-responsiveness. Results of gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays show that both Sp1 and estrogen receptor a (ERa) interact with the GC-rich region of the CAD gene promoter. Moreover, hormone-induced transactivation of pCAD1 was inhibited by cotransfection with dominant-negative Sp1 expression plasmid and small inhibitory RNA for Sp1. These results demonstrate that, in common with many other genes involved in E2-induced cell proliferation, the CAD gene is also regulated by a nonclassical ERa/Sp1-mediated pathway. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands suppress several E2-induced responses in the rodent uterus and mammary tumors and in human breast cancer cells. TCDD inhibited hormone-induced activation of CAD mRNA levels and reporter gene activity in MCF-7 and ZR-75 cells transfected with E2-responsive pCAD promoter constructs. E2-mediated transactivation of pCAD constructs with a mutant inhibitory dioxin responsive element DRE (iDRE) were also inhibited by TCDD suggesting that inhibitory AhR-ERa/Sp1 crosstalk was iDRE-independent. It was not possible to determine whether the levels of ERa in cells cotreated with E2 plus TCDD were limiting since the proteasome inhibitor MG132 itself directly decreased CAD mRNA levels. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), it was shown that both E2 and TCDD enhanced AhR-ERa interactions. E2 also induced interactions between ERa and Sp1. However cotreatment with TCDD abrogated this effect. Results of this study demonstrate a unique model of AhR-ERa crosstalk where the liganded AhR inhibits ERa-Sp1 interactions and also recruits ERa to Ahresponsive gene promoters such as CYP1A1.

Khan, Shaheen Munawar Ali

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Human retroviruses and AIDS 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This compendium is the result of an effort to compile, organize, and rapidly publish as much relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses as possible. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the four parts that it comprises: (1) Nucleic Acid Alignments, (2) Amino Acid Alignments, (3) Reviews and Analyses, and (4) Related Sequences. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. This year we are not including floppy diskettes as the entire compendium is available both at our Web site and at our ftp site. If you need floppy diskettes please contact either Bette Korber (btk@t10.lanl.gov) or Kersti Rock (karm@t10.lanl.gov) by email or fax ((505) 665-4453). While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. The exception to this are reviews submitted by experts in areas deemed of particular and basic importance to research involving AIDS viral sequence information. These are included in Part III, and are contributed by scientists with particular expertise in the area of interest. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

Korber, B.; Foley, B.; Leitner, T. [eds.] [and others] [eds.; and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

(Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs)  

SciTech Connect

We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

Nierman, W.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

OHara J. M.; Higgins, H.; DAgostino, A.; Erasmia, L.

2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

239

Including the Human Factor in Dependability Benchmarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the construction of a dependability benchmark that captures the impact of the human system operator on the tested system. Our benchmark follows the usual model of injecting faults and perturbations into the tested system; however, our perturbations are generated by the unscripted actions of actual human operators participating in the benchmark procedure in addition to more traditional fault injection. We introduce the issues that arise as we attempt to incorporate human behavior into a dependability benchmark and describe the possible solutions that we have arrived at through preliminary experimentation. Finally, we describe the implementation of our techniques in a dependability benchmark that we are currently developing

Aaron B. Brown; Leonard C. Chung; David A. Patterson

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

HST.071 Human Reproductive Biology, Fall 2002  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lectures and clinical case discussions designed to provide the student with a clear understanding of the physiology, endocrinology, and pathology of human reproduction. Emphasis is on the role of technology in reproductive ...

Klapholz, Henry

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Determination of plutonium in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Report is made of chemical procedures for determination of plutonium in human urine. The procedures are provided in outline form and statistical methods are provided for interpretation of the results.

Langham, W.H.

1947-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

242

2011-2015 Human Capital Management Plan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Legacy Management (LM) needs skilled and engaged staff to accomplish our mission and carry out our responsibilities to the American people. This Human Capital Management Plan (HCMP or...

243

Human Engineering Design Guidelines for Maintainability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility managers, designers, and engineers can now systematically incorporate appropriate human factors engineering principles and criteria for maintainability into new plant designs or existing plant modifications. Using these guidelines can also result in increased productivity, safety, and plant availability.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proxy genotypes and phenotypes for human genetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Genetic mapping by association is an unbiased approach to discover genes and pathways influencing disease traits and response to drugs and environmental exposures. There are two key obstacles to mapping in humans: (1) The ...

Yelensky, Roman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Multimodal human computer interaction: a survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we review the major approaches to multimodal human computer interaction from a computer vision perspective. In particular, we focus on body, gesture, gaze, and affective interaction (facial expression recognition, and emotion in audio). ...

Alejandro Jaimes; Nicu Sebe

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Embodied cognition in robots and human evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates the notion of embodied cognition in humans using the research of former University of Washington researcher William Calvin and robots using the research of former MIT professor Rodney Brooks. The ...

Myhrvold, Conor L. (Conor Lachlan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Human Subjects Research, Office of Research Administration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

search BNL Go Site Details Homepage Human Subjects Research Animal Research Contact Us Other Information BNL Visitor Information Directions to BNL BNL Site Index Can't View PDFs?...

248

Scientists Help Define the Healthy Human Microbiome  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

years of research. Berkeley Lab's role in mapping the human microbiome revolves around big data, both analyzing it and making it available for scientists to use worldwide. 3.5...

249

Video looping of human cyclic motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a system called Video Looping is developed to analyze human cyclic motions. Video Looping allows users to extract human cyclic motion from a given video sequence. This system analyzes similarities from a large amount of live footage to find the point of smooth transition. The final cyclic loop is created using only a few output images. Video Looping is useful not only to learn and understand human movements, but also to apply the cyclic loop to various artistic applications. To provide practical animation references, the output images are presented as photo plate sequences to visualize human cyclic motion similar to Eadweard Muybridge's image sequences. The final output images can be used to create experimental projects such as composited multiple video loops or small size of web animations. Furthermore, they can be imported into animation packages, and animators can create keyframe animations by tracing them in 3D software.

Choi, Hye Mee

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

251

Automated-Manual Transitions: Human Capabilities and Adaptive Cruise Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRANSIT AND HIGHWAYS Automated-Manual Transitions: HumanOF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Automated-Manual Transitions: HumanSuch systems will supplant manual controls during certain

Barton, Joseph E.; Cohn, Theodore E.; Nguyen, Khoi M.; Nguyen, Tieuvi; Toyofuku, Natsuko

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Training Program EHS 740 ~ Human Subjects Research Training Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

740 Human Subjects Research Training Program Course Syllabus Subject Category: Human Subjects Research Course Prerequisite: None Course Length: 1 hour Medical Approval: None...

253

Lawrence Livermore study finds human activity affects vertical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

human activity affects vertical structure of atmospheric temperature Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Human influences have directly impacted the latitude...

254

Improving The Representation Of Human Error In The Use Of The Flight Crew Human Factors Integration Tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-15. Norman, D.A. (1983). Position paper on human error.Research Workshop on Human Error . Bellagio, Italy. O'Hare,M. (1996). Breakdown of human error models , Prepared for

Gosling, Geoffrey; Roberts, Karlene H.; Jayaswal, Arpana

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch ...

Nikolaidis, Stefanos

256

Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

R. L. Boring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban areas are home to more than half of the worlds people, responsible for 470 % of anthropogenic release of carbon dioxide and 76 % of wood used for industrial purposes. By 2050 the proportion of the urban population is expected to increase to 70 % worldwide. Despite fast rates of change and potential value for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions, the organic carbon storage in human settlements has not been well quantified. Here, we show that human settlements can store as much carbon per unit area (2342 kg C m 2 urban areas and 716 kg C m 2 exurban areas) as tropical forests, which have the highest carbon density of natural ecosystems (425 kg C m 2). By the year 2000 carbon storage attributed to human settlements of the conterminous United States was 18 Pg of carbon or 10 % of its total land carbon storage. Sixty-four percent of this carbon was attributed to soil, 20 % to vegetation, 11 % to landfills, and 5 % to buildings. To offset rising urban emissions of carbon, regional and national governments should consider how to protect or even to increase carbon storage of human-dominated landscapes. Rigorous studies addressing carbon budgets of human settlements and vulnerability of their carbon storage are needed.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Control architecture for human friendly robots based on interacting with human  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a control architecture for human friendly robot. Recently, robot middleware is developed for intelligent robot software platform. The robot system can be constructed by making the program of each functional module and connecting ... Keywords: 3D-range camera, human friendly robot, software architecture

Hiroyuki Masuta; Eriko Hiwada; Naoyuki Kubota

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Human support improvements by natural man-machine collaboration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a novel framework that improves the recognition performance of human support systems, and then discuss why our framework is Human-Centered. A Human-Centered system should have a high recognition ability with minimum burden on ... Keywords: human-centered computing, interactive system

Motoyuki Ozeki; Yasushi Miyata; Hideki Aoyama; Yuichi Nakamura

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Research Program (HRP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Organization HQ Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (AA) Directorate Program Management

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Human Rights and Rule of Law: What's The Relationship  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ways that are considered arbitrary detention or torture under international human rights standards (

Peerenboom, Randall P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminants, Water and Human Health: New Lessons from Alligators. Purpose: Many chemicals introduced into the environment ...

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A New Method to Evaluate Human-Robot System Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities ... Keywords: analysis, human-robot systems, performance, robotics

G. Rodriguez; C. R. Weisbin

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Perception modeling for human-like artificial sensor systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we present an approach to the design of human-like artificial systems. It uses a perception model to describe how sensory information is processed for a particular task and to correlate human and artificial perception. Since human-like ... Keywords: Active perception, Artificial hand, Artificial perceptual systems, Dexterous manipulation, Electronic tongue, Human-based sensors, Passive perception

Linn Robertsson; Boyko Iliev; Rainer Palm; Peter Wide

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Generic-model based human-body modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a generic-model based human-body modeling method which take the anatomical structure of the human body into account. The generic model contains anatomical structure of bones and muscles of the human body. For a given target skin mesh, ... Keywords: anatomically-based modeling, generic model, human body modeling

Xiaomao Wu; Lizhuang Ma; Ke-Sen Huang; Yan Gao; Zhihua Chen

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Anatomy-based modeling of the human musculature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: articulated models, bones, deformations, human figure animation, muscles, procedural modeling, tendons

Ferdi Scheepers; Richard E. Parent; Wayne E. Carlson; Stephen F. May

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Human Resources Reports | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Human Resources Reports Human Resources Reports Human Resources Reports August 21, 2013 Inspection Report: INS-L-13-06 Allegations of Irregular Hiring Practices and Preferential Treatment in the Loan Programs Office July 16, 2013 MANAGEMENT ALERT: DOE/IG-0891 Allegations Regarding Prohibited Personnel Practices at the Bonneville Power Administration June 6, 2013 Inspection Report: DOE/IG-0888 Alleged Nepotism and Wasteful Spending in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 22, 2013 Inspection Report: DOE-IG-0882 Approval of Contractor Executive Salaries by Department of Energy Personnel June 22, 2012 Inspection Report: INS-L-12-04 Alleged Procurement and Hiring Practice Irregularities within the Office of Policy and International Affairs June 18, 2012 Audit Report: IG-0867

268

Rocky Mountain Humane Investing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Humane Investing Humane Investing Jump to: navigation, search Name Rocky Mountain Humane Investing Place Allenspark, Colorado Zip 80510 Product Allenspark-based investment management firm prioritising Socially Responsible Investing (SRI). Coordinates 40.19472°, -105.525719° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.19472,"lon":-105.525719,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

269

PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Human Resources Personal Information  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Human Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request PIA Template Version 3 - May, 2009 Department of Energy Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) Guidance is provided in the template. See DOE Order 206.1, Department of Energy Privacy Program, Appendix A, Privacy Impact Assessments, for requirements and additional guidance for conducting a PIA: http://www.directives.doe.gov/pdfs/doe/doetext/neword/206/o2061.pdf Please complete electronically: no hand-written submissions will be accepted. This template may not be modified. MODULE 1- PRIVACY NEEDS ASSESSMENT Date Departmental Element & Site Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Engineering Research Office Building (EROB) Name of Information Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request System or IT Project Business Enclave Exhibit Project UID 106800 NewPIA ~ Update D N T 'tl I Contact Information arne,

270

Dishwasher: 1; Human: 0 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dishwasher: 1; Human: 0 Dishwasher: 1; Human: 0 Dishwasher: 1; Human: 0 December 21, 2009 - 10:58am Addthis Amy Foster Parish My dishwasher and I have been locked in mortal combat for almost a month now, ever since it decided to quit working at nearly the same moment I decided to start washing the Thanksgiving dinner dishes. Over the past week it has started to look as if the dishwasher may have won the battle. And so, while I've been contemplating washing all those Christmas dishes by hand this year, I've also been shopping for a new energy-efficient dishwasher to replace my old one. As someone who's planning on buying a new appliance in the near future, I've been really excited about the possibility of taking advantage of new state rebates for the purchase of ENERGY STAR® qualified appliances.

271

Planet-scale Human Mobility Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research into, and design and construction of mobile systems and algorithms requires access to large-scale mobility data. Unfortunately, the wireless and mobile research community lacks such data. For instance, the largest available human contact traces contain only 100 nodes with very sparse connectivity, limited by experimental logistics. In this paper we pose a challenge to the community: how can we collect mobility data from billions of human participants? We re-assert the importance of large-scale datasets in communication network design, and claim that this could impact fundamental studies in other academic disciplines. In effect, we argue that planet-scale mobility measurements can help to save the world. For example, through understanding large-scale human mobility, we can track and model and contain the spread of epidemics of various kinds.

Pan Hui; Richard Mortier; Tristan Henderson; Jon Crowcroft

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

272

Nuclear Power - Control, Reliability and Human Factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Advances in reactor designs, materials and human-machine interfaces guarantee safety and reliability of emerging reactor technologies, eliminating possibilities for high-consequence human errors as those which have occurred in the past. New instrumentation and control technologies based in digital systems, novel sensors and measurement approaches facilitate safety, reliability and economic competitiveness of nuclear power options. Autonomous operation scenarios are becoming increasingly popular to consider for small modular systems. This book belongs to a series of books on nuclear power published by InTech. It consists of four major sections and contains twenty-one chapters on topics from key subject areas pertinent to instrumentation and control, operation reliability, system aging and human-machine interfaces. The book targets a broad potential readership group - students, researchers and specialists in the field - who are interested in learning about nuclear power.

Tsvetkov, Pavel

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy  

SciTech Connect

The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

Pouchard, LC

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

274

Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources  

SciTech Connect

Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Link Climate Change and Human Health  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Make Our Science Accessible Make Our Science Accessible Link Climate Change & Health Provide Data and Tools Coordinate Internationally Link Climate Change and Human Health Print E-mail Health News Check out the latest climate change and human health news and announcements in our Health News Feed. Climate change poses unique challenges to human health. Unlike health threats caused by a particular toxin or disease pathogen, there are many ways that climate change can lead to potentially harmful health effects. Direct health impacts may include increased illnesses and deaths from extreme heat events, injuries and deaths from extreme weather events, and respiratory illnesses due to changes in air quality Indirect health impacts include illnesses and deaths that may arise from

276

Report: Human Capital Discussion and Observations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Human Capital Discussion, Human Capital Discussion, Observations, and Recommendations August 24, 2006 Submitted by: Mr. A. James Barnes and Mr. Dennis Ferrigno Background: During the March 23-24, 2006 EMAB Public Meeting, Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM-1), James Rispoli, asked the EMAB members to pursue a review of EM Human Capital issues. Although the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) is also conducting a review of this topic - the results of which will be available in October 2007 - Mr. Rispoli instructed EMAB to identify areas that need improvement and make recommendations to begin bettering the program now. EMAB focused specifically on the areas of: Morale/Workplace Census Planning/Accountability Training/Certification

277

Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

McCafferty, D.B.

1984-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

278

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Medical Examination Office of Human Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical Examination 4.40 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, graduate associates-292-2800 ohrc@hr.osu.edu hr.osu.edu/elr Policy clarification for medical center employees Medical Center Employee Relations 614-293-4988 Medical exam arrangements Employee Health Services 614-293-8146 #12;

Howat, Ian M.

280

Medical Examination Office of Human Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medical Examination 4.40 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, graduate associates or graduate associate or prospective employee or graduate associate to undergo medical examination or utensils, or food-contact surfaces. Policy Details I. Current Employees A job-related medical examination

Howat, Ian M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A phenomenology of human-electricity relations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the philosophical question of how we can experience energy with the aim of informing the design of future ways of experiencing energy by means of technology. Four human-technology relations formulated by philosopher of technology ... Keywords: design theory, energy, phenomenology, sustainability

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Exploring human judgement of digital imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical learning methods are commonly applied in content-based video and image retrieval. Such methods require a large number of examples which are usually obtained through a manual annotation process, that is human raters review images and assign ... Keywords: image annotation, inter-rater agreement, latent class analysis, semantic annotation

Timo Volkmer; James A. Thom; S. M. M. Tahaghoghi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Imputing human descriptions in semantic biometrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human identification at a distance has received significant interest due to the ever increasing surveillance infrastructure. Biometrics such as face and gait offer a suitable physical attribute to uniquely identify people from a distance. When linking ... Keywords: SVD, biometrics, imputation, latent semantic analysis, semantic biometrics, surveillance

Daniel A. Reid; Mark S. Nixon

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Conservation of angular momentum during human locomotion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Problem: Our goal is to describe stable human locomotion, including walking and running, using the concept of conservation of angular momentum about the center of mass (CM) of the body. Motivation: The mechanics of walking and running are extremely complicated, exemplified by the fact that no robots can perform robust human walking. By focusing on angular momentum, a fundamental physical concept, we hope to develop a relatively simple model of stable motion. The angular momentum of a system is conserved if no external torques act on the system. During the aerial phase of locomotion, angular momentum is obviously conserved, but the interaction of the feet with the ground introduces external torques on the body. Therefore, there is no a priori reason for angular momentum in the CM frame to be conserved. However, recent observations in our research indicate that angular momentum is conserved to a large extent. Previous Work: Surprisingly, very little research has been done with regard to angular momentum during human locomotion. In 1986 Raibert mentioned the idea that a control system that keeps the angular momentum constant during stance could achieve higher efficiency and better performance [2], but this approach has not been explored thoroughly. Approach: Our approach was to analyze real human locomotion data gathered in the Gait Laboratory of Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital. The Gait Laboratory has facilities to obtain position data from markers placed at various

Marko Popovic; Wendy Gu; Hugh Herr

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

The Appearance of Human Skin: A Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skin is the outer-most tissue of the human body. As a result, people are very aware of, and very sensitive to, the appearance of their skin. Consequently, skin appearance has been a subject of great interest in various fields of science and technology. ...

Takanori Igarashi; Ko Nishino; Shree K. Nayar

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Human-computer interaction for hybrid carving  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we explore human-computer interaction for carving, building upon our previous work with the FreeD digital sculpting device. We contribute a new tool design (FreeD V2), with a novel set of interaction techniques for the fabrication of static ... Keywords: carving, computer-aided design (cad), craft, digital fabrication, milling.

Amit Zoran, Roy Shilkrot, Joseph Paradiso

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Wireless sensor networks and human comfort index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional wireless home automation networks (WHANs) incorporate embedded wireless sensors and actuators that monitors and control home living environment. WHAN's primary goal is to maintain user comfort and efficient home management. Conventional ... Keywords: Ambient intelligence, Fuzzy logic, Human comfort, Wireless sensor network

Mohd Izani Rawi, Adnan Al-Anbuky

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Human Capital, the Structure of Production, and Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Do high levels of human capital foster economic growth by facilitating technology adoption? If so, countries with more human capital should have adopted more rapidly the skilled-labor augmenting technologies becoming available since the 1970s. High human capital levels should therefore have translated into fast growth in more compared to less human-capital-intensive industries in the 1980s. Theories of international specialization point to human capital accumulation as another important determinant of growth in human-capital-intensive industries. Using data for a large sample of countries, we find significant positive effects of human capital levels and human capital accumulation on output and employment growth in human-capital-intensive industries.

Antonio Ciccone; Elias Papaioannou; Luc Laeven; Pablo Fleiss

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Nickel-induced down-regulation of {Delta}Np63 and its role in the proliferation of keratinocytes  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological, animal, and cell studies have demonstrated that nickel compounds are human carcinogens. The mechanisms of their carcinogenic actions remain to be investigated. p63, a close homologue of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has been linked to cell fate determination and/or maintenance of self-renewing populations in several epithelial tissues, including skin, mammary gland, and prostate. {Delta}Np63, a dominant negative isoform of p63, is amplified in a variety of epithelial tumors including squamous cell carcinomas and carcinomas of the prostate and mammary glands. The present study shows that nickel suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in a short-time treatment (up to 48 h). Nickel treatment caused activation of NF-{kappa}B. Blockage of NF-{kappa}B partially reversed nickel-induced {Delta}Np63 suppression. Nickel decreased interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by nickel. Nickel was able to activate p21, and its activation was offset by the over-expression of {Delta}Np63. In turn, elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth. The present study demonstrated that nickel decreased interferon regulatory proteins IRF3 and IRF7, and activated NF-{kappa}B, resulting in {Delta}Np63 suppression and then p21 up-regulation. {Delta}Np63 plays an important role in nickel-induced cell proliferation. - Highlights: > Ni suppressed {Delta}Np63 expression in HaCat cells. > Ni activated NF-{kappa}B, decreased expressions of IRF3 and IRF7, IKK{epsilon}, and Sp100. > Over-expression of IRF3 increased {Delta}Np63 expression suppressed by Ni. > Ni activated p21, and its activation was offset by over-expression of {Delta}Np63. > Elevated p63 expression counteracted the ability of nickel to restrict cell growth.

Zhang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuo.zhang@uky.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li Wenqi [Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, 121 Washington Avenue, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Cheng Senping [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yao Hua [Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Zhang Fan; Chang Qingshan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke Zunji [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang Xin; Son, Young-Ok [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo Jia [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Guidelines for Trial Use of Leading Indicators of Human Performance: The Human Performance Assistance Package  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents ongoing research and the results of two projects, Leading Indicators of Human Performance and Corrective Action Selection System. These projects have created the following products available to EPRI-member utilities: this report and two software programs with user manuals, Proactive Assessment of Organizational and Workplace Factors (PAOWF) and Corrective Action Research and Evaluation (CARE). Together, these elements constitute the Human Performance Assistance Package (HPAP).

2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

Lighting and Human Performance II: Beyond Visibility Models Toward a Unified Human Factors Approach to Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the relationship between lighting conditions and human performance, it is first necessary to identify the routes by which lighting conditions can affect human performance. There are three such routes: the visual system, the circadian photobiological system, and the perceptual system. This report updates and replaces an earlier work and explores the relationship between lighting conditions and the ability to carry out tasks in interiors.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

292

Human error modeling predictions: increasing occupational safety using human performance modeling tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The use of computer-aided job analysis tools has been increasing in the recent past as a result of decreases in computational costs, augmentations in the reality of the computer-aided job analysis tools, and usefulness of the output generated from these tools. One tool set known as integrated Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a humanout-of-the-loop (HOOTL) computational methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns. These tools provide computational representations of humans incorporating physical, cognitive, perceptual, and environmental characteristics. Increasingly complex automation leads to a new class of errors and error vulnerabilities. Hollnagels (1993) Contextual Control Model (CoCoM) will be used as the human error theory behind a HOOTL simulation using Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) to evaluate complex humanautomation integration considerations currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper will highlight the importance of the physical and cognitive link of a specific task and will outline attempts being made to understand the factors underlying human error, a critical consideration of human-complex system performance.

Edited B. Das; Brian F. Gore; Kevin M. Corker

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumorprogression?  

SciTech Connect

Mammary myoepithelial cells have been the foster child of breast cancer biology and have been largely ignored since they were considered to be less important for tumorigenesis than luminal epithelial cells from which most of breast carcinomas are thought to arise. In recent years as our knowledge in stem cell biology and the cellular microenvironment has been increasing myoepithelial cells are slowly starting to gain more attention. Emerging data raise the hypothesis if myoepithelial cells play a key role in breast tumor progression by regulating the in situ to invasive carcinoma transition and if myoepithelial cells are part of the mammary stem cell niche. Paracrine interactions between myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells are known to be important for cell cycle arrest, establishing epithelial cell polarity, and inhibiting migration and invasion. Based on these functions normal mammary myoepithelial cells have been called ''natural tumor suppressors''. However, during tumor progression myoepithelial cells seem to loose these properties and eventually they themselves diminish as tumors become invasive. Better understanding of myoepithelial cell function and their role in tumor progression may lead to their exploitation for cancer therapeutic and preventative measures.

Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumorprogression?  

SciTech Connect

Mammary myoepithelial cells have been the foster child of breast cancer biology and have been largely ignored since they were considered to be less important for tumorigenesis than luminal epithelial cells from which most of breast carcinomas are thought to arise. In recent years as our knowledge in stem cell biology and the cellular microenvironment has been increasing myoepithelial cells are slowly starting to gain more attention. Emerging data raise the hypothesis if myoepithelial cells play a key role in breast tumor progression by regulating the in situ to invasive carcinoma transition and if myoepithelial cells are part of the mammary stem cell niche. Paracrine interactions between myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells are known to be important for cell cycle arrest, establishing epithelial cell polarity, and inhibiting migration and invasion. Based on these functions normal mammary myoepithelial cells have been called ''natural tumor suppressors''. However, during tumor progression myoepithelial cells seem to loose these properties and eventually they themselves diminish as tumors become invasive. Better understanding of myoepithelial cell function and their role in tumor progression may lead to their exploitation for cancer therapeutic and preventative measures.

Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Renewal in Humans  

SciTech Connect

It has been difficult to establish whether we are limited to the heart muscle cells we are born with or if cardiomyocytes are generated also later in life. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, into DNA to establish the age of cardiomyocytes in humans. We report that cardiomyocytes renew, with a gradual decrease from 1% turning over annually at the age of 20 to 0.3% at the age of 75. Less than 50% of cardiomyocytes are exchanged during a normal lifespan. The capacity to generate cardiomyocytes in the adult human heart suggests that it may be rational to work towards the development of therapeutic strategies aiming to stimulate this process in cardiac pathologies.

Bergmann, O; Bhardwaj, R D; Bernard, S; Zdunek, S; Barnabe-Heider, F; Walsh, S; Zupicich, J; Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Jovinge, S; Frisen, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

Ronald L. Boring

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Architect and Human Measure; the integration role  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The architect plays an essential role in making solutions, which fit with the human measure. During the long product creation chain the human measure is easily lost. The role of the architect is to integrate understanding of the customer world with know-how of the solution (technology) world. The architect quickly iterates many stakeholder viewpoints to achieve a satisfying solutions from many, seemingly conflicting, viewpoints. Distribution This article or presentation is written as part of the Gaud project. The Gaud project philosophy is to improve by obtaining frequent feedback. Frequent feedback is pursued by an open creation process. This document is published as intermediate or nearly mature version to get feedback. Further distribution is allowed as long as the document remains complete and unchanged. All Gaud documents are available at: http://www.extra.research.philips.com/natlab/sysarch/ version: 0.2 status: planned 1st April 2004 1

Gerrit Muller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Justice and the Human Genome Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. (eds.)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Essays on human capital and financial economics by Jialan Wang.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis consists of three essays examining issues related to human capital, careers, and financial economics. In the first chapter, I examine how the process of corporate bankruptcy varies by human capital intensity ...

Wang, Jialan, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fact SHEET FOR Human and natural influences on the Changing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12, 2013 FACT SHEET FOR "HUMAN AND NATURAL INFLUENCES ON THE CHANGING THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE" 1 Fact sheet for "Human and natural influences on the changing thermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Using Analogy to Acquire Commonsense Knowledge from Human Contributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...

Chklovski, Timothy

2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Human walking model predicts joint mechanics, electromyography and mechanical economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present an under-actuated model of human walking, comprising only a soleus muscle and flexion/extension monoarticular hip muscles. The remaining muscle groups of the human leg are modeled using quasi-passive, ...

Endo, Ken

303

Human error contribution to nuclear materials-handling events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyzes a sample of 15 fuel-handling events from the past ten years at commercial nuclear reactors with significant human error contributions in order to detail the contribution of human error to fuel-handling ...

Sutton, Bradley (Bradley Jordan)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Human-automation interaction for lunar landing aimpoint redesignation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human-automation interactions are a critical area of research in systems with modem automation. The decision-making portion of tasks presents a special challenge for human-automation interactions because of the many factors ...

Needham, Jennifer M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Trust-based design of human-guided algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By combining the strengths of human and computers, Human Machine Collaborative Decision Making has been shown to generate higher quality solutions in less time than conventional computerized methods. In many cases, it is ...

Thomer, Joseph L. (Joseph Louis)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Assessing the performance of human-automation collaborative planning systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planning and Resource Allocation (P/RA) Human Supervisory Control (HSC) systems utilize the capabilities of both human operators and automated planning algorithms to schedule tasks for complex systems. In these systems, ...

Ryan, Jason C. (Jason Christopher)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Office of Human Resources and Administration - Mission and Functions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Resources and Administration Human Resources and Administration Home Sub Offices › Business Operations › Human Resources and Administration › Information Management Mission & Functions › Information Management › Human Resources and Adminstration › Business Operations HSS Logo Office of Human Resources and Administration Reports to the Office of Resource Management Mission and Functions Mission The Office of Human Resources and Administration provides a broad range of human resource and administrative management activities in support of the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS). Functions Integrates, synchronizes, and concentrates human resource management activities in support of HSS, Departmental leadership, and other customers. Assists HSS managers in recruiting and hiring qualified, talented and capable candidates. Advises and informs HSS managers on hiring requirements, capabilities, and limitations. Assists managers, candidates, and new employees through the employment process. Manages special hiring programs such as interns, disadvantaged and minorities.

308

Nepal: Dealing with a Human Rights Crisis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; (b) accepting appointment of a Special Rapporteur and issuing a standing invitation to the thematic mechanisms of the UN Commission on Human Rights to visit Nepal; (c) allowing the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to fulfil its... rank and ability to collate, evaluate and act on the information gathered by monitors; (b) appointing a Special Rapporteur; and (c) encouraging the royal government to issue a standing invitation to the thematic mechanisms of the Commission...

International Crisis Group

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

309

Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of various intrinsic cell properties. In the microwave region beyond 1 GHz, the reorientational motion of water molecules in the blood plasma leads to another relaxation feature (gamma-relaxation). Between beta- and gamma-relaxation, significant dispersion is observed, which, however, can be explained by a superposition of these relaxation processes and is not due to an additional delta-relaxation often found in biological matter. Our measurements provide dielectric data on human blood of so far unsurpassed precision for a broad parameter range. All data are provided in electronic form to serve as basis for the calculation of the absorption rate of electromagnetic radiation and other medical purposes. Moreover, by investigating an exceptionally broad frequency range, valuable new information on the dynamic processes in blood is obtained.

M. Wolf; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

310

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Are some human ecosystems self-defeating?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex patterns of human behaviour are difficult to capture in agent-based simulations of socio-ecological systems. Even knowing each individual agent's strategy at one point in time may not help when trying to predict the collective behaviour of certain ... Keywords: Agent-based models, Bar problem, Cartesians and Stochasts, Evolutionarily stable strategies, Minority game, Self-defeating systems, Socio-ecological systems

David Batten

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

HUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 5: STUDENT EMPLOYEES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. University Work-Study Program 1. An undergraduate work-study student employee must be enrolled for at least EMPLOYEES 2 | P a g e S e c t i o n 4 University Work-Study Program (continued) 4. Hiring departments shouldHUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 5: STUDENT EMPLOYEES 1 | P a g e S e c t i o n 4 Program

313

high impact Designing a human-powered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the local mill and pay to have it ground into flour, or grind it themselves by hand with a mortar and pestleLow tech, high impact Designing a human-powered grain mill for Africa Ten-year-old Solomoni Mafuta) to a diesel-pow- ered mill to be ground. The time-consuming task has pulled him away from his studies

Endres. William J.

314

Humidity, human factors, and the energy shortage  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about humidity and its effects on human performance. An increased emphasis is being placed on the role of humidification and dehumidification of our working and living environments on performance. This paper was presented at a Symposium on Humidity Control and Energy Conservation, held during ASHRAE's 1975 Semiannual Meeting in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Other papers were: Residential Humidification vs. Energy Conservation, by J. A. Selvaag and Humidity Control and Energy Conservation, by Dr. G. Shavit.

Rohles, F.H. Jr.

1975-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems  

SciTech Connect

Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J. (BNL); Fleger, S.; Barnes V. (NRC)

2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

316

Human factors engineering program review model  

SciTech Connect

The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Human Fetal Liver Cell Culturing in Porous Hydroxyapatite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Next Generation Biomaterials. Presentation Title, Human Fetal Liver Cell...

318

PIA - Human Resources System/Payroll System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

System PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory PIA - INL SECURITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BUSINESS ENCLAVE...

319

DOE Jobs Online (Hiring Manager), Office of Human Capitol Management...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Human Capitol Management Innovation and Solutions More Documents & Publications MOX Services Unclassified Information System PIA, National Nuclear Services Administration...

320

Some aspects regarding human error assessment in resilient sociotechnical systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper focuses on a human reliability analysis (HRA) that provides estimates of relative frequencies for human errors in particular critical tasks, highlighting the exposed areas of the system in which the improvements will be beneficial. The dynamic ... Keywords: human factor qualitative, quantitative analysis, risk, sociotechnical system

Gabriela Tont; Luige Vladareanu; Radu Adrian Munteanu; Dan George Tont

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Similarity based retrieval from a 3D human database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe a framework for similarity based retrieval from a 3D human database. Our technique is based on both body and head shape representation and retrieval based on similarity of both of them. The 3D human database used in our study ... Keywords: body and head shape, human database, retrieval, similarity

Afzal Godil; Sandy Ressler

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

College of Health, Education, and Human Development DEVELOPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; and the Outdoor Laboratory. Collaboration within the col- lege between academics and community outreach services98 College of Health, Education, and Human Development 98 COLLEGE OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT The College of Health, Education, and Human Development provides students the means by which

Stuart, Steven J.

323

Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2  

SciTech Connect

Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Quality of Law: Judicial Incentives, Legal Human Capital and the Evolution of Law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into systemic error-reducing legal human capital. In thenition, legal human capital reduces legal error: @K 2 human capital and judicial error. Even if

Hadfield, Gillian

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

R. L. Boring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

QuarkNet Workshop: Beyond Human Error  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Error Human Error QuarkNet Workshop for High School Science Teachers 8:30 am to 4:00 pm, August 1 -3, 2012 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory This was a three-day workshop for high school science teachers. Measurement and error are key ingredients for all science applications. Both align with the Next Generation Science Standards, but many high school students struggle to understand the importance of error analysis and prevention. Over the three days we examined multiple experiments going on at Fermilab and discussed the ways that scientists take measurements and reduce error on these projects. Participants met and worked with scientists from Fermilab and University of Chicago to look at how error analysis takes place at Fermilab and bridged those ideas into high school classes. Teachers discussed lesson plans available at Fermilab and their own methods of teaching error analysis. Additionally, participants heard from high school students who participated in summer research as they presented their findings and linked students' learning back to the teachers' understanding of error recognition and analysis.

327

Human health implications of geothermal energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Environmental problems consist of the release of noncondensable gases and vapors, disposal of saline fluids, possible land subsidence and enhanced seismicity, noise, accidents such as well blowouts, and socioeconomic impacts. The most important issue related to human health is believed to be the emission of noncondensable gases, including hydrogen sulfide, mercury, and radon. Based upon data at The Geysers, California, Power Plant, emissions of mercury and radon are not large enough to result in concerns for human health. Hydrogen sulfide emissions, however, have resulted in complaints of odor annoyance and health impairment. These complaints have been caused by exposure to levels of up to approximately 0.1 ppmv in ambient air. This is above the California standard of 0.03 ppmv. Achievement of this standard may not eliminate annoyance complaints, as the odor detection threshold is lognormally distributed and about 20% of the population can detect hydrogen sulfide at levels of 0.002 ppmv. Abatement systems for hydrogen sulfide have been utilized at The Geysers since 1975. This has resulted in an increase of occupational illness caused by exposure to the abatement chemicals and wastes. More effective, and hopefully safer, abatement systems are now being tested. Occupational hazards are evaluated; the more significant ones are exposure to toxic chemicals and hazardous materials and noise. Available occupational illness data are summarized; there clearly indicate that the most significant cause of illness has been exposure to the chemicals and wastes associated with hydrogen sulfide abatement.

Anspaugh, L.R.; Hahn, J.L.

1979-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

328

Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; Ali Mosleh; Carol Smidts

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

EPRI-CRIEPI Joint Human Factors Program Summary Report: Joint EPRI-CRIEPI Human Factors Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI-CRIEPI Joint Human Factors Program developed an array of intervention products that provide logical solutions to performance problems confronting nuclear power plant maintenance workers. These products, designed to reduce the incidence of errors and increase productivity, range from job performance cards to a software-based authoring system for training material.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

330

Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operators of nuclear power plants face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms that will be produced at various stages of instrumentation and control (I&C) modernization. This report provides guidance on planning, specifying, designing, implementing, operating, maintaining, and training for modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

331

Human Resources | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Human Resources Human Resources Integrated Support Center (ISC) ISC Home About Services Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Privacy Act Categorical Exclusion Determinations Contact Information Integrated Support Center Roxanne Purucker U.S. Department of Energy 9800 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 P: (630) 252-2110 Larry Kelly U.S. Department of Energy 200 Administration Road Oak Ridge, TN 37830 P: (865) 576-0885 Services Human Resources Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Related Links Forms External link Office of Chief Human Capital Officer USA Jobs External link The ISC Human Resources Services develops and implements a comprehensive human capital program to facilitate the acquisition, development and retention of a technically competent, diverse workforce that meets the

332

Human Resources | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Human Human Resources Human Resources and Administration (HRA) HRA Home Leadership Organization Chart .pdf file (27KB) Human Resources Administration SC Correspondence Control Center (SC CCC) Contact Information Human Resources and Administration U.S. Department of Energy SC-48/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-1133 F: (301) 903-1299 Human Resources Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Workforce Planning, Organizational Analysis and Classification: OHRA works with organizations to assess the current workforce, predict the future workforce, identify gaps, and develop new strategies to address those gaps. It provides vital data for management to use when preparing their staffing plans. The staff reviews positions for appropriate

333

Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results Title Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Redding, Laurel E., Michael D. Sohn, Thomas E. McKone, Shu-Li Wang, Dennis P. H. Hsieh, and Raymond S. H. Yang Journal Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 116 Issue 12 Pagination 1629-1634 Keywords bayesian inference, body burden, environmental chemistry, exposure & risk group, human milk biomonitoring, indoor environment department, lactational transfer, pcb 153, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, pollutant fate and transport modeling, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, reverse dosimetry

334

UNDP-Human Development Reports | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Human Development Reports UNDP-Human Development Reports Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP-Human Development Reports Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme Topics: Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: hdr.undp.org/en/ UNDP-Human Development Reports Screenshot References: UNDP-Human Development Reports[1] Summary "Available online on November 4th, the 2010 Report continues the tradition of pushing the frontiers of development thinking. For the first time since 1990, the Report looks back rigorously at the past several decades and identifies often surprising trends and patterns with important lessons for the future. These varied pathways to human development show that there is no single formula for sustainable progress-and that impressive long-term

335

Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dynamics of Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hippocampal Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Adult Humans Kirsty L. Spalding, 1,8 Olaf Bergmann, 1,8 Kanar Alkass, 1,2 Samuel Bernard, 3 Mehran Salehpour, 4 Hagen B. Huttner, 1,5 Emil Bostro ¨ m, 1 Isabelle Westerlund, 1 Ce ´ line Vial, 3 Bruce A. Buchholz, 6 Go ¨ ran Possnert, 4 Deborah C. Mash, 7 Henrik Druid, 2 and Jonas Frise ´ n 1, * 1 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology 2 Department of Oncology-Pathology Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden 3 Institut Camille Jordan, CNRS UMR 5208, University of Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne, France 4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Uppsala University, 751 20 Sweden 5 Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen, Germany 6 Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue L-397, Livermore, CA 94550, USA 7 Department of Neurology,

337

2011-2015 Human Capital Management Plan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Office of Legacy Management (LM) needs skilled and engaged staff to accomplish our mission and The Office of Legacy Management (LM) needs skilled and engaged staff to accomplish our mission and carry out our responsibilities to the American people. This (HCMP or Plan) shows how we intend to recruit, hire, train, develop, and retain such employees. Our differs from previous versions not only in enhanced visual appeal (including photos of LM staff and sites) but also in showing direct links between our objectives, strategies, and activities and the human capital issues most important to President Obama's Administration, the Department, and our own management and staff. We thank the LM Management Team and other staff who contributed to and commented on this plan. We all know that for the LM HCMP to succeed we must continually evaluate our progress and adjust our plan

338

Meeting the Human Capital Management Challenge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A A A M M A A N N A A G G E E R R ' ' S S D D E E S S K K R R E E F F E E R R E E N N C C E E O O N N H H U U M M A A N N C C A A P P I I T T A A L L M M A A N N A A G G E E M M E E N N T T F F L L E E X X I I B B I I L L I I T T I I E E S S © Microsoft Office Online ClipArt October 2010 Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer 2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 RECRUITMENT INCENTIVE ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 RECRUITMENT INCENTIVE FAQs ----------------------------------------------------------------- 6 RELOCATION INCENTIVE --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 RELOCATION INCENTIVE FAQs-------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

339

Human Resource Directors (HRD) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resource Resource Directors (HRD) Human Resource Directors (HRD) Name Organization Phone Number E-Mail Brian Carter Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) (503) 230-4527 becarter@bpa.gov Linda Brunner (Acting) Consolidated Business Center (EM) (513) 246-0518 linda.brunner@emcbc.doe.gov Connie Nottingham (Acting) Richland Operations Office (EM) (509) 373-6288 connie.nottingham@rl.doe.gov Helene Taylor Savannah River Operations (EM) (803) 952-8123 helene.taylor@srs.gov Bruce Wynn National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL/FE) (412) 386-5259 bruce.wynn@netl.doe.gov Shandon Davis Strategic Petroleum Reserve Proj. Office (SPRO/FE) (504) 734-4382 shandon.davis@spr.doe.gov Edith Ramos Office of Inspector General (OIG) (202) 586-2470 edith.ramos@hq.doe.gov

340

HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures in nuclear power plant control rooms. It is beyond the scope of this paper to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper provides a review of HRA as applied to traditional paper-based procedures, followed by a discussion of what specific factors should additionally be considered in HRAs for computerized procedures. Performance shaping factors and failure modes unique to computerized procedures are highlighted. Since there is no definitive guide to HRA for paper-based procedures, this paper also serves to clarify the existing guidance on paper-based procedures before delving into the unique aspects of computerized procedures.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Katya Le Blanc

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Automatic Interpretation of Human Head Movements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a complete face tracking system that interprets human head movements in real time. The system combines motion analysis with reliable and efficient object recognition strategies. It classifies head movements as "yes" (nodding head), "no" (shaking head) or "nothing" (still head). The system's skill allows contactless man-machine interaction, thus giving access to a number of new applications. 1 Introduction As industrialization proceeds, the importance of interactions between man and machine increases rapidly. Information flow from machine to man has become comfortable and direct in recent years due to tremendous progresses in computer graphics. Information flow from man to machine, on the other hand, is still on a low level. It is restricted to moving mice, pressing buttons, and typing character sequences on a keyboard. Automatic interpretation of gestures and facial expressions could reduce this imbalance and is therefore of central interrest for current and futu...

Bichsel Pentland; M. Bichsel; A. P. Pentland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

Pennacchio, Len A.

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conservation practices, such as heat recovery and integration, require that many chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion, leading to incorrect operator actions and negating the advantages of the advanced control. If the operator makes a mistake and upsets the process, or fails to respond correctly to a process upset, the loss can exceed the possible savings of the advanced control. Further, the experience can result in the operator not using the control capability in the future. Display and man/machine interface techniques, based on an understanding of human factors and of an operator's typical analysis of a process, can be used to present information to the operator in a manner which will prevent confusion. This paper discusses techniques for selecting and displaying process and control information to the operator.

Shaw, J. A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry  

SciTech Connect

An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Carter, R.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Nonproliferation Human Capital Development in Malaysia | National Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Capital Development in Malaysia | National Nuclear Human Capital Development in Malaysia | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Nonproliferation Human Capital Development in Malaysia Nonproliferation Human Capital Development in Malaysia Posted By NNSA Public Affairs NNSA Blog Photo Credit: National University of Malaysia

346

Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project: ACHRE Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Members and Staff Acknowledgments Documentary Note Preface Introduction - The Atomic Century Part I - Ethics of Human Subjects Research: A Historical Perspective Overview...

347

Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project: ACHRE Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research involving healthy subjects: human experimentation conducted in conjunction with atomic bomb tests. More than 200,000 service personnel--now known as atomic...

348

Human Computation Tasks with Global Constraints Haoqi Zhang1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4Microsoft Research Cambridge, MA Pittsburgh, PA Cambridge, MA Redmond, WA {hq, kgajos, parkes.3 [Information Interfaces and Presentation]: Group and Organization Interfaces General Terms Design, Human

Parkes, David C.

349

Human Exposure to Ultrafine Particles-Sources, Concentrations...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Exposure to Ultrafine Particles-Sources, Concentrations, Indoor-Outdoor Relationships, and Mitigation Techniques Speaker(s): Lance Wallace Date: July 22, 2013 - 12:00pm -...

350

Human Health Risk & Environmental Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to examine the interplay between human health and environmental risks associated with energy production, hazardous waste, national security and natural disasters. Research...

351

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Groundwater Resources Assessment under...

352

Oakland University Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Oakland University Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal...

353

The sorcerer and the apprentice. Human-computer interaction today  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: discontinuous control, fault dectection, human-computer interface, linguistic support, logical control, magic manipulation, man-machine interface, password, robot control

W. Oberschelp

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

DOE human genome program contractor-grantee workshop VI  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented from the workshop on the Human Genome Project. Topics include sequencing, genetic mapping, informatics, ethical and legal issues, and infrastructure.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

POLICY BULLETIN: POL-5- Declassification Instruction "25X1-human"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Provides instructions on the appropriate action to take when classification guide topics or source documents cite "25X1-human" declassification instructions.

356

Experts Recommend Measures to Reduce Human Error in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 34 recommendations addressing the problems resulting from ... is understood that some human error is inevitable ... that openness about errors leads to ...

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

"OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calendar Events January 7, 2012, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot, Department of Molecular Biology,...

358

United States Patent Office 2013 Patents for Humanity Honorable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

United States Patent Office 2013 Patents for Humanity Honorable Mention April 11, 2013 UV Waterworks development team The Unites States Post Office cited Lawrence Berkeley National...

359

The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Human Subjects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview Forms Membership List Operating Procedures (pdf) "How to" for PIs (pdf) The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Human Subjects Research Program Oak...

360

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Human Activities: Toward Verification of Emissions Control Compliance Speaker(s): Marc Fischer Date: April 29, 2010 - 12:00pm Location:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

DOE Openess: Human Radiation Experiments - Roadmap to the Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project DOE Shield DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiment Roadmap to the Project Roadmap to the Project Home Roadmap What's New Search HREX...

362

DOE Strategic Human Capital Plan (FY 2006 - 2011)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

accomplishing the Energy's core mission. They are without doubt, DOE' most important asset Jeff Pon Chief Human Capital Officer iv Executive Summary The Department of Energy...

363

HUMAN SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF CAMBODIA .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Human security was promoted in 1994 by the UNDP as a concept embracing not only freedom from war and violence (or personal security), but also (more)

Quinn, Peter Thomas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Functional Organization of Human Visual Cortex in Occipital Polymicrogyria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

retinotopic representations in human visual cortex revealed by fMRI. Acta Psychol 107:229­247. Ono M, Kubic S

Dumoulin, Serge O.

365

The History of Human Bondage and An Instructional Strategy Resource Guide for Teaching History through the Humanities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This thesis focuses on the history of human bondage through historiography and original research and provides an instructional strategy resource guide for teaching history (more)

Insalaco, David L.

366

Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Ris National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swains pioneering work.

Ronald L. Boring

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A Comparison of hospitality human resources practices in Greece and the United States: An analysis of human resources practices and the potential effects on service quality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Proper approaches to managing an organizations human resources are becoming more and more scientific. Most human resource managers would agree that the selection, training, and (more)

Philippakos, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Toward humanoid manipulation in human-centred environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order for humanoid robots to enter human-centred environments, it is indispensable to equip them with manipulative, perceptive and communicative skills necessary for real-time interaction with the environment and humans. The goal of our work is to ... Keywords: Control architecture, Grasp planning, Mechatronics, Motion planning, Object recognition and localization

T. Asfour; P. Azad; N. Vahrenkamp; K. Regenstein; A. Bierbaum; K. Welke; J. Schrder; R. Dillmann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Experiences with collaborative, distributed predictive human performance modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although predictive human performance modeling has been researched for 30 years in HCI, to our knowledge modeling has been conducted as a solitary task of one modeler or, occasionally, two modelers working in tight face-to-face collaboration. In contrast, ... Keywords: cogtool, efficiency, klm, predictive human performance modeling, usability evaluation

Bonnie John; Sonal Starr; Brian Utesch

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Radiation Analysis for the Human Lunar Return Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the radiation hazards that are anticipated on an early Human Lunar Return (HLR) mission in support of NASA deep space exploration activities is presented. The HLR mission study emphasized a low cost lunar return to expand human capabilities ...

Wilson J. W.; Simonsen L. C.; Shinn J. L.; Dubey R. R.; Jordan W.; Kim M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Characterizing pairwise contact patterns in human contact networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use a counting process representation of the pairwise contact process to analyze pairwise contact patterns. Studying two real-world traces, we find that the pairwise contact patterns have three characteristics. First, human contact patterns are influenced ... Keywords: Human contact networks, Markov modulated Poisson process, Pairwise contact process

Lintao Yang; Hao Jiang; Sai Wang; Lin Wang; Yuan Fang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Mobile human-robot teaming with environmental tolerance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate that structured light-based depth sensing with standard perception algorithms can enable mobile peer-to-peer interaction between humans and robots. We posit that the use of recent emerging devices for depth-based imaging can enable robot ... Keywords: gesture recognition, human-robot interaction, person following

Matthew M. Loper; Nathan P. Koenig; Sonia H. Chernova; Chris V. Jones; Odest C. Jenkins

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Human gait analyzed by complex and interconnected system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the activities of our team in order to establish a configuration for biomechanical studies and to evaluate the human gait, for different persons and different environmental conditions. We also presented a methodology for recording ... Keywords: force plate, human gait, motion

Mihaela Baritz; Diana Cotoros

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A photon accurate model of the human eye  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A photon accurate model of individual cones in the human eye perceiving images on digital display devices is presented. Playback of streams of pixel video data is modeled as individual photon emission events from within the physical substructure of each ... Keywords: display devices, eye models, human eye cone models, schematic eyes, synthesized retina

Michael F. Deering

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fish, Omega 3 and Human Health, 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second edition of Fish, Omega-3 and Human Health reaffirms that the essential fatty acids in the foods we eat form hormones that have powerful effects on human life. While many find it hard to believe that a simple change of diet can affect so many asp

376

Henry S. Dennison, Elton Mayo, and Human Relations historiography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conventional wisdom in management thought is that Human Relations was the intellectual progeny of Elton Mayo and his associates, arising out of the fabled Hawthorne 'experiments' and marked a distinct intellectual break from Scientific Management.This ... Keywords: Elton Mayo, Henry S. Dennison, Human Relations, Scientific Management, historiography

Kyle Bruce

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Establishing and maintaining long-term human-computer relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research investigates the meaning of human-computer relationship and presents techniques for constructing, maintaining, and evaluating such relationships, based on research in social psychology, sociolinguistics, communication and ... Keywords: Human-computer interaction, embodied conversational agent, relational agent, social interface

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rosalind W. Picard

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Mathematical Model for a Vibrating Human Head  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a mathematical model has been formulated to study the vibration of the human head. In the mathematical analysis of the model, the skull is considered as an anisotropic spherical shell and brain matter is represented as an inviscid compressible ... Keywords: Anisotropic, Human Head, Laplace Transformation, Skull Vibration, Stress Distribution

J. C. Misra; S. Dandapat; S. Adhikary

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Human computation: a survey and taxonomy of a growing field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid growth of human computation within research and industry has produced many novel ideas aimed at organizing web users to do great things. However, the growth is not adequately supported by a framework with which to understand each new system ... Keywords: crowdsourcing, data mining, human computation, literature review, social computing, survey, taxonomy

Alexander J. Quinn; Benjamin B. Bederson

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Scientific Bibliography on Human Powered Submarines, through 1997  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

powered marine vehicles Poole, PK Human power: the technicalpower generation in an underwater environment Merry, SL et al IN: Oceans '88: A Partnership of Marinemarine conditions and the capacity for superior performance. H-P submarines: design parameters Poole, PK Human Power:

Brueggeman, Peter

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Importance of physical interaction between human and robot for therapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mental health care of the elderly people is a common problem in advanced countries. Recently, high technology has developed robots for use not only in factories but also for our living environment. In particular, human interactive robots for psychological ... Keywords: elderly care, human-robot interaction, mental commitment robot, robot therapy

Takanori Shibata

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BURNING BURIED SUNSHINE: HUMAN CONSUMPTION OF ANCIENT SOLAR ENERGY JEFFREY S. DUKES Department of as a vast store of solar energy from which society meets >80% of its current energy needs. Here, using of ancient solar energy decline, humans are likely to use an increasing share of modern solar resources. I

Dukes, Jeffrey

383

Experiences from measuring human mobility using Bluetooth inquiring devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analysis of human mobility measurements using Bluetooth devices. A number of data traces from such measurements have been made publicly available for the benefit of the research community. However, the limitations of the measurement approaches ... Keywords: Bluetooth, data traces, experimentation, human mobility, opportunistic networking

Erik Nordstrm; Christophe Diot; Richard Gass; Per Gunningberg

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and Development: Is Energy a Basic Human Right? Skype/Video presentation for senior pupils national Laboratory/DTU Denmark #12;Is energy a basic human right? · What is energy? ­ the ability to make something happen · Different kinds of energy ­ or energy carriers - fuels · What do we use energy for

385

Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Metric selection for evaluating human supervisory control of unmanned vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad metric classes were proposed in the literature in order to facilitate metric selection for evaluating human-autonomous vehicle interaction. However, there still lacks a systematic method for selecting an efficient set of metrics from the many metrics ... Keywords: AHP, analytic hierarchy process, experiments, human supervisory control, metric quality, metrics

Birsen Donmez; M. L. Cummings

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Robust continuous prediction of human emotions using multiscale dynamic cues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing systems able to interact with humans in a natural manner is a complex and far from solved problem. A key aspect of natural interaction is the ability to understand and appropriately respond to human emotions. This paper details our response ... Keywords: affective computing, dynamic features, facial expressions, feature selection, multimodal fusion

Jrmie Nicolle; Vincent Rapp; Kvin Bailly; Lionel Prevost; Mohamed Chetouani

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

CHI '11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last year or so, we have been blessed with the challenge, the opportunity, and the distinct pleasure of organizing the CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, the premier international conference for the field of human-computer ...

Desney Tan; Bo Begole; Wendy A. Kellogg

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Life Cycle Human Capital Formation, Search Intensity, and Wage Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents and estimates a unified model where both human capital investment and job search are endogenized. This unification not only enables me to quantify the relative contributions of each mechanism to life cycle wage dynamics, but also to investigate potential interactions between human capital investment and job search. Within the unified framework, the expectation of rising rental rates of human capital through searching in the future gives workers more incentive to invest in human capital. In the meantime, unemployed workers reduce their reservation rates to leave unemployment quickly to take advantage of human capital accumulation on the job. The results show that these interactions are well supported by data. Allowing for these interactions as well as heterogeneity in search technology, the unified model predicts that both human capital accumulation and job search contribute significantly to the wage growth over the life cycle with human capital accumulation accounting for 40 % of total wage growth and job search accounting for 50%. The remaining 10 % is due to the interactions of the two forces. Furthermore, job search dominates wage growth earlier in the life cycle while human capital accumulation dominates later in the life cycle. ?This paper is one of the chapters in my Ph.D. thesis. I thank my committee members, Audra Bowlus, Hiroyuki Kasahara, and Lance Lochner for their continuous guidance and support. I would also like to thank Chris Robinson, Fabien Postel-Vinay, Todd Stinebrickner, Ben Lester as well as

Huju Liu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

IMAGES IN EMBRYOLOGY............................................................................ Development of the human heart: days 1521  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

............................................................................ Development of the human heart: days 15­21 I n this series, three dimensional computer graphics are used to present the anatomical structures involved in the different stages of normal human heart development visit: www.virtual-heart- development.univ-rennes1.fr During the third week of gestation (days 15

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability 547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability February 1, 2011 - 3:20am Addthis PROBLEM Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability. PLATFORM: Microsoft 2003 SP2, Vista SP2, 2008 SP2, XP SP3, 7; and prior service packs ABSTRACT: Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer. reference LINKS: Security Lab: Reference CVE-2011-0638 CVE Details: Reference CVE-2011-0638 Mitre Reference: CVE-2011-0638

392

Experiment Hazard Class 7.5 - Human Tissue/Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 - Human Tissue/Materials 5 - Human Tissue/Materials Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving biohazards requiring the use of human tissue/materials. Other hazard classifications and their associated hazard controls may also apply to experiments in this hazard class. Human tissue/materials must also be evaluated for their biosafety level and as such will have to go through the process for that particular Biosafety Level. IMPORTANT NOTE: For non-Argonne employees, all experiment protocols involving human tissue are required to be either reviewed or declared exempt from review by their home institution's Institutional Review Board (IRB). Documentation of the review should be filed in the ESAF system and with the APS BioSafety Officer (BSO) (Nena Moonier 2-8504,

393

Dynamics of Adipocyte Turnover in Humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Obesity is increasing in an epidemic fashion in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. Owing to the increase in obesity, life expectancy may start to decrease in developed countries for the first time in recent history. The factors determining fat mass in adult humans are not fully understood, but increased lipid storage in already developed fat cells is thought to be most important. We show that adipocyte number is a major determinant for the fat mass in adults. However, the number of fat cells stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese and even under extreme conditions, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. To establish the dynamics within the stable population of adipocytes in adults, we have measured adipocyte turnover by analyzing the integration of {sup 14}C derived from nuclear bomb tests in genomic DNA. Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index. Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number that is independent of metabolic profile in adulthood. The high turnover of adipocytes establishes a new therapeutic target for pharmacological intervention in obesity.

Spalding, K; Arner, E; Westermark, P; Bernard, S; Buchholz, B; Bergmann, O; Blomqvist, L; Hoffstedt, J; Naslund, E; Britton, T; Concha, H; Hassan, M; Ryden, M; Frisen, J; Arner, P

2007-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

394

Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R. (BNL); Xing, J.; DAgostino, A. (NRC)

2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

Air humidity requirements for human comfort  

SciTech Connect

Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics, and activity level. The respiratory model predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely, the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum permissible humidity level near 100% RH. The requirements for respiratory comfort are much more stringent and result in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g., ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity was less restrictive and the humidity limit based on respiratory comfort was far more restrictive.

Toftum, J.; Fanger, P.O.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multidimensional Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multidimensional Analysis of Human Epithelial Cell Response to Low Dose Radiation Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA. (Jointly funded by...

397

Science and the Human Good, Schmitt Lecture, Notre Dame, April 21, 2009 Science and the Human Good  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Science and the Human Good, Schmitt Lecture, Notre Dame, April 21, 2009 Science and the Human Good: How to Think Philosophically about the Place of Values in Science Don Howard Department of Philosophy and Program in History and Philosophy of Science Arthur J. Schmitt Lecture Center for Ethics and Culture

Howard, Don

398

A view-based real-time human action recognition system as an interface for human computer interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a real-time human action recognition system that can track multiple persons and recognize distinct human actions through image sequences acquired from a single fixed camera. In particular, when given an image, the system segments ... Keywords: HCI, adaptive background subtraction, motion history image, view-based action recognition

Jin Choi; Yong-Il Cho; Taewoo Han; Hyun S. Yang

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Human Performance Optimization: Emerging Management Issues and Artificial Intelligence Methods: Volume 2: Forecasting Human Behavior in a Constrained Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human performance optimization is critical to all aspects of the energy enterprise. This four-volume report presents findings from a review of the human performance challenges and opportunities created by the changing nature of the energy industry, its workforce, and its work environments.

2001-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evaluating the applicability of current models of workload to peer-based human-robot teams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human-Robot peer-based teams are evolving from a far-off possibility into a reality. Human Performance Moderator Functions (HPMFs) can be used to predict human behavior by incorporating the effects of internal and external influences such as fatigue ... Keywords: human performance modeling, human-robot peer-based teams

Caroline E. Harriott; Tao Zhang; Julie A. Adams

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Let's keep in touch online: a Facebook aware virtual human interface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A virtual human is an effective interface for interacting with users and plays an important role in carrying out certain tasks. As social networking sites are getting more and more popular, we propose a Facebook aware virtual human. The social networking ... Keywords: Dialogue, Human-virtual human interaction, Social networking sites, Virtual humans

Gengdai Liu; Shantanu Choudhary; Juzheng Zhang; Nadia Magenenat-Thalmann

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

[Multiplex mapping of human cDNAs]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

We have tested and implemented several protocols to increase productivity for mapping expressed sequence tags EST sequences to human chromosomes. These protocols include adopting PRIMER which permits utilization of batch files, as the standard software for PCR primer design; adding a human 21-only cell line to the NIGMS panel No. 1 to improve discrimination in discordancy analyses involving chromosome 21, adding a monochromosomal hybrid panel to facilitate chromosome assignment of sequences that are amplified from more than 1 chromosome; combining the products of multiple PCR reactions for electrophoretic analysis (pseudoplexing); routinely multiplexing PCR reactions; and automating data entry and analysis as much as possible. We have applied these protocols to assign an overall total of 132 human brain CDNA sequences to individual human chromosomes. PCR primers were designed from ESTS and tested for specific amplification from human genomic DNA. DNA was then amplified using DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates. The amplification products were identified using an automated fluorescence detection system. Chromosomal assignments were made by discordancy analysis. The localized cDNAs include 2 for known human genes, 2 that map to 2 different human chromosomes, and 25 for cDNAs matching existing database records.

Nierman, W.C.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction  

SciTech Connect

The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energys Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, but also to provide human factors guidance for all future developments of the nuclear industry.

Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Generic Error Model of Human-Robot Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wrong human-robot interactions are at the origin of severe damages. Safety requirements ask the analysis of these interactions. At first, erroneous interactions have to be identified. In this paper, we propose to use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to specify human robot interaction. Then, generic error models, associated with the message feature provided by UML, are presented. These error models allow interaction errors to be automatically deduced from the modeling of the human-robot interactions. The use of these generic error models is illustrated on a medical robot for teleechography.

J. Guiochet; et al.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Analysis comparing robotic to human TRUPACT unloading at WIPP  

SciTech Connect

This economic analysis compares human and robotic TRUPACT unloading at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Robots speed up the unloading process, reduce human labor requirements, and reduce human exposure to radiation. The analysis shows that benefit/cost ratios are greater than one for most cases using government economic parameters. This suggests that robots are an attractive option for the TRUPACT application, from a government perspective. Rates of return on capital investment are below 15% for most cases using private economic parameters. Thus, robots are not an attractive option for this application, from a private enterprise perspective.

Edenburn, M.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Exploratory studies of human sensorimotor learning with system identification and stochastic optimal control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

b) Shows the average human error over one particular trialb) Shows the average human error over one particular trialIs a histogram of average human tracking error over several

Simpkins, Charles Alexander

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Learning and inferring human intentions : explorations of driver attention and interactivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the vehicle around a turn. Human error, as opposed to anyof this accident. Indeed, human error had even been cited inNearly two centuries later, human errors are still at the

Doshi, Anup

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Physically-proximal human-robot collaboration for air and space applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Aerospace applications, human safety is of paramount importance given harsh environmental conditions that require persistent electromechanical life support. The resulting inherent proximity between humans and "robotic support" requires effective communication ... Keywords: airspace management, human-robot interaction, space robotics

Ella M. Atkins

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Understanding the global architecture of gene regulation in human cells through analysis of chromatin signatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

annotation of functional chromatin signatures in the humanA. Thomson, and Bing Ren. Chromatin States in Human ES CellsApproach to Finding Common Chromatin Signatures in the Human

Hon, Gary Chung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Human equivalent antenna model for HF exposures: analytical versus numerical approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the human exposure to HF radiation is analyzed using the simplified human equivalent antenna model featuring analytical and numerical approach, respectively. Namely, the human body is represented by an equivalent receiving straight thin ...

Dragan Poljak; Silvestar Sesnic; Ivana Zulim

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities The purpose of this document is to provide DOE managers and supervisors with information on available flexibilities that can be used in day-to-day human capital management activities, especially those bearing on the recruitment and retention of high-quality staff. Each section of the document includes a basic description of a particular tool as well as Frequently Asked Questions related to how to best use it in a given set of circumstances or in combination with other flexibilities, unless they are available elsewhere, in which the web link is listed under References for that section. At the end of each section are references with web links that

413

Human Capital Policy Division (HC-11) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

About Us » Organization » Policy, Accountability, and Technology About Us » Organization » Policy, Accountability, and Technology (HC-10) » Human Capital Policy Division (HC-11) Human Capital Policy Division (HC-11) Mission Statement This division serves as the HCM policy arm for the Department. It supports program objectives and missions of all DOE components by developing HCM-related policies and strategies and supplies advice and guidance across the Department. Functions Provide a full range of staff support to the Chief Human Capital Officer including support required for internal and external responsibilities. Develop and revise the agency human capital management strategy in support of the overall departmental strategic plan. Seek out, influence and translate legislative and regulatory direction into Departmental strategies, policies and programs to address

414

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air Temperature Speaker(s): Henry Willem Date: July 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Max Sherman (THIS SEMINAR TO BE RESCHEDULED.) Sustainability of the built-environment must be achieved in parallel with the sustenance of occupants' health and comfort. Actions to conserve energy and resources require much forethought and careful consideration due to possible consequences on the human aspects. Thus, many extensive works in the recent decades have focused on identifying the associations between indoor environment and human responses. Results have shown moderate to strong implications of thermal and indoor air quality factors on the prevalence and intensity of sick

415

Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity | National Nuclear  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity | National Nuclear Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity Posted By Office of Public Affairs Guy painter Girl painter A number of Pantexans volunteered Friday, March 30, to help renovate two

416

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC) Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Sector: Climate, Water Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Publications Website: unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001507/150730e.pdf References: Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Change (GRAPHIC)[1] "The GRAPHIC project seeks to improve our understanding of how groundwater contributes to the global water cycle and thus how it supports ecosystems

417

Evaluating human fecal contamination sources in Kranji Reservoir Catchment, Singapore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Singapore government through its Public Utilities Board is interested in opening Kranji Reservoir to recreational use. However, water courses within the Kranji Reservoir catchment contain human fecal indicator bacteria ...

Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

The sequence and analysis of duplication rich human chromosome 16  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Conservation of exon scrambling in human and mouse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exon scrambling is a phenomenon in which the exons of an mRNA transcript are spliced in an order inconsistent with that of the genome. In this thesis, I present a computational analysis of scrambled exons in human and ...

Hamilton, Monica L. (Monica Lauren)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

CAPITAL STRUCTURE, LIQUIDITY AND TRANSFERABLE HUMAN CAPITAL IN COMPETITIVE EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes how human capital and economic uncertainty affect capital structure and managerial compensation. We model a competitive industry where wealth constrained managers provide human capital that can be transferred across firms, and where equityholders give managers access to the physical assets of the firm. Equityholders and managers bargain for the firms stochastic free cash flows. We show that the level of net debt acts as a tool to attract and retain human capital. Negative net debt occurs in volatile and human capital intensive industries. Cash holdings (or unused lines of credit) in booms serve as a costly hedge against liquidity shocks in recession. The cost of holding cash is internalized by managers, unlike the cost associated with raising cash in recession through a dilutive equity issue. We obtain simple expressions for the equilibrium payout rate and the managerial compensation rate and we show how, in recessions, they are influenced by each partys outside option.

Bart M. Lambrecht; Grzegorz Pawlina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The future of game Al : learning to use human tactics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many video games require artificial players that can act as replacements for human players. With today's constant increases in the complexity of games and the prevalence of user-created content, creating an Al that is ...

Dowgun, Neil M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Ensemble : fluency and embodiment for robots acting with humans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is concerned with the notion of fluency in human-robot interaction (HRI), exploring cognitive mechanisms for robotic agents that would enable them to overcome the stop-and-go rigidity present in much of HRI to ...

Hoffman, Guy, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Pantexans volunteer to help Habitat for Humanity | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 30, to help renovate two Habitat for Humanity homes in Amarillo, Texas. B&W Pantex provided breakfast and lunch for the volunteers, who were encouraged to bring family...

424

A human rights approach to the mobile internet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. What is a human rights approach to communication?..............................................4 3. The empowering potential of the mobile internet....................................................6 a. Citizen journalism and peer to peer information sharing.....................................................6 b. Crowdsourcing.............................................................................................................7

Lisa Horner

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Does HR add value? : diverse perspectives on human capital management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The human resources (HR) function has evolved significantly over the past several decades. It has grown in maturity and influence while simultaneously enduring great criticism from employees and managers. Meanwhile, ...

Eckman, Jeffrey M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

A Hybrid Fuzzy Approach for Human Eye Gaze Pattern Recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Face perception and text reading are two of the most developed visual perceptual skills in humans. Understanding which features in the respective visual patterns make them differ from each other is very important for us to investigate the correlation ...

Dingyun Zhu; B. Sumudu Mendis; Tom Gedeon; Akshay Asthana; Roland Goecke

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A metabolic profiling approach to human disorders of energy metabolism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The integrated network of biochemical reactions known collectively as metabolism is essential for life, and dysfunction in parts of this network causes human disease - both rare, inherited disorders and common diseases ...

Shaham, Oded

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Double dissociation of dopamine genes and timing in humans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of lines of evidence implicate dopamine in timing [Rammsayer, T. H. Neuropharmacological approaches to human timing. In S. Grondin (Ed.), Psychology of time (pp. 295-320). Bingley, UK: Emerald, 2008; Meck, W. H. Neuropharmacology of timing ...

Martin Wiener; Falk W. Lohoff; H. Branch Coslett

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

[HUGE]: universal architecture for statistically based HUman GEsturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a universal architecture for statistically based HUman GEsturing (HUGE) system, for producing and using statistical models for facial gestures based on any kind of inducement. As inducement we consider any kind of signal that occurs in parallel ...

Karlo Smid; Goranka Zoric; Igor S. Pandzic

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Error weighted classifier combination for multi-modal human identification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we describe a technique of classifier combination used in a human identification system. The system integrates all available features from multi-modal sources within a Bayesian framework. The framework allows ...

Ivanov, Yuri

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

431

Evaluation of human error probabilities for post-initiating events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for the safe operation of the United States nuclear power plant fleet, and human reliability analysis forms an important portion of the probabilistic risk ...

Dawson, Phillip Eng

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Apparatus and methods for a human de-amplifier system  

SciTech Connect

A human de-amplifier system for interfacing a human operator and a physical object through a physical plant, wherein the physical object has dimensions in the range of 1 micrometer to 1 mm. The human de-amplifier system uses an inner-feedback loop to increases the equivalent damping of the operating system to stabilize the system when it contacts with the environment and reduces the impact of the environment variation by utilizing a high feedback gain, determined by a root locus sketch. Because the stability of the human de-amplifier system of the present invention is greatly enhanced over that of the prior art, the de-amplifier system is able to manipulate the physical object has dimensions in the range of 1 micrometer to 1 mm with high stability and accuracy. The system also has a monitoring device to monitor the motion of the physical object under manipulation.

Kress, Reid L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A 2D human body model dressed in eigen clothing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection, tracking, segmentation and pose estimation of people in monocular images are widely studied. Two-dimensional models of the human body are extensively used, however, they are typically fairly crude, representing the body either as a rough outline ...

Peng Guan; Oren Freifeld; Michael J. Black

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A critical comparison of human face rendering techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human skin exhibits complex light reflectance properties that make it difficult to render realistically. In recent years, many techniques have been introduced to render skin, with varying degrees of complexity and realism. ...

Arizpe, Arturo Andrew

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Right-lateralized brain oscillations in human spatial navigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During spatial navigation, lesion and functional imaging studies suggest that the right hemisphere has a unique functional role. However, studies of direct human brain recordings have not reported interhemisphere differences in navigation-related oscillatory ...

Joshua Jacobs; Igor O. Korolev; Jeremy B. Caplan; Arne D. Ekstrom; Brian Litt; Gordon Baltuch; Itzhak Fried; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Joseph R. Madsen; Michael J. Kahana

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Putting climate change and human health science into practice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Putting climate change and human health science into practice Print E-mail Landsat Data Continuity Mission Tuesday, March 26, 2013 Featured by NIEHS a member of the U.S. Global...

437

Human Drivers of Climate Change: Energy, Economic Growth, and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Human Drivers of Climate Change: Energy, Economic Growth, and Trade Speaker(s): Steve Davis Date: October 1, 2012 - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact: Ryan...

438

CHI '10 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Welcome to CHI 2010! CHI is the leading international conference in Human Computer Interaction and it is the archival material -- especially the papers and notes -- that establishes its academic credentials. We believe the paper and notes published here ...

Elizabeth Mynatt; Don Schoner; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Scott Hudson; Keith Edwards; Tom Rodden

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Human-automation collaborative RRT for UAV mission path planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future envisioned Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) missions will be carried out in dynamic and complex environments. Human-automation collaboration will be required in order to distribute the increased mission workload that ...

Caves, Amrico De Jess (Caves Corral)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Accident analysis and hazard analysis for human and organizational factors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pressures and incentives to operate complex socio-technical aerospace systems in a high-risk state are ever present. Without consideration of the role humans and organizations play in system safety during the development ...

Stringfellow, Margaret Virgina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Natural language human-machine interface using artificial neural networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper there is a natural language interface presented, which consists of the intelligent mechanisms of human identification, speech recognition, word and command recognition, command syntax and result analysis, command safety assessment, technological ...

Maciej Majewski; Wojciech Kacalak

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, ...

Alm, Eric J.

443

Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sequence of the human genome has dramatically accelerated biomedical research. Here I explore its impact, in the decade since its publication, on our understanding of the biological functions encoded in the genome, on ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Biology; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Lander, Eric S.; Lander, Eric S.

444

Closing gaps in the human genome using sequencing by synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The most recent release of the finished human genome contains 260 euchromatic gaps (excluding chromosome Y). Recent work has helped explain a large number of these unresolved regions as 'structural' in nature. Another class ...

Arachchi, Harindra M.

445

Practical Software for Aligning ESTs to Human Genome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a pressing need to align growing set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs)to newly sequenced human genome that is still frequently revised, for providing biologists and medical scientists with fresh information. The problem is, however, complicated ...

Jun Ogasawara; Shinichi Morishita

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Analysis of alterations in the human cancer genome  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aneuploidy, an abnormal complement of chromosomes, is present in approximately 90% of human malignancies. Despite over 100 years of research, many questions remain regarding the contribution of aneuploidy to the cancer ...

Carter, Scott L. (Scott Lambert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Weather Forecasting by HumansHeuristics and Decision Making  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The decision-making literature contains considerable information about how humans approach tasks involving uncertainty using heuristics. Although there is some reason to believe that weather forecasters are not identical in all respects to the ...

Charles A. Doswell III

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Making the Case for Investments in Human Effectiveness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investments to enhance human effectiveness in complex systems are rife with several types of uncertainties, intangible benefits, multiple stakeholders, and inherent unpredictability.ᅠᅠThese characteristics make cost/benefit analyses for such systems ...

William B. Rouse; Kenneth R. Boff

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fundamental patterns of bilateral muscle activity in human locomotion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

human locomotion, not much is known about the way in which the central ..... combination of just five factors with a mean square error of only 1.9%. EMG signals...

450

Making the Climate a Part of the Human World  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doubts about the scientific evidence for anthropogenic climate change persist among the general public, particularly in North America, despite overwhelming consensus in the scientific community about the human influence on the climate system. The public ...

Simon D. Donner

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Hand-Held Analyzer Quickly Detects Buried Human Remains  

A lightweight hand-held analyzer invented by ORNL researchers uses visual andauditory cues to quickly alert investigators to the presence of buried human remains.The Lightweight Analyzer for Buried Remains And Decomposition Odor Recognition(LABRADOR) ...

452

Demonstration of Qurk: A Query Processor for Human Operators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crowdsourcing technologies such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk ("MTurk") service have exploded in popularity in recent years. These services are increasingly used for complex human-reliant data processing tasks, such as ...

Marcus, Adam

453

Combining human and machine intelligence for making predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extensive literature in psychology, economics, statistics, operations research and management science has dealt with comparing forecasts based on human-expert judgment vs. (statistical) models in a variety of scenarios, ...

Nagar, Yiftach

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Humans, Robots and Market Crashes: A Laboratory Study ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Du?y, J. (2006). Agent-Based Models and Human SubjectFinancial markets, agent-based models, experimentalIn response, several agent-based models have been proposed.

Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service National Institutes of Health examination, order laboratory tests (primarily blood tests), and recommend any other tests that seem

457

Optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a practical noninvasive technology for imaging the microstructure of the human eye in vivo. Using optical interferometry to spatially-resolve backreflections from within ...

Lee, Edward Chin Wang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Sequence and Analysis of Duplication Rich Human Chromosome 16  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We report here the 78,884,754 base pairs of finished human chromosome 16 sequence, representing over 99.9 percent of its euchromatin. Manual annotation revealed 880 protein coding genes confirmed by 1,637 aligned transcripts, 19 tRNA genes, 341 pseudogenes and 3 RNA pseudogenes. These genes include metallothionein, cadherin and iroquois gene families, as well as the disease genes for polycystic kidney disease and acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Several large-scale structural polymorphisms spanning hundreds of kilobasepairs were identified and result in gene content differences across humans. One of the unique features of chromosome 16 is its high level of segmental duplication, ranked among the highest of the human autosomes. While the segmental duplications are enriched in the relatively gene poor pericentromere of the p-arm, some are involved in recent gene duplication and conversion events which are likely to have had an impact on the evolution of primates and human disease susceptibility.

Martin, Joel; Han, Cliff; Gordon, Laurie A.; Terry, Astrid; Prabhakar, Shyam; She, Xinwei; Xie, Gary; Hellsten, Uffe; Man Chan, Yee; Altherr, Michael; Couronne, Olivier; Aerts, Andrea; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Blumer, Heather; Branscomb, Elbert; Brown, Nancy C.; Bruno, William J.; Buckingham, Judith M.; Callen, David F.; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Campbell, Evelyn W.; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chasteen, Leslie A.; Chertkov, Olga; Chi, Han C.; Christensen, Mari; Clark, Lynn M.; Cohn, Judith D.; Denys, Mirian; Detter, John C.; Dickson, Mark; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, Mira; Escobar, Julio; Fawcett, Joseph J.; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstein, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Grady, Deborah L.; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Hildebrand, Carl E.; Huang, Wayne; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Jewett, Phillip E.; Kadner, Kristen; Kimball, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Krawczyk, Marie-Claude; Leyba, Tina; Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Lowry, Steve; Ludeman, Thom; Mark, Graham A.; Mcmurray, Kimberly L.; Meincke, Linda J.; Morgan, Jenna; Moyzis, Robert K.; Mundt, Mark O.; Munk, A. Christine; Nandkeshwar, Richard D.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Ricke, Darryl O.; Robinson, Donna L.; Rodriguez, Alex; Salamov, Asaf; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Scott, Duncan; Shough, Timothy; Stallings, Raymond L.; Stalvey, Malinda; Sutherland, Robert D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Torney, David C.; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; Tsai, Ming; Ulanovsky, Levy E.; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; White, P. Scott; Williams, Albert L.; Wills, Patricia L.; Wu, Jung-Rung; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; DeJong, Pieter; Bruce, David; Doggett, Norman; Deaven, Larry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Richardson, Paul; et al.

2004-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

459

A fuzzy multiple objective DEA for the human development index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditionally, the HDI is calculated under the assumption that all component indices are given the same weights. Although this assumption has been supported in the Human Development Reports, it has met also considerable criticism in the literature. In ...

Hsuan-Shih Lee; Kuang Lin; Hsin-Hsiung Fang

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CANCELLED: Mechanism of Human Responses to Ventilation Rates and Air Temperature Speaker(s): Henry Willem Date: July 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "human mammary epithelial" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Genomics and the human genome project: implications for psychiatry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and psychosis: a convergent functional genomics approach.Physiology & Genomics, 4, 8391. O LIPHANT , A. , B ARKER ,2004), 16(4), 294300 Genomics and the Human Genome Project:

Kelsoe, J R

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

Korber, Bette T. (Los Alamos, NM); Perkins, Simon (Los Alamos, NM); Bhattacharya, Tanmoy (Los Alamos, NM); Fischer, William M. (Los Alamos, NM); Theiler, James (Los Alamos, NM); Letvin, Norman (Boston, MA); Haynes, Barton F. (Durham, NC); Hahn, Beatrice H. (Birmingham, AL); Yusim, Karina (Los Alamos, NM); Kuiken, Carla (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

463

Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver Zero Energy Demonstration Home  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brochure describes the 2005 demonstration home designed by NREL and the Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver. The completed home produced 24% more energy than it consumed over 12 months.

Not Available

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles ...

Boussemart, Yves, 1980-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Aging and Fracture of Human Cortical Bone and Tooth Dentin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. , The effect of aging on crack-growth resistance andR.K. Reprogel, Effects of aging on the mechanical behaviorNalla et al. , Effect of aging on the toughness of human

Ager III, Joel W.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Essays on matching, marriage and human capital accumulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the link between human capital accumulation and the functioning of marriage markets. The first chapter studies the effect of marriage market conditions on pre-marital investment. After showing how a ...

Lafortune, Jeanne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

An empirical framework to control human attention by robot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Human attention control simply means that the shifting of one's attention from one direction to another. To shift someone's attention, gaining attention and meeting gaze are two most important pre-requisites. If a person would like to communicate with ...

Mohammed Moshiul Hoque; Tomami Onuki; Emi Tsuburaya; Yoshinori Kobayashi; Yoshinori Kuno; Takayuki Sato; Sachiko Kodama

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Human capital, institutions, and incentives : micro and macro perspectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation consists of four essays on human capital, institutions, and incentives. In the first essay, I investigate the effects of voucher-school competition on educational outcomes in Chile. I present a theoretical ...

Gallego, Francisco A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Essays on Human Capital Mobility and Asset Pricing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

associated to capital intensity. This finding suggests that? B . B (2.12b) The intensity of physical capital K i in the? i ). The intensity of general human capital input is given

Donangelo, Andres Francisco

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Human Operational Errors Involving Control, Relay, and Auxiliary Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the objectives, information gathering and analysis, and findings of a research effort related to human operational errors involving control, relay, and auxiliary equipment. This research is conducted by the Switching Safety and Reliability Project of EPRI8217s Substations Program. The project consists of three separate studies: 8226 an analysis of relay-related incidents attributed to human errors, 8226 a compilation of work practices when planning and performing work on relays, an...

2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

471

Template for Performing Human Reliability Analyses: Lesson Plans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) incorporate human reliability assessment (HRA) to account for possible errors by a nuclear power plant operating crew both prior to and during postulated accidents. Studies have shown that human errors are a large contributor to the likelihood of such accidents; today, the nuclear industry is acutely aware of its importance. A cadre of experts has developed HRA technology by applying it in many risk studies. Examples are reported in the literature. These lesson plans p...

2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

TV as a human interface for Ambient Intelligence environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges that Ambient Intelligent (AmI) faces is the provision of a usable interaction concept to its users, especially for those with less technical background. In this paper, we describe a new approach to integrate interactive services ... Keywords: information service, human interface, ambient intelligence environments, usable interaction concept, interactive services, television set, home environment, natural human computer interface, elderly people, graphical user interfaces, TV remote control, voice interaction, videoconference

Gorka Epelde; Xabier Valencia; Julio Abascal; Unai Diaz; Ingo Zinnikus; Christian Husodo-Schulz

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

International Associations at the Nexus of Globalization, Religion, and Human Rights.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract International Associations at the Nexus of Globalization, Religion, and Human Rights By David V. Brewington Religion and human rights are often analyzed in the (more)

Brewington, David V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Deriving Human-Error Tolerance Requirements from Tasks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we show how an understanding of a dynamic system from the point of view of the tasks that it supports and an understanding of human error can guide a process of deriving human error tolerance requirements. Our aim is to provide a means whereby, rather than relying on training as a means of improving operator performance, designers may develop interactive systems with human error tolerance in mind. We extend an established methodology (SHARP) by employing a software engineering notation (CSP) that provides a bridge between a theory of error and the practice of design and implementation. In this paper we outline approaches to human error, describe a task notation based on CSP which helps us to elicit requirements on human-error tolerance expressed as functional properties of the system. The technique is used to analyse an engine fire recovery procedure in order to derive human error tolerance requirements. 1 Introduction Walk-up-and-use systems, such as automated teller ma...

Peter Wright; Bob Fields; Michael Harrison

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Robotics for recombinant DNA and human genetics research  

SciTech Connect

In October of 1989, molecular biologists throughout the world formally embarked on ultimately determining the set of genetic instructions for a human being. Called by some the Manhattan Project'' a molecular biology, pursuit of this goal is projected to require approximately 3000 man years of effort over a 15-year period. The Humane Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of analyzing the structure of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and determining the location of all human genes. The Department of Energy (DOE) has designated three of its national laboratories as centers for the Human Genome Project. These are Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). These laboratories are currently working on different, but complementary technology development areas in support of the Human Genome Project. The robotics group at LANL is currently working at developing the technologies that address the problems associated with physical mapping. This article describes some of these problems and discusses some of the robotics approaches and engineering tolls applicable to their solution. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Beugelsdijk, T.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Human Influences on Wildfire in Alaska from 1988 through 2005: An Analysis of the Spatial Patterns of Human Impacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boreal ecosystems in Alaska are responding to climate change in many ways, including changes in the fire regime. While large-scale wildfires are an essential part of the boreal forest ecosystem, humans are changing fire regimes through ignition ...

M. P. Calef; A. D. McGuire; F. S. Chapin III

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Perspectives of Nuclear Energy for Human Development  

SciTech Connect

In this period of expectation and short term viewing, everyone has difficulties to draw long term perspectives. A positive global world vision of sustainable development gives confidence in the preparation of energy future in a moving international context. This presentation proposes to share such a long term vision inside which energy scenarios for nuclear development take their right place. It is founded on a specific analysis of an index of countries global development which is representative of a country efficiency. Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite international index recommended and calculated every year since 1990 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). This index is still very dependent of GNP, which ignores the disparities of revenues inside the country. That is why a Country Efficiency Index (CEI) has been defined to better represent the capacity of a country to utilize its resources for welfare of its inhabitants. CEI is a ratio of health and education levels to the capacity of the country to satisfy this welfare. CEI has been calculated for the 70 more populated countries of the world for the year 1997. CEI calculation has been also performed for European Countries, the United States, China and India on the period from 1965 to 1997. It is observed a growth of