Sample records for human mammary epithelial

  1. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stampfer, Martha R. (7290 Sayre Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Smith, Helene S. (5693 Cabot Dr., Oakland, CA 94611); Hackett, Adeline J. (82 Evergreen Dr., Orinda, CA 94563)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  2. HER/ErbB Receptor Interactions and Signaling Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yi; Opresko, Lee K.; Shankaran, Harish; Chrisler, William B.; Wiley, H. S.; Resat, Haluk

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that cell line dependence is not important, which can be misleading because different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way. The lack of coherent data collected from closely related cellular systems can be detrimental to the efforts to understand the regulation of biological processes. In this study, we report the development of a library of human mammary epithelial (HME) cell lines which express endogenous levels of the cell surface receptor EGFR/HER1, and different levels of HER2 and HER3. Using our clone library, we have quantified the interactions among the HER1-3 receptors and systematically investigated the existing hypotheses about their interaction patterns. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we find that lateral interactions with HER2 do not lead to strong transactivation between EGFR and HER3. Our study identified HER2 as the dominant dimerization partner for both EGFR and HER3, and revealed that EGFR and HER3 activations are only weakly linked in HME cells. We have also quantified the time-dependent activation patterns of the downstream effectors Erk and Akt. We found that HER3 signaling makes the strongest contribution to Akt activation and that, stimulation of either EGFR or HER3 pathways activate Erk at significant levels. Our study shows that cell libraries formed from closely related clones can be a powerful resource for pursuing the quantitative investigations that are necessary for developing a systems level understanding of cell signaling.

  3. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  4. Integrated analysis reveals that STAT3 is central to the crosstalk between HER/ErbB receptor signaling pathways in human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Chunhong; Zhang, Yi; Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER, also known as ErbB) drive cellular proliferation, pro-survival and stress responses by activating several downstream kinases, in particular ERK, p38, JNK (SAPK), the PI3K/AKT, as well as various transcriptional regulators such as STAT3. When co-expressed, first three members of HER family (HER1-3) can form homo- and hetero-dimers. Based on the considerable evidence which suggest that every receptor dimer activates intracellular signaling pathways differentially, we hypothesized that the HER dimerization pattern is a better predictor of downstream signaling than the total receptor activation levels. We validated our hypothesis using a combination of model-based analysis to quantify the HER dimerization patterns and multi-factorial experiments where HER dimerization patterns and signaling crosstalk were rationally perturbed. We have measured the activation of HER1-3 receptors and of the sentinel signaling proteins ERK, AKT, p38, JNK, STAT3 as a function of time in a panel of human mammary epithelial (HME) cells expressing different levels of HER1-3 stimulated with various ligand combinations. Our analysis using multiple ways of clustering the activation data has confirmed that the HER receptor dimer is a better predictor of the signaling through p38, ERK and AKT pathways than the total HER receptor expression and activation levels. Targeted inhibition studies to identify the causal effects allowed us to obtain a consensus regulatory interaction model, which revealed that STAT3 occupies a central role in the crosstalk between the studied pathways.

  5. 4-Hydroxyestradiol induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells: possible protection by NF-{kappa}B and ERK/MAPK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhihua [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hye-Kyung [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hurh, Yeon-Jin [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Surh, Young-Joon [National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-ku, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: surh@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catechol estrogens, the hydroxylated metabolites of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), have been considered to be implicated in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. 4-Hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE{sub 2}), an oxidized metabolite of E{sub 2} formed preferentially by cytochrome P450 1B1, reacts with DNA to form depurinating adducts thereby exerting genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. 4-OHE{sub 2} undergoes 2-electron oxidation to quinone via semiquinone, and during this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated to cause DNA damage and cell death. In the present study, 4-OHE{sub 2} was found to elicit cytotoxicity in cultured human mammary epithelial (MCF-10A) cells, which was blocked by the antioxidant trolox. MCF-10A cells treated with 4-OHE{sub 2} exhibited increased intracellular ROS accumulation and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, and underwent apoptosis as determined by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) was transiently activated by 4-OHE{sub 2} treatment. Cotreatment of MCF-10A cells with the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, exacerbated 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cell death. 4-OHE{sub 2} also caused transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) involved in transmitting cell survival or death signals. A pharmacological inhibitor of ERK aggravated the 4-OHE{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity, supporting the pivotal role of ERK in protecting against catechol estrogen-induced oxidative cell death.

  6. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  7. Multiple Mechanisms are Responsible for Transactivation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodland, Karin D.; Bollinger, Nikki; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Opresko, Lee; Coffey, Robert J.; Zangar, Richard C.; Wiley, H. S.

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEW ENTIRE DOCUMENT AT: https://pnlweb.pnl.gov/projects/bsd/ERICA%20Manuscripts%20for%20Review/KD%20Rodland%20D7E80/HMEC_transactivation_ms01_15+Figs.pdf ABSTRACT: Using a single nontransformed strain of human mammary epithelial cells, we found that the ability of multiple growth factors and cytokines to induce ERK phosphorylation was dependent on EGFR activity. These included lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), uridine triphosphate, growth hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and tumor necrosis factoralpha. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor could stimulate ERK phosphorylation independent of EGFR activity...

  8. Trichostatin A inhibits beta-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Radisky, Derek; Levy, Dinah; Lacza, Charlemagne; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Many aspects of cellular behavior are affected by information derived from association of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and with cell membrane receptors. When cultured in the presence of laminin-containing ECM and prolactin (Prl), normal mammary epithelial cells express the milk protein beta-casein. Previously, we defined the minimal ECM- and Prl-responsive enhancer element BCE-1 from the upstream region of the beta-casein gene. We also found that BCE-1 was only active when stably integrated into chromatin, and that trichostatin A (TSA), a reagent that leads to alterations in chromatin structure, was able to activate the integrated enhancer element. We now show that endogenous b-casein gene, which is controlled by a genetic assembly that is highly similar to that of BCE-1 and which is also activated by incubation in ECM and Prl, is instead inhibited by TSA. We provide evidence that the differing response of b-casein and BCE-1 to TSA is neither due to an unusual effect of TSA on mammary epithelial cells, nor to secondary consequences from the expression of a separate gene, nor to a particular property of the BCE-1 construct. As a component of this investigation, we also showed that ECM could mediate rapid histone deacetylation in mammary epithelial cells. These results are discussed in combination with previous work showing that TSA mediates the differentiation of many types of cancer cells but inhibits differentiation of some nonmalignant cell types.

  9. ERK and PI3K regulate different aspects of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mammary tumor cells induced by truncated MUC1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Galit; Gaziel, Avital [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); The Alec and Myra Marmot Hybridoma Unit, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Wreschner, Daniel H. [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel) [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Biomodifying LLC, San Diego, CA 92122 (United States); Smorodinsky, Nechama I., E-mail: nechama@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); The Alec and Myra Marmot Hybridoma Unit, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Ehrlich, Marcelo [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)] [Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) integrates changes to cell morphology and signaling pathways resulting from modifications to the cell's transcriptional response. Different combinations of stimuli ignite this process in the contexts of development or tumor progression. The human MUC1 gene encodes multiple alternatively spliced forms of a polymorphic oncoprotein that is aberrantly expressed in epithelial malignancies. MUC1 is endowed with various signaling modules and has the potential to mediate proliferative and morphological changes characteristic of the progression of epithelial tumors. The tyrosine-rich cytoplasmic domain and the heavily glycosylated extracellular domain both play a role in MUC1-mediated signal transduction. However, the attribution of function to specific domains of MUC1 is difficult due to the concomitant presence of multiple forms of the protein, which stem from alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage. Here we show that DA3 mouse mammary tumor cells stably transfected with a truncated genomic fragment of human MUC1 undergo EMT. In their EMT, these cells demonstrate altered [i] morphology, [ii] signaling pathways and [iii] expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Similarly to well characterized human breast cancer cell lines, cells transfected with truncated MUC1 show an ERK-dependent increased spreading on fibronectin, and a PI3K-dependent enhancement of their proliferative rate.

  10. EGF-Receptor-Mediated Mammary Epithelial Cell Migration is Driven by Sustained ERK Signaling from Autocrine Stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Opresko, Lee; Wells, Alan; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family ligands, as well as the receptors themselves, has been implicated in various types of cancers. EGF family ligands are synthesized as membrane-anchored proteins requiring proteolytic release to form the mature soluble factor. Despite the pathophysiological importance of autocrine systems, how the rate of protease-mediated ligand release quantitatively influences receptor-mediated signaling and consequent cell behavior is poorly understood. Therefore, we explored the relationship between autocrine EGF release rates and receptor-mediated ERK activation and migration in human mammary epithelial cells. A quantitative spectrum of EGF release rates was achieved using a set of chimeric transmembrane EGF ligand precursors modulated by the addition of the metalloprotease inhibitor batimastat. We found that ERK activation increased with increasing ligand release rates despite concomitant EGF receptor downregulation. Cell migration speed depended linearly on the steady-state phospho-ERK level obtained from either autocrine or exogenous ligand, but was much greater at any given phospho-ERK level for autocrine compared to exogenous stimulation. In contrast, cell proliferation rates were relatively constant across the various treatment conditions. Thus, in these cells, ERK-mediated migration stimulated by EGF receptor signaling is most sensitively regulated by autocrine ligand control mechanisms.

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase Stromelysin-1 Triggers a Cascade of Molecular Alterations that leads to stable epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Conversion and a Premalignant Phenotype in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Muschler, J.; Freedman, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate ductal morphogenesis, apoptosis, and neoplastic progression in mammary epithelial cells. To elucidate the direct effects of MMPs on mammary epithelium, we generated functionally normal cells expressing an inducible autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene. Induction of SL-1 expression resulted in cleavage of E-cadherin, and triggered progressive phenotypic conversion characterized by disappearance of E-cadherin and catenins from cell-cell contacts, downregulation of cytokeratins, upregulation of vimentin, induction of keratinocyte growth factor expression and activation, and upregulation of endogenous MMPs. Cells expressing SL-1 were unable to undergo lactogenic differentiation and became invasive. Once initiated, this phenotypic conversion was essentially stable, and progressed even in the absence of continued SL-1 expression. These observations demonstrate that inappropriate expression of SL-1 initiates a cascade of events that may represent a coordinated program leading to loss of the differentiated epithelial phenotype and gain of some characteristics of tumor cells. Our data provide novel insights into how MMPs function in development and neoplastic conversion.

  12. Extracellular matrix signatures of human mammary carcinoma identify novel metastasis promoters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naba, Alexandra

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tumors and a significant contributor to cancer progression. In this study, we use proteomics to investigate the ECM of human mammary carcinoma xenografts and show that ...

  13. Heterocellular interaction enhances recruitment of {alpha} and {beta}-catenins and ZO-2 into functional gap-junction complexes and induces gap junction-dependant differentiation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talhouk, Rabih S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)], E-mail: rtalhouk@aub.edu.lb; Mroue, Rana; Mokalled, Mayssa; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Nehme, Ralda; Ismail, Ayman; Khalil, Antoine [Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Zaatari, Mira [Department of Human Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Sabban, Marwan E. [Department of Human Morphology, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)], E-mail: me00@aub.edu.lb

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gap junctions (GJ) are required for mammary epithelial differentiation. Using epithelial (SCp2) and myoepithelial-like (SCg6) mouse-derived mammary cells, the role of heterocellular interaction in assembly of GJ complexes and functional differentiation ({beta}-casein expression) was evaluated. Heterocellular interaction is critical for {beta}-casein expression, independent of exogenous basement membrane or cell anchoring substrata. Functional differentiation of SCp2, co-cultured with SCg6, is more sensitive to GJ inhibition relative to homocellular SCp2 cultures differentiated by exogenous basement membrane. Connexin (Cx)32 and Cx43 levels were not regulated across culture conditions; however, GJ functionality was enhanced under differentiation-permissive conditions. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated association of junctional complex components ({alpha}-catenin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-2) with Cx32 and Cx43, in differentiation conditions, and additionally with Cx30 in heterocellular cultures. Although {beta}-catenin did not shuttle between cadherin and GJ complexes, increased association between connexins and {beta}-catenin in heterocellular cultures was observed. This was concomitant with reduced nuclear {beta}-catenin, suggesting that differentiation in heterocellular cultures involves sequestration of {beta}-catenin in GJ complexes.

  14. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  15. Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seomun, Young [Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Korean Eye Tissue and Gene Bank related to Blindness, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-ku, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Choun-Ki [Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Korean Eye Tissue and Gene Bank related to Blindness, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-ku, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ckjoo@catholic.ac.kr

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lumican is a major proteoglycans of the human cornea. Lumican knock-out mice have been shown to lose corneal transparency and to display delayed wound healing. The purpose of this study was to define the role of lumican in corneal epithelial cell migration. Over-expression of lumican in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells increased both cell migration and proliferation, and increased levels of integrins {alpha}2 and {beta}1. ERK 1/2 was also activated in lumican over-expressed cells. When we treated HCE-T cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor U0126, cell migration and the expression of integrin {beta}1 were completely blocked. These data provide evidence that lumican stimulates cell migration in the corneal epithelium by activating ERK 1/2, and point to a novel signaling pathway implicated in corneal epithelial cell migration.

  16. Parsing ERK Activation Reveals Quantitatively Equivalent Contributions From Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and HER2 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Orr, Galya; Wells, Alan H.; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    HER2, a member of the EGFR tyrosine kinase family, functions as an accessory EGFR signaling component and alters EGFR trafficking by heterodimerization. HER2 overexpression leads to aberrant cell behavior including enhanced proliferation and motility. Here we apply a combination of computational modeling and quantitative experimental studies of the dynamic interactions between EGFR and HER2, and their downstream activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) to understand this complex signaling system. Using cells expressing different levels of HER2 relative to the EGFR, we can separate relative contributions of EGFR and HER2 to signaling amplitude and duration. Based on our model calculations, we demonstrate that, in contrast with previous suggestions in the literature, the intrinsic capabilities of EGFR and HER2 to activated ERK are quantitatively equivalent . We find that HER2-mediated effects on EGFR dimerization and trafficking are sufficient to explain the detected HER2-mediated amplification of EGF-induced ERK signaling. Our model suggests that transient amplification of ERK activity by HER2 arises predominantly from the 2-to-1 stoichiometry of receptor kinase to bound ligand in EGFR/HER2 heterodimers compared to the 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the EGFR homodimer, but alterations in receptor trafficking, with resultant EGFR sparing, cause the sustained HER2-mediated enhancement of ERK signaling.

  17. Chlorobenzene induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feltens, Ralph, E-mail: ralph.feltens@ufz.d [UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Immunology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Proteomics, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moegel, Iljana, E-mail: iljana.moegel@ufz.d [UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Immunology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.roeder-stolinski@ufz.d [UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Immunology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Simon, Jan-Christoph, E-mail: Jan-Christoph.Simon@medizin.uni-leipzig.d [Leipzig University Medical Center, Clinic of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 23-25, D-4103 Leipzig (Germany); Herberth, Gunda, E-mail: gunda.herberth@ufz.d [UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Immunology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lehmann, Irina, E-mail: irina.lehmann@ufz.d [UFZ- Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Immunology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorobenzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent, degreasing agent and chemical intermediate in many industrial settings. Occupational studies have shown that acute and chronic exposure to chlorobenzene can cause irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Using in vitro assays, we have shown in a previous study that human bronchial epithelial cells release inflammatory mediators such as the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to chlorobenzene. This response is mediated through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of monochlorobenzene on human lung cells, with emphasis on potential alterations of the redox equilibrium to clarify whether the chlorobenzene-induced inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells is caused via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. We found that expression of cellular markers for oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase pi1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), were elevated in the presence of monochlorobenzene. Likewise, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in response to exposure. However, in the presence of the antioxidants N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) or bucillamine, chlorobenzene-induced upregulation of marker proteins and release of the inflammatory mediator MCP-1 are suppressed. These results complement our previous findings and point to an oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response following chlorobenzene exposure.

  18. alveolar epithelial type-1: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the role of oral immunity in this disease. Outi Vaarala 34 Epithelial-Specific and Stage-Specific Functions of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I during Postnatal Mammary...

  19. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Seishiro, E-mail: seishiro@nies.go.j [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, RCER, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko [Environmental Nanotoxicology Section, RCER, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kanno, Sanae [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoudis, Alain [Department of Nutrition, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Delvin, Edgard [Department of Biochemistry, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Menard, Daniel [Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Universite de Montreal and Research Center, CHU Sainte Justine, 3175 Cote Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Que., H3T 1C5 (Canada); Canadian Institute of Health Research, Group of the Functional Development and Physiopathology of the Digestive Tract, and Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que., J1H 5N4 (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  1. Involvement of HIF-2?-mediated inflammation in arsenite-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen that causes diseases of the lung. Some studies have suggested a link between inflammation and lung cancer; however, it is unknown if arsenite-induced inflammation causally contributes to arsenite-caused malignant transformation of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation during neoplastic transformation induced in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by chronic exposure to arsenite. The results showed that, on acute or chronic exposure to arsenite, HBE cells over-expressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). The data also indicated that HIF-2? was involved in arsenite-induced inflammation. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-8 were essential for the malignant progression of arsenite-transformed HBE cells. Thus, these experiments show that HIF-2? mediates arsenite-induced inflammation and that such inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. The results provide a link between the inflammatory response and the acquisition of a malignant transformed phenotype by cells chronically exposed to arsenite and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite induces inflammation. • Arsenite-induced the increases of IL-6 and IL-8 via HIF-2?. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  2. Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tal, Tamara L. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Silbajoris, Robert; Dailey, Lisa [Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Cho, Seung-Hyun [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Research Participation Program, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Integrated Systems Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Linak, William [Air Pollution Prevention Control Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States); Reed, William; Bromberg, Philip A. [Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Samet, James M., E-mail: samet.james@epa.go [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States); Environmental and Public Health, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA (United States)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in airway epithelial cells, a principal target of inhaled DEP. IL-8 is a proinflammatory chemokine expressed by the airway epithelium in response to environmental pollutants. The mechanism by which DEP exposure induces IL-8 expression is not well understood. In the current study, we sought to determine whether DEP with varying organic content induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells, as well as, to develop a method to rapidly evaluate the upstream mechanism(s) by which DEP induces IL-8 expression. Exposure to DEP with varying organic content differentially induced IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity human airway epithelial cells. Mutational analysis of the IL-8 promoter was also performed using recombinant human cell lines expressing reporters linked to the mutated promoters. Treatment with a low organic-containing DEP stimulated IL-8 expression by a mechanism that is predominantly NFkB-dependent. In contrast, exposure to high organic-containing DEP induced IL-8 expression independently of NFkB through a mechanism that requires AP-1 activity. Our study reveals that exposure to DEP of varying organic content induces proinflammatory gene expression through multiple specific mechanisms in human airway epithelial cells. The approaches used in the present study demonstrate the utility of a promoter-reporter assay ensemble for identifying transcriptional pathways activated by pollutant exposure.

  3. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  4. Biomolecular interactions and responses of human epithelial and macrophage cells to engineered nanomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Brozik, Susan Marie; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Greene, Adrienne Celeste; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Bachand, George David; Bachand, Marlene; Aaron, Jesse S.; Allen, Amy; Seagrave, Jean-Clare

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in commercial products, particularly in the biomedical, cosmetic, and clothing industries. For example, pants and shirts are routinely manufactured with silver nanoparticles to render them 'wrinkle-free.' Despite the growing applications, the associated environmental health and safety (EHS) impacts are completely unknown. The significance of this problem became pervasive within the general public when Prince Charles authored an article in 2004 warning of the potential social, ethical, health, and environmental issues connected to nanotechnology. The EHS concerns, however, continued to receive relatively little consideration from federal agencies as compared with large investments in basic nanoscience R&D. The mounting literature regarding the toxicology of ENMs (e.g., the ability of inhaled nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier; Kwon et al., 2008, J. Occup. Health 50, 1) has spurred a recent realization within the NNI and other federal agencies that the EHS impacts related to nanotechnology must be addressed now. In our study we proposed to address critical aspects of this problem by developing primary correlations between nanoparticle properties and their effects on cell health and toxicity. A critical challenge embodied within this problem arises from the ability to synthesize nanoparticles with a wide array of physical properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, surface chemistry, etc.), which in turn creates an immense, multidimensional problem in assessing toxicological effects. In this work we first investigated varying sizes of quantum dots (Qdots) and their ability to cross cell membranes based on their aspect ratio utilizing hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy. We then studied toxicity of epithelial cell lines that were exposed to different sized gold and silver nanoparticles using advanced imaging techniques, biochemical analyses, and optical and mass spectrometry methods. Finally we evaluated a new assay to measure transglutaminase (TG) activity; a potential marker for cell toxicity.

  5. Chronic occupational exposure to arsenic induces carcinogenic gene signaling networks and neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stueckle, Todd A., E-mail: tstueckle@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Lu, Yongju, E-mail: yongju6@hotmail.com [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Davis, Mary E., E-mail: mdavis@wvu.edu [Department of Physiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Wang, Liying, E-mail: lmw6@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)] [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: bhjiang@jefferson.edu [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Holaskova, Ida, E-mail: iholaskova@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Schafer, Rosana, E-mail: rschafer@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Rojanasakul, Yon, E-mail: yrojan@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chronic arsenic exposure remains a human health risk; however a clear mode of action to understand gene signaling-driven arsenic carcinogenesis is currently lacking. This study chronically exposed human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low-dose arsenic trioxide to elucidate cancer promoting gene signaling networks associated with arsenic-transformed (B-As) cells. Following a 6 month exposure, exposed cells were assessed for enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion ability and in vivo tumor formation compared to control cell lines. Collected mRNA was subjected to whole genome expression microarray profiling followed by in silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify lung carcinogenesis modes of action. B-As cells displayed significant increases in proliferation, colony formation and invasion ability compared to BEAS-2B cells. B-As injections into nude mice resulted in development of primary and secondary metastatic tumors. Arsenic exposure resulted in widespread up-regulation of genes associated with mitochondrial metabolism and increased reactive oxygen species protection suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Carcinogenic initiation via reactive oxygen species and epigenetic mechanisms was further supported by altered DNA repair, histone, and ROS-sensitive signaling. NF-?B, MAPK and NCOR1 signaling disrupted PPAR?/?-mediated lipid homeostasis. A ‘pro-cancer’ gene signaling network identified increased survival, proliferation, inflammation, metabolism, anti-apoptosis and mobility signaling. IPA-ranked signaling networks identified altered p21, EF1?, Akt, MAPK, and NF-?B signaling networks promoting genetic disorder, altered cell cycle, cancer and changes in nucleic acid and energy metabolism. In conclusion, transformed B-As cells with their whole genome expression profile provide an in vitro arsenic model for future lung cancer signaling research and data for chronic arsenic exposure risk assessment. Highlights: ? Chronic As{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposure to lung epithelial cells resulted in a cancer-like phenotype. ? Mice injected with arsenic transformed (B-As) cells displayed metastatic tumors. ? Microarray profiling revealed changes in mitochondrial metabolism and ROS response. ? p21, EF1?, Akt, MAPK, PPAR? and NF-?B networks promoted pro-cancer signaling. ? B-As cells represent a lung cancer model to explore As-associated carcinogenesis.

  6. Macrophage-stimulating protein attenuates gentamicin-induced inflammation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ko Eun [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Keun [Department of Pharmacology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pharmacology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Un [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Wan, E-mail: skimw@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •MSP/RON system is activated in rat kidney damaged by gentamicin. •MSP inhibits GM-induced cellular apoptosis and inflammation in HK-2 cells. •MSP attenuates GM-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-?B pathways in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate whether macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) treatment attenuates renal apoptosis and inflammation in gentamicin (GM)-induced tubule injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To examine changes in MSP and its receptor, recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) in GM-induced nephropathy, rats were injected with GM for 7 days. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were incubated with GM for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of MSP and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), I?B-?, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed by semiquantitative immunoblotting. MSP and RON expression was significantly greater in GM-treated rats, than in untreated controls. GM-treatment reduced HK-2 cell viability, an effect that was counteracted by MSP. Flow cytometry and DAPI staining revealed GM-induced apoptosis was prevented by MSP. GM reduced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and induced expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3; these effects and GM-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by MSP. GM caused MSP-reversible induction of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38. GM induced NF-?B activation and degradation of I?B-?; the increase in nuclear NF-?B was blocked by inhibitors of ERK, JNK, p-38, or MSP pretreatment. These findings suggest that MSP attenuates GM-induced inflammation and apoptosis by inhibition of the MAPKs/NF-?B signaling pathways.

  7. Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary epithelia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcaraz, Jordi; Xu, Ren; Mori, Hidetoshi; Nelson, Celeste M.; Mroue, Rana; Spencer, Virginia A.; Brownfield, Doug; Radisky, Derek C.; Bustamante, Carlos; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the mammary gland, epithelial cells are embedded in a 'soft' environment and become functionally differentiated in culture when exposed to a laminin-rich extracellular matrix gel. Here, we define the processes by which mammary epithelial cells integrate biochemical and mechanical extracellular cues to maintain their differentiated phenotype. We used single cells cultured on top of gels in conditions permissive for {beta}-casein expression using atomic force microscopy to measure the elasticity of the cells and their underlying substrata. We found that maintenance of {beta}-casein expression required both laminin signalling and a 'soft' extracellular matrix, as is the case in normal tissues in vivo, and biomimetic intracellular elasticity, as is the case in primary mammary epithelial organoids. Conversely, two hallmarks of breast cancer development, stiffening of the extracellular matrix and loss of laminin signalling, led to the loss of {beta}-casein expression and non-biomimetic intracellular elasticity. Our data indicate that tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by both the tissues unique biochemical milieu and mechanical properties, processes involved in maintenance of tissue integrity and protection against tumorigenesis.

  8. Nickel compounds induce apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells by activation of c-Myc through ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qin; Suen, T.-C.; Sun Hong; Arita, Adriana [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, NY 10987 (United States); Costa, Max [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, NY 10987 (United States)], E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and have been shown to alter epigenetic homeostasis. The c-Myc protein controls 15% of human genes and it has been shown that fluctuations of c-Myc protein alter global epigenetic marks. Therefore, the regulation of c-Myc by nickel ions in immortalized but not tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells was examined in this study. It was found that c-Myc protein expression was increased by nickel ions in non-tumorigenic Beas-2B and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results also indicated that nickel ions induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells. Knockout of c-Myc and its restoration in a rat cell system confirmed the essential role of c-Myc in nickel ion-induced apoptosis. Further studies in Beas-2B cells showed that nickel ion increased the c-Myc mRNA level and c-Myc promoter activity, but did not increase c-Myc mRNA and protein stability. Moreover, nickel ion upregulated c-Myc in Beas-2B cells through the MEK/ERK pathway. Collectively, the results demonstrate that c-Myc induction by nickel ions occurs via an ERK-dependent pathway and plays a crucial role in nickel-induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells.

  9. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression.

  10. The accumulations of HIF-1? and HIF-2? by JNK and ERK are involved in biphasic effects induced by different levels of arsenite in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yuan; Li, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China) [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); Li, Huiqiao [Qujing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Qujing 655000, Yunnan (China)] [Qujing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Qujing 655000, Yunnan (China); Pang, Ying; Zhao, Yue; Jiang, Rongrong; Shen, Lu [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China) [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Xinru [The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China)] [The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China) [Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The biphasic effects of arsenite, in which low levels of arsenite induce cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite induce DNA damage and apoptosis, apparently contribute to arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of different levels of arsenite on cell proliferation, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as on signal transduction pathways in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Our results show that a low level of arsenite activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), which probably mediate arsenite-inhibited degradation of ubiquitinated hypoxia-inducible factor-2? (HIF-2?) in HBE cells. ERK inhibition blocks cell proliferation induced by a low level of arsenite, in part via HIF-2?. In contrast, a high level of arsenite activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), which provoke a response to suppress ubiquitinated HIF-1? degradation. Down-regulation of HIF-1? by inhibiting JNK, however, increases the DNA damage but decreases the apoptosis induced by a high level of arsenite. Thus, data in the present study suggest that the accumulations of HIF-1? and HIF-2? by JNK and ERK are involved in different levels of arsenite-induced biphasic effects, with low levels of arsenite inducing cell proliferation and high levels of arsenite inducing DNA damage and apoptosis in HBE cells. -- Highlights: ? Biphasic effects induced by different concentrations of arsenite. ? Different regulation of ERK or JNK signal pathway by arsenite. ? Different regulation of HIF1? or HIF 2? by arsenite.

  11. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A. [University of New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Albuquerque, NM (United States); College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bedrick, Edward [University of New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Albuquerque, NM (United States); School of Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine - Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); McDonald, Jacob D. [University of New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Wen-Yee [University of Texas at El Paso Center for Environmental Resource Management, El Paso, TX (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States); Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas at El Paso Center for Environmental Resource Management, El Paso, TX (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States); Amaya, Maria A. [University of Texas at El Paso Center for Environmental Resource Management, El Paso, TX (United States); School of Nursing, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States); Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa [University of New Mexico Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Albuquerque, NM (United States); School of Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine - Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currey, Robert [University of Texas at El Paso Center for Environmental Resource Management, El Paso, TX (United States); Pingitore, Nicholas E. [University of Texas at El Paso Center for Environmental Resource Management, El Paso, TX (United States); Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (United States)] (and others)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  12. Use of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to study immunological markers resulting from exposure to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract from Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.fuentes@upr.ed [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Rivera, Evasomary [Department of Biology, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Gioda, Adriana [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Department of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Marques de Sao Vicente street, 225, Gavea, 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez-Rivera, Diana; Roman-Velazquez, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, Mayaguez Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico); Jimenez-Velez, Braulio D., E-mail: braulio.jimenez@upr.ed [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Center for Environmental and Toxicological Research, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine particulate air pollutants, mainly their organic fraction, have been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular and respiratory health problems. Puerto Rico has been reported to have the highest prevalence of pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma) in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the immunological response of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to organic extracts isolated from airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) in Puerto Rico. Organic extracts from PM{sub 2.5} collected throughout an 8-month period (2000-2001) were pooled (composite) in order to perform chemical analysis and biological activity testing. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM{sub 2.5} organic extract to assess cytotoxicity, levels of cytokines and relative gene expression of MHC-II, hPXR and CYP3A5. Our findings show that organic PM{sub 2.5} consist of toxic as well as bioactive components that can regulate the secretion of cytokines in BEAS-2B, which could modulate inflammatory response in the lung. Trace element analyses confirmed the presence of metals in organic extracts highlighting the relative high abundance of Cu and Zn in polar organic extracts. Polar organic extracts exhibited dose-dependant toxicity and were found to significantly induce the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1beta and IL-7 while significantly inhibiting the secretion of IL-8, G-CSF and MCP-1. Moreover, MHC-II transcriptional activity was up-regulated after 24 h of exposure, whereas PXR and CYP3A5 were down-regulated. This research provides a new insight into the effects of PM{sub 2.5} organic fractions on specific effectors and their possible role in the development of respiratory inflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico.

  13. accelerates mammary tumorprogression: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mammary gland is well known. However, it is not well established. To determine where PRL could exert its effects within the mammary gland, we investigated the levels Kihara,...

  14. accelerates mammary oncogenesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mammary gland is well known. However, it is not well established. To determine where PRL could exert its effects within the mammary gland, we investigated the levels Kihara,...

  15. alpha positive mammary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mammary gland is well known. However, it is not well established. To determine where PRL could exert its effects within the mammary gland, we investigated the levels Kihara,...

  16. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  17. Purification of PRL receptors from toad kidney: Comparisons with rabbit mammary PRL receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunand, M.; Kraehenbuhl, J.P.; Rossier, B.C.; Aubert, M.L. (Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine (Switzerland) Univ. of Lausanne School of Medicine (Switzerland))

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The binding characteristics of the prolactin (PRL) receptors present in toad (Bufo marinus) kidneys were investigated and compared to those of PRL receptors present in rabbit mammary glands. The molecular characteristics of the Triton X-100 solubilized renal and mammary PRL receptors were assessed by gel filtration and by migration analysis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after affinity labeling of the binding sites with {sup 125}I-human growth hormone. Similar results were obtained for both receptors. Partial purification of the toad PRL receptor could be achieved by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of this purified receptor could be determined by analysis of SDS-PAGE. With the use of a polyclonal antiserum raised against a purified preparation of rabbit mammary PRL receptor, one or several antigenic epitope(s) could be identified on the core of the toad renal PRL receptor. In conclusion, although the structure and the biological role(s) of PRL have substantially changed during evolution, the receptor for this hormone has retained many of its structural features as could be assessed between an amphibian and a mammalian species on functionally different target tissues.

  18. IL-27 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenic factor production in a STAT1-dominant pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IL-27 directly restrains lung tumorigenicity by suppressingof human non-small cell lung cancer in SCID mice. J Clinfactor in non-small cell lung cancer. J Clin Invest 1998,

  19. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ren; Nelson, Celeste M.; Muschler, John L.; Veiseh, Mandana; Vonderhaar, Barbara K.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Epithelial cells, once dissociated and placed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures, rapidly lose tissue-specific functions. We showed previously that in addition to prolactin, signaling by laminin-111 was necessary to restore functional differentiation of mammary epithelia. Here, we elucidate two additional aspects of laminin-111 action. We show that in 2D cultures, the prolactin receptor is basolaterally localized and physically segregated from its apically placed ligand. Detachment of the cells exposes the receptor to ligation by prolactin leading to signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 5 (STAT5) activation, but only transiently and not sufficiently for induction of milk protein expression. We show that laminin-111 reorganizes mammary cells into polarized acini, allowing both the exposure of the prolactin receptor and sustained activation of STAT5. The use of constitutively active STAT5 constructs showed that the latter is necessary and sufficient for chromatin reorganization and {beta}-casein transcription. These results underscore the crucial role of continuous laminin signaling and polarized tissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor activation, chromatin organization, and tissue-specific gene expression.

  20. antigen-driven mammary carcinoma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mammary gland is well known. However, it is not well established. To determine where PRL could exert its effects within the mammary gland, we investigated the levels Kihara,...

  1. Original article Sensitization of the bovine mammary gland to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    (ReceivedI October I )96; accepted 4 February 1997) Summary ― The effect of repeated infusions intramammary infusions of E cnli endotoxin (33 pg) 24 h apart in the same mammary quarter. Along with the second infusion, the cows received one dose of endotoxin in the contralateral quarter. Milk was collected

  2. Effect of Intravenous Amino Acid Infusion on Leucine Oxidation Across the Mammary Gland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bequette, Brian J.

    Effect of Intravenous Amino Acid Infusion on Leucine Oxidation Across the Mammary Gland) and the AA infusion periods. Although blood flow to the mammary gland and the arterial concen- tration of most AA other than leucine were increased by the AA infusion, milk and protein yields did not change

  3. RESEARCH Open Access Cellular transcriptional profiling in human lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Cellular transcriptional profiling in human lung epithelial cells infected expression profiles of human lung A549 cells infected by five different subtypes of human and avian influenza

  4. Annexin A9 (ANXA9) biomarker and therapeutic target in epithelial cancer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhi (El Cerrito, CA); Kuo, Wen-Lin (San Ramon, CA); Neve, Richard M. (San Mateo, CA); Gray, Joe W. (San Francisco, CA)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Amplification of the ANXA9 gene in human chromosomal region 1q21 in epithelial cancers indicates a likelihood of both in vivo drug resistance and metastasis, and serves as a biomarker indicating these aspects of the disease. ANXA9 can also serve as a therapeutic target. Interfering RNAs (iRNAs) (such as siRNA and miRNA) and shRNA adapted to inhibit ANXA9 expression, when formulated in a therapeutic composition, and delivered to cells of the tumor, function to treat the epithelial cancer.

  5. Sustained activation of STAT5 is essential for chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specific function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ren

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impaired alveologenesis and maintenance of secretory mammaryfor chromatin remodeling and maintenance of mammary-specifictissue architecture in maintenance of transcription factor

  6. Identification of genetic loci that control mammary tumor susceptibility through the host microenvironment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pengju; Lo, Alvin; Huang, Yurong; Huang, Ge; Liang, Guozhou; Mott, Joni; Karpen, Gary H.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; et al

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (SPRET/EiJ) mouse strains. Tumor formation was evaluated after transplantation of non-irradiated Trp53-/- BALB/c mammary gland fragments into cleared fat pads of F1Bx hosts. Genome-wide linkage analysis revealed 2 genetic loci that constitute the baseline susceptibility via host microenvironment. However, once challenged with LDIR, we discovered 13 additional loci that were enriched for genesmore »involved in cytokines, including TGF?1 signaling. Surprisingly, LDIR-treated F1Bx cohort significantly reduced incidence of mammary tumors from Trp53-/- fragments as well as prolonged tumor latency, compared to sham-treated controls. We demonstrated further that plasma levels of specific cytokines were significantly correlated with tumor latency. Using an ex vivo 3-D assay, we confirmed TGF?1 as a strong candidate for reduced mammary invasion in SPRET/EiJ, which could explain resistance of this strain to mammary cancer risk following LDIR. Our results open possible new avenues to understand mechanisms of genes operating via the stroma that affect cancer risk from external environmental exposures.« less

  7. Treatment of an Iatrogenic Left Internal Mammary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Bovine Pericardium Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heper, Gulumser [SSK Ihtisas Hospital, Department of Cardiology (Turkey)], E-mail: heperg@hotmail.com; Barcin, Cem; Iyisoy, Atila; Tore, Hasan F. [Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Department of Cardiology (Turkey)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a case with an acquired fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the pulmonary artery following coronary bypass surgery treated with a bovine pericardium covered stent. We also reviewed similar cases reported previously.

  8. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and p38 independently of EGF 300 receptor [68]. Interestingly, the nuclear localisation and export signals in E1 are phosphorylated by 301 these MAP kinases, which in turn enhances the nuclear localisation of E1 protein which...

  9. The stimulus-dependent co-localization of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (Sgk) and Erk/MAPK in mammary tumor cells involves the mutual interaction with the importin-alpha nuclear import protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buse, Patricia; Maiyar, Anita C.; Failor, Kim L.; Tran, Susan; Leong, Meredith L.L. [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and The Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200 (United States); Firestone, Gary L. [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and The Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200 (United States)], E-mail: glfire@berkeley.edu

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In Con8 rat mammary epithelial tumor cells, indirect immunofluorescence revealed that Sgk (serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase) and Erk/MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase) co-localized to the nucleus in serum-treated cells and to the cytoplasmic compartment in cells treated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of the importin-alpha nuclear transport protein was similarly regulated in a signal-dependent manner. In vitro GST-pull down assays revealed the direct interaction of importin-alpha with either Sgk or Erk/MAPK, while RNA interference knockdown of importin-alpha expression disrupted the localization of both Sgk and Erk into the nucleus of serum-treated cells. Wild type or kinase dead forms of Sgk co-immunoprecipitated with Erk/MAPK from either serum- or dexamethasone-treated mammary tumor cells, suggesting the existence of a protein complex containing both kinases. In serum-treated cells, nucleus residing Sgk and Erk/MAPK were both hyperphosphorylated, indicative of their active states, whereas, in dexamethasone-treated cells Erk/MAPK, but not Sgk, was in its inactive hypophosphorylated state. Treatment with a MEK inhibitor, which inactivates Erk/MAPK, caused the relocalization of both Sgk and ERK to the cytoplasm. We therefore propose that the signal-dependent co-localization of Sgk and Erk/MAPK mediated by importin-alpha represents a new pathway of signal integration between steroid and serum/growth factor-regulated pathways.

  10. Structural studies of the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamburger, Agnes Eva, 1976-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, pIgR, is a glycosylated type I transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral surface of secretory epithelial cells. pIgR plays a key role in mucosal immunity and, together ...

  11. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boggs, Rene' Michelle

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancer were...

  12. CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1/Fractalkine in the Bone Marrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatatis, Alessandro

    CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1 human osteoblasts in vitro. Thus, the interaction of fractalkine with its receptor CX3CR1 could play a crucial role in vivo by directing circulating prostate cancer cells to the bone. We found that although CX

  13. Mechanisms of lead transport in two intestinal epithelial cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekaney, Christopher Matthew

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through the intestinal epithelium. Using two established intestinal epithelial cell lines, IEC-6 and Caco-2, we studied the effects of temperature, metabolic inhibitors, sulfhydryl group modifiers, blocking of integrins with the tripeptide Arginine...

  14. Oestrogen metabolism and action in epithelial ovarian cancer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Xia

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ovarian cancer is the most fatal of all gynecological malignancies. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) accounts for about 90% of malignant ovarian tumours and is thought to originate mostly from ovarian surface epithelium ...

  15. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unternaehrer, Juli J.

    Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown ...

  16. Partial proteolytic digestion of the mammary prolactin receptor: Identification of smaller prolactin binding fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Djiane, J. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partial proteolytic digestion of the mammary prolactin (PRL) receptor was used to generate receptor fragments and analyze their immunoreactivity and PRL binding properties. Tryptic digestion of the PRL receptor produced two immunoreactive fragments (Mr approximately 30,000 and approximately 15,000) that reacted with a monoclonal anti-PRL receptor antibody and still specifically bound PRL, while the complete immunoreactive PRL binding unit (Mr approximately 42,000) disappeared. Neither chymotrypsin nor V8 protease were able to generate any immunoreactive receptor fragments. These receptor fragments may represent smaller PRL binding receptor form(s) of biological significance.

  17. IL1{beta}-mediated Stromal COX-2 signaling mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yingting, E-mail: yitizhu@yahoo.com [University of Arizona Arizona Cancer Center Tissue Tech Inc, 7000 SW 97th Avenue Suite 212, Miami, FL 33173 (United States) [University of Arizona Arizona Cancer Center Tissue Tech Inc, 7000 SW 97th Avenue Suite 212, Miami, FL 33173 (United States); Tissue Tech Inc, Miami, FL 33173 (United States); Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter [University of Arizona Arizona Cancer Center Tissue Tech Inc, 7000 SW 97th Avenue Suite 212, Miami, FL 33173 (United States)] [University of Arizona Arizona Cancer Center Tissue Tech Inc, 7000 SW 97th Avenue Suite 212, Miami, FL 33173 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    COX-2 is a major inflammatory mediator implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer. However, the exact origin and role of COX-2 on colorectal inflammation and carcinogenesis are still not well defined. Recently, we reported that COX-2 and iNOS signalings interact in colonic CCD18Co fibroblasts. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by IL1{beta} in primary colonic fibroblasts obtained from normal and cancer patients play a critical role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that COX-2 level was significantly higher in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}, a powerful stimulator of COX-2. Using in vitro assays for estimating proliferative and invasive potential, we discovered that the proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts than with normal fibroblasts, with or without stimulation of IL1{beta}. Further analysis indicated that the major COX-2 product, prostaglandin E{sub 2}, directly enhanced proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells in the absence of fibroblasts. Moreover, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, blocked the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts on the epithelial cancer cells, with or without stimulation of IL-1{beta}. Those results indicate that activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts plays a major role in promoting proliferation and invasiveness of the epithelial cancer cells. In this process, PKC is involved in the activation of COX-2 signaling induced by IL-1{beta} in the fibroblasts.

  18. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of CAD gene expression and inhibition by Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in human breast cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Shaheen Munawar Ali

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -mediated pathway. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands suppress several E2-induced responses in the rodent uterus and mammary tumors and in human breast cancer cells. TCDD inhibited hormone...

  19. Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA.

  20. Biological activities of binding site specific monoclonal antibodies to prolactin receptors of rabbit mammary gland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djiane, J.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Katoh, M.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological activity of three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the rabbit mammary prolactin (PRL) receptor (M110, A82, and A917) were investigated using explants of rabbit mammary gland. The three mAbs which were all able to inhibit the binding of SVI-ovine prolactin to its receptor had different biological activities. Two mAbs (M110 and A82) were able to prevent the stimulating effect of PRL on casein synthesis when the molar ratio between the mAb and PRL was 100. One mAb (A917) was able to mimic the action of PRL on both casein and DNA ((TH)thymidine incorporation) synthesis, whereas the other two mAbs were without any stimulatory effect. For this stimulatory effect to be observed, bivalency of the antibody was essential, since monovalent fragments, which were able to inhibit PRL binding, had no agonistic activity. The ability of the mAbs to induce a down-regulation of receptors was also studied. These studies suggest that the binding domain of the receptor might be relatively complex, since only a part of this domain recognized by the antibody with PRL-like activity was able to induce hormonal action. Alternatively, only those antibodies able to microaggregate the receptors may possess PRL-like activity.

  1. Concentration of PCBs,HCB,DDT, and HCH isomers in the ovaries, mammary gland, and liver of cows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Faundez, R. [Agricultural Univ. of Warsaw (Poland)]|[National Inst. of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Persistent organic chlorine compounds such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) play an important role in chronic poisoning and take part in a number of pathological processes. This study estimates the degree of accumulation of organic Chlorine compounds and polychlorinated biphynyls in the liver, ovaries, and mammary gland tissues of cows.12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bile Salts and Nuclear Receptors in Biliary Epithelial Cell Pathophysiology by Dr. Nicolas Chignard shaped the way I perform my work today. Among many other examples, she showed me how to simply performed by students that I had the pleasure to supervise. I'm grateful to all of them. I especially would

  3. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yingting, E-mail: yitizhu@yahoo.com [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States) [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Tissue Tech Inc., Miami, FL 33173 (United States); Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)] [Arizona Cancer Center, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  4. Sensitive Targeted Quantification of ERK Phosphorylation Dynamics and Stoichiometry in Human Cells without Affinity Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Tujin; Gao, Yuqian; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Chrisler, William B.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wu, Chaochao; He, Jintang; Bloodsworth, Kent J.; Zhao, Rui; Camp, David G.; Liu, Tao; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Qian, Weijun

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted quantification is a promising technology for site-specific quantification of posttranslational modifications (PTMs). However, a major constraint of most targeted MS approaches is the limited sensitivity for quantifying low-abundance PTMs, requiring the use of affinity reagents to enrich specific PTMs. Herein, we demonstrate the direct site-specific quantification of ERK phosphorylation isoforms (pT, pY, pTpY) and their relative stoichiometries using a highly sensitive targeted MS approach termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM). PRISM provides effective enrichment of target peptides within a given fraction from complex biological matrix with minimal sample losses, followed by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification. The PRISM-SRM approach enabled direct quantification of ERK phosphorylation in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from as little as 25 µg tryptic peptides from whole cell lysates. Compared to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, PRISM provided >10-fold improvement in signal intensities, presumably due to the better peptide recovery of PRISM for handling small size samples. This approach was applied to quantify ERK phosphorylation dynamics in HMEC treated by different doses of EGF at both the peak activation (10 min) and steady state (2 h). At 10 min, the maximal ERK activation was observed with 0.3 ng/mL dose, whereas the maximal steady state level of ERK activation at 2 h was at 3 ng/ml dose, corresponding to 1200 and 9000 occupied receptors, respectively. At 10 min, the maximally activated pTpY isoform represented ~40% of total ERK, falling to less than 10% at 2 h. The time course and dose-response profiles of individual phosphorylated ERK isoforms indicated that singly phosphorylated pT-ERK never increases significantly, while the increase of pY-ERK paralleled that of pTpY-ERK. This data supports for a processive, rather than distributed, model of ERK phosphorylation. The PRISM-SRM quantification of protein phosphorylation illustrates the potential for simultaneous quantification of multiple PTMs.

  5. Characterisation of microRNA expression in post-natal mouse mammary gland development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avril-Sassen, Stefanie; Goldstein, Leonard D; Stingl, John; Blenkiron, Cherie; Le Quesne, John; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Karagavriilidou, Konstantina; Watson, Christine J; Tavare, Simon; Miska, Eric A; Caldas, Carlos

    2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    . For example during puberty and gestation, proliferation and associated processes of cell division and mitosis were highly represented, cal- cium/sodium ion transport, translation and intracellular protein transport were prominent during lactation, apop- tosis... and miR-429. There is increasing evidence that this miRNA family plays a crucial role in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchy- mal transition (EMT). All five members of the miR-200 family were markedly down-regulated in cells that had undergone EMT...

  6. Response of an experimental mammary carcinoma to fractionated x-irradiation with misonidazole and microwave hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldfeder, A.; Brown, D.M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X/Gf mice bearing the MT2 mammary adenocarcinoma were subjected to 4000 rad of x rays given either as a single dose, or five daily fractions of 800 rad. Additional experimental groups were treated with either short term localized microwave hyperthermia (LMH), or the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), or both hyperthermia plus MISO with x rays. The combined use of MISO plus 42.5/sup 0/C with x rays was superior to the other treatment regimens as assessed by tumor regrowth delay and mean survival time. However, for the five fraction schedule, the addition of MISO plus hyperthermia was not as effective as observed for the single dose treatment. This may be attributed to reoxygenation of the hypoxic tumor cells between treatment fractions. MISO retention in tumor tissue under ambient and hyperthermic conditions was studied. The application of heat locally to the tumors caused a significant increase in MISO tumor concentration. However, after four x ray fractions the influence on MISO concentration by hyperthermia in the tumors could not be demonstrated.

  7. Effect of prolactin on enzymes of lipid biosynthesis in mammary gland explants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, S.B.; Rillema, J.A. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (USA))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prolactin (PRL) stimulates an increased rate of incorporation of ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 3}H)glucose into lipids in cultured mammary gland explants from 10-to 14-day-pregnant mice. This response is biphasic with an early increase occurring from 6 through 12 h, and an additional increase from 16 to 24 h. Enzymes likely to be rate limiting to this process include acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthetase, acetyl CoA synthetase, and/or pyruvate dehydrogenase. Of these enzymes only pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was elevated at 6 h, suggesting that this enzymatic activity is important in stimulating early increases in lipogenesis after PRL treatment. In addition, the PRL stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase may also indirectly stimulate acetyl CoA carboxylase through the generation of citrate; this may explain the early (6-12 h) effect of PRL on ({sup 14}C)acetate incorporation. After 16 h of PRL treatment, the activities of all the lipogenic enzymes were enhanced. The second phase of PRLs stimulation of lipogenesis thus likely involves the enhanced activities of more than one of the lipogenic enzymes.

  8. Suppression of renal fibrosis by galectin-1 in high glucose-treated renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kaokano@kc.twmu.ac.jp; Tsuruta, Yuki; Yamashita, Tetsuri; Takano, Mari; Echida, Yoshihisa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the ability of intracellular galectin-1 (Gal-1), a prototype of endogenous lectin, to prevent renal fibrosis by regulating cell signaling under a high glucose (HG) condition. We demonstrated that overexpression of Gal-1 reduces type I collagen (COL1) expression and transcription in human renal epithelial cells under HG conditions and transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) stimulation. Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is stimulated by Gal-1. HG conditions and TGF-{beta}1 treatment augment expression and nuclear translocation of Gal-1. In contrast, targeted inhibition of Gal-1 expression reduces COL1 expression and increases MMP1 expression. The Smad3 signaling pathway is inhibited, whereas two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), are activated by Gal-1, indicating that Gal-1 regulates these signaling pathways in COL1 production. Using specific inhibitors of Smad3, ERK, and p38 MAPK, we showed that ERK MAPK activated by Gal-1 plays an inhibitory role in COL1 transcription and that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway by Gal-1 plays a negative role in MMP1 production. Taken together, two MAPK pathways are stimulated by increasing levels of Gal-1 in the HG condition, leading to suppression of COL1 expression and increase of MMP1 expression.

  9. Epithelial cell polarity and cell junctions in drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tepass, Ulrich; Tanentzapf­ , Guy; Ward, Robert; Fehon, Richard

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    18 Oct 2001 10:14 AR AR144-24.tex AR144-24.sgm ARv2(2001/05/10) P1: GJB Annu. Rev. Genet. 2001. 35:747?84 Copyright c 2001 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved EPITHELIAL CELL POLARITY AND CELL JUNCTIONS IN DROSOPHILA Ulrich Tepass and Guy....35:747-784. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by University of Kanas-Lawrence & Edwards on 09/26/05. For personal use only. 18 Oct 2001 10:14 AR AR144-24.tex AR144-24.sgm ARv2(2001/05/10) P1: GJB 748 TEPASS ET AL. THE SEPTATE JUNCTION...

  10. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  11. Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation distinguish severe sepsis patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as: Ware et al. : Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury andN, Ware LB: Biomarkers in acute lung injury–marking forwardMA, May AK, Ware LB: Acute lung injury in patients with

  12. Gap junction intercellular communication: a microinjection investigation of fibroblast and epithelial cell lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pahlka, Raymond Benton

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research were threefold. The first objective was to develop a protocol for unbiased microinjection of the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow to normal fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. I determined the optimal equipment...

  13. NON-INVASIVE OPTICAL DETECTION OF EPITHELIAL CANCER USING OBLIQUE INCIDENCE DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication and testing of an oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry (OIDRS) system for in-vivo and noninvasive detection of epithelial cancer. Two probes were fabricated using micromachining...

  14. tion. Human or mouse intestinal epithelial cells that express the poly-Ig receptor were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Antibodies specific for Clostrid- ium difficile toxin A and Helicobacter pylori urease have been generated, Glauser M et al (1995) Oral immunization with Helicobacter pylori urease as a treatment against Helicobacter infection. Gas- troenterology (in press) Haneberg B, Kendall D, Amerongen HM, Apter FM

  15. Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Airway epithelial gene expression in the diagnostic evaluation of smokers with suspect lung cancer, Timothy Anderson6, Norman Gerry7, Joseph Keane4, Marc E Lenburg7 & Jerome S Brody1 Lung cancer smokers with suspicion of lung cancer could be used as a lung cancer biomarker. Using a training set (n

  16. The lid wiper and muco-cutaneous junction anatomy of the human eyelid margins: an in vivo confocal and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Ron

    The lid wiper and muco-cutaneous junction anatomy of the human eyelid margins: an in vivo confocal thickness (lid wiper). This continued for 0.3­1.5 mm and formed a slope. The MCJ and lid wiper extended all border has distinct zones. Due to its location and morphology, the epithelial lip of the lid wiper

  17. Flow induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular heterogeneity and biomarker modulation in 3D ovarian cancer nodules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirci, Utkan

    Seventy-five percent of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer present with advanced-stage disease that is extensively disseminated intraperitoneally and prognosticates the poorest outcomes. Primarily metastatic within ...

  18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflamatory Effects and Mechanisms of Green Tea in Vitro in Vascular Epithelial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Abida

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMATORY EFFECTS AND MECHANISMS OF GREEN TEA IN VITRO IN VASCULAR EPITHELIAL CELLS Major: Nutritional Sciences April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University... EPITHELIAL CELLS Approved by: Research Advisor: Susanne Talcott Associate Dean for Undergraduate Research: Robert C. Webb Major: Nutritional Sciences April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial...

  19. Id-1 is induced in MDCK epithelial cells by activated Erk/MAPK pathway in response to expression of the Snail and E47 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorda, Mireia [IDIBELL-Institut de Recerca Oncologica, Centre d'Oncologia Molecular, Barcelona (Spain); Vinyals, Antonia [IDIBELL-Institut de Recerca Oncologica, Centre d'Oncologia Molecular, Barcelona (Spain); Marazuela, Anna [IDIBELL-Institut de Recerca Oncologica, Centre d'Oncologia Molecular, Barcelona (Spain); Cubillo, Eva [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas 'Alberto Sols' (CSIC-UAM) and Departamento de Bioquimica (UAM), Madrid (Spain); Olmeda, David [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas 'Alberto Sols' (CSIC-UAM) and Departamento de Bioquimica (UAM), Madrid (Spain); Valero, Eva [IDIBELL-Institut de Recerca Oncologica, Centre d'Oncologia Molecular, Barcelona (Spain); Cano, Amparo [Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas 'Alberto Sols' (CSIC-UAM) and Departamento de Bioquimica (UAM), Madrid (Spain); Fabra, Angels [IDIBELL-Institut de Recerca Oncologica, Centre d'Oncologia Molecular, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: afabra@idibell.org

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Id-1, a member of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion of many types of human cancers. We have previously shown that stable expression of E47 and Snail repressors of the E-cadherin promoter in MDCK epithelial cell line triggers epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) concomitantly with changes in gene expression. We show here that both factors activate the Id-1 gene promoter and induce Id-1 mRNA and protein. The upregulation of the Id-1 gene occurs through the transactivation of the promoter by the Erk/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, oncogenic Ras is also able to activate Id-1 promoter in MDCK cells in the absence of both E47 and Snail transcription factors. Several transcriptionally active regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter, including AP-1, Sp1 and four putative E-boxes. By EMSA, we only detected an increased binding to Sp1 and AP-1 elements in E47- and Snail-expressing cells. Binding is affected by the treatment of cells with PD 98059 MEK inhibitor, suggesting that MAPK/Erk contributes to the recruitment or assembly of proteins to Id-1 promoter. Small interfering RNA directed against Sp1 reduced Id-1 expression and the upregulation of the promoter, indicating that Sp1 is required for Id-1 induction in E47- and Snail-expressing cells. Our results provide new insights into how some target genes are activated during and/or as a consequence of the EMT triggered by both E47 and Snail transcription factors.

  20. Effects of prolactin on lipid biosynthesis and protein kinase C in mouse mammary gland and NB sub 2 node lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, S.B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In cultured mouse mammary gland explants derived from 12-14 day pregnant mice, prolactin (PRL) stimulates an increased rate of incorporation of ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 3}H)glucose into triglycerides. The effect is significant between 4-6 hours after addition of PRL. Enzymes likely to be rate-limiting to this process include acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthetase, acetyl CoA synthetase, and/or pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). It is possible that early perturbations of phospholipid (PL) metabolism may represent the initial cellular effects of PRL. Consequently the effect of PRL on the incorporation of several precursors into PLs was determined. Employing ({sup 14}C)acetate as a substrate, PRL stimulates its incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, as early as 1-2 hours, and phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine by 2-4 hours. ({sup 3}H)Glycerol incorporation into triglycerides was significantly enhanced by PRL between 4-6 hours, but not into PLs until after 16 hours. Similarly, PRL did not enhance incorporation of ({sup 32}P)O{sub 4}, ({sup 3}H)choline, ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)seine into PLs until 14-16 hours after addition to culture. 12-O-tetradeconyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was found to increase ({sup 3}H)uridine incorporation into RNA, and ({sup 3}H)leucine incorporation into caseins in a PRL-like manner. In addition, PRL stimulates a transient, time-dependent translocation of PKC to the particulate fraction of mammary gland explants.

  1. Evaluation of Common Angling-Induced Sources of Epithelial Damage for Popular Freshwater Sport Fish using Fluorescein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Angling is a popular recreational activity across the globe and a large proportion of fish captured by anglers are released due to voluntary or mandatory catch-and-release practices. The handling associated with hook removal and return of the fish to their environment can cause physical damage to the epidermal layer of the fish which may affect the condition and survival of released fish. This study investigated possible sources of epithelial damage associated with several different handling methods (i.e. landing net types, interactions with different boat floor surfaces, tournament procedures) commonly used in recreational angling for two popular freshwater sport fish species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius). Epithelial damage was examined using fluorescein, a non-toxic dye, which has been shown to detect latent epithelial damage. Northern pike exhibited extensive epithelial damage after exposure to several of the induced treatments (i.e., interaction with a carpeted surface, knotted nylon net, and line rolling) but relatively little epithelial damage when exposed to others (i.e., knotless rubber nets, smooth boat surfaces, or lip gripping devices). Largemouth bass did not show significant epithelial damage for any of the treatments, with the exception of fish caught in a semi-professional live release tournament. The detection of latent injuries using fluorescein can be an important management tool as it provides visual examples of potential damage that can be caused by different handling methods. Such visualizations can be used to encourage fish friendly angler behaviour and enhance the survival and welfare of released fish. It can also be used to test new products that are intended to or claim to reduce injury to fish that are to be released. Future research should evaluate the relationship between different levels of epithelial damage and mortality across a range of environmental conditions.

  2. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, J.-S. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jaushyang12@hotmail.com; Chuang, L.-Y. [Department of Biochemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Guh, J.-Y. [Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27{sup Kip1}, collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells.

  3. Copyright @ 200 by the Shock Society. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.8 TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES OF HUMAN EPITHELIAL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stormo, Gary

    into the regulatory pathways that control gene expression in response to stress and potentially identify novel heat involved during the stress response. KEYWORDS--Heat shock, heat shock proteins, stress response, hep2, gene The heat shock, or stress, response was discovered in 1962 with the description of a set of genes whose

  4. The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 increases mucin5AC production in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chunyi; Li, Qi [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74, Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Zhou, Xiangdong, E-mail: zxd999@263.net [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, No. 74, Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400010 (China); Kolosov, Victor P.; Perelman, Juliy M. [Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Blagoveshchensk (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mucus overproduction is an important feature in patients with chronic inflammatory airway diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms that mediate excessive mucin production remain elusive. Recently, the level of YKL-40, a chitinase-like protein, has been found to be significantly increased in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and has been shown to be associated with the severity of these diseases. In this study, we sought to explore the effect of YKL-40 on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) production in chronic inflammatory airway diseases and the potential signaling pathways involved in this process. We found that elevated YKL-40 levels increased the mRNA and protein expression of MUC5AC in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in association with the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), reflecting their activation. These responses were significantly suppressed by the knockdown of protease-activating receptor 2 (PAR2) with specific small interfering RNA or the inhibitors of ERK and NF-?B. YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overproduction was also effectively attenuated by the inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Taken together, these results imply that YKL-40 can stimulate excessive MUC5AC production through PAR2- and FAK-mediated mechanisms. - Highlights: • MUC5AC is the major secreted mucin in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 is a prototype of the chitinase-like protein in mammals. • YKL-40 is an active player in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. • YKL-40 can increase MUC5AC production via PAR2-mediated pathway. • FAK is another candidate to mediate YKL-40-induced MUC5AC overexpression.

  5. 83www.acschemicalbiology.org VOL.3 NO.2 ACS CHEMICAL BIOLOGY In the hopes of avoiding a pandemic in humans by the deadly bird flu virus, intense efforts to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasisekharan, Ram

    in humans by the deadly bird flu virus, intense efforts to determine the molecular features responsible for species-specific infection are underway. A key step in the process by which influenza A viruses infect on the surface of host epithelial cells. Now, Chandrasekaran et al. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2008, 26, 107-113) report

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Reduces Cell Surface Expression of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisz, Ora A.

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Reduces Cell Surface Expression of the Epithelial Sodium levels and reduced apical surface expression of ENaC in CCD cells, down-regulating amiloride- sensitive Channel (ENaC) in Cultured Collecting Duct Cells* Received for publication,May 14, 2007, and in revised

  7. PI3K, Erk Signaling in BMP7-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) of PC-3 Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    PI3K, Erk Signaling in BMP7-Induced Epithelial- Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) of PC-3 Prostate kinase and Erk were found to suppress BMP-induced morphological changes both in 2D and 3D conditions. These results suggest that, besides the Smad signaling pathways, BMP-induced activation of PI3K and Erk

  8. Human Ecology Human ecology Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z. Jane

    Channel, Latin America. STUDIOS Architecture. #12;HUMAN ECOLOGY · APRIL 2005 1 Lisa Staiano-Coico, Ph Frey spins a green alternative for textiles. Fibers from rapidly renewable materials

  9. Long-term Survival Outcomes Following Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Results of a Large Retrospective Study With 12-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jee Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Chang-Ok, E-mail: cosuh317@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sjhuh@smc.samsung.co.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients treated with modified radical mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2002, 396 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were treated with postmastectomy radiation therapy with (n=197) or without (n=199) IMNI. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. IMNI was administered at the clinical discretion of the treating physician. Median RT dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 45.0-59.4 Gy) in 28 fractions, with inclusion of the supraclavicular fossa in 96% of patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 99.7% of the patients and endocrine therapy to 53%. Results: The median follow-up was 149 months (range, 124-202). IMNI patients had more advanced nodal stage and non-high grade tumors than those without IMNI (P<.001). Otherwise, disease and treatment characteristics were well balanced. The 10-year DFS with and without IMNI was 65% and 57%, respectively (P=.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IMNI was an independent, positive predictor of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; P=.02). Benefits of IMNI in DFS were seen most apparently in N2 patients (HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.74) and inner/central tumors (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90). The 10-year OS with and without IMNI was 72% and 66%, respectively (P=.62). The 10-year DFS and OS were 61%, and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Internal mammary node irradiation significantly improved DFS in postmastectomy breast cancer patients. Pending long-term results from randomized trials, treatment of internal mammary nodes should be considered in postmastectomy radiation therapy.

  10. Aberrant, ectopic expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors 1 and 2 in malignant colonic epithelial cells. Implications for these cells growth via an autocrine mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States)] [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Jones, Michael K. [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States) [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Szabo, Sandor [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States) [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Tarnawski, Andrzej S., E-mail: amrita.ahluwalia@va.gov [Veterans Affairs Long Beach Healthcare System, Long Beach, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Malignant colonic epithelial cells express VEGF and its receptors. •Cultured colon cancer cells secrete VEGF into the medium. •Inhibition of VEGF receptor significantly decreases colon cancer cell proliferation. •VEGF is critical for colon cancer cell growth. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor A (referred to as VEGF) is implicated in colon cancer growth. Currently, the main accepted mechanism by which VEGF promotes colon cancer growth is via the stimulation of angiogenesis, which was originally postulated by late Judah Folkman. However, the cellular source of VEGF in colon cancer tissue; and, the expression of VEGF and its receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in colon cancer cells are not fully known and are subjects of controversy. Material and methods: We examined and quantified expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 in three different human colonic tissue arrays containing sections of adenocarcinoma (n = 43) and normal mucosa (n = 41). In human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 and normal colon cell lines NCM356 and NCM460, we examined expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 mRNA and protein, VEGF production and secretion into the culture medium; and, the effect of a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors, AL-993, on cell proliferation. Results: Human colorectal cancer specimens had strong expression of VEGF in cancer cells and also expressed VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2.In vitro studies showed that human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, but not normal colonic cell lines, express VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 and secrete VEGF into the medium up to a concentration 2000 pg/ml within 48 h. Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of VEGF receptors using a specific VEGF-R inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation (by >50%) of cultured colon cancer cell lines. Conclusions: Our findings support the contention that VEGF generated by colon cancer cells stimulates their growth directly through an autocrine mechanism that is independent of its primary function in the induction of angiogenesis.

  11. Core epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition interactome gene-expression signature is associated with claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Alicia Y.

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) produces cancer cells that are invasive, migratory, and exhibit stem cell characteristics, hallmarks of cells that have the potential to generate metastases. Inducers of the ...

  12. 3,5,4?-Trimethoxystilbene, a natural methoxylated analog of resveratrol, inhibits breast cancer cell invasiveness by downregulation of PI3K/Akt and Wnt/?-catenin signaling cascades and reversal of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Jie-Heng [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsu, Li-Sung [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chih-Li [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hong, Hui-Mei [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Min-Hsiung [Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Way, Tzong-Der [Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wei-Jen, E-mail: cwj519@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecular basis of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) functions as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer because EMT may endow breast tumor-initiating cells with stem-like characteristics and enable the dissemination of breast cancer cells. We have recently verified the antitumor activity of 3,5,4?-trimethoxystilbene (MR-3), a naturally methoxylated derivative of resveratrol, in colorectal cancer xenografts via an induction of apoptosis. The effect of MR-3 on EMT and the invasiveness of human MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cell line were also explored. We found that MR-3 significantly increased epithelial marker E-cadherin expression and triggered a cobblestone-like morphology of MCF-7 cells, while reciprocally decreasing the expression of mesenchymal markers, such as snail, slug, and vimentin. In parallel with EMT reversal, MR-3 downregulated the invasion and migration of MCF-7 cells. Exploring the action mechanism of MR-3 on the suppression of EMT and invasion indicates that MR-3 markedly reduced the expression and nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, accompanied with the downregulation of ?-catenin target genes and the increment of membrane-bound ?-catenin. These results suggest the involvement of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the MR-3-induced EMT reversion of MCF-7 cells. Notably, MR-3 restored glycogen synthase kinase-3? activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt, the event required for ?-catenin destruction via a proteasome-mediated system. Overall, these findings indicate that the anti-invasive activity of MR-3 on MCF-7 cells may result from the suppression of EMT via down-regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling, and consequently, ?-catenin nuclear translocation. These occurrences ultimately lead to the blockage of EMT and the invasion of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • MR-3 blocked MCF-7 cell invasion by inducing a reversal of EMT. • Wnt/?-catenin signaling is involved in MR-3-induced EMT reversion of MCF-7 cells. • Knockdown of ?-catenin was sufficient to restore epithelial marker E-cadherin levels. • MR-3 recovered the function of GSK-3? that inhibits ?-catenin nuclear translocation.

  13. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Nam Jeong [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Cell Biology, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Koo [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Kil, E-mail: skpark@amc.seoul.kr [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  14. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim's Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim's Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim's Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information towards understanding the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases.

  15. Autocrine TGF-beta and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling drives the evolution of tumor-promoting mammary stromal myofibroblasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kojima, Yasushi

    Much interest is currently focused on the emerging role of tumor-stroma interactions essential for supporting tumor progression. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), frequently present in the stroma of human breast ...

  16. Human-machine interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  17. Lgr4 in Breast Cancer Stem Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    signals. Consequently, a large proportion of modern drugs target these receptors. Lgr4 is a GPCR implicated in the development of multiple organs; in the mammary gland, it is expressed in the basal epithelial subpopulation and controls organ development...

  18. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of global transcription profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School of Novara, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Gugliesi, Francesca [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, Medical School of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126 Torino (Italy); De Andrea, Marco [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School of Novara, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Department of Public Health and Microbiology, Medical School of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126 Torino (Italy); Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara [Cancer Genomics Lab Fondo Edo Tempia, via Malta 3, 13900 Biella (Italy); Landolfo, Santo [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, Medical School of Turin, via Santena 9, 10126 Torino (Italy); Gariglio, Marisa, E-mail: gariglio@med.unipmn.i [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical School of Novara, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.

  19. The Open Breast Cancer Journal, 2011, 3, 31-44 31 1876-8172/11 2011 Bentham Open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Sang

    in breast normal cells. The breast cancer cell lines HCC1419, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, SKBR3, the normal mammary epithelial cell line HME 50 HT and the normal mammary fibroblast cell line CCD-1074sk were of the chemotherapeutics on the normal cells and tissues. Trastuzumab, the newest anticancer treatment, targets cancer

  20. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real31 time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification in both MDCK and Caco-2 cells, as well as 1 NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, using FITC conjugated to InlA-beads or fibronectin-coated beads. Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion were 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for epithelial cells, MDCK and Caco-2, which are slower than the kinetics observed in professional phagocytes such as macrophages. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply require conjugation of a fluorophore to a pathogen or mimetic of interest in combination with common cell labeling dyes, and are not limited to the InlA ligand or cell types used here. As such, these methods hold promise for future measurements of receptor-mediated internalization in other cell systems, e.g. other pathogen-host systems.

  1. The transcription factor LEF-1 induces an epithelial–mesenchymal transition in MDCK cells independent of ?-catenin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Wakako; Ozawa, Masayuki, E-mail: mozawa@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •The transcription factor LEF-1 induces an EMT in MDCK cells. •A mutant LEF-1 that cannot interact with ?-catenin retained the ability. •The nuclear function of ?-catenin was not necessary for the LEF-1-induced EMT. •The mRNA levels of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 increased significantly in these cells. -- Abstract: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell–cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. LEF-1 is a member of the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor/T-cell factor (LEF/TCF) family of DNA-binding transcription factors, which interact with nuclear ?-catenin and act as central transcriptional mediators of Wnt signaling. To investigate the role of LEF-1 in EMT, we generated stable LEF-1 transfectants using MDCK cells. The transfectants had a spindle-shaped mesenchymal morphology, and enhanced migration and invasiveness relative to control cells. These EMT changes were accompanied by the downregulation of an epithelial marker protein, E-cadherin, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, vimentin and N-cadherin. Consistent with these observations, the mRNA levels of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2—EMT-related transcription factors—increased significantly. Although the N-terminally deleted mutant LEF-1 cannot interact with ?-catenin, it retained the ability to induce EMT. Consistent with these observations, neither the expression of a dominant negative ?-catenin/engrailed chimera, nor the expression of a cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin that sequesters ?-catenin from binding to LEF/TCF, reversed LEF-1-induced EMT. Together, these data indicated that the nuclear function of ?-catenin was not necessary for the induction of Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 expression leading to EMT.

  2. The recruitment of stromal cells to the site of tumor formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saelzler, Matthew P. (Matthew Paul)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Myofibroblasts are an alpha-smooth muscle actin ([alpha]-SMA)-expressing cell type found within human mammary carcinomas, but not in the normal mammary gland. Myofibroblasts can enhance tumor formation by promoting ...

  3. Human Resources Assistant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Headquarters (HQ) Operations Division of the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer in Washington, DC. The Division provides a full range of human capital...

  4. Patenting Human Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to thorough analysis and debate prior to the imminent arrival of human genetic enhancement technologies. Otherwise, patent law may drive human evolution in directions either unplanned - or worse - undesired....

  5. adherent human neutrophils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    colon epithelial cells have Bashir, Rashid 26 EDITORIAL How to regulate neutrophils in gout CiteSeer Summary: Most research in gout has concentrated on the proinflammatory...

  6. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  7. integration division Human Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    integration division Human Systems Eye-Movement Metrics: Non-Intrusive Quantitative Tools for Monitoring Human Visual Performance Objective Approach Impact A reliable quantitative yet non-intrusive methodologies that provide quantitative yet non-intrusive measures of human visual performance for use

  8. Mangiferin exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by regulating matrix metalloproteinases, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and ?-catenin signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongzhong; Huang, Jing; Yang, Bing; Xiang, Tingxiu; Yin, Xuedong; Peng, Weiyan; Cheng, Wei [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Wan, Jingyuan; Luo, Fuling [Department of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Li, Hongyuan [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Ren, Guosheng, E-mail: rgs726@163.com [Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although mangiferin which is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone has exhibited promising anticancer activities, the detailed molecular mechanism of mangiferin on cancers still remains enigmatic. In this study, the anticancer activity of mangiferin was evaluated in breast cancer cell line-based in vitro and in vivo models. We showed that mangiferin treatment resulted in decreased cell viability and suppression of metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that mangiferin induced decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 and -9, and reversal of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it was demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibited the activation of ?-catenin pathway. Subsequent experiments showed that inhibiting ?-catenin pathway might play a central role in mangiferin-induced anticancer activity through modulation of MMP-7 and -9, and EMT. Consistent with these findings in vitro, the antitumor potential was also verified in mangiferin-treated MDA-MB-231 xenograft mice where significantly decreased tumor volume, weight and proliferation, and increased apoptosis were obtained, with lower expression of MMP-7 and -9, vimentin and active ?-catenin, and higher expression of E-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that mangiferin might be used as an effective chemopreventive agent against breast cancer. - Highlights: • Mangiferin inhibits growth and metastatic potential in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin down-regulates MMP-7 and -9 in breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin induces the reversal of EMT in metastatic breast cancer cells. • Mangiferin inhibits the activation of ?-catenin pathway in breast cancer cells. • Inhibiting ?-catenin is responsible for the antitumor activity of mangiferin.

  9. HQ- Human Resources Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HQs Human Recources Operations delivers services, including position management, recruitment, staffing and classification, and reduction in force at Headquarters.  Click the "Contacts" Link to find...

  10. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 ?M cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship between cadmium and lung cancer.

  11. Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina

    2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

  12. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

  13. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish DOE procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 CFR Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, ad in DOE P 443.1, Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects. Cancels DOE O 1300.3. Canceled by DOE O 443.1A.

  14. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects; and in DOE P 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 12-20-07. Cancels DOE O 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B.

  15. miR-122 targets NOD2 to decrease intestinal epithelial cell injury in Crohn’s disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Chengxiao; Liu, Ying; Tang, Liwei; Zheng, Mingxia [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Xu, Chundi [Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Song, Jian, E-mail: jiansongkxy@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Meng, Xiaochun [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)] [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)

    2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •NOD2 is a target gene of miR-122. •miR-122 inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. •miR-122 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IFN-?). •miR-122 promotes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). •NF-?B signaling pathway is involved in inflammatory response induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, miR-122 was found to be deregulated in association with CD progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the gene nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15), which is strongly associated with susceptibility to CD, was identified as a functional target of miR-122. MiR-122 inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. NOD2 interaction with LPS initiates signal transduction mechanisms resulting in the activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and the stimulation of downstream pro-inflammatory events. The activation of NF-?B was inhibited in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor or NOD2 shRNA. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IFN-? was significantly decreased, whereas therelease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was increased in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor, NOD2 shRNA or the NF-?B inhibitor QNZ. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-122 and its target gene NOD2 may play an important role in the injury of intestinal epithelial cells induced by LPS.

  16. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  17. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 overexpression induces gastric dysplasia through expansion of stromal myofibroblasts and epithelial progenitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shibata, Wataru

    Objective: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12), the main ligand for CXCR4, is overexpressed in human cancer. This study addressed the precise contribution of SDF-1 to gastric carcinogenesis.

  18. Post Treatment With an FGF Chimeric Growth Factor Enhances Epithelial Cell Proliferation to Improve Recovery From Radiation-Induced Intestinal Damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.j [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Hagiwara, Akiko; Umeda, Sachiko [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro; Goto, Megumi; Oki, Junko; Suzuki, Masashi; Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Akashi, Makoto [Department of Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1-FGF2 chimera (FGFC) was created previously and showed greater structural stability than FGF1. This chimera was capable of stimulating epithelial cell proliferation much more strongly than FGF1 or FGF2 even without heparin. Therefore FGFC was expected to have greater biologic activity in vivo. This study evaluated and compared the protective activity of FGFC and FGF1 against radiation-induced intestinal injuries. Methods and Materials: We administered FGFC and FGF1 intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice 24 h before or after total-body irradiation (TBI). The numbers of surviving crypts were determined 3.5 days after TBI with gamma rays at doses ranging from 8 to 12 Gy. Results: The effect of FGFC was equal to or slightly superior to FGF1 with heparin. However, FGFC was significantly more effective in promoting crypt survival than FGF1 (p < 0.01) when 10 {mu}g of each FGF was administered without heparin before irradiation. In addition, FGFC was significantly more effective at promoting crypt survival (p < 0.05) than FGF1 even when administered without heparin at 24 h after TBI at 10, 11, or 12 Gy. We found that FGFC post treatment significantly promoted 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into crypts and increased crypt depth, resulting in more epithelial differentiation. However, the number of apoptotic cells in FGFC-treated mice decreased to almost the same level as that in FGF1-treated mice. Conclusions: These findings suggest that FGFC strongly enhanced radioprotection with the induction of epithelial proliferation without exogenous heparin after irradiation and is useful in clinical applications for both the prevention and post treatment of radiation injuries.

  19. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Humanities Academic Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Humanities Academic Human Resources VOLUNTARY WORKLOAD/or Spring ____ Quarter(s) Funding Source: ________________________________________ (Salary adjustments

  20. Human Pathogen Importation Importing "Human" Pathogens from Outside Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Pathogen Importation Importing "Human" Pathogens from Outside Canada 1) Permits be obtained from the Public Health Agency Canada (PHAC) to facilitate customs clearance. 2) If a permit

  1. Associate Vice President Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Associate Vice President Human Resources Enjoy Athens! Great schools Affordable housing Eclectic Vice President for Human Resources. This position reports directly to the Vice President for Finance and Administration and provides leadership for the University's human resources programs and services

  2. Human Resources Simon Fraser University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Human Resources Simon Fraser University Administrative and Professional Staff Job Description A. Identification Position Number: 31482 Position Title: Administrative Assistant (Human Resources Liaison) Name guidance, direction, coordination and effective management and implementation of SFU's Human Resources

  3. Special Issue on Human Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  4. Global Environmental Change and Human Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &

  5. The Evolution of Human Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gintis, Herbert; Doebeli, Michael; Flack, Jessica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    684 Gintis, H. 2011. The Evolution of Human Cooperation.misunderstandings about cultural evolution. Human Nat. 19,Feldman, M. , 1981. Cultural Evolution. Princeton University

  6. Human Resource Management Delegation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The notice is to clarifies and updates existing Human Resource Management Delegation Authorities and the levels to which they are delegated. Expired 6-28-97. Does not cancel any directives.

  7. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Policy is to establish DOE-specific principles for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Cancels DOE P 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B

  8. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Policy is to establish DOE-specific policy for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Canceled by DOE P 443.1A.

  9. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  10. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a framework, 3) how our use of modeling and simulation techniques could be used to develop and validate measures of human performance, and 4) what the possible outcomes are from this research as the modeling and simulation efforts generate results.

  11. CONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    , Virtual Environments, Behavioral Animation, Object Interaction, Python. 1. INTRODUCTION Virtual humanCONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS Marcelo Kallmann, Etienne de Sevin and Daniel Thalmann human life simulations. Our main goal is to have virtual human actors living and working autonomously

  12. CANDU human performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of human performance is presented in this paper in the context of the operational safety management system. To focus on problems, an experience review program has been developed to establish trends, demonstrate the degree of compliance with standards, and determine the causes of poor performance. The primary method by which the experience review takes place is significant event reporting (SER). A significant event is an incident that causes an undesirable effect on safety, product quality, environmental protection, or product cost. In spite of advanced technology and the degree of automation of the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) design, mistakes and malfunctions to occur. Considerable effort has been made to prevent or reduce the incidence of error. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations developed a system to analyze human error, called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). To encourage an open exchange of information, the system is anonymous and nonpunitive. All data gathered during HPES evaluations are kept confidential.

  13. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de la Chapelle, Albert (Helsingfors, FI); Vogelstein, Bert (Baltimore, MD); Kinzler, Kenneth W. (Baltimore, MD)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  14. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  15. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human Resources

  16. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human Resources

  17. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human

  18. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human print

  19. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human

  20. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources HumanAppraisal

  1. Wnt interaction and extracellular release of prominin-1/CD133 in human malignant melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappa, Germana [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Mercapide, Javier; Anzanello, Fabio [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Le, Thuc T. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Johlfs, Mary G. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Fiscus, Ronald R. [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Center for Diabetes and Obesity Prevention, Treatment, Research and Education, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States); Wilsch-Bräuninger, Michaela [Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Pfotenhauerstr. 108, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Corbeil, Denis [Tissue Engineering Laboratories (BIOTEC) and DFG Research Center and Cluster of Excellence for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Technische Universität Dresden, Tatzberg 47–49, 01307 Dresden, Germany Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Lorico, Aurelio, E-mail: alorico@roseman.edu [Cancer Research Program, Roseman University of Health Sciences, 10530 Discovery Drive. Las Vegas, NV 89135 (United States); College of Pharmacy, Roseman University of Health Sciences, Henderson, NV 89104 (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is the first identified gene of a novel class of pentaspan membrane glycoproteins. It is expressed by various epithelial and non-epithelial cells, and notably by stem and cancer stem cells. In non-cancerous cells such as neuro-epithelial and hematopoietic stem cells, prominin-1 is selectively concentrated in plasma membrane protrusions, and released into the extracellular milieu in association with small vesicles. Previously, we demonstrated that prominin-1 contributes to melanoma cells pro-metastatic properties and suggested that it may constitute a molecular target to prevent prominin-1-expressing melanomas from colonizing and growing in lymph nodes and distant organs. Here, we report that three distinct pools of prominin-1 co-exist in cultures of human FEMX-I metastatic melanoma. Morphologically, in addition to the plasma membrane localization, prominin-1 is found within the intracellular compartments, (e.g., Golgi apparatus) and in association with extracellular membrane vesicles. The latter prominin-1–positive structures appeared in three sizes (small, ?40 nm; intermediates ?40–80 nm, and large, >80 nm). Functionally, the down-regulation of prominin-1 in FEMX-I cells resulted in a significant reduction of number of lipid droplets as observed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering image analysis and Oil red O staining, and surprisingly in a decrease in the nuclear localization of beta-catenin, a surrogate marker of Wnt activation. Moreover, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) promoter activity was 2 to 4 times higher in parental than in prominin-1-knockdown cells. Collectively, our results point to Wnt signaling and/or release of prominin-1–containing membrane vesicles as mediators of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1 in FEMX-I melanoma. - Highlights: ? First report of release of prominin-1–containing microvesicles from cancer cells. ? Pro-metastatic role of prominin-1–containing microvesicles in FEMX-I melanoma. ? Down-regulation of prominin-1 results in decreased nuclear localization of ?-catenin. ? Wnt signaling as mediator of the pro-metastatic activity of prominin-1.

  2. The effect of DDT and its metabolite (DDE) on prostaglandin secretion from epithelial cells and on contractions of the smooth muscle of the bovine oviduct in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wrobel, Michal H.; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan, E-mail: janko@pan.olsztyn.pl

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The insecticide DDT and its metabolite (DDE), due to their lipolytic nature and resistance to biodegradation, are accumulated in the living tissues. In cows, DDT and DDE were found to affect prostaglandin (PG) secretion from the endometrium and contractions of the myometrium. In this study, the impact of both xenobiotics (0.1, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml) on the function of epithelial cells and muscle strips of bovine oviducts from 1 to 5 day of the oestrous cycle was examined. Therefore the concentration of PGE2 and PGFM (a metabolite of PGF2?) in culture media, mRNA expression of genes involved in PGs synthesis in epithelial cells and the force and amplitude of strips contractions were measured after 2 and 24 or 48 h of incubation. Neither DDT nor DDE affected the viability of cells after 48 h (P > 0.05). Both DDT and DDE increased the concentrations of PGFM in culture medium and secretion of PGE2 after only 2 h of cell culture (P < 0.05). Similar effects were seen for the influence of DDE on amount of PGFM after 48 h, while DDT decreased secretion of PGE2 (P < 0.05). DDT after 2 h increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of PGF2? synthase (PGFS), while both xenobiotics decreased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after 24 h. DTT also increased the force of isthmus contractions after 2 h, as did both xenobiotics after 48 h (P < 0.05). Moreover, after 2 and 48 h, DDE stimulated the amplitude of contractions of the isthmus as well as the ampulla, (P < 0.05). The effect of both compounds on oviduct contractions was diminished by indomethacin, which blocks PG synthesis. We conclude that oviductal secretion of prostaglandins is affected, by DDT and DDE. The influence of these xenobiotics on PGF2? and PGE2 secretion and ratio may be part of the mechanism by which both DDT and its metabolite disturb the contractions of oviductal muscle. -- Highlights: ? DDT and its metabolite – DDE are accumulated in the living tissues. ? The insecticides affected PGF2? and PGE2 release from epithelial cells of oviduct. ? They also stimulated markedly the contractions of oviductal strips. ? Prostaglandins were involved in the effect of insecticides on oviduct function.

  3. Human Processing (Position Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Edward Y.

    and describe remaining challenges in the area (Section 6). 2. MOTIVATING EXAMPLE "Priam," the editor below, we explain how Priam might go about accomplishing this task. Figure 1: Basic Buyer human. The programmer (Priam) writes a normal program. 2. That program can, in the course of execution, create HTML

  4. Adsorption of Human Papillomavirus 16 to live human sperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribbeck, Katharina

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse group of viruses that infect the skin and mucosal tissues of humans. A high-risk subgroup of HPVs is associated with virtually all cases of cervical cancer [1]–[3]. High-risk ...

  5. Policy on Human Subjects Research Policy on Human Subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Human Subjects Research 10/15/2014 Policy on Human Subjects Research I. Purpose and Scope requirements that the rights and welfare of human subjects receive adequate protection. This policy applies, except that research conducted or assigned as part of their coursework is governed by the Policy

  6. Adhesion gene regulation in mammary cell proliferation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Eric HonYui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sciences, C.L.  Corning Ultra?Low Attachment Surface cells per well into ultra-low attachment 6 well plates (cells were grown in either ultra-low attachment plates or

  7. An EMT-Driven Alternative Splicing Program Occurs in Human Breast Cancer and Modulates Cellular Phenotype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Irina M.

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative ...

  8. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  9. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongjing Lu; Randall R. Rojas; Tom Beckers; Alan Yuille

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  10. Human Capital Management Accountability Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes requirements, roles and responsibilities for the Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) for human resources programs and personnel and ensures that human capital activities are regulatory and procedurally compliant with Federal statutes and Departmental policies. Does not cancel other directives.

  11. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  12. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M. [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleinsasser, N., E-mail: Kleinsasser_N@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  13. Expression of human cytokines dramatically improves reconstitution of specific human-blood lineage cells in humanized mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingfeng

    Adoptive transfer of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into mice lacking T, B and natural killer (NK) cells leads to development of human-blood lineage cells in the recipient mice (humanized mice). Although human B ...

  14. Human Resources Organizational Development and Training 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    Human Resources Organizational Development and Training 1 Development Guide for Tufts Leadership Competencies Human Resources Training, Learning and Development Copyright © 2013 Tufts University Developed with Copperbeech Group Inc. #12;Human Resources Training, Learning and Development 2 #12;Human Resources Training

  15. Activity Recognition for Natural Human Robot Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindran, Balaraman

    Activity Recognition for Natural Human Robot Interaction Addwiteey Chrungoo1 , SS Manimaran between humans and robots. While humans can distinguish between communicative actions and activities of daily living, robots cannot draw such inferences effectively. To allow intuitive human robot interaction

  16. PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National...

  17. The Human Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Michael J.

    the smaller cloaked vessel before she had a chance to de-cloak and fire, the Enterprise had virtually disabled the scoutship. Now, the innocent people on Omnicron I could at least get a break from the barrage of disrupter fire from orbit, and the Enterprise... into destroying the Klingon vessel. But, if they were going to threaten innocents on Omnicron I, then the Enterprise could play the role of executioner adequately. "Mr. Sulu, fire main phasers!" "Locking phasers.....firing, sir!" The Human Equation Page...

  18. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

  19. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  20. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to measure, and return on investment is difficult to quantify, especially in complex and large organizations where the ability to directly correlate causal factors can be challenging, the evidence presented by Sydney Dekker, James Reason, and others who study the field of human factors does assert managing and reducing error is possible. Employment of key behaviors-HPI techniques and skills-can be shown to have a significant impact on error rates. Our mentoring program demonstrated reduced error rates and corresponding improvements in safety and production. Improved behaviors are the result, of providing a culture with consistent, clear expectations from leadership, and processes and methods applied consistently to error prevention. Mentoring, as envisioned and executed in this program, was effective in helping shift organizational culture and effectively improving safety and production. (authors)

  1. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHuman Resources

  2. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHuman

  3. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHumanAppraisal

  4. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHumanAppraisalHR

  5. ARM - Human Causes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral ChangesFieldVisitorListHuman

  6. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  7. 2014 Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Announcing The Human Reliability Program Workshop Sponsored by Office of Security (AU-50), U.S Department of Energy In collaboration with NA, NE, EM and SC

  8. NCSU Human Resources Training & Organizational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011 NCSU Human Resources Training & Organizational Development Spring & Summer 2011 Learning to Training & Organizational Development's new eLearning Training Catalog. This catalog serves as a central

  9. Protection of Human Research Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes are made to harmonize the definitions in this Order with those in the Federal regulations for the protection of human subjects (10 CFR Part 745), specifically, splitting the definition "human subject research" into "research" and "human subject," and adopting, verbatim, the definitions of "research" and "human subject" from 10 CFR Part 745 and adding the definition of "generalizable," since the determination of whether a project is "research" in 10 CFR Part 745 hinges on whether the work being conducted is generalizable. Small corrections and updates have been made to the references, links, and organization titles.

  10. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Puissant, James G.; Varley, Nathan R.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated. The screen can be positioned directly in front of the detector prior to heating to improve detection capability.

  11. Human-computer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  12. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  13. 227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN CAPABILIty StUDIeS (Pov) Core FACULty: PROFESSORS BeCKLey*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty studies can prepare them as future professionals and citizens to address the problems of poverty

  14. 237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human CaPability StudieS (Pov) Core FaCulty: PROFESSORS beCKley*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and graduate studies can prepare them as futureprofessionalsandcitizenstoaddresstheproblems of poverty and how

  15. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  16. The human activity of visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Griffin et al 2006 #12;Human-Computer Interaction: Software of the Mind each user has a setThe human activity of visualization cultural and psychological factors in representation; Gibbon 1998; Marcus 2000) conventions and metaphors of Westerners may not hold worldwide colors

  17. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  18. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  19. Ideal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HongJing Lo; Alan Yuille

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    psychophysical experiments showed that human performance waspsychophysics experiments to determine how humans performedpsychophysical experiments which are consistent with humans

  20. Guest editorial: Special issue on human computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantic, Maja

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  1. College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND HUMANITIES The College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities offers graduate programs in three schools: the School in Architecture; City and Regional Planning; Communication, Technology and Society; Construc- tion Science

  2. 06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion -Understanding, Modeling,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Summary Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop Reinhard Klette 06241 Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop "Theoretical

  3. A framework for human microbiome research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Jonathan

    A variety of microbial communities and their genes (the microbiome) exist throughout the human body, with fundamental roles in human health and disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Human Microbiome Project ...

  4. Physical and functional interactions of human papillomavirus E2 protein with nuclear receptor coactivators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.-H. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, C.-J. [Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry Laboratory, Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei County 221, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.-T. [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China); Liu, P.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China); Ho, C.-L. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-M. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China) and Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 114, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: shihming@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

    2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to the human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced immortalization of epithelial cells, which usually requires integration of the viral DNA into the host cell genome, steroid hormone-activated nuclear receptors (NRs) are thought to bind to specific DNA sequences within transcriptional regulatory regions on the long control region to either increase or suppress transcription of dependent genes. In this study, our data suggest that the NR coactivator function of HPV E2 proteins might be mediated through physical and functional interactions with not only NRs but also the NR coactivators GRIP1 (glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1) and Zac1 (zinc-finger protein which regulates apoptosis and cell cycle arrest 1), reciprocally regulating their transactivation activities. GRIP1 and Zac1 both were able to act synergistically with HPV E2 proteins on the E2-, androgen receptor-, and estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional activation systems. GRIP1 and Zac1 might selectively function with HPV E2 proteins on thyroid receptor- and p53-dependent transcriptional activation, respectively. Hence, the transcriptional function of E2 might be mediated through NRs and NR coactivators to regulate E2-, NR-, and p53-dependent transcriptional activations.

  5. Human genome. 1993 Program report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to update the Human Genome 1991-92 Program Report and provide new information on the DOE genome program to researchers, program managers, other government agencies, and the interested public. This FY 1993 supplement includes abstracts of 60 new or renewed projects and listings of 112 continuing and 28 completed projects. These two reports, taken together, present the most complete published view of the DOE Human Genome Program through FY 1993. Research is progressing rapidly toward 15-year goals of mapping and sequencing the DNA of each of the 24 different human chromosomes.

  6. The Politics of Human Rights in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brysk, Alison

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Valente,  Marcela.  “Argentina’s  Biggest  Human  Rights  Motor  is  Linked  to  Argentina’s  ‘Dirty  War’”.   New  fortune  of  my  heart.   Argentina's  1985  human  rights  

  7. HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCloskey, Michael

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 03 September 2014 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014 identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contract- ing herpes simplex encephalitis

  8. Robot manipulation in human environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edsinger, Aaron Ladd, 1972-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  9. Robot Manipulation in Human Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edsinger, Aaron

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Human environments present special challenges for robot manipulation. They are often dynamic, difficult to predict, and beyond the control of a robot engineer. Fortunately, many characteristics of these settings can be ...

  10. Reservations to human rights treaties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall-Smith, Kasey Lowe

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the default application of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties reservation rules to reservations to human rights treaties. The contemporary practice of formulating reservations allows ...

  11. Time, Humans and Societal Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    16 Human Development Index) is UN measure of well-being. High poverty and population density coincide fuel contribution >80% globally (Quadrillion (1E15) Btu) 1 quad = 1E15 British thermal units = 2.9E11 k

  12. HUMAN RESOURCES SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) by coordinating budget submissions, estimating and preparing cost projections, liaising with PurchasingHUMAN RESOURCES SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATIVE & PROFESSIONAL JOB DESCRIPTION Position of the position in one or two sentences. Manages the Department's operating, capital, temporary instruction

  13. HUMAN RESOURCES SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    funding priorities, budget consideration, application requirements, University policies and proceduresHUMAN RESOURCES SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATIVE & PROFESSIONAL JOB DESCRIPTION Position to Canadian and international funding agencies. The incumbent will assist with the writing and reviewing

  14. ORISE: Human Subjects Research Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Subjects Research Database Section 10, Part 745 of the Code of Federal Regulations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 443.1 and 481.1 require the maintenance of...

  15. Coördinating human-robot communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brööks, Andrëw G. (Brööks Zoz)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As robots begin to emerge from the cloisters of industrial and military applications and enter the realms of coöperative partners for people, one of the most important facets of human-robot interaction (HRI) will be ...

  16. Contractor Human Resource Management Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this directive is to establish Department of Energy (DOE) responsibilities and requirements for the management and oversight of contractor Human Resource Management (HR) programs. Chg 1, 5-8-98; Chg 2, 11-22-09

  17. Contractor Human Resource Management Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this directive is to establish Department of Energy (DOE) responsibilities and requirements for the management and oversight of contractor Human Resource Management (HR) programs. Chg 1, 5-8-98; Chg 2, 11-22-09.

  18. Human Factors of Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. P. Carayon (ed.), A Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Patient Safety, Lawrence Erlbaum, London, UK. pp 715-750 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

  19. Protection of Human Research Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, 45 CFR Part 46, and the Secretarial Policy Memorandum on Military or Intelligence-Related Human Subject Research, December 9, 2009. Cancels DOE O 443.1A and DOE P 443.1A.

  20. College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    62 College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND HUMANITIES of Architecture, Arts and Humanities offers one-of-a- kind opportunities for interdisciplinary exploration, but the enduring questions. The College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities is organized into three schools

  1. College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    63 College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND HUMANITIES of Architecture, Arts and Humanities offers one-of-a- kind opportunities for interdisciplinary exploration, but the enduring questions. The College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities is organized into three schools

  2. Approximating Human Reaching Volumes Using Inverse Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    of reach: standing reach, which is useful in computer animation where virtual humans have to interact. Introduction Virtual Humans are a valuable medium for gaining knowledge and understanding about the human bodyApproximating Human Reaching Volumes Using Inverse Kinematics I. Rodrígueza , M. Peinadoa , R

  3. Low-Income Weatherization: The Human Dimension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation focuses on how the human dimension saves energy within low-income weatherization programs.

  4. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. James Chang; Dennis Bley; Lawrence Criscione; Barry Kirwan; Ali Mosleh; Todd Madary; Rodney Nowell; Robert Richards; Emilie M. Roth; Scott Sieben; Antonios Zoulis

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance.

  5. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  6. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  7. 10.1101/gr.108217.110Access the most recent version at doi: 2010 20: 1730-1739 originally published online November 2, 2010Genome Res.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    and neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transcriptomes. We develop data analysis pipelines that allow the mapping is significantly higher than that of normal cells. Our analysis indicates that transcript discovery plateaus at 10. Comparison of SAGE-Seq and traditional SAGE on normal and cancerous breast tissues reveals higher sensitivity

  8. Intelligent Escort Robot Moving together with Human Methods for Human Position Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohya, Akihisa

    : Light-emitting device used in the experiments. robot is able to know the distance to the human thanksIntelligent Escort Robot Moving together with Human ­ Methods for Human Position Recognition in everyday life by interacting with humans. In order to escort a human, the robot needs to know the position

  9. Quantum Physics and Human Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James B. Hartle

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Human languages employ constructions that tacitly assume specific properties of the limited range of phenomena they evolved to describe. These assumed properties are true features of that limited context, but may not be general or precise properties of all the physical situations allowed by fundamental physics. In brief, human languages contain `excess baggage' that must be qualified, discarded, or otherwise reformed to give a clear account in the context of fundamental physics of even the everyday phenomena that the languages evolved to describe. The surest route to clarity is to express the constructions of human languages in the language of fundamental physical theory, not the other way around. These ideas are illustrated by an analysis of the verb `to happen' and the word `reality' in special relativity and the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems.

  10. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  11. Activatable cell penetrating peptides and their use in clinical contrast agent and therapeutic development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilera, Todd Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    further decreases uptake of ACPP into MDA-MB-231 3D28 Table 2.2 Summary of ACPP uptake in MDA-231 3DHT1080 human fibrosarcoma (ATCC), MDA-MB-231 human mammary

  12. Human Resources | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010a(SC)Human ResourcesHuman

  13. Evolutionarily conserved sequences on human chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Sheehan, John B.; Stokowski, Renee P.; Chen, Xiyin; Hosseini, Roya; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Fodor, Stephen P.A.; Cox, David R.; Patil, Nila

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparison of human sequences with the DNA of other mammals is an excellent means of identifying functional elements in the human genome. Here we describe the utility of high-density oligonucleotide arrays as a rapid approach for comparing human sequences with the DNA of multiple species whose sequences are not presently available. High-density arrays representing approximately 22.5 Mb of nonrepetitive human chromosome 21 sequence were synthesized and then hybridized with mouse and dog DNA to identify sequences conserved between humans and mice (human-mouse elements) and between humans and dogs (human-dog elements). Our data show that sequence comparison of multiple species provides a powerful empiric method for identifying actively conserved elements in the human genome. A large fraction of these evolutionarily conserved elements are present in regions on chromosome 21 that do not encode known genes.

  14. Collective migration of epithelial sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murrell, Michael Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The varied movements of the epithelium play vital roles in the development and renewal of complex tissues, from the separation of tissues in the early embryo, to homeostasis in the adult. Their movement is intricately ...

  15. Human Resources, Safety & Risk Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Human Resources, Safety & Risk Management 1600 Holloway Avenue, ADM 252 San Francisco, California OF RISK AND AGREEMENT TO PAY CLAIMS Activity: San Francisco State University Campus Recreation Department participating in this Activity. I am aware of the risks associated with traveling to/from and participating

  16. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Human Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the exciting stories about how our faculty, students, and alumni are engineering solutions to health careCOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Human Health #12;Welcome to our Health issue ­ Please take the time to read to tackle large worldwide health problems. A few years ago, the College of Engineering made a strategic

  17. Behavioral Dynamics of Human Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson (1979) argued that "control lies not in the brain, but in the animal- environment system." To make with a structured environment guided by occurrent information. Here we attempt to model the behavioral dynam- ics of human walking and show how locomotor paths emerge "online" from simple laws for steering and obstacle

  18. Wetland Losses and Human Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Effects? Fuel 1.9 Trillion Tons ·Canada (510 bT) ·Russia (770 bT) World Peat Resources 1) Finland 2 After Discharges ·Chemical ·Temperature #12;6 Human Influences on Wetlands Peat Mining Horticulture) Ireland 3) Russia World Peat Mining 16.8 mil tons 6.9 mil tons 23.7 mil tons Fuel= Hort= 70% 30%

  19. Centre for Human and Ecological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in terms of human well-being, ecosystem services, and the conservation, enhancement and protection and non-market valuation methods. Our expertise in statistics underpins all aspects of our work, ensuring the valuation of goods and services associated with trees and woodlands, including payment for ecosystem

  20. Cognitive Engineering Automation and Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parasuraman, Raja

    · Home automation · Robotics · Unmanned vehicles (UAVs and UGVs) · Drug design/Molecular geneticsCognitive Engineering PSYC 530 Automation and Human Performance Raja Parasuraman #12;Overview Automation-Related Accidents Levels and Stages of Automation Information Acquisition and Analysis Decision

  1. Faculty of Human Kinetics Kinesiology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and terrific support staff. It's a great choice for you! www.uwindsor.ca/kinesiology Choose UWindsor design and will select five of the following sub-disciplinary courses: · Physiology of Fitness · Growth and Development · Human Performance · Sociology of Sport · Sport History · Intro to Ergonomics · Intro to Leisure

  2. Job Placement Manual Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Job Placement Manual Human Resources Fall 2001 for bargaining unit positions as per the Collective;- 1 - University of Calgary Job Family Definitions General The General job family encompasses, production, light construction, or facility maintenance. Positions in this job family often support a service

  3. Job Families Booklet Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Job Families Booklet Human Resources University of Surrey #12;Job Families summarise the main features of roles which are similar in character and engaged in broadly similar work. There are four Job Families, which will cover the vast majority of jobs within the University. They are: · Operational

  4. Propeller based human powered swimming device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunker, Kristine (Kristine Alina)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the only human powered swimming device widely sold on the market are swim flippers. However, flippers are not efficient for the human body, and there is a potential to increase the speed while swimming with a ...

  5. Human Resources Organizational Development and Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    Human Resources Organizational Development and Training November 2009 Development Guide for Tufts Organizational Competencies Copyright © 2009 Tufts University #12;Human Resources Organizational Development Resources Organizational Development and Training 3 INTRODUCTION TO THE GUIDE November 2009 Dear Tufts

  6. Communities: Human Health and Community Development Webinar ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Communities: Human Health and Community Development Webinar Communities: Human Health and Community Development Webinar May 1, 2014 5:00PM to 6:30PM EDT The multi-agency...

  7. West Nile Encephalitis in Humans and Horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2000-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the relationship between birds, mosquitoes, humans and horses; discusses the background of the virus; describes symptoms of encephalitis in humans and horses; and explains how to prevent and control it in horses....

  8. Clinical Assistant Professor Human Resource Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clinical Assistant Professor Human Resource Development Texas A&M University's Department, seeks a Clinical Assistant Professor of Human Resource Development with emphasis in Technology Management. This individual will assume the duties typically expected of a Clinical Assistant Professor

  9. Cost estimation of human systems integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kevin K. (Kevin Kaitan), 1986-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human Systems Integration (HSI) is the interdisciplinary technical and management processes for integrating human considerations within and across all system elements. The goal of this research is to develop a better ...

  10. Bioinformatics for the human microbiome project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Dirk

    Microbes inhabit virtually all sites of the human body, yet we know very little about the role they play in our health. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in studying human-associated microbial communities, ...

  11. Human Dimensions of Wildlife Research Norman Dandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Dimensions of Wildlife Research Norman Dandy Social & Economic Research Group #12;Wildlife) · Human-dimensions of species management (HDSM) Research Projects #12;Collaborative Frameworks for Land of woodland landscapes ­ discussion groups, · Choice experiments, · Fellowships / Placements, · Newsletters

  12. Video looping of human cyclic motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hye Mee

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a system called Video Looping is developed to analyze human cyclic motions. Video Looping allows users to extract human cyclic motion from a given video sequence. This system analyzes similarities from a large amount of live footage...

  13. Humans, Robots and Market Crashes: A Laboratory Study ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based Models and Human Subject Experiments. Handbook of Com-data from our experiments combining humans and robots, usingbetween laboratory experiment with human subjects and agent

  14. Contractor Human Resource Management Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This directive establishes DOE responsibilities and requirements for the management and oversight of contractor Human Resource Management (HR) programs. Chg 1, 5-8-98; Chg 2, 11-22-09; Chg 3, 2-23-10; Chg 4, 4-29-13. DOE O 350.1 Chg 5, dated 9-30-2014, cancels Chapters I-III of DOE O 350.1 Chg 4

  15. Guessing human-chosen secrets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonneau, Joseph

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    number of third parties seeking to authenticate users [121, 244]. Reliable data on damages caused by weak human-chosen secrets is hard to come by [141], but a recent study of corporate data breaches commissioned by Verizon [12] suggested that nearly a... on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. Springer-Verlag, 2012 Some data on personal knowledge questions analysed in §7 was published in collaboration with Mike Just and Greg Matthews, who assisted in gathering government census records from around...

  16. Contractor Human Resource Management Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this directive is to establish Department of Energy (DOE) responsibilities and requirements for the management and oversight of contractor Human Resource Management (HR) programs. Chg 1, 5-8-98; Chg 2, 11-22-09; Chg 3, 2-23-10; Chg 4, 4-29-13. This order cancels DOE O 3220.1A, DOE O 3220.4A, DOE O 3220.6A, and DOE O 3309.1A.

  17. Human Resources Recruiting Contracts 2013 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Human Resources Recruiting Contracts 2013 ­ 2014 Department of Human Resources | Prepared by David Ferraro | July 1, 2013 #12;The Department of Human Resources provides the attached advertising contracts resources provide a national and international presence while others are focused more regionally

  18. HUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 1: GENERAL PROVISIONS 1 | P a g e S e c t i o n 1 Purpose The purpose of this Human Resources Manual is to: 1. Provide the personnel and payroll policies and procedures, regulations and benefits. 3. Establish requirements and instructions for submission of Human Resources System

  19. DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CODE DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF NATURAL RESOURCES College of Natural Resources Colorado;3 DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF NATURAL RESOURCES CODE ARTICLE I. GOAL AND OBJECTIVES A. DEPARTMENT MISSION The mission of the Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources is to contribute

  20. College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    57 College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS, AND HUMANITIES The collaboration of Architecture (Landscape Ar- chitecture, Construction Science and Management, City and Regional Planning, and Architecture) with Arts (Visual Arts and Performing Arts) and the Humanities (Communication

  1. College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND HUMANITIES The College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities offers graduate programs in three schools: the School in Architecture; City and Regional Planning; Construction Science and Management; Digital Pro- duction Arts

  2. College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    56 College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities 56 COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS, AND HUMANITIES The collaboration of Architecture (Landscape Ar- chitecture, Construction Science and Management, City and Regional Planning, and Architecture) with Arts (Visual Arts and Performing Arts) and the Humanities (Communication

  3. The Human Eye June 4, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    The Human Eye T. Albers June 4, 2009 1 #12;1 Abstract The eyes provide a profound part of the human in my research. The eye is a biological system and, as such, does not lend itself to simplification Introduction Upon researching the human eye I have found it to be an exquisitely engineered piece of equipment

  4. Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    7 Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures Ugur G¨ud¨ukbay, B¨ulent ¨Ozg¨u¸c, Aydemir, Ankara, Turkey Human body modeling and animation has long been an important and challenging area virtual humans in action: video games, films, television, virtual reality, ergonomics, medicine

  5. Human Computation Must Be Reproducible Praveen Paritosh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomkins, Andrew

    and evaluation of experiments. We argue that human computation has similar properties, and that the resultsHuman Computation Must Be Reproducible Praveen Paritosh Google 345 Spear St, San Francisco, CA 94105. pkp@google.com ABSTRACT Human computation is the technique of performing a com- putational

  6. Policy Title: Human Subject Responsible Office: UFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Policy Title: Human Subject Payments Responsible Office: UFS HARVARD UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL POLICY Effective Date: 1/1/11 Revision Date: N/A HUMAN SUBJECT PAYMENTS Policy Number TAX102 HARVARD UNIVERSITY FINANCIAL POLICY POLICY STATEMENT Individuals conducting Harvard research studies that compensate human

  7. Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight David A. Mindell The MIT Press Cambridge of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mindell, David A. Digital Apollo : human-0-262-13497-2 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Human-machine systems. 2. Project Apollo (U.S.)--History. 3. Astronautics

  8. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  9. Reflections on the human prospect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, T.F. [Sigma Xi Center, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World population and the global economy are expanding in a manner that is propelling civilization along a path that is unsustainable, inequitable, and unstable. A concerted, global effort to discover, integrate, disseminate, and apply knowledge about the natural world and human behavior would change this trajectory to a path of sustainable human development. This path would point toward the vision of a society in which the basic human needs and an equitable share of life`s amenities could be met by successive generations while maintaining in perpetuity a health, physically attractive, and biologically productive environment. The scholarly community is urged to provide impetus for the pursuit of this vision. An unprecedented degree of collaboration among the disciplines will be necessary. New modes of communication and cooperation among the major sectors of society will have to be fashioned. Knowledge will become an organizing principle for society in the twenty-first century. Climate change has resulted from continuing economic and demographic growth. To stabilize world climate, the emission of greenhouse gases must be controlled. 57 refs.

  10. HUMANITIES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal848 Unlimited Release1/2 HR 1.00 $ For

  11. HUMAN RESOURCES WORKING GROUP: ACTION PLAN VISION PRIORITY: MAXIMIZING OUR HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    HUMAN RESOURCES WORKING GROUP: ACTION PLAN VISION PRIORITY: MAXIMIZING OUR HUMAN RESOURCES, and student body." From David Ward, "A Vision for the Future," p. 9. This document lists the human-resource goals and plans of the Office of Human Resources, the Equity and Diversity Resource Center

  12. Interactive Manipulation Between a Human and a Humanoid: When Robots Control Human Arm Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , humanoids and anthropo- morphic designs can facilitate the human/robot interaction, because peopleInteractive Manipulation Between a Human and a Humanoid: When Robots Control Human Arm Motion Bruno a novel approach in human/robot collaboration, where the robot controls not only its arm but also

  13. Induction of human breast cell carcinogenesis by triclocarban and intervention by curcumin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shilpa; Choudhary, Shambhunath; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert, E-mail: hcrwang@utk.edu

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Triclocarban exposure induces breast epithelial cell carcinogenesis. •Triclocarban induces the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, and DNA damage. •Physiological doses of triclocarban induce cellular carcinogenesis. •Non-cytotoxic curcumin blocks triclocarban-induced carcinogenesis and pathways. -- Abstract: More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant. Pre-malignant carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly-acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation, without acquisition of cellular tumorigenicity. Long-term TCC exposure also induced constitutive activation of the Erk–Nox pathway and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. A single TCC exposure induced transient induction of the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, increased cell proliferation, and DNA damage in not only non-cancerous breast cells but also breast cancer cells. Using these constitutively- and transiently-induced changes as endpoints, we revealed that non-cytotoxic curcumin was effective in intervention of TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy. Our results lead us to suggest that the co-carcinogenic potential of TCC should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies to reveal the significance of TCC in the development of sporadic breast cancer. Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive agents, such as curcumin, effective in suppressing TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy.

  14. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  15. Strategic Use of Human Capital | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Human Capital Strategic Use of Human Capital A report on how the DOE uses and plans to reform their use of human capital. Strategic Use of Human Capital More Documents &...

  16. antioxidant protects human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 4 Human Research Weber, David J. 2 Texas Tech University Protection of Human Subjects Biology and Medicine...

  17. Simulation of human decision making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Sabina E. (Albuquerque, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  18. Network model of human language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markosova, Maria

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenon of human language is widely studied from various points of view. It is interesting not only for social scientists, antropologists or philosophers, but also for those, interesting in the network dynamics. In several recent papers word web, or language as a graph has been investigated. In this paper I revise recent studies of syntactical word web. I present a model of growing network in which such processes as node addition, edge rewiring and new link creation are taken into account. I argue, that this model is a satisfactory minimal model explaining measured data.

  19. Contractor Human Resource Management Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This directive establishes DOE responsibilities and requirements for the management and oversight of contractor Human Resource Management (HR) programs. Chg 1, 5-8-98; Chg 2, 11-22-09; Chg 3, 2-23-10; Chg 4, 4-29-13. DOE O 350.1 Chg 5, dated 9-30-2014, cancels DOE O 350.1 Chg 4. The Order is revised to reflect the cancellation of Chapters 1-3 due to the incorporation of these chapters into DOE Order 350.3; reflect organizational changes; delete reference to the DOE Retrospective Rating Insurance Plan, which is no longer available; remove the CRD from Chapter VII.

  20. Human Resources | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010a(SC)Human Resources

  1. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey(SC) GettingGit GitGlobal Warming and Human

  2. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yu Ran [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi-Ho [Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 404-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Ho [R and D Center, Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Yongin 446-905 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byeong Hwa [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Youl [Department of Genetic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Won O. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Park, Haeil [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sunga, E-mail: sachoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Woong, E-mail: tawkim@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 ?M were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by the ROS generation through MAPKs. • The MA-1-induced cell death was also modulated by the mitochondria-mediated pathway. • The apoptotic cancer cell death by MA-1 was also exhibited in orthotopic xenografts. • Our findings suggest MA-1 as a clinically useful agent for human lung cancer.

  3. Apparatus and methods for a human extender

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A human extender controller for interface between a human operator and a physical object through a physical plant. The human extender controller uses an inner-feedback loop to increase the equivalent damping of the operating system to stabilize the system when it contacts with the environment and reduces the impact of the environment variation by utilizing a high feedback gain, determined by a root locus sketch. Because the stability of the human extender controller of the present invention is greatly enhanced over that of the prior art, the present invention is able to achieve a force reflection ratio 500 to 1 and capable of handling loads above the two (2) ton range.

  4. Dealing with Data in Human Brain Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Job, Dominic; Gonzalez, Rodriguez; Wardlaw, Joanna

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present a brief discussion of current challenges to data integration and sharing in the field of human neuroimaging at Edinburgh University.

  5. Genomic mosaicism in the human brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westra, Jurjen Willem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zlokovic BV (2008) The blood-brain barrier in health andmosaicism in the human brain ………………………………………. Chapter Threethe Alzheimer’s disease brain ………………………………. Chapter Five DNA

  6. Human factors methods in DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Waters, R.J. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of developing a series of guidelines for the use of human factors standards, procedures, and methods to be used in nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the philosophy and process being used to develop a DOE human factors methods handbook to be used during the design cycle. The following sections will discuss: (1) basic justification for the project; (2) human factors design objectives and goals; and (3) role of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design cycle.

  7. Human impacts on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardt, Marah Justine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The tissue biomass of common Caribbean reef corals. xv VITAJackson, JBC. “Structure of Caribbean coral reef communitiesHuman impacts on Caribbean coral reef ecosystems by Marah

  8. Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HR metrics that assist human resources professionals in identifying program and organizational discrepancies. Documents Available for Download May 30, 2014 DOE Plan for 2302(c)...

  9. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    HUMAN HEALTH SCIENCE BLDG GEO HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Principal Investigator Source Heat Pumps Demo Projects May 20, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential,...

  10. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 ?M) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ? Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ? Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ? Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ? Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  11. Gestures for Industry: Intuitive Human-Robot Communication from Human Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Karon

    Gestures for Industry: Intuitive Human-Robot Communication from Human Observation Brian Gleeson we present a gestural communication lexicon for human-robot collaboration in industrial assembly in a study of industry needs, providing potential real-world applicability to our results. Actions required

  12. The Human Microbiome Project: A Community Resource for the Healthy Human Microbiome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Dirk

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) [1],[2] is a concept that was long in the making. After the Human Genome Project, interest grew in sequencing the “other genome" of microbes carried in and on the human body [3],[4]. ...

  13. Human-Driven Spatial Language for Human-Robot Interaction Marjorie Skubic and Zhiyu Huo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Zhihai "Henry"

    to comprehend spatial descriptions. As a first step, a series of human subject experiments is being conducted adults. Based on the results of these human subject experiments, algorithms will be developed for robot will ultimately be tested in future human subject experiments using both virtual and physical robots. Thus

  14. Human-Robot-Communication and Machine Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demiris, Yiannis

    be obtained from today's industrial robots. However, to enable new robot applications with emphasis on serviceHuman-Robot-Communication and Machine Learning Abbr. title: Human-Robot-Communication and ML Volker for Real-Time Computer Systems and Robotics Kaiserstr. 12 D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany Phone: +49 721 608

  15. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 2 of this administrative procedure has been posted on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event

  16. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 3 Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted

  17. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 2 been posted on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict

  18. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 2 Employment been posted on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict

  19. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 2 Access been posted on the WVU Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict

  20. Medical Examination Office of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Medical Examination 4.40 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, graduate associates, student employees, and applicants The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Policy 4.40 medical Examination ­ Resources Edited 12/10/13 Resources for Policy 4.40 Drug-Free Workplace, Policy 7

  1. Mathematics of Planet Earth: Sustainable Human Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;2 Sustainable Human Environments · In 1900, only 13% of the world's population lived in cities. · By 2050 · As rapid city expansion continues, mathematical scientists can play key roles in shaping sustainable living1 Mathematics of Planet Earth: Sustainable Human Environments Fred Roberts Rutgers University #12

  2. Mathematics of Planet Earth: Sustainable Human Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    expansion continues, mathematical scientists can play key roles in shaping sustainable living environments1 Mathematics of Planet Earth: Sustainable Human Environments Fred Roberts Rutgers University #12 Clusters, beginning with workshops: Sustainable Human Environments (Rutgers U.), April 23-25, 2014 (this

  3. College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    25 College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS, AND HUMANITIES The College of Architecture, Arts, and Humani- ties offers graduate programs in three schools: the School in Architecture; City and Regional Planning; Construction Science and Management; Digital Production Arts; English

  4. Is the Human Mind Massively Modular?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuels, Richard

    CHAPTER T H R E E Is the Human Mind Massively Modular? Richard Samuels Introduction: Minds as Mechanisms Among the most pervasive and fundamental assumptions in cognitive science is that the human mind (or mind-brain) is a mechanism of some sort: a physical device com- posed of functionally specifiable

  5. Articulated Human Pose Estimation in Natural Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogg, David

    Articulated Human Pose Estimation in Natural Images by Samuel Alan Johnson Submitted in accordance. c 2012 The University of Leeds and Samuel Alan Johnson 2 #12;Abstract In this thesis the problem. Johnson and M. Everingham, "Learning Effective Human Pose Estimation from In- accurate Annotation

  6. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  7. International Workshop Responses of Vegetation and Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bern, Universität

    of southern Russia and climatic changes" 15.00 ­ Dr. A. Skorobogatov (Voronezh University, Russia). "TheInternational Workshop Responses of Vegetation and Human Society to Climatic Changes in Ukraine- Ukrainian team started to investigate Holocene climate changes and the resulting vegetation and human

  8. Making Human Capital the Creative Core of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    . They must confront economic uncertainty, environmentalrisk,socialchangeandothervolatileforces.Toexecute on Human Capital Financial capital has lost some of its primacy as the catalyst of growth. Human capital that is constantly learning, adjusting and adapting to new technology," says Chris Collins, director of the Center

  9. Lecture 25: Evolution & Human-caused evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lecture 25: Evolution & Humans · Human-caused evolution · Global climate change · Exploitation:1786 Final, 14 Dec, 8-10 Review session, 13 Dec, Wednesday, 11am, 201 Abelson Evolution ­ relevance? A better populations ­ Conservation of biodiversity ­ Pests ­ Diseases Global warming and evolution · Moderation

  10. Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AHFD Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois at Urbana Systems Monitoring and Control Gavin R. Essenberg, Douglas A. Wiegmann, Aviation Human Factors Division experiments with more difficult path selection tasks might reveal if there are advantages for motion. Overall

  11. Decontaminating Human Judgments by Removing Sequential Dependencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozer, Michael C.

    Decontaminating Human Judgments by Removing Sequential Dependencies Michael C. Mozer, Harold, and thereby decontaminate a series of ratings to obtain more meaningful human judgments. In our formulation, decontamination is fun- damentally a problem of inferring latent states (internal sensations) which, be- cause

  12. Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Science Schools Outreach Programme » The Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Science, are offering schools a wide range of outreach activity for students a new language, such as Chinese or Arabic. They can find out more about French cinema, Latin American

  13. Computational Approaches Towards Human Genome Annotation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Computational Approaches Towards Human Genome Annotation Mark Gerstein Molecular Biophysics of the human genome. My talk will be concerned with topics within this area, in particular annotating pseudogenes (protein fossils) in the genome. I will discuss a comprehensive pseudogene identification pipeline

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Biological Effects on 18F-FDG Uptake in Tumors: from In-vitro to In-vivo Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sha, Wei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ability of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line to growuptake in mammary cell line MDA-MB-231 is not affected asTwo tumor types, U87 and MDA-MB-231, were implanted in SCID

  15. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy, Sean

    Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome International Human Genome Sequencing. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some

  16. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  17. Compressive stress enhances coordinated migration of mammary carcinoma cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Janet M. (Janet Man-Yu)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cancer research has traditionally focused on genetic and biochemical changes during tumor progression. Uncontrolled cell proliferation of a solid tumor in a confined space not only creates well-studied oxidative stress ...

  18. Mammary stem and progenitor cells: Tumour precursors? Amy Paguirigana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    .01.048 * Corresponding author: Tel.: +1 608 265 5182; fax: +1 608 262 2824. E-mail address: alexander

  19. Laminin and biomimetic extracellular elasticity enhance functional differentiation in mammary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    Brownfield1 , Derek C Radisky1,6 , Carlos Bustamante2,3,4 and Mina J Bissell1, * 1 Life Sciences Division

  20. Laminin Mediates Tissue-specific Gene Expression in Mammary Epithelia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streuli, Charles H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    417. Aumailley, M. , C. Battaglia, U. Mayer, D. Reinhardt,S. Conzelmann, P. Ekblom, C. Battaglia, M. Aumailley, and R.

  1. Models and evaluation of human-machine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayout Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of human-machine systems and human-machine interfaces is very multidisciplinary. We have to navigate between the knowledge waves brought by several areas of the human learning: cognitive psychology, artificial ...

  2. Crowdsourcing and Human Computation: Systems, Studies and Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crowdsourcing and human computation are transforming human-computer interaction, and CHI has led the way. The seminal publication in human computation was initially published in CHI in 2004 [1], and the first paper ...

  3. Depth-resolved monitoring of diffusion of hyperosmotic agents in normal and malignant human esophagus tissues using optical coherence tomography in-vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Qingliang; Guo Zhouyi; Wei Huajiang; Yang Hongqin; Xie Shusen

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Depth-resolved monitoring with differentiation and quantification of glucose diffusion in healthy and abnormal esophagus tissues has been studied in vitro. Experiments have been performed using human normal esophagus and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues by the optical coherence tomography (OCT). The images have been continuously acquired for 120 min in the experiments, and the depth-resolved and average permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution have been calculated by the OCT amplitude (OCTA) method. We demonstrate the capability of the OCT technique for depth-resolved monitoring, differentiation, and quantifying of glucose diffusion in normal esophagus and ESCC tissues. It is found that the permeability coefficients of the 40 % glucose solution are not uniform throughout the normal esophagus and ESCC tissues and increase from (3.30 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} and (1.57 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the mucous membrane of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues to (1.82 {+-} 0.04) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} and (3.53 {+-} 0.09) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} cm s{sup -1} at the submucous layer approximately 742 {mu}m away from the epithelial surface of normal esophagus and ESCC tissues, respectively. (optical coherence tomography)

  4. Too much ‘digital’, too little ‘humanities’? An attempt to explain why many humanities scholars are reluctant converts to Digital Humanities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porsdam, Helle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 Ibid. 7 Brett Bobley, quoted in Patricia Cohen, “Digital Keys for Unlocking the Humanities’ Riches.” See also Tony Hey, Stewart Tansley, and Kristin Tolle (eds.), The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery (Microsoft Research, 2009...

  5. Human dopamine receptor and its uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Civelli, Olivier (Portland, OR); Van Tol, Hubert Henri-Marie (Toronto, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed toward the isolation, characterization and pharmacological use of the human D4 dopamine receptor. The nucleotide sequence of the gene corresponding to this receptor and alleleic variant thereof are provided by the invention. The invention also includes recombinant eukaryotic expression constructs capable of expressing the human D4 dopamine receptor in cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells. The invention provides cultures of transformed eukaryotic cells which synthesize the human D4 dopamine receptor, and methods for characterizing novel psychotropic compounds using such cultures.

  6. Human retroviruses and AIDS 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korber, B.; Foley, B.; Leitner, T. [eds.] [and others] [eds.; and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compendium is the result of an effort to compile, organize, and rapidly publish as much relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses as possible. The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the four parts that it comprises: (1) Nucleic Acid Alignments, (2) Amino Acid Alignments, (3) Reviews and Analyses, and (4) Related Sequences. Information within all the parts is updated throughout the year on the Web site, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov. This year we are not including floppy diskettes as the entire compendium is available both at our Web site and at our ftp site. If you need floppy diskettes please contact either Bette Korber (btk@t10.lanl.gov) or Kersti Rock (karm@t10.lanl.gov) by email or fax ((505) 665-4453). While this publication could take the form of a review or sequence monograph, it is not so conceived. Instead, the literature from which the database is derived has simply been summarized and some elementary computational analyses have been performed upon the data. Interpretation and commentary have been avoided insofar as possible so that the reader can form his or her own judgments concerning the complex information. The exception to this are reviews submitted by experts in areas deemed of particular and basic importance to research involving AIDS viral sequence information. These are included in Part III, and are contributed by scientists with particular expertise in the area of interest. In addition to the general descriptions below of the parts of the compendium, the user should read the individual introductions for each part.

  7. Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos

    We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch ...

  8. Annual Mandatory Training for Managers, Supervisors and Human...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Mandatory Training for Managers, Supervisors and Human Resource Professionals on Veteran Employment and USERRA Annual Mandatory Training for Managers, Supervisors and Human...

  9. advanced human atherosclerotic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complex co Centred Design Trends; Niels Ccm Moes; Imre Horvth 4 Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans Geosciences Websites Summary: Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans...

  10. assessing human risks: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Human Health Risk Assessment CPH 418518 Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: SYLLABUS Introduction to Human Health Risk Assessment CPH 418518 SWES 418518 Time: Tuesday...

  11. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Abstract: We analyzed proteomes of colon and rectal tumors...

  12. Geographically Differentiated Life-cycle Impact Assessment of Human Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humbert, Sebastien

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indicators in life-cycle assessment (LCA). Human Ecologicalindicators in life-cycle assessment (LCA). Human EcologicalI explore how life-cycle assessment (LCA) results can

  13. Galaxies, Human Eyes and Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Lahav; A. Naim; R. J. Buta; H. G. Corwin; G. de Vaucouleurs; A. Dressler; J. P. Huchra; S. van den Bergh; S. Raychaudhury; L. Sodre Jr.; M. C. Storrie-Lombardi

    1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative morphological classification of galaxies is important for understanding the origin of type frequency and correlations with environment. But galaxy morphological classification is still mainly done visually by dedicated individuals, in the spirit of Hubble's original scheme, and its modifications. The rapid increase in data on galaxy images at low and high redshift calls for re-examination of the classification schemes and for new automatic methods. Here we show results from the first systematic comparison of the dispersion among human experts classifying a uniformly selected sample of over 800 digitised galaxy images. These galaxy images were then classified by six of the authors independently. The human classifications are compared with each other, and with an automatic classification by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). It is shown that the ANNs can replicate the classification by a human expert to the same degree of agreement as that between two human experts.

  14. Interactive Simulation of Stylized Human Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Marco da

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Animating natural human motion in dynamic environments is difficult because of complex geometric and physical interactions. Simulation provides an automatic solution to parts of this problem, but it needs control systems ...

  15. Description and Drawings of the Human Leg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigger, John Dinsmore

    1909-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desoription and drawings of the human l e g . Description and Drawings of The Human Leg. John Bigger 1909. The Human Leg. The purpose of t h i s work i s to enable one to o b t a i n a more v i v i d and l a s t i n g idea of the r e l a t i o n... of the hones, muscles, "blood v e s s e l s , and nerves of the human l e g . To accomplish t h i s we took the r i g h t l e g of a-negro man and made twenty t h r u cross s e c t i o n s c o u n t i n g those of the f o o t . The l e g had "been p i c k l...

  16. HST.071 Human Reproductive Biology, Fall 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klapholz, Henry

    Lectures and clinical case discussions designed to provide the student with a clear understanding of the physiology, endocrinology, and pathology of human reproduction. Emphasis is on the role of technology in reproductive ...

  17. Implications of the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitcher, P.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), launched in 1991, aims to map and sequence the human genome by 2006. During the fifteen-year life of the project, it is projected that $3 billion in federal funds will be allocated to it. The ultimate aims of spending this money are to analyze the structure of human DNA, to identify all human genes, to recognize the functions of those genes, and to prepare for the biology and medicine of the twenty-first century. The following summary examines some of the implications of the program, concentrating on its scientific import and on the ethical and social problems that it raises. Its aim is to expose principles that might be used in applying the information which the HGP will generate. There is no attempt here to translate the principles into detailed proposals for legislation. Arguments and discussion can be found in the full report, but, like this summary, that report does not contain any legislative proposals.

  18. Embodied cognition in robots and human evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myhrvold, Conor L. (Conor Lachlan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the notion of embodied cognition in humans using the research of former University of Washington researcher William Calvin and robots using the research of former MIT professor Rodney Brooks. The ...

  19. CenterforHumanComputerInteraction Sustainable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    CHCI CenterforHumanComputerInteraction Nanoscale Science Nano-Bio Interface Sustainable Energy Renewable Materials Sustainable Water Cognition and Communication National Security Emerging Technologies, database management, data mining, digital libraries, information storage and retrieval, and other

  20. Data-driven human body morphing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiao

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an efficient and biologically informed 3D human body morphing technique through data-driven alteration of standardized 3D models. The anthropometric data is derived from a large empirical database and processed using principal...

  1. Purdue University Human Resources -33ABSENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    (PPL) Outside Activity Leave (five consecutive working days or less) 2 (OL) Reportable Outside Activity by Authorized University Officer BUSINESS OFFICE/HUMAN RESOURCE SERVICES/PAYROLL USE ONLY PPL Eligibility based

  2. Scientists Help Define the Healthy Human Microbiome

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scientific reports published June 14 inNatureand in journals of thePublic Library of Science, about 200 members of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) Consortium from nearly 80...

  3. 2011-2015 Human Capital Management Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Legacy Management (LM) needs skilled and engaged staff to accomplish our mission and carry out our responsibilities to the American people. This Human Capital Management Plan (HCMP or...

  4. The Human leading the Thermal Comfort Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, R.; Vissers, D.; Maaijen, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007 Zhang H., 2003, Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non Uniform Thermal Environments; Phd Thesis Zhang H., Arens E., Huizinga C., Han T., 2010, Thermal sensations and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments...

  5. Measurement of the human sar a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    Measurement of the human sar a) acoustic input immittance of the. William M. Rabinowitz Research for immittance measurements A closed sound system was calibrated using known acoustic immittances as "loads

  6. Balanced Virtual Humans Interacting with their Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rennuit, Antoine; Merlhiot, Xavier; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The animation of human avatars seems very successful; the computer graphics industry shows outstanding results in films everyday, the game industry achieves exploits... Nevertheless, the animation and control processes of such manikins are very painful. It takes days to a specialist to build such animated sequences, and it is not adaptive to any type of modifications. Our main purpose is the virtual human for engineering, especially virtual prototyping. As for this domain of activity, such amounts of time are prohibitive.

  7. Human Capital Accountability Program--Withdrawn

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Withdrawn 3-26-14. The purpose of maintaining and updating this directive is to (1) Ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and other directives. (2) Reduce the risk of DOE losing any of its personnel authorities. (3) Incorporate functional accountability to ensure that Human Resource Directors' position descriptions and classifications are appropriate, selections result in quality leadership with skills needed, and performance plans and evaluations are consistent with Department and Administration human resources priorities and audit findings.

  8. Exploring Paradigms of Human Resource Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurt, Andrew Christopher

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    paradigms of HRD. The study was carried out by examining the text of articles published in Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD)-sponsored journals. Purposeful, stratified, and random sampling was used to select 16 articles published in AHRD... educational programs of HRD can be found in countries throughout many parts of the world. The Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) is the predominant global professional organization with individual memberships that focus on research. It holds four...

  9. Learned Human-in-the-Loop Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basso, Brandon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that it was human. - Alan Turing Introduction Learning is agreat frequency. - Alan Turing Introduction The Generalized

  10. TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    MEMORANDUM TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources DATE: October 25, 2013 RE: Human Resources Fall 2013 Forum The Division of Human Resources will sponsor an HR Forum from 1 to the Division of Human Resources' Organizational and Professional Development Office at hrtrain

  11. TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources DATE: September 6, 2012 RE: Human Resources Fall 2012 Forum The Division of Human Resources will sponsor an HR Forum from 1-4 p in person or by webinar. Any questions about the forum may be e-mailed to the Division of Human Resources

  12. CS 4317 Human-Computer Interaction Course Number: CS4317

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    interaction. Theory of human-computer interaction. Development methods for interfaces such as user1 CS 4317 Human-Computer Interaction Course Number: CS4317 Course Title: Human-Computer Interaction Course Instructors Nigel Ward Course Description: CS4317: Models and methods of human-computer

  13. PASSIVE CONTROL OF FLUID POWERED HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    PASSIVE CONTROL OF FLUID POWERED HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIERS Perry Y. Li and Venkat Durbha Center is proposed for the control of fluid powered human power amplifiers. Human power amplifiers are mechanical as a torque/force source. The control objective is to amplify the power that the human exerts on the machine

  14. The Production of Child Human Capital: Endowments, Investments and Fertility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    The Production of Child Human Capital: Endowments, Investments and Fertility Anna Aizer Brown the human capital production function. Exploiting an exogenous source of investment, the launch of Head of the production of human capital also support an important role played by early human capital which is largely

  15. Production and Playback of Human Figure Motion for Visual Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    -line production and real-time playback of motion for articulated human gures in 3D virtual environments, for later playback. We present our system in the context of a simple problem: Animating human gures in virtual worlds containing simulated humans. Whether these human gures rep- resent the users' virtual

  16. Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler Center for Human Modeling speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real­time virtual humans are considered

  17. Learning expressive human-like head motion sequences from speech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busso, Carlos

    With the development of new trends in human-machine interfaces, animated feature films and video games, better avatars and virtual agents are required that more accurately mimic how humans communicate and interact. Gestures the emotional perception of facial animations [6]. Given the importance of head motion in human-human

  18. Symposium on Human Performance Modeling Wayne D. Gray (Organizer)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Wayne

    Laboratory Abstract This symposium is co-sponsored by the Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM to the human factors community. For the Panel Dis- cussion, three additional members of the HPM-TG joined The Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM-TG) of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES

  19. Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors in Healthcare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors;TEAMWORK!TEAMWORK! #12;OverviewOverview ·· Organizational culture and adaptationOrganizational cultureKey Objectives ·· Compare error response in differentCompare error response in different organizational

  20. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  1. An Agent-Based System Assisting Humans in Complex Tasks by Analysis of a Human's State and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    becomes too high, the agent can assist the human in a number of ways. Experiments show that the supportAn Agent-Based System Assisting Humans in Complex Tasks by Analysis of a Human's State, michael}@forcevisionlab.nl Abstract Human task performance varies depending on the task, environment

  2. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  3. Planet-scale Human Mobility Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan Hui; Richard Mortier; Tristan Henderson; Jon Crowcroft

    2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Research into, and design and construction of mobile systems and algorithms requires access to large-scale mobility data. Unfortunately, the wireless and mobile research community lacks such data. For instance, the largest available human contact traces contain only 100 nodes with very sparse connectivity, limited by experimental logistics. In this paper we pose a challenge to the community: how can we collect mobility data from billions of human participants? We re-assert the importance of large-scale datasets in communication network design, and claim that this could impact fundamental studies in other academic disciplines. In effect, we argue that planet-scale mobility measurements can help to save the world. For example, through understanding large-scale human mobility, we can track and model and contain the spread of epidemics of various kinds.

  4. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues.

  5. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  6. Jefferson Lab Human Resources: Training and Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources HumanAppraisalHR

  7. Humane Society International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | Open EnergyInformationHorizonEnergyHubei XindaHuitongHumanHumane

  8. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 7. Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 7. Human Resources This section addresses the I-129 certification process for visa applicants4 who may have access to export controlled items. It also addresses the process) will require an export license to access export controlled technology or technical data during the course

  9. Human Resources Security Access Matrix Function Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    June 2013 Human Resources Security Access Matrix Function Training Course Required Class Mode Training Course Prerequisite Security Access Form Required Contact for Additional Information Complete Electronic I-9 Forms REC001: I-9 /E-Verify Web Training OR Online OR None Electronic I-9 Security Access Form

  10. Face Recognition Algorithms Surpass Humans Matching Faces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdi, Hervé

    over humans, in light of the absolute performance levels of the algorithms, underscores the need systems for security applications. How accurate must a face recognition algorithm be to contribute to these applications? Over the last decade, academic computer vision researchers and commercial product developers have

  11. Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advancing Medicine for Horses and Humans Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory-Tech Helping Hand Dr. Patrick McCue From Dairy Farm to Horse Farm: A Love of Teaching and Clinical Work Come, Researcher's Enthusiasm Is Infectious Dr. Edward Squires Love of Horses Brought Researcher to Life's Work

  12. West Virginia University Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted version and this printed copy, the posted version on the Web page is controlling. Page 1 of 9 Family Medical Leave Act Division of Human Resources Web page hr.wvu.edu. In the event of a conflict between the current posted

  13. Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services Workers' Compensation Update INJURY to identify and address potential safety hazards. It also assists Risk Management staff determine in a timely manager or supervisor will contact Risk Management to arrange transportation. An employee who needs

  14. Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services Workers' Compensation Update WORKERS and are available by contacting the Risk Management department. Please do not add this form to any packets kept' COMPENSATION PHARMACY BENEFIT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM The California State University system has partnered

  15. Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Risk Management Department of Human Resource Services Workers' Compensation Update RETURN TO WORK or supervisor upon returning to work. The manager or supervisor should fax a copy of the release to Risk, the University's Workers' Compensation Program Manager, at extension 2824 or visit the Risk Management Website

  16. Understanding complexity in the human brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    Understanding complexity in the human brain Danielle S. Bassett1 and Michael S. Gazzaniga2 1 the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its work- ings of mind­brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neu- roscientific studies are coupled

  17. HUMAN FACTORS OF INTERACTIVE SOFTWARE Ben Shneiderman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shneiderman, Ben

    , the automobile, and television are but a few of the dramatic inventions which have shaped the evolution of history. The first products were crude, but each technology was even- tually refined to accommodate human photography or automobiles, computers are available only to those who devote extensive effort in mastering

  18. HLT/EMNLP 2005 Human Language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and the 9th International Workshop on Parsing Technologies (IWPT). In the HLT tradition, the conference Language Processing Proceedings of the Conference 6-8 October 2005 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada #12HLT/EMNLP 2005 Human Language Technology Conference and Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural

  19. Human-Centered Sustainable Product !!Environmental impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Human-Centered Sustainable Product Design !!Environmental impact of buildings !!Green Building environments for people What is "Green" Building Design ? Real Goods Solar Living Center, Hopland, CA Van der Ryn Associates Gail Brager, School of Environmental Design ·! 36% of total U.S. primary energy use

  20. Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ecosystem services and human culture Judith Hanna (Social science principal specialist) Judith.hanna@naturalengland.org.uk #12;Ecosystem services Constituents of well-beingSupporting­ecologicalprocesses:nutrient cycling:opportunityto achievewhatanindividualvaluesdoingandbeing Simplified from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2003 #12;Source: MEA (2003) #12;Ecosystems

  1. Robotic, Human, and Symbiotic Sensor Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petriu, Emil M.

    , including seismic or blast structural failure, dam failure, and water treatment failure. These sensor and their interdependencies. The downstream consequences of such failure on the rest of society will depend on human responses to the failure and on site-specific relations between infrastructure components. Powerful modeling tools

  2. Multimedia Computing: Applications, Designs, and Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multimedia Computing: Applications, Designs, and Human Factors Scott M. Stevens Software, multimedia input and output must be concerned with constant rate continuous media such as digital video and audio. Today's multimedia applications are just beginning to explore the capabilities of multimedia

  3. Human Resources Organizational Readiness Project: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finzi, Adrien

    and easily interface with SAP software Managed by a special Human Resources project team Will be undertaken in close coordination with the BUworks program team HR Organizational Readiness Project BUworks / SAP of SAP Enhanced data security within the new system Current job "system" is 30 years old ­ it must

  4. Globalization and Human Cooperation Supporting Information (SI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Globalization and Human Cooperation Supporting Information (SI) Nancy R. Buchana Gianluca Grimaldab University, Houston, TX 77005, USA d Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA e Laboratory for Research in Experimental Economics, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain 46020 f

  5. Research Article Human Brain Activity Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    Research Article Human Brain Activity Time- Locked to Narrative Event Boundaries Nicole K. Speer to or reading descriptions of everyday activities (e.g., reading about a person making cookies; Speer & Zacks, 2005; Speer, Zacks, & Reynolds, 2006). These findings are not altogether surprising given theories

  6. College of Human and Health Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    8988 College of Human and Health Sciences All research is delivered through discipline-focused research centres, which examine fields such as child research, ageing, psychology and social care, as well as midwifery, nursing and allied health professions. External funding from a number of prestigious bodies has

  7. Human Voice Recognition Depends on Language Ability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in their lan- guage. Leading theories of dyslexia propose that impoverished phonological processing often un recognition by human listeners relies on linguis- tic (phonological) representations, listeners with dyslexia-specific phonologi- cal representations). We assessed partici- pants with and without dyslexia for their ability

  8. Report on the Human Genome Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tinoco, I.; Cahill, G.; Cantor, C.; Caskey, T.; Dulbecco, R.; Engelhardt, D. L.; Hood, L.; Lerman, L. S.; Mendelsohn, M. L.; Sinsheimer, R. L.; Smith, T.; Soll, D.; Stormo, G.; White, R. L.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report urges DOE and the Nation to commit to a large. multi-year. multidisciplinary. technological undertaking to order and sequence the human genome. This effort will first require significant innovation in general capability to manipulate DNA. major new analytical methods for ordering and sequencing. theoretical developments in computer science and mathematical biology, and great expansions in our ability to store and manipulate the information and to interface it with other large and diverse genetic databases. The actual ordering and sequencing involves the coordinated processing of some 3 billion bases from a reference human genome. Science is poised on the rudimentary edge of being able to read and understand human genes. A concerted. broadly based. scientific effort to provide new methods of sufficient power and scale should transform this activity from an inefficient one-gene-at-a-time. single laboratory effort into a coordinated. worldwide. comprehensive reading of "the book of man". The effort will be extraordinary in scope and magnitude. but so will be the benefit to biological understanding. new technology and the diagnosis and treatment of human disease.

  9. Student Employment Center Department of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Student Employment Center Department of Human Resources 1104 Rosenwald Building 912-478-7159 Dos of the resume for further review. Why the applicant left former employment. If the applicant has any objection with you checking with former employer(s) for references? What kind of references applicant would receive

  10. Federal Aviation Administration Human Factors Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Federal Aviation Administration Human Factors Team Report on: The Interfaces Between Flightcrews Générale de l'Aviation Civile (France), Douglas Aircraft Company, Federal Aviation Administration, European was produced by a team of highly qualified individuals from the FAA and the European Joint Aviation Authorities

  11. PEOPLE OF CALIFORNIA HEALTH AND HUMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chair AIR RESOURCES BOARD Mary Nichols Chair DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES Toby Douglas DirectorPEOPLE OF CALIFORNIA HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES AGENCY Diana Dooley Secretary Michael Wilkening Deborah Raphael Director OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT George Alexeeff Director

  12. Human Resources FLEXIBLE RETIREMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    %. Pension benefits taken before the schemes' normal pension age may be subject to an early retirement1 of 10 Human Resources May 2012 FLEXIBLE RETIREMENT POLICY AND PROCEDURE #12;2 of 10 1. Purpose of the University Pension schemes which operates a flexible retirement scheme, and establishes guidelines

  13. Human Resources Tool Kit: Employee Self Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Resources Tool Kit: Employee Self Service Overview: Employee Self Service (ESS) offers a single, secure source for individuals to manage their personal information. ESS offers two components in both eProfile and BuckeyeLink for employee-students. ESS will roll out university-wide April 30

  14. Achieving a Fieldable, Acquisition Process for Human-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    -Based Operations) Objective Effect Desired Capability Exploit Info Ops Engage Targets with Survivable Weapon of Industrial Engineering University of Buffalo (SUNY) Ken Boff Chief Scientist AFRL Human Effectiveness Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory John Flach Department of Psychology Wright State

  15. Division of Human Resources Termination Of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Termination Of Domestic Partnership Health Stipend Questions (813) 974 Insurance Stipend will terminate as of the Effective Date on this Termination of Domestic Partnership Health. ______ The Domestic Partnership Declaration attested to and filed by me with USF shall be and is terminated

  16. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  17. The University of Oklahoma HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma HUMAN RESOURCES MEMORANDUM TO: All OU employees FROM completed such a process, and the Staff Handbook was amended by the University of Oklahoma Board of Regents.11.2 FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) The University of Oklahoma Staff Handbook ­ Amended July 1, 2011

  18. Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    into account. In this paper, each human joint is assumed to be controlled by two muscle groups to generate on motor units pattern. They demonstrated the relationship among muscle activation, fatigue and recovery fatigue trend in static working posture (elbow = 90 , shoulder = 30 ), but in dynamic working situation

  19. Biomedical Sciences Contributing to Progress in Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Biomedical Sciences Contributing to Progress in Human Health as a Leading Integrated Research and global impact. The University also strives to complement this breadth of scholarship with focus Medicine, Nature Genetics, Lancet and Science ­ Contribution to 68 out of the 395 `top' papers from

  20. Nucleotide Frequency Variation Across Human Genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majewski, Jacek

    Nucleotide Frequency Variation Across Human Genes Elizabeth Louie, Jurg Ott, and Jacek Majewski1 The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA The frequencies of individual nucleotides exhibit significant fluctuations across eukaryotic genes. In this paper, we investigate nucleotide variation across

  1. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Human Impacts in Pine Forests: Past, Present,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These changes are occurring against a backdrop of natural and anthropogenically driven climate change. We review human pressure. The immense scale of impacts and the complex synergies between agents of change calls hominids first encountered these trees in the Mediterranean Basin about a million years ago. Ancient Greeks

  3. Nepal: Dealing with a Human Rights Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Crisis Group

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NEPAL: DEALING WITH A HUMAN RIGHTS CRISIS Asia Report N°94 – 24 March 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................. i I. INTRODUCTION... .................................................................................... 13 A. ACTION BY THE NEPALI GOVERNMENT ...............................................................................13 B. ACTION BY THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF NEPAL (MAOIST) ..................................................14 C. ACTION...

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meston, Cindy

    ORIGINAL PAPER Why Humans Have Sex Cindy M. Meston Æ David M. Buss Received: 20 December 2005 the context of an ongoing romantic relationship or long-term mateship. Sexual strategies theory (Buss. Buss Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, 108 E. Dean Keeton, Austin, TX 78712, USA

  5. Division of Human Resources Payroll Certification Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Payroll Certification Process Questions (813) 974-7955 Payroll/Payroll Processing Rev. 04/2010 Payroll Certification is the process by which departments submit to Payroll the hours to be paid for each employee within each department. This process utilizes the online Certification System

  6. Model-based Analysis of HER Activation in Cells Co-Expressing EGFR, HER2 and HER3.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankaran, Harish; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Yunbing; Resat, Haluk

    2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The HER/ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases drive critical responses in normal physiology and cancer, and the expression levels of the various HER receptors are critical determinants of clinical outcomes. HER activation is driven by the formation of various dimer complexes between members of this receptor family. The HER dimer types can have differential effects on downstream signaling and phenotypic outcomes. We constructed an integrated mathematical model of HER activation and trafficking to quantitatively link receptor expression levels to dimerization and activation. We parameterized the model with a comprehensive set of HER phosphorylation and abundance data collected in a panel of human mammary epithelial cells expressing varying levels of EGFR, HER2 and HER3. Although parameter estimation yielded multiple solutions, predictions for dimer phosphorylation were in agreement with each other. We validated the model using experiments where pertuzumab was used to block HER2 dimerization. We used the model to predict HER dimerization and activation patterns in a panel of epithelial cells lines with known HER expression levels. Simulations over the range of expression levels seen in various cell lines indicate that: i) EGFR phosphorylation is driven by HER1/1 and HER1/2 dimers, and not HER1/3 dimers, ii) HER1/2 and HER2/3 dimers both contribute significantly to HER2 activation with the EGFR expression level determining the relative importance of these species, and iii) the HER2/3 dimer is largely responsible for HER3 activation. The model can be used to predict phosphorylated dimer levels for any given HER expression profile. This information in turn can be used to quantify the potencies of the various HER dimers, and can potentially inform personalized therapeutic approaches.

  7. Human Interactive Mission Manager : an autonomous mission manager for human cooperative systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furtado, Jason M. (Jason Manuel)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Facilitating low level human supervisory control of mission management is highly challenging because of concerns regarding system stability and performance. Previous implementations of mission managers based on C. S. Draper ...

  8. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  9. Structure of the EGF receptor transactivation circuit integrates multiple signals with cell context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Shankaran, Harish; Opresko, Lee K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to be a mechanism by which a variety of cellular inputs can be integrated into a single signaling pathway, but the regulatory topology of this important system is unclear. To understand the transactivation circuit, we first created a “non-binding” reporter for ligand shedding. We then quantitatively defined how signals from multiple agonists were integrated both upstream and downstream of the EGFR into the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in human mammary epithelial cells. We found that transactivation is mediated by a recursive autocrine circuit where ligand shedding drives EGFR-stimulated ERK that in turn drives further ligand shedding. The time from shedding to ERK activation is fast (<5 min) whereas the recursive feedback is slow (>15 min). Simulations showed that this delay in positive feedback greatly enhanced system stability and robustness. Our results indicate that the transactivation circuit is constructed so that the magnitude of ERK signaling is governed by the sum of multiple direct inputs, while recursive, autocrine ligand shedding controls signal duration.

  10. From HumanFrom Human--Subject Experiments ToSubject Experiments To ComputationalComputational--Agent ExperimentsAgent Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 From HumanFrom Human--Subject Experiments ToSubject Experiments To Computational Experiments - 100% human 100% computational agents What is Agent-based Comp Econ (ACE)? - 100% computational://www.econ.iastate.edu/tesfatsi/aexper.htm #12;3 Spectrum of Possible Experiments 100% human Humans with computer access Human

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Xun

    ORIGINAL PAPER Identifying differentially expressed genes in human acute leukemia and mouse brain the experimental-wise false discovery rate. A human acute leukemia dataset corrected from 38 leukemia patients

  12. The dynamics of interleukin-8 and its interaction with human...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The dynamics of interleukin-8 and its interaction with human CXC receptor I peptide. The dynamics of interleukin-8 and its interaction with human CXC receptor I peptide. Abstract:...

  13. BigNeuron: Unlocking the Secrets of the Human Brain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BigNeuron: Unlocking the Secrets of the Human Brain BigNeuron: Unlocking the Secrets of the Human Brain Berkeley Researchers and Supercomputers to Help Create a Standard 3D Neuron...

  14. Human walking model predicts joint mechanics, electromyography and mechanical economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Ken

    In this paper, we present an under-actuated model of human walking, comprising only a soleus muscle and flexion/extension monoarticular hip muscles. The remaining muscle groups of the human leg are modeled using quasi-passive, ...

  15. assessing human immunodeficiency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and risk assessment of many species are affected by the presence of humans Blumstein, Daniel T. 202 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR) is an essential...

  16. Human error contribution to nuclear materials-handling events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Bradley (Bradley Jordan)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis analyzes a sample of 15 fuel-handling events from the past ten years at commercial nuclear reactors with significant human error contributions in order to detail the contribution of human error to fuel-handling ...

  17. adult human muscle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Human Muscle...

  18. Adena Rissman Assistant Professor, Human Dimensions of Ecosystem Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Adena Rissman Assistant Professor, Human Dimensions of Ecosystem Management Department of Forest Professor: 2009-present Human Dimensions of Ecosystem Management Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT). "Novel ecosystems, rapid change, and no

  19. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa pre?HDL (Lp1-AI) particle . A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on...

  20. Experimental Design for Human-Robot Interaction with Assistive Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanco, Holly A.

    Experimental Design for Human-Robot Interaction with Assistive Technology Katherine M. Tsui Rehabilitation Center Assistive Technology Unit One Verney Drive Greenfield, NH 03047 david technology (AT), and human- robot interaction with assisitve technology (HRI-AT). To illustrate complexities

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass Spectrometry. Quantitative Analysis of Human Salivary Gland-Derived Intact Proteome Using Top-Down Mass...

  2. Human alkaloid biosynthesis : chemical inducers of Parkinson's disease?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzios, Stavroula K. (Stavroula-Artemis K.)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The occurrence of certain alkaloids in the human brain appears to be associated with the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, a human protein bearing homology to an alkaloid synthase in plants was identified. This ...

  3. Using Analogy to Acquire Commonsense Knowledge from Human Contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chklovski, Timothy

    2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...

  4. Using analogy to acquire commonsense knowledge from human Contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chklovski, Timothy A. (Timothy Anatolievich), 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the work reported here is to capture the commonsense knowledge of non-expert human contributors. Achieving this goal will enable more intelligent human-computer interfaces and pave the way for computers to ...

  5. Polysialylated N-Glycans Identified in Human Serum Through Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Abstract: The N-glycan diversity of human serum glycoproteins, i.e. the human blood serum N-glycome, is complex due to the range of glycan structures potentially...

  6. Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 GRAPHIC GRAPHIC Groundwater Resources Assessment under the Pressures of Humanity and Climate Changes Aframeworkdocument GRAPHICSeriesN°2 .................. #12;2 Groundwater Resources Assessment groundwater management considering projected climate change and linked human effects. GRAPHIC provides

  7. Assessing the performance of human-automation collaborative planning systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Jason C. (Jason Christopher)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning and Resource Allocation (P/RA) Human Supervisory Control (HSC) systems utilize the capabilities of both human operators and automated planning algorithms to schedule tasks for complex systems. In these systems, ...

  8. a549 human lung: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human (more) Weems, Jessica Marie 2010-01-01 26 KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG Physics Websites Summary: to the epidemiologically derived value...

  9. Human rights enforcement: a fundamental duty of the sovereign state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englehart, Ellen Marie

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of human rights international claims to the "'grossest cases' of abuse that infringe the minimal views of decency embodied in every major world cultural tradition" (Falk 143). Berger includes the following as violations of basic human rights: Genocide... of human rights international claims to only the "'grossest cases' of abuse that infiinge the minimal views of decency embodied in every major world cultural tradition" (Falk 143). Berger's conception of serious human rights violations provides a...

  10. Allopurinol therapy and cataractogenesis in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerman, S.; Megaw, J.M.; Gardner, K.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term ingestion of allopurinol, an antihyperuricemic agent used to treat gout, may be related to the development of lens opacities in relatively young patients (second to fifth decades of life). Cataracts obtained from three patients taking allopurinol were subjected to high-resolution phosphorescence spectroscopy. The characteristic allopurinol triplet was demonstrated in all three cataracts. Identical spectra were obtained for normal human lenses incubated in media containing 10(-3)M allopurinol and exposed to 1.2 mW/cm2 ultraviolet radiation for 16 hours; control lenses (irradiated without allopurinol) showed no allopurinol triplets. Similar data were obtained for lenses from rats given one dose of allopurinol and exposed to ultraviolet radiation overnight. These data provide evidence that allopurinol can be photobound in rat and human lenses and suggest its cataractogenic potential.

  11. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  12. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. [eds.] [eds.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  13. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M. (eds.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  14. The Crystal Structure of Human Argonaute2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirle, Nicole T.; MacRae, Ian J. (Scripps)

    2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonaute proteins form the functional core of the RNA-induced silencing complexes that mediate RNA silencing in eukaryotes. The 2.3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of human Argonaute2 (Ago2) reveals a bilobed molecule with a central cleft for binding guide and target RNAs. Nucleotides 2 to 6 of a heterogeneous mixture of guide RNAs are positioned in an A-form conformation for base pairing with target messenger RNAs. Between nucleotides 6 and 7, there is a kink that may function in microRNA target recognition or release of sliced RNA products. Tandem tryptophan-binding pockets in the PIWI domain define a likely interaction surface for recruitment of glycine-tryptophan-182 (GW182) or other tryptophan-rich cofactors. These results will enable structure-based approaches for harnessing the untapped therapeutic potential of RNA silencing in humans.

  15. Sustainable Material Selection of Toxic Chemicals in Design and Manufacturing From Human Health Impact Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. Keywords: SustainableHuman Toxicity Potential (HTP) is used for the human healthassessment of toxic chemicals. HTP is a computed weighting

  16. No Half Measures: Overcoming Common Challenges to Doing Digital Humanities in the Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posner, Miriam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    described  their  libraries’  digital  humanities  support  Staffing  for  libraries’  digital  humanities  programs  August  19).  Digital  Humanities  in  the  Library  Isn’t  

  17. Motion Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators: Modeling, Parameterization and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yazhou

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sive gaze animation for virtual humans. ” In Proceedings ofCapture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:

  18. Human and Artificial Agents in a Crash-Prone Financial Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based models and human subject experiments. Handbook ofout that labo- ratory experiments with human subjects oftenas a laboratory experiment with human subjects, and Sect. 4

  19. anti-fya seraclone human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Engineering Websites Summary: integration division Human Systems Human Factors Design Methodology Objective Approach Impact these analyses and current human factors domain...

  20. Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, J. A.

    HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF ADVANCED PRO?CESS CONTROL John A. Shaw Combustion Engineering Taylor Instrument Division Rochester, New York ABSTRACT Energy conservation practices, such as heat recovery and integration, require that many... chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion, leading to incorrect operator actions and negating the advantages of the advanced control...

  1. Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

  2. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wolf; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of various intrinsic cell properties. In the microwave region beyond 1 GHz, the reorientational motion of water molecules in the blood plasma leads to another relaxation feature (gamma-relaxation). Between beta- and gamma-relaxation, significant dispersion is observed, which, however, can be explained by a superposition of these relaxation processes and is not due to an additional delta-relaxation often found in biological matter. Our measurements provide dielectric data on human blood of so far unsurpassed precision for a broad parameter range. All data are provided in electronic form to serve as basis for the calculation of the absorption rate of electromagnetic radiation and other medical purposes. Moreover, by investigating an exceptionally broad frequency range, valuable new information on the dynamic processes in blood is obtained.

  3. The Human Right to Access Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tully, Stephen

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity access is already well established within the framework of human rights, either as an implicit attribute of a pre-existing right (such as non-discrimination or sustainable development) or explicitly in the context of eliminating discrimination against women. There is also broad acknowledgement by states of the desirability of eliminating energy poverty - for all, but particularly for the rural poor, and women. (author)

  4. Human Robot Interaction in Mobile Robot Applications Akihisa Ohya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohya, Akihisa

    Human Robot Interaction in Mobile Robot Applications Akihisa Ohya PRESTO, JST / University the usefulness of mobile robots by showing concrete applications in human daily life through this study. Only a few mobile robot applications were de- signed and made with the purpose of supporting humans

  5. BSBA IN MANAGEMENT -HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ASSESSMENT PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallo, Linda C.

    BSBA IN MANAGEMENT - HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIZATION ASSESSMENT PLAN (REV. 7 in Human Resource Management (HRM), the goal is to provide a foundation of all areas of human resources countries. · Content Delivered in: MGT 350, MGT 405, & MGT 357. · Assessment Method: Culminating exam

  6. Reduction in Work Force Unclassified Staff Office of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Reduction in Work Force ­ Unclassified Staff 9.15 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Regular by the Health System. Health System employees should contact their human resource department for further information. The Ohio State University ­ Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Policy 9.15 Reduction in Work

  7. POLICY IV.4.1 Volume IV: Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    POLICY IV.4.1 Volume IV: Human Resources Chapter 4: Classification Issuing Office: Human Resource Resource Services Originally Issued: August 19, 1968 Most Recently Revised: March 3, 2006 1 Classification Responsibilities 7 History 7 Official Documentation 7 Statement of Policy Human Resource Services classifies

  8. V 1.0 April 27, 2011 Classified Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    V 1.0 April 27, 2011 Classified Human Resources Policies and Procedures for Classified Employees, 2011 Classified Human Resources Policies and Procedures for Classified Employees Page 2 of 7 Chapter 7. Information for Supervisors Consult with your Human Resources Representative as soon as you have any concern

  9. Tony TorresRamos Office of Civilian Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6-14 Tony TorresRamos Director, Office of Civilian Human Resources Mr. TorresRamos is the Department of the Navy's (DON) Director of the Office of Civilian Human Resources (OCHR). In this capacity he provides leadership to OCHR and the Human Resources community at large. OCHR is an Echelon II Command

  10. TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    TO: HR and Business Contacts FROM: Division of Human Resources DATE: September 24, 2012 RE: Reminder: Human Resources Fall 2012 Forum This is a reminder that you will need to register online by the Division of Human Resources, this forum will include information about benefits updates to annual

  11. HUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 4: NON-STUDENT HOURLY EMPLOYEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HUMAN RESOURCES MANUAL SECTION 4: NON-STUDENT HOURLY EMPLOYEES 1 | P a g e S e c t i o n 4 will be notified by the Human Resources Department as non-student hourly employees approach their employment limits is submitted to the Human Resources Department by March and October for each school term of each year

  12. Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy Yan Zhou Cheng-Hui Liu Yi Sun Yang Pu://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 11/16/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman of human brain tissues are examined using a confocal micro-Raman system with 532-nm excitation in vitro

  13. Classifying Human-Robot Interaction: An Updated Taxonomy*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanco, Holly A.

    Classifying Human-Robot Interaction: An Updated Taxonomy* Holly A. Yanco Computer Science-7803-8566-7/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE. Abstract - This paper extends a taxonomy of human- robot interaction (HRI) introduced taxonomy. New classifications include measures of the social nature of the task (human interaction roles

  14. Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Testimony of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Testimony of James E. Hansen 4273 Durham Road of Representatives 26 April 2007 #12;2 Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Contents 1. Summary 2. Basis for Testimony A. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study (in press: Atmospheric

  15. Moon: the 8th continent HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    (ISS). Europe has been actively participating in human space- flight since the flight of German Sigmund as preparation for the robotic and human exploration of the Solar System. Human Spaceflight: The Story So Far 11 the joint practical pursuit of a common, challenging goal. By harnessing the energies, talents and skills

  16. e! Science News Better than the human eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    e! Science News Better than the human eye Published: Monday, January 17, 2011 - 15:36 Researchers to develop a curvilinear camera, much like the human eye, with the significant feature of a zoom capability, unlike the human eye. The "eyeball camera" has a 3.5x optical zoom, takes sharp images, is inexpensive

  17. Faculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    Faculty of Science & Health SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE Teaching Fellowship in Athletic of Science and Health, the School of Health and Human Performance at DCU is developing an international reputation in health and exercise science. As such, the School of Health and Human Performance is committed

  18. Digital Human Symposium 2009 March 12th, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    , resulting in autonomous pedestrian models, and (2) a comprehen- sive biomechanical model of the human body of the human body, its detailed biomechanical modeling has not received ad- equate attention. I will describe to synthesize autonomous movements for the behavioral animation of the human head and face. 2. Autonomous

  19. Tier I Canada Research Chair Human Capital and Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    Tier I Canada Research Chair in Human Capital and Productivity The University of Western Ontario and international candidates for a Tier I Canada Research Chair in the area of Human Capital and Productivity renowned group of economists who work on research related to human capital and productivity. This includes

  20. CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    i CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS Jan M. Allbeck A DISSERTATION in Computer, and a scholar. #12;iv ABSTRACT CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS Jan M. Allbeck Norman I. Badler Creating virtual scenarios that simulate a substantial human population with typical and varied

  1. Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Animation of human walking is a crucial problem in Computer Graphics: Many synthetic scenes involve virtualComputer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1 , Laure France2 , Marie-Paule Cani humans, from special e ects in the lm industry to virtual reality and video games. Synthesizing realistic

  2. Interaction Techniques with Virtual Humans in Mixed Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    animation have led to the integration of Virtual Humans [9] into interactive 3D environments. With emergeInteraction Techniques with Virtual Humans in Mixed Environments Selim Balcisoy, Marcelo Kallmann use virtual humans as mediators between the real and virtual world. Keywords: Interaction Techniques

  3. Human Motion Capture Data Compression by Model-Based Indexing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhandarkar, Suchendra "Suchi" M.

    can be used for animation of virtual human-like characters in distributed virtual reality applications in virtual human animation of visually acceptable quality upon decompression. Index Terms, pocket PCs, and PDAs [1], [19]. Distributed virtual human animation is used in many applications

  4. Dynamics of a bouncing ball in human performance Dagmar Sternad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternad, Dagmar

    of a dynamically stable period-one regime. In a series of experiments, human subjects bounced a ball rhythmically human movement and physical experi- mental systems is that while the variables and parameters of physical experiments are under the experimenter's control, human subjects when bouncing a ball have

  5. The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    177 The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt T he human plutonium that was pertinent to those and LouisHempelmann #12;similar radiation experi- ments with humans. This article injection experiments carried out during and after the Manhattan Project have received tremendous noto

  6. Bayesian optimization explains human active search Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itti, Laurent

    , predicts human per- formance and searched locations better. In 6 follow-up controlled experiments over 76 literature, we design and conduct a series of experiments to understand human search and active learning;2 Experiments and Results We seek to study human search behavior directly on 1D function optimization

  7. Ensuring Safety in Human Robot Collaboration in Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Satyandra K.

    -time behavior observed during experiments with a 5 DOF robot and a human safely performing shared assembly tasksEnsuring Safety in Human Robot Collaboration in Assembly Applications Satyandra K. Gupta, Krishnanand Kaipa, Carlos Morato, and Boxuan Zhao #12;Human Robot Collaboration · Robots welding, bolting

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Human-Automation Performance Birsen Donmez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    , Standardization, Theory. Keywords Metric Quality, Human Supervisory Control, Validity, Statistics, Experiments. 1Evaluation Criteria for Human-Automation Performance Metrics Birsen Donmez MIT Dept. of Aero(617)252-1512 missyc@mit.edu ABSTRACT Previous research has identified broad metric classes for human- automation

  9. A Depth Space Approach to Human-Robot Collision Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    A Depth Space Approach to Human-Robot Collision Avoidance Fabrizio Flacco Torsten Kr is presented for safe human-robot coexistence. The main contribution is a fast method to evaluate distances between the robot and possibly moving obstacles (including humans), based on the concept of depth space

  10. Hotspots of Biased Nucleotide Substitutions in Human Genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, Michael

    Hotspots of Biased Nucleotide Substitutions in Human Genes Jonas Berglund1 , Katherine S. Pollard2) Hotspots of biased nucleotide substitutions in human genes. PLoS Biol 7(1): e1000026. doi:10.1371/journal selection in the human lineage. However, HARs tend to have biased patterns of nucleotide substitution

  11. Transfer of Human Movements to Humanoid Robots , D. Gehrig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Tanja

    Transfer of Human Movements to Humanoid Robots M. Do1 , D. Gehrig1 , H. Kühne1 , P. Azad1 , P present techniques for transferring of human motion to humanoid robots. For the generation of human motion sequences to the humanoid robot ARMAR IIIb. Since the focus is set on upper body movements, only 17 DoF (7

  12. Researchers meld robots, humans --MercedSunStar.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    will be integrated together to help researchers record a variety of human movements into a computer -- and applyResearchers meld robots, humans -- MercedSunStar.com :: Merced New... http afternoon at the university. Print E-Mail AIM Friday, Sep. 21, 2007 Researchers meld robots, humans Grant

  13. Imitating Human Dance Motions through Motion Structure Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    to apply this idea for importing human dance motions into humanoid robots. Our project overview is shown and Technology Abstract This paper presents the method for importing human dance motion into humanoid robots-kinematics and dynamic balancing technique. Keywords: human motion, humanoid robot, motion prim- itive, motion capture

  14. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  15. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fowler, Joanna S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Logan, Jean [New York Univ., Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Shumay, Elena [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); Alia-Klein, Nelly [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Wang, Gene-Jack [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); Volkow, Nora D. [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Inst. of Health, Betheseda, MD (United States); National Inst. on Drug Abuse, National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variables which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.

  16. Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J. (BNL); Fleger, S.; Barnes V. (NRC)

    2010-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

  17. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  18. Human factors engineers as change agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, B.P.; Harbour, G.L.; Caccamise, D.J.; Francis, L.C.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a case study and the lessons learned when a Human Factors Engineering (HFE) Department was enlisted as technical experts but gradually assumed a much larger role as change agents in transforming outdated job practices into streamlined processes that promoted a safety culture. At Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons processing plant in Colorado, a workforce of over 7000 people support or directly operate a myriad of processes that range from laboratory analysis to typical foundry activities, greatly complicated by the presence of fissile, radioactive materials. Safe handling of these materials was governed by detailed discussions contained in Nuclear Material Safety limits (NMSLs). In spite of this rather extensive documentation, operators were committing an unacceptable number of safety infractions. Analysis revealed NMSLs were difficult to comprehend and not practical for use in operational settings. New job performance aids, called Criticality Safety Operating Limits (CSOLs) were developed to solve these problems. However, the solution involved more than applying good human factors principles to this job-aid. Following the classic Lewin Force Field Model of Change, safety infractions made change imperative; the forces operating against it were tradition, and perceived irrelevance of new expertise. Historically, Criticality Engineering dictated safety limits to Operations. In the course of Human Factoring'' the CSOLs, the HFE, through an iterative process, became the team integrator of this development process. Using Quality concepts such as buy-in, empowerment, and ownership, HFE was able to instantiate and receive enthusiastic acceptance of their products.

  19. Monoamine oxidase: Radiotracer chemistry and human studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Logan, Jean; Shumay, Elena; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) oxidizes amines from both endogenous and exogenous sources thereby regulating the concentration of neurotransmitter amines such as serot onin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as many xenobiotics. MAO inhibitor drugs are used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in depression stimulating the development of radiotracer tools to probe the role of MAO in normal human biology and in disease. Over the past 30 since the first radiotracers were developed and the first PET images of MAO in humans were carried out, PET studies of brain MAO in healthy volunteers and in patients have identified different variablesmore »which have contributed to different MAO levels in brain and in peripheral organs. MAO radiotracers and PET have also been used to study the current and developing MAO inhibitor drugs including the selection of doses for clinical trials. In this article, we describe (1) the development of MAO radiotracers; (2) human studies including the relationship of brain MAO levels to genotype, personality, neurological and psychiatric disorders; (3) examples of the use of MAO radiotracers in drug research and development. We will conclude with outstanding needs to improve the radiotracers which are currently used and possible new applications.« less

  20. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the requirements of the end-user are taken into account during the design process and the validity of design is determined through testing of real end users

  1. Developmental Cell Three-Dimensional Epithelial Morphogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"

    @princeton.edu http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2013.01.017 SUMMARY Morphogenesis of the respiratory appendages on eggshells of Drosophila species provides a powerful experimental system for studying how cell sheets give changes in morphology. Computational modeling shows that this mechanism could explain the main features

  2. SU-E-J-107: Supervised Learning Model of Aligned Collagen for Human Breast Carcinoma Prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bredfeldt, J; Liu, Y; Conklin, M; Keely, P; Eliceiri, K; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Our goal is to develop and apply a set of optical and computational tools to enable large-scale investigations of the interaction between collagen and tumor cells. Methods: We have built a novel imaging system for automating the capture of whole-slide second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen in registry with bright field (BF) images of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue. To analyze our images, we have integrated a suite of supervised learning tools that semi-automatically model and score collagen interactions with tumor cells via a variety of metrics, a method we call Electronic Tumor Associated Collagen Signatures (eTACS). This group of tools first segments regions of epithelial cells and collagen fibers from BF and SHG images respectively. We then associate fibers with groups of epithelial cells and finally compute features based on the angle of interaction and density of the collagen surrounding the epithelial cell clusters. These features are then processed with a support vector machine to separate cancer patients into high and low risk groups. Results: We validated our model by showing that eTACS produces classifications that have statistically significant correlation with manual classifications. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted breast cancer patient survival in a cohort of 196 patients. Feature rank analysis revealed that TACS positive fibers are more well aligned with each other, generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells. Conclusion: We are working to apply our model to predict survival in larger cohorts of breast cancer patients with a diversity of breast cancer types, predict response to treatments such as COX2 inhibitors, and to study collagen architecture changes in other cancer types. In the future, our system may be used to provide metastatic potential information to cancer patients to augment existing clinical assays.

  3. Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

  4. HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped SchoolofHumanEnvironmentalSciences HES 100 AN INTRODUCTION TO PROFESSIONS IN HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. (1) An orientation to human environmental sciences, its history, contemporary issues and philosophy

  5. Interleukin-1?-induced barrier dysfunction is signaled through PKC-? in human brain microvascular endothelium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigor, Robert R Ph.D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZO-1 (9). In parallel experiments with human umbilical veinHUMAN BBB DYSFUNCTION more, immunoprecipitation experiments

  6. Human somatic, germinal and heritable mutagenicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report deals with the general process of variant formation rather than with the consequences of a specific variant being present. It focusses on mutational mechanisms, mutagens, and the method for detecting de novo mutants and estimating mutation rate. It is to human genetics much like disease causation and prevention medicine are to medicine as a whole. The word ''mutagenicity'' is used in the title and throughout the text to connote the causation of all classes of genetic damage. Mutagenicity and the corresponding words mutation, mutagen and mutagenesis can have multiple meaning, sometimes relating to gene mutation, sometimes to heritable mutation, and somtimes to all types of genetic damage. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Growth of selected bacteria in human milk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewakramani, Nalini

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to sampling were lower than those who were not (Gavin and Ostavar, 1977). Findings from West et al. (1979) show higher micro- bial counts in initial milk than counts from "midstream" milk samples and that discarding at least 10 ml of the initial milk would... ASM University. All apparatus with which the milk made contact was sterilized (121' C for 20 min) prior to use. Media and Chemicals The cultures were maintained on Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA, Difco) slants at 26' C. Inocula for human milk samples...

  8. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  9. Osmotic water permeability of human red cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.C.; Solomon, A.K.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The osmotic water permeability of human red cells has been reexamined with a stopped-flow device and a new perturbation technique. Small osmotic gradients are used to minimize the systematic error caused by nonlinearities in the relationship between cell volume and light scattering. Corrections are then made for residual systematic error. Our results show that the hydraulic conductivity, Lp, is essentially independent of the direction of water flow and of osmolality in the range 184-365 mosM. the mean value of Lp obtained obtained was 1.8 +/- 0.1 (SEM) X 10-11 cm3 dyne -1 s-1.

  10. Human retroviruses and AIDS, 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.; Korber, B. (eds.) (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Berzofsky, J.A.; Pavlakis, G.N. (eds.) (National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)); Smith, R.F. (ed.) (Harvard Univ. (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compendium and the accompanying floppy diskettes are the result of an effort to compile and rapidly publish all relevant molecular data concerning the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and related retroviruses.The scope of the compendium and database is best summarized by the five parts that it comprises: (1) HIV and SIV Nucleotide Sequences; (2) Amino Acid Sequences; (3) Analyses; (4) Related Sequences; and (5) Database Communications. Information within all the parts is updated at least twice in each year, which accounts for the modes of binding and pagination in the compendium.

  11. Storage stability of human milk enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chia-Tsun

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Those sub- stances are important to the health of infants and pre- mature babies. Room temperature (25 0) storage of freeze-dried m'lk, low temperature (-20 C) storage of freeze-dried milk, and low temperature (-20 0) stcrage o " liouid milk were... selected to meet the need of esta'blis'n- ing the human milk bank. Lipase activity decreased sharply during the first day of' storage at 20 0 for freeze-dried samples, and at -20~0 f' or freeze-dried samples as well as in those milks f'rozen from...

  12. New human resources division leader selected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE Project Taps HPCNew User and DataNewstate ofNew Human

  13. Human Resources | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010a(SC)Human Resources |

  14. ORISE: Human Subjects Protection Resource Protection Book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE ProjectCrisis andExercise GoldenHistoryHowHowHuman

  15. HUMAN RADIATION STUDIES: REMEMBERING THE EARLY YEARS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451DOE/SC0002390dVandHEATINGDOBEH -0454 HUMAN

  16. Climate Human Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork: EnergyWitham, England,Human

  17. The Spatial Structure of Transnational Human Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have shown that the spatial structures of animal displacements and local-scale human motion follow L\\'{e}vy flights. Whether transnational human activity (THA) also exhibits such a pattern has however not been thoroughly examined as yet. To fill this gap, this article examines the planet-scale spatial structure of THA (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. Combining data from various sources, it is shown that the spatial structure of THA can indeed be approximated by L\\'{e}vy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time, the L\\'{e}vy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular idea that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of dista...

  18. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Glen A. (Encinitas, CA); Djabali, Malek (Marseilles, FR); Selleri, Licia (Del Mar, CA); Parry, Pauline (San Diego, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  19. Microwaves, hyperthermia, and human leukocyte function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, N.J. Jr; Lu, S.; Michaelson, S.M.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide exposure facility for in vitro irradiation of human leukocytes. Calorimetric determinations of specific absorption rates (SAR) were made using heating curves measured with a microwave transparent Vitek 101 Electrothermia Monitor. The correlation between SAR and forward power was highly significant (r=0.95). At a forward power of 0.55 W the average SAR was approximately 33 mW/ml. However, inhomogeneity and significant resonance absorption were noted in the dual vial waveguide exposure facility. A 30-point measurement of SAR distribution revealed that the SAR at any of the measured points could range between 0.12- and 3.94-fold of the average SAR within the given vial. Measurements indicated that this variability in SAR values did not create significant thermal gradients within the vials when external agitation was applied.

  20. CES507, University of Essex Page 1 Multimodal Human-Machine Interaction for Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Huosheng

    . This project represents a robotic arm teleoperated through visual and EMG data provided in a remote location. The robotic arm imitates a human's arm action in displacing an object on the table using visual data provided process. System Design The aim of this project is to develop a setup in which a robotic arm imitates

  1. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; Ali Mosleh; Carol Smidts

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  2. Abstract--Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenyon, Robert V.

    , exponential advances in miniaturization, and computing has laid the ground for transforming high tech gadgets]. More recently, his Singularity "movement" has been trending toward life extension through advances of human intelligence through computing is one of its core interests. However HA distinguishes itself from

  3. Structure and Receptor Specificity of an Avian Flu Antigen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combined effects could allow the Viet04 virus to escape entrapment by mucins in the lungs and increase binding to susceptible human epithelial cells. These mutations therefore...

  4. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  5. Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and hea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zürich, Universität

    Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health, societal issues, industrial innovation, Infrastructure, human resources, international Infrastructure, human resources, international cooperation, research and development, environment and health

  6. Beyond The Human Genome: What's Next? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    UC Berkeley's Daniel Rokhsar and his colleagues were instrumental in contributing the sequences for three of the human body's chromosomes in the effort to decipher the blueprint of life- the completion of the DNA sequencing of the human genome. Now he is turning to the structure and function of genes in other organisms, some of them no less important to the planet's future than the human map. Hear the latest in this lecture from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  7. A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    A System for Open-Access 3 He Human Lung Imaging at Very Low Field I.C. RUSET,1 L.L. TSAI,2,3 R describe a prototype system built to allow open-access very-low-field MRI of human lungs using laser images of human lungs. We include discussion on challenges unique to imaging at 50­200 kHz, including

  8. ageing human colonic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : 0469-9 12;5122013 Postdoctoral position for the Thalis Program Human cells Genome surveillance, Proteasome Mitochondrial metabolism Mitochondria & Lysosomes Genome 213...

  9. autologous human peripheral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    significant. Two subjects continued to have de- creased cell Lieberman, Judy 6 Helicobacter pylori Induces Activation of Human Peripheral cd+ T Lymphocytes CiteSeer...

  10. assessing human exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the offspring through a phenomenon known as developmental programming. ... O'Reilly, James Richard 2014-07-05 84 Human cytokine responses during natural and experimental...

  11. affect perceived human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Case Study from3 Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China4 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1 1 2 Perception and Decisions in Modeling Coupled Human and...

  12. autonomy assisted human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Human Analyst Performance in Assisted Requirements Tracing: Statistical Alex Dekhtyar, Olga Dekhtyar, Jeff Holden, Jane Huffman Hayes, David Cuddeback, and Wei-Keat Kong...

  13. Algorithms for enhanced spatiotemporal imaging of human brain function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of human brain function require technologies to non-invasively image neuronal dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) measure neuronal activity ...

  14. acid protects human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT - DSpace Summary: Commercial human spaceflight looks ready to take off as an industry, with "space tourism" as its first application. Paying passengers are likely to begin...

  15. DOE human genome program contractor-grantee workshop VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is presented from the workshop on the Human Genome Project. Topics include sequencing, genetic mapping, informatics, ethical and legal issues, and infrastructure.

  16. MEMORANDUM FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DIRECTORS FROM: ILLA, DIRECTOR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SARA J. BO HUMAN C ITAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 17 SPECIAL EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM CODES The purpose of this memorandum is to reiterate the importance of each...

  17. Identifying Requirements for Effective Human-Automation Teamwork

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Heather D. Medema; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have shown that poorly designed human-automation collaboration, such as poorly designed communication protocols, often leads to problems for the human operators, such as: lack of vigilance, complacency, and loss of skills. These problems often lead to suboptimal system performance. To address this situation, a considerable amount of research has been conducted to improve human-automation collaboration and to make automation function better as a “team player.” Much of this research is based on an understanding of what it means to be a good team player from the perspective of a human team. However, the research is often based on a simplified view of human teams and teamwork. In this study, we sought to better understand the capabilities and limitations of automation from the standpoint of human teams. We first examined human teams to identify the principles for effective teamwork. We next reviewed the research on integrating automation agents and human agents into mixed agent teams to identify the limitations of automation agents to conform to teamwork principles. This research resulted in insights that can lead to more effective human-automation collaboration by enabling a more realistic set of requirements to be developed based on the strengths and limitations of all agents.

  18. Human Health Risk & Environmental Analysis | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the interplay between human health and environmental risks associated with energy production, hazardous waste, national security and natural disasters. Research findings...

  19. ancient human burials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of ancient human pathogens Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 22 Experience Ancient Egypt Uncover the secrets of the ancient world... Engineering Websites Summary: in Care in...

  20. aberrant human cancer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - DSpace Summary: Optical aberrations of the human eye are currently corrected using eyeglasses, contact lenses, or surgery. We describe a fourth option: modifying the composition...