National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for households burning wood

  1. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  2. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  3. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  4. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2 emissions 616263646566 67686970717273747576 7778798081828384858687888990 919293949596979899100 BBOA wood burning 1² = 0.77 C3H5O2 + vs BBOA r² = 0.93 5 4 3 2 1 0 HOA(µgm -3 ) 706050403020100 NOx (ppb) HOA vs NOx r² = 0

  5. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overviews 1 SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet. The DemoEast programme objective in Estonia was to promote the pellets firing technology, equipment and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

  6. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'S FUTURE.ProjectsLeaders |3RadjaWendeWood and

  8. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observer’s visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  9. Assessment methodology for the air quality impact of residential wood burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    Data from surveys of 1977-1979 indicate that firewood usage tends to vary inversely with population density, resulting in an implied limit to the density of usage. Tests of wood stoves indicate that emissions of particulates vary inversely with heat demand, such that nighttime emissions at low combustion rates may be worse than those during maximum heat demand conditions. Finally, atmospheric dispersion rates are coupled to the driving forces of space heating so that nighttime emissions tend to have a disproportionately large impact on ambient air quality. All of these factors must be considered jointly in order to perform a meaningful assessment of the air quality impacts of increased residential wood fuel use; the results indicate that in flat terrain primary ambient standards are not threatened by residential wood combustion.

  10. Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    zz§ § *Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, USA Abstract Wood represents the defining feature of forest systems, and often the carbon in woody turnover and its feedback to climate. Keywords: C cycle, carbon, decomposition, fire, microbial decay

  11. Rapid energy savings in London's households to mitigate an energy crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Aurore; Barrett, Mark; Croxford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    to mitigate an energy crisis Wood, G. & Newborough, M. ,households to mitigate an energy crisis Chen, A. , 2008.households to mitigate an energy crisis Rapid energy savings

  12. HOT BOTTOM BURNING IN INTERMEDIATE MASS STARS JOHN LATTANZIO 1;2 , CHERYL FROST 1;2 , ROBERT CANNON 2;3 , PETER WOOD 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lattanzio, John

    2;3 , PETER WOOD 4 1 Monash University, Melbourne, Australia 2 Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge in the Magellanic Clouds were observed by Wood, Bessell and Fox (1983) they were surprised to discover

  13. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn wood chips or pellets, which are fed into the boilers automatically by an electronically regulatedWood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood') supports the development of renewable energy from wood fuel. Of all the clean energy technologies, wood

  14. Hot Bottom Burning Nucleosynthesis in 6 M fi Stellar Models J. C. Lattanzio and C. A. Frost a , R. C. Cannon b , and P. R. Wood c .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lattanzio, John

    1 Hot Bottom Burning Nucleosynthesis in 6 M fi Stellar Models J. C. Lattanzio and C. A. Frost a , R, Australia We present a brief summary of some nucleosynthesis calculations for 6 M fi stellar models. Theoretical studies are desperately needed to quantify the nucleosynthesis which occurs in intermediate mass

  15. Wood products What is wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slik, Ferry

    Products Particleboard sheets of woods consisting of small wood pieces Production - Wood chipping - Sorting Fiberboard sheets of wood produced from wood fibers (often feels a bit papery) Production - Wood chips for horizontal connections Functions - Protection (secondary compounds) - Horizontal transport - Storage The rays

  16. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  17. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Household Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli-...

  18. Wood stove use in the end-use load and consumer assessment program residential base sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report examines wood heating in the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) Residential Base Sample during the 1985/1986 heating season. The goals of this study were to assess the frequency of wood burning in homes having wood burning equipment and to estimate the quantity of electrical space heat displaced by it use. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step...

  20. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  1. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3a. Appliances by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible...

  2. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Household Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to...

  3. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9a. Household Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row...

  4. Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department. C. Radeloff, C. A. Lepczyk, E. M. Wood, S. I. Stewart, and R. B. Hammer. Systematic temporal

  5. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pages HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC2-2a. Household Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households,...

  6. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  7. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  8. STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Hubert G.

    2013-01-01

    co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

  9. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Household Characteristics by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  10. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Household Characteristics by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors...

  11. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Household Characteristics by UrbanRural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total UrbanRural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City...

  12. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1a. Household Characteristics by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors...

  13. char_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Household Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD...

  14. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Home Office Equipment by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for...

  15. Household Conveniences and How to Make Them. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, G. E.

    1915-01-01

    - ture; B. Youngblood, M. S., Director of Texas Experiment Sta- tions; G. S. Fraps, Ph. D., Chemist, Experiment Station, State Chemist; Ike S. Ash burn, Jr., Publicity Agent, Secretary. EXTENSION S T A F F : W. F. Procter, State Agent, Farm..., the trunk or box should be used. • B. Insulation. It is essential that the insulating material be a poor conductor of heat and it. is desirable that it be a non-inflammable material. Wood ashes, in which there is some charcoal to prevent packing, is one...

  16. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

  17. usage_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Usage Indicators Tables (Million U.S. Households; 60 pages, 247 kb) Contents Pages HC6-1a. Usage Indicators by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC6-2a. Usage...

  18. appl_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Appliances Tables (Million U.S. Households; 60 pages, 240 kb) Contents Pages HC5-1a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-2a. Appliances by Year of...

  19. Policy Uncertainty and Household Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giavazzi, Francesco

    Using German microdata and a quasi-natural experiment, we provide evidence on how households respond to an increase in uncertainty. We find that household saving increases significantly following the increase in political ...

  20. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    kb) Contents Pages HC4-1a. Air Conditioning by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2 HC4-2a. Air Conditioning by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 2...

  1. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Home Office Equipment Tables (Million U.S. Households; 12 pages, 123 kb) Contents Pages HC7-1a. Home Office Equipment by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 1 HC7-2a. Home...

  2. 20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    20 Engineered Wood Journal · Spring 2004 A re wood design course offerings in civil, architectural, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

  3. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Wood Resources International Production of energy from wood fuels in 2000 Source: EUBIONET 0 50 100 150.3% Sweden 5.3% Finland 4.1% Russia 13.8% US 37.3% Germany 3.3% France 2.8% Poland 2.1% Other Europe 14 #12;Wood Resources International Global Industrial Roundwood Production in 2002 Other Europe 6.9% CIS

  5. Planning a Prescribed Burn 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2009-04-01

    , the size of the burn, and its impact on wildlife habitat. If you burned using this plan, you would probably never burn rangeland again on purpose because of the risks taken and the potential for disappointing results. Effective planning well in advance...-leaved herbaceous plants other than grass, may look rank (vigorous) and dense enough to burn, but by midwinter they often have broken down. Woody debris and standing dead trees help little in spreading a fire. The grass fuel also needs to be ready at the right...

  6. Combustion air intake system for wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisiminger, L.D.

    1982-02-23

    Hinged doors are provided on the front of a stove for sealably closing across a large opening through which logs can be loaded into a firebox within the stove. A cylindrical draft chamber is formed on an exterior surface of one or each of the doors. A draft cap is rotatable on a threaded stud which is coaxially secured in the cylindrical draft chamber. The draft cap includes an annular flange forming a sliding close-tolerance fit with an interior cylindrical wall of the draft chamber so that the cap can be rotated to vary the size of the draft chamber to selectively restrict the flow of air from a source through the draft chamber to the firebox whenever the doors are closed.

  7. HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

  8. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  9. Try This: Household Magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / TransformingTransuranicTrillion Advanced UsageHousehold

  10. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  11. Managing Household Ant Pests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2005-12-02

    around buildings Indoors: Treat cracks, crevices, wall voids, and ant tunnels in wood Spectracide Fire Ant Killer Granules 2 Prescription Treatment 221 L Residual Insecticide Scimitar GC Insecticide CAUTION linalool + N-octyl bicycloheptene... stream_source_info pdf_295.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32841 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_295.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 n nature, ants are generally...

  12. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  13. Wood pelletization sourcebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Whittier, J. [NEOS Corporation, Lakewood, CO (United States); Fisher, J. [Pellet Fuels Institute, Edina, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Wood Pelletization Sourcebook is a document that provides business guidelines and technical information to those considering entering the wood pelleting business. Also, the sourcebook is a useful supplementary document for lenders to refer to in their analysis of a potential manufacturer`s business plan. A survey of wood pellet manufacturers was conducted during the spring and summer of 1994 to gather information on marketing, pelletization technology, environmental regulations, raw material supply and costs, production costs, and the overall outlook of the industry. The study characterizes different sized pelleting operations, creates a sample business plan for potential manufacturers, and identifies key industry success factors.

  14. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all assistance to the primary and value-added processing wood products industries in Louisiana. Since its

  15. WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cufar, Katarina

    WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY WORK KATARINA CUFAR, MARTIN ZUPANCIC University of Ljubljana Biotechnical Faculty Department of Wood Science and Technology #12;Publisher Department of Wood The publishing of "Wood Anatomy - Instructions for Laboratory Work", a textbook by Katarina Cufar and Martin

  16. William B. Wood Complete Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Norman

    3/24/14 William B. Wood Complete Publications Scientific Research: 1. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P protein-ribosome system from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 94-104. 2. Wood, W. B Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23: 237-246. 3. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P. (1964) Influence of DNA secondary

  17. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  18. Household Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion of household products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    over a larger area and releases them into the air. Pouring hazardous liquids on the ground can poisonHousehold Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste is the discarded, unused, or leftover portion should be considered hazardous. You cannot treat hazardous wastes like other kinds of garbage

  19. Energy use by households in a rural area of the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yust, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between fuels used by households in a rural region of Leyte Province, the Philippines, and the variables that can affect the type and amount of fuel used were examined. Data were drawn from interviews conducted in a previous study with 150 female heads of households from 10 villages near Baybay, Leyte. Within a family-ecosystem framework, a multiple regression model was developed to identify predictors of fuel use in the households. Inputs to the system included the following independent variables representing aspects of household environments; (1) natural--geographic location of the village, (2) technical--cook stove and equipment ownership, (3) economic--distance to fuel sources and number of hectares of land owned, and (4) cultural-cooking fuel preference. Two regression equations were developed. The first used as the dependent variable the number of units of each of four specific fuels used in the household in one week: wood, coconut fronds, and coconut shells, and coconut husks with shells. The second used as the dependent variable an aggregate measure, barrel oil equivalent (boe), of the quantity of all fuels used in the household in one week. The households in this study were primarily dependent on biomass fuels gathered by family members; a limited quantity of commercial fuels was used.

  20. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  1. Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategy Woods for Health #12;Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy Foreword Like the rest of the western world, Scotland experiences growing rates a key role in helping to promote better physical and mental health for all by providing greenspace

  2. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  3. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimring, Mark

    2012-01-01

    income range, households can become passive very quickly. ”income range, households can become passive very quickly. ”

  4. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row...

  5. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Appliances by UrbanRural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total UrbanRural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town...

  6. housingunit_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pages HC1-1a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC1-2a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, Million U.S....

  7. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001...

  8. appl_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0a. Appliances by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  9. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4a. Air Conditioning by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors...

  10. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8a. Air Conditioning by UrbanRural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total UrbanRural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City...

  11. appl_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of...

  12. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Appliances by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  13. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 Total...

  14. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Appliances by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors...

  15. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  16. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Air Conditioning by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors...

  17. appl_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors...

  18. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Appliances by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit...

  19. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to...

  20. appl_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  1. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1a. Air Conditioning by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  2. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1...

  3. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Air Conditioning by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and...

  4. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Home Office Equipment by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1...

  5. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0a. Home Office Equipment by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total...

  6. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1a. Home Office Equipment by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census...

  7. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9a. Home Office Equipment by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors...

  8. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2a. Home Office Equipment by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census...

  9. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, P.M. (John B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory, New Haven, CT (USA)); Rossman, T.G. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York (USA)); Daisey, J.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  10. Juvenile Responses to Household Ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    discussion addresses longstanding issues in hunter-gatherer stud- ies: are there recurrent features of hunter). In Putaya, eleven open-sided thatched houses with raised palm wood floors were located along both sides

  11. The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2007-01-01

    Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

  12. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  13. The land around typical Darfur refugee camps is cleared of all wood 2 T H E T R O U B L E W I T H C O O K I N Gthe impact of biomass-burning on health & enviornment and what we are doing about it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    The land around typical Darfur refugee camps is cleared of all wood 2 T H E T R O U B L E W I T H C-25. Collected cooking and fuel price data from Port-au-Prince,Mirebalais,Toumonde,and Cange. [7] Women's Refugee

  14. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  15. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    HOW MANY HYBRID HOUSEHOLDS IN THE CALIFORNIA NEW CAR MARKET?average 2.43 cars per household, then the hybrid householdnumber of multi-car households that fit our hybrid household

  16. Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

  17. Management of ancient wood pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Management of ancient wood pasture Summary Ancient wood pasture is recognised. This guidance note provides an introduction to the restoration and management of ancient wood pastures in Scotland. It is aimed at land managers, their advisers and agency staff involved in land management

  18. Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  19. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  20. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  1. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  2. Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol Extravasation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Rahul; Yoshikawa, Hana; Abisaab, Josyann

    2012-01-01

    IN E MERGENCY M EDICINE Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofolof Emergency Medicine Chemical Burn Secondary to Propofol

  3. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household4a. Household

  4. Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF burning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemann, K.; Campbell, J.

    1982-03-01

    The Mobilizable RDF/d-RDF Burning Program was conceived to promote the utilization of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) as a supplement to existing fossil fuel sources in industrial-sized boilers. The program explores the design, development, and eventual construction of densified-RDF (d-RDF) for use in boiler combustion testing as a supplement to stoker coal or wood wastes. The equipment would be mounted on trailers and assembled and operated at preselected sites throughout the country where approximately 750 tons of RDF would be produced and test burned in a local boiler. The equipment, to include a transportable RDF boiler metering and feed system, would then be moved and operated at two to three test sites annually. The program is intended to encourage the construction of permanent resource recovery facilities by involving local waste handling groups in operating the equipment and producing fuel, and potential local fuel users in testing the fuel in their boilers. The Mobilizable Program was developed from two separate tasks. The first task developed the concept behind the program and defined its operational and organizational structure. The second task, a follow-up to the first, was intended principally to finalize test locations, develop equipment designs and specifications, and formalize a management program. This report summarizes the principal findings of both tasks. It identifies the criteria used to identify test locations, outlines the program's management structure, presents design and performance specifications for both the fuel production equipment and boiler fuel feed systems, and provides a detailed evaluation of the parameters involved in burning RDF in industrial-sized boilers. Final conclusions and recommendations identify problem areas encountered in the program, and discuss possible future directions for such a program.

  5. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  6. Essays on microeconomics of the household

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahhaj, Zaki

    2006-01-01

    These essays are concerned with the problem of cooperation among individuals in a household and among households in a community under lack of commitment. The first chapter provides a theoretical investigation of consumption ...

  7. Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    Bending Burning Matches and Crumpling Burning Paper Zeki Melek Texas A&M University Department burning. Specifically, we can simulate the bending of burning matches, and the folding of burning paper objects. Examples include the upward bending seen in burning matches and the crumpling of burning paper

  8. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    2009-01-01

    the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

  9. SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS T_Wood1 to T_Wood35

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Carl

    SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS WOODS.INC T_Wood1 to T_Wood35 STONES.INC T_Stone1 to T_Stone44Pink DarkPurple NeonBlue CoolCopper MandarinOrange LightWood MediumWood DarkWood SpicyPink Semi

  10. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central progression, forest fires, infrared perimeter mapping, northern Rockies 1. Introduction Extreme wildfires Yellowstone Fires (Turner et al 1994), the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fires, and the Australian Black Saturday

  11. Causes and Control of Wood Decay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Causes and Control of Wood Decay, Degradation & Stain #12;2 Contents Moisture .................................................................................3 Wood Degradation: Causes and Control..............................4 Weathering......................................................................................................4 Naturally Decay-resistant Species...........................................................5 Wood

  12. Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict soils (DeBano, 1981; Doerr et al., 2000; Letey, 2001; Woods et al., 2006) that reduce infiltration and increase overland flow and erosion through the production of rills and channels (Wells, 1987). Infiltration of

  13. Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors VOCALS Education and Outreach Snider (Wyoming) · Dave Spencer (NCSU) · Cindy Twohy (OSU) · Rob Wood/Chris Bretherton/Rhea George

  14. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  15. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  16. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union’s solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the Czech Ministry of Environment to optimise the national waste management strategy.

  17. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The0 11.07125Household Tables

  18. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The0 11.07125Household

  19. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The0 11.07125Household1a.

  20. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The0 11.07125Household1a.2a.

  1. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The0 11.07125Household1a.2a.a.

  2. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household

  3. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household4a.

  4. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household4a.6a.

  5. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household4a.6a.2001

  6. char_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpg The03a. Household4a.6a.20018a.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01

    of  American household carbon footprint. ” Ecological and  limitations) of carbon footprint estimates toward of the art in carbon footprint analyses for California, 

  8. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Homeowner and...

  9. Proactive climate protection Building with wood =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = CO2 Proactive climate protection Building with wood = CO 2 #12;Introduction Forests play to produce wood products is vastly lower than other materials. Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = CO 2 products, carbon storage p. 3 Forests = Natural

  10. Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

  11. MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012 University of Arizona, College of Education Department 2005 #12;Marcy B. Wood October 2012 Page 2 PUBLICATIONS REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES Wood, M. B., Olson, A-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children. School Science and Mathematics. Good, T. L., Wood, M. B., Sabers, D

  12. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in developing pellet production and district heating systems; the formulation of a national wood energy strategy

  13. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service Woods Hole Laboratory Northeast, Lectures, and Rededication of the Woods Hole Laboratory Contents Foreword and Acknowledgments Committees and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory Centennial Lecture II: The MBL and the Fisheries-A Century

  14. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  15. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

  16. Prescribed Range Burning in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-04-25

    Prescribed burning is an effective brush management technique for improving pasture accessibility and increasing the production of forage and browse. Fire also suppresses most brush and cactus species. This bulletin discusses how to plan...

  17. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01

    wood. This thesis investigates the use of sucrose and how it reacts with wood's ultrastucture to prevent shrinkage and warpage of waterlogged wood. Experiments using archaeological wood from the sunken city of seventeenth century Port Royal... expensive, non-toxic, non-flammable, non-hygroscopic and is readily available in most countries. Utilization of sugar to stabilize wood is not a new concept. A United States patent, No. 755, 240, was issued 32 to William Powell of Liverpool, England...

  18. Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

  19. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  20. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  1. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"...

  2. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently...

  3. Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants Lena Q. Ma.e. CCA-treated wood and wood ash. In Florida, up to 5,000,000 ft3 CCA-treated wood were used in 1996 alone and up to 50,000 tons of wood ash are produced annually. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate

  4. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  5. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ' was developed upon the basis of an energy data survey conducted among 2,500 households in the year 1996

  6. Household gasoline demand in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  8. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    analysis of the wood-oil product derived from the above2 g It is probable that oil products with oxygen contentscollected with the wood-oil product. The condensate contains

  9. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  10. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  11. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  12. Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

    2014-01-01

    Number 1 January 2014 Letter Chemical burn caused by topicalan unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlicirritant contact dermatitis, chemical burn, allium sativum

  13. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender) #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-07-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue University Cooperative

  14. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

  15. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-08-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology OAK, these beetles feed on oak (Quercus spp). Direct damage results from galleries in the wood that are formed in the breeding season. The host trees for these beetles are important for the wood indus- try, orna

  16. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-09-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology EUROPEAN trees are very crucial for the wood industry, ornamental industry and many species of wildlife: The beetles construct the egg gal- leries perpendicular to the grain of the wood which can be found under

  17. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-06-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology CAMPHOR August. Female beetles make a horizontal tunnel in the wood initiating gallery construction where/APHIS grant number 10-8100-1488-CA. #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-06-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue

  18. WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared from poplar wood (P. ussuriensis Komarov) in a two-step procedure. Maleic anhydride (MAN) was first dis

  19. GUYANA FORESTRY COMMISSION NATIONAL WOOD TRACKING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber Sales Agreement VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement WCL Wood Cutting Lease WTS Wood Tracking chain is managed and controlled the Guyana Forestry Commission has developed a Wood Tracking System (WTS in the process as well as flow charts illustrating essential elements of the system. The WTS links closely

  20. Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants for Engineering Undergraduates APPLICATION by a generous donation from the estate of Donald L. Wood. The student application and final report will be used to describe our accomplishments to the family of this sponsor. #12;Donald L. Wood Professional Conference

  1. How wood waters down wall insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunde, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Wood framing in walls can lower the actual insulating values, since the R-value of wood is only one per inch of thickness. A chart is presented that shows how wood in the stud space reduces insulating values. Several wall systems and the nominal R-value of insulation for each is presented.

  2. 2011 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. University of Minnesota Extension is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Wood pallets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    coal alone. Bio-fuels are renewable fuels that are neutral with respect to carbon dioxide emissions lumber (LSL) and composite I-beams. Other Benefits Bioenergy: Poplar wood, chips, or pellets can be burned directly for energy production or mixed with coal to produce electricity (Licht and Isebrands

  3. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  4. FROM YEARNING TO BURNING Marshall Rosenbluth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for long pulse burning and nuclear technology studies. There is evidently a huge cost saving in going

  5. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    of power such as ocean wave energy, and 4) hybrid vehicles that use standard propulsion systems and glider26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States. This is still true but scientists at various institutions such as Florida Institute of Technology's Department

  6. PHYSICS OF BURNING PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;OUTLINE · Introduction · Three Classes of Burning Plasma Physics inaccessable to contemporary tokamak of inaccessable burning plasma physics · Conclusions FIRE Workshop 2 May 2000 #12;INTRODUCTION · A fusion reactorPHYSICS OF BURNING PLASMAS: PHYSICS INACCESSIBLE TO PRESENT FACILITIES FIRE Physics Workshop May

  7. Burn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and heating power through particle heating. ·Burn control has to be performed under this linkage involvingBurn control study using burning plasma simulation experiments in JT-60U H. Takenaga1), Y. Miura1 various physics. This study provides new approach to the burn control study. The linkage is experimentally

  8. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line...

  9. Essays on household decision making in developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, James W. (James Wesley)

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays on household decision making in the areas of education and health in developing countries. The first chapter explores intra-household decision making in the context of conditional ...

  10. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies Eva JanssensEva Janssens (Economic Adviser)(Economic Adviser) #12;European PanelSupporting sustainable forest managementsustainable forest management ·· Continuously improving recycling rates

  11. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  12. The hybrid rich-burn/lean burn engine. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.A.; Podnar, D.; Meyers, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed a unique engine technology called Hybrid Rich-Burn/Lean-Burn (HRBLB) that capitalizes on the low production of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) during extremely rich and lean combustion. The HRBLB concept is predicated on simultaneous combustion of extremely rich and lean natural gas-air mixtures in separate cylinders. Rich exhaust products undergo a catalytic water-gas shift reaction to form an intermediate combustible fuel composed of carbon monoxide, water vapor, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. All of the intermediate fuel is added to lean natural gas-air mixtures in other cylinders to enhance ignitability that would otherwise result in misfire. This paper presents results obtained during the development of a stationary, turbocharged, and intercooled, 18-liter HRBLB engine. Results show that NO{sub x} can be reduced by a factor of 2.5 to 3.5 relative to stock engine emissions at equivalent efficiency. The HRBLB engine has demonstrated corrected NO{sub x} (15% O{sub 2}) levels of 23 ppm at rated load with thermal efficiencies of 35%.

  13. Time Feature Selection for Identifying Active Household Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. The identification of active house- hold members, defined as the discrimination of which users from a given household

  14. Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson Communications Project Manager Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education University of Hawaii at Mnoa "Understanding the Role of Viruses

  15. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  16. Demographic Patterns and Household Saving in China Chadwick C. Curtis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    Demographic Patterns and Household Saving in China Chadwick C. Curtis University of Richmond the aggregate household saving rate. We focus on China because it is experiencing an historic demographic transition and has had a massive increase in household saving. We conduct a quantitative investigation using

  17. Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA Abstract We measured fracture resistance curves (or R curves) for laminated veneer. The LVL and solid wood R curves were the same for initiation of fracture, but the LVL toughness rose much

  18. Burn site groundwater interim measures work plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, Jonathan L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-01

    This Work Plan identifies and outlines interim measures to address nitrate contamination in groundwater at the Burn Site, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. The New Mexico Environment Department has required implementation of interim measures for nitrate-contaminated groundwater at the Burn Site. The purpose of interim measures is to prevent human or environmental exposure to nitrate-contaminated groundwater originating from the Burn Site. This Work Plan details a summary of current information about the Burn Site, interim measures activities for stabilization, and project management responsibilities to accomplish this purpose.

  19. Aalborg Universitet CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chungen

    -to-Energy (WtE) plants for CHP (combined heat and power) production from waste combustion/incineration. However-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion (Computation Fluid Dynamics) is a powerful tool to aid in optimization of WtE plants to achieve higher

  20. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  1. MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD Andreja Kutnar* Graduate Student Department of Wood Science and Technology Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Frederick A. Kamke Professor John A. Nairn Professor Department of Wood Science

  2. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure for more information on briquettes). Because they are made from very dry wood, pellets have a very high/TS 14961. Pellets are usually wood

  3. Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory of Total Metals Concentrations in Treated Wood and 84 Treated Wood Ash IV.2 Regulatory Implications of TCLP

  4. Shear deflection of composite wood beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaggs, Thomas David

    1992-01-01

    properties (E and G) along the length of the beam. Biblis (1965) examined the deflection of small scale solid wood beams of varying span-to- depth (L/d) ratios. Several wood species were studied for the 0. 65" x 0. 65" test specimens. An equation was used...

  5. CEICEI--BoisBois European Confederation of Woodworking IndustriesEuropean Confederation of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products markets: flooringmarkets: flooring of Woodworking Industries Wood flooring and woodWood flooring and wood--based flooringbased flooring · "Genuine" wood ­ Solid products (parquet, planks, ...) ­ Products with a "genuine" top layer · Multilayer parquet

  6. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  7. The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    The Energy Institute Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels Live Green, Burn Clean: Advancing Engines for Renewable Fuels André Boehman Professor of Fuel Science and Materials College of Earth and Mineral Sciences The Pennsylvania State University André Boehman Professor of Fuel

  8. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  9. DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements S. P data Cellularity Real residuals Results Future plans High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity temperature 725 K High Pressure Laminar Burning Velocity Measurements October 27, 2008 Page 3 #12;System

  10. Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheaton, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

  11. Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emergency Burn Rehabilitation: Cost, Risk, and Effectiveness1 Scott R. Miles, Donald M. Haskins watershed and facilities damage and to recommend and prescribe Emergency Burn Area Rehabilitation (EBAR

  12. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  13. Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current-based Biomass Energy #12;2/20/2014 5 Forest Landowner Opportunities and Challenges The U.S. South is the "wood2/20/2014 1 Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director Crosby Land & Resources

  14. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD John A. Nairn1 Professor- terials is a useful tool for stress analysis and for failure modeling. Although FEA of wood as an anisotropic continuum is used, numerical modeling of realistic wood structures, including details of wood

  16. Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

  17. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-02-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers CHINESE under the bark and in dry dead wood and complete their development in two or more years. Adults emerge campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian wood-boring beetle recorded in North America

  18. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible). (Photo credit: Stanislaw Kinelski, Bugwood.org) #12;1-888-EXT-INFO · www.extension.purdue.edu 2Wood Borer

  19. Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Jay

    Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323--2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http://www.calumet.purdue.edu/public/math/wood Scholarly Research Awards. #12; JAY A. WOOD 1. Linear codes as modules Throughout this extended abstract

  20. Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using and Richardson Chair, Wood Science & Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97330, USA Received: 23 January 2014 Abstract Transverse compression of wood is a process that induces large

  1. Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95111 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95­111 © 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE: IMAGING MORPHOLOGY AND WETTING wetting behavior of wood-PVC composites in this study. Two-dimensional and time-dependent profiles

  2. The Impact of Carsharing on Household Vehicle Ownership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot; Shaheen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Household Vehicle Ownership ELLIOT MARTIN AND SUSAN SHAHEENwe asked questions about ? Elliot Martin is a PostdoctoralBoard, 1927: 158–166. Elliot Martin and Susan Shaheen.

  3. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  4. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary More...

  5. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  6. Dynamic bargaining in households (with application to Bangladesh)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligon, Ethan

    2002-01-01

    rural credit programs in Bangladesh. World Development 24 (the Grameen bank in Econ­ Bangladesh. Technical Report 65,household allocation in Bangladesh. The model resolves a

  7. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Canada. The report suggests conclusive evidence that households respond to higher prices by lowering usage. The magnitude of price response depends on several factors, such as...

  8. Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households Photo of a row of townhomes. Eligible Better Buildings Residential Network members reported completing 27,563 home energy upgrades...

  9. The U.S. Burning Plasma Program C.M. Greenfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for burning plasma research ­ US Burning Plasma Organization (created 2005): currently 283 registered members

  10. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  11. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  12. Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses Roger G. Skolmen U. S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH in forestry from the University of California, Berkeley. #12;R obusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Sm

  13. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use...

  14. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ana Alonso-Serrano; Matt Visser

    2015-11-03

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  15. On burning a lump of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Burning something, (e.g. the proverbial lump of coal, or an encyclopaedia for that matter), in a blackbody furnace leads to an approximately Planck emission spectrum with an average entropy/information transfer of approximately $3.9 \\pm 2.5$ bits per emitted photon. This quantitative and qualitative result depends only on the underlying unitarity of the quantum physics of burning, combined with the statistical mechanics of blackbody radiation. The fact that the utterly standard and unitarity preserving process of burning something (in fact, burning anything) nevertheless *has* an associated entropy/information budget, and the quantitative *size* of that entropy/information budget, is a severely under-appreciated feature of standard quantum statistical physics.

  16. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2009-05-15

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  17. Interactive simulation of fire, burn and decomposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melek, Zeki

    2008-10-10

    This work presents an approach to effectively integrate into one unified modular fire simulation framework the major processes related to fire, namely: a burning process, chemical combustion, heat distribution, decomposition and deformation...

  18. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit... of the walls. This wood?fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems. When the Tennessee...

  19. Instrumented tube burns: theoretical and experimental observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, Cole Davis; Obrey, Stephen J; Foley, Timothy J; Son, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    The advent of widely available nanoscale energetic composites has resulted in a flurry of novel applications. One of these applications is the use of nanomaterials in energetic compositions. In compositions that exhibit high sensitivity to stimulus, these materials are often termed metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). More generally, these compositions are simply called nanoenergetics. Researchers have used many different experimental techniques to analyze the various properties of nanoenergetic systems. Among these various techniques, the confined tube burn is a simple experiment that is capable of obtaining much data related to the combustion of these materials. The purpose of this report is to review the current state of the confined tube burn experiment, including the drawbacks of the technique and possible remedies. As this report is intended to focus on the specific experimental technique, data from many different energetic materials, and experimental configurations will be presented. The qualitative and quantitative data that can be gathered using confined tube burn experiments include burning rates, total impulse, pressure rise rate, and burning rate differences between different detector types. All of these measurements lend insight into the combustion properties and mechanisms of specific nanoenergetics. Finally, certain data indicates a more complicated flow scenario which may need to be considered when developing burn tube models.

  20. ELMs and the Performance of Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Institute of Tech., Pathumthani 12121, Thailand 3SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121, USA IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation 4-5 July 2005 #12;Predictive Modeling of Burning Plasmas IEA of burning plasma experiments using static and dynamic pedestal models IEA Workshop on Burning Plasma Physics

  1. PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

  2. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

  3. Analysis of Household Energy Consumption Choices Objective: Develop a data-based analysis of US household energy use that provides a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Analysis of Household Energy Consumption Choices Objective: Develop a data-based analysis of US household energy use that provides a solid framework for understanding how policies such as carbon pricing could affect various subgroups of household energy consumers. Background: Household energy use in the US

  4. Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet IHLA Fall Regional Meetings - 1998 Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may in the past few years than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have covered

  5. Wood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    energy or when used as transportation fuels. Woody biomass is an attractive alternative energy sourceWood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington: Imperatives, Opportunities Washington State lacks a cohesive strategy to reduce green house gases and for renewable energy development

  6. THE DESIRE TO ACQUIRE: FORECASTING THE EVOLUTION OF HOUSEHOLD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE DESIRE TO ACQUIRE: FORECASTING THE EVOLUTION OF HOUSEHOLD ENERGY SERVICES by Steven Groves BASc of Research Project: The Desire to Acquire: Forecasting the Evolution of Household Energy Services Report No, and gasoline. A fixed effects panel model was used to examine the relationship of demand for energy

  7. Measuring the return on household enterprise: What matters most for whom?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samphantharak, Krislert

    Return on assets (ROA) of household enterprise is crucial for understanding the productivity of households in developing economies. Yet the definition and measurement of household enterprise ROA remain inconsistent or ...

  8. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    HEV) - Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) 140 or 180 80 or 120EV, and 20 percent chose an NGV. All EVs, including hybridHouseholds that wanted an NGV had a choice of two range

  9. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact 618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number...

  10. Essays on the household-level effects of house price growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sitgraves, Claudia Ayanna

    2009-01-01

    in wealth from household saving, such passive gains canpassive changes in the value of other assets (such as vehicle depreciation), it is an estimate of how much households

  11. Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA · Forest Products Society, Madison, WI · Society of Wood and Science Technology. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite in wood fiber and polymer composites. Natural fiber reinforced composites from alloyed polymers

  12. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  13. Nesting Ducks of Tennessee Wood Ducks, Mallards, Hooded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    a teal and a mallard · Weight ­ about 1.5 lbs · Length ­ about 20 inches · Wings - broad, tail squared swamps · Wooded wetlands · Ponds and lakes with wooded shorelines, aquatic vegetation, woody debris

  14. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  15. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  16. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

  17. Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis Benjamin A. Hook a cellulose can provide valuable paleocli- matic information at annual and subannual resolution, from time the trees grew. In the mummified wood, polysaccharides (hemicellulose, -cellulose) are frequently

  18. An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry Working Paper #1 Louisiana Forest Director Louisiana Furnishings Industry Association Ponchatoula, LA Dr. O. Victor Harding Assistant secondary wood products industry is underway at the Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory, Louisiana State

  19. SYNTHESIS Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum Jerome Chave,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chave, Jérôme

    to intercept a large proportion of solar radiation and puts itself at strong selective advantage (Falster wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical

  20. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  1. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc JumpWood3

  2. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  3. Correlations between Optical, Chemical and Physical Properties of Biomass Burn Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    laboratory measurements of biomass-burning emissions: 1.tar balls: Particles from biomass and biofuel burning, J.Eleuterio (2005), A review of biomass burning emissions part

  4. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and the atmosphere from biomass burning, Climatic Change, 2,Chemistry and Physics Biomass burning contribution to black2011 Y. H. Mao et al. : Biomass burning contribution to

  5. Biomass burning and urban air pollution over the Central Mexican Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    J. D. Crounse et al. : Biomass burning pollution overChemistry and Physics Biomass burning and urban airprimary anthropogenic and biomass burning organic aerosols

  6. Cultural Geography and Interregional Contacts in Prehistoric Liangshan (Southwest China)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hein, Anke Marion

    2013-01-01

    soil, red-burned pellets, burned wood, stones, few ceramicbaked earth pellets, much charcoal, burned wood, few stones,

  7. Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381­396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology 2003, V. 35(3) sults in relatively loosely packed mats. Although mat density increases during hot

  8. California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this natural and renewable energy resource for centuries. The timber industry in California has for many and environmental cost, benefits, and feasibility of utilizing wood for energy produc tion. We are also ableCalifornia Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy

  9. Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1 Jack Ward Thomas2 Abstract Forest managers is the first rule of intelligent tinkering." Dead wood, standing and down, is one of those "cogs and wheels wood in managed forests. Much of this new information will be discussed at this conference. What

  10. Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Frank

    Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood Department of Statistics, Columbia of discrete sequences called the sequence memoizer [Wood et al., 2009]. Gasthaus et al. showed that although was reposed on a sequence memo- izer [Wood et al., 2009] whose space complexity was linear in the length

  11. Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average

  12. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae-TREATED WOOD II.1 Applying Phosphate Stains to Arsenate Stains 7 II.2 A Potential Arsenic-Test Kit 14 II.3 Whole Wood Application of the Modified Stannous Chloride Stain 19 II.4 Other Attempted Stain

  13. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary, copper boron azole, copper citrate, and copper dimeth- yldithiocarbamate. An unpreserved wood sample

  14. Strong RestrictedOrientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Eugene

    Strong Restricted­Orientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood + Abstract Strong restricted; Widmayer et al., 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1987 ] , restricted­orientation convexity [ Rawlins, 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1991; Schuierer, 1991 ] , NESW convexity [ Lipski and Papadimitriou, 1981; Soisalon

  15. HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Rtil, Kaunas, LT-3018, Lithuania, rutile_pukiene@fc.vdu.lt Abstract Historical wood has been collected at Kaunas dendrochronology laboratory since the laboratory foundation in 1968. The wood is used

  16. HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY USING X-RAY COMPUTED de Drize, CH-1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland ABSTRACT Knowledge of the spatial heterogeneity of wood understanding of 3-D wood density structure in tree stems damaged by geomorphic processes. X-ray computed

  17. Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabosky, Daniel L.

    Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers Daniel L. Rabosky1,2,* and Irby J Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA Evidence from both diversification, and we demonstrate this approach using a new phylogeny of North American Dendroica wood warblers

  18. Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Editorial Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes No doubt about it, wood complicates fluvial geo- morphology. It messes up nice tidy streams, compli- cates quantitative through the study of channels lacking a substantial load of wood debris (Leopold et al., 1964

  19. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment OLIVIA SAUNDERS, Extension Field Specialist "Wood ash contains significant amounts of potassium and calcium, while providing smaller amounts.unh.edu Spring 2014 UNH EXTENSION AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture Introduction Wood ash has a long

  20. Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Technical Report 91, 2014 #12;Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Publisher: European for future oriented market research of engineered wood products (EWP) in Europe. For example, the need for CO

  1. ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report+ on ASSESSMENTOF BURNING-PLASMA PHENOMENA . in a COMPACTIGNITION TOKAMAK presented-coil tokamak configurations that would achieve ignition under presently accepted scaling laws. Studies the extent to which these compact tokamak ignition experiments can resolve the technical issue of under

  2. Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Power Burn and ..... Steve Cowley UK Atomic Energy Authority and Imperial College to the realisation of fusion energy. 2013 #12;Fusion Today ­ questions? · "Fast Track to Fusion" ­ clear message. -- EFDA roadmap ­ clear message · US position ­ unclear, contradicts EU? -- FESAC panels 10 year plan

  3. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities · why a burning plasma experiment? · BP contribution impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode of operation ) #12;···· we know a lot more now than helium ash - induce SOL flow towards divertor - control density · helium exhaust time, i.e. He , limited

  4. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL flow towards

  5. Boundary Plasma Issues in Burning Plasma Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitcher, C. S.

    impurity production 4. screening of impurities 5. burning plasma experiment? #12;(1) Wide Dispersal if strike points are swept (BPX), but Tt will be high impurity production, high Zeff (not desirable mode pressure for H- modes (tight baffling??) · allows efficient pumping to: - remove helium ash - induce SOL

  6. Life Satisfaction Over the First Five Years Following Burn Injury 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoskins, Jessica Lynne

    2012-10-19

    Individuals with burn injuries increasingly survive their injury, but we know little about their psychological outcomes following the injury. This study examines life satisfaction outcomes for 260 individuals who sustained burn injuries and were...

  7. A Comparative Study Of The Poetry Of Fergusson And Burns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swick, Lena

    1913-01-01

    brewed a peck o' maut" is a good example of Burns's rollicking drinking songs. Other classes of poetry used by the two authors are rhymed epistles, elegies, satires, epigrams. Burns follows Fergusson's example in the use of the rhymed epistles...

  8. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx...

  9. ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste ERDC TR-14-3 May 2014 Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste Victor F. Medina-1000 Under Work Unit 33143 #12;ERDC TR-14-3 ii Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate anaerobic digestion

  10. Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    markets III. Certified forest products IV. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI. Recommendations VII. Questions, demand, and effects of renewable energy policies, Oct. 2007 · UNECE/FAO Forest resources assessment sustainably meet rising demand? Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva

  11. Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an attorney with the Department of the Navy's Office of the General Counsel (OGC). Initially appointed as ONR Counsel in 2007, he was the first Navy OGC attorney to deploy to a combat zone in his civilian OGC Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr. Wood began his career with Navy OGC

  12. Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    .3% Wind 2% 0.5% Geothermal 0.6% 0.3% Solar 0.1% 0.02% Source: EIA 2009; IEA World Energy Outlook 2008 #121 Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar May 5, 2010 Burton Richter Freeman Spogli to the least effective technologies. 2 #12;3 Total Primary Energy Supply by Fuel Energy Source Percentage

  13. Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09 #12;Working alone #12;Poison Plants Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) Poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens) #12;Commonly Mistaken Plants Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Three leaflets let it be! #12;Poison Ivy/Oak Prevention: · Wear long

  14. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    . Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis...

  15. Global Markets for Verified Legal Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood products (FSC, PEFC) Retailers interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and protecting reputation, starting in 1990s. FSC and PEFC certification standards developed, which include independent 3rd, PEFC) Major international companies, such as WalMart or IKEA, now require suppliers to be able

  16. Householder Symposium on Numerical Linear Algebra June 1721, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higham, Nicholas J.

    for discussions. This year's symposium is held at Peebles Hotel Hydro in the small town of Peebles (populationHouseholder Symposium on Numerical Linear Algebra June 17­21, 2002 Peebles Hotel Hydro, Scotland

  17. Forest Clearing Among Farm Households in the Maya Biosphere Reserve*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    Forest Clearing Among Farm Households in the Maya Biosphere Reserve* David L. Carr University, Pete´n, to agri- cultural settlement (Bilsborrow and Carr 2001). Since the southern half

  18. Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep cuts in household greenhouse gas emissions Andrew Blakers Director, Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Ph 61 2 6125 5905 Andrew.blakers@anu.edu.au Web: http

  19. Household energy use in non-OPEC developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Energy use in the residential sector in India, Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, the Sudan, Pakistan, Malaysia, and Guatemala is presented. Whenever possible, information is included on the commercial fuels (oil, gas, coal, and electricity) and on what are termed noncommercial fuels (firewood, animal dung, and crop residues). Of special interest are the differences in the consumption patterns of urban and rural areas, and of households at different income levels. Where the data allow, the effect of household size on energy consumption is discussed. Section II is an overview of the data for all eight countries. Section III examines those areas (India, Brazil, Mexico City) for which data exist on the actual quantity of energy consumed by households. Korea, the Sudan, and Pakistan, which collect data on household expenditures on fuels, are discussed in Section IV. The patterns of ownership of energy-using durables in Malaysia and Guatemala are discussed in Section V. (MCW)

  20. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  1. Journal of Materials Education Vol. 32 (3-4): 125 -138 (2010) WOOD AND WOOD DERIVED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    2010-01-01

    Witold Brostow, Tea Datashvili and Harrison Miller Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized point out the role of wood in the development of 'green' technologies. To provide a perspective, we. Keywords: wood, green materials, cellulosics, paper, polymer composites, art material 1. INTRODUCTION Wood

  2. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  3. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Dunn, Kevin; Hall, Daniel, B.; Achtemeier, Gary; Stock, Allison; Naeher, Luke, P.

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated occupational exposure to wood and vegetative smoke in a group of 28 forest firefighters at prescribed forest burns in a southeastern U.S. forest during the winters of 2003-2005. During burn activities, 203 individual person-day PM{sub 2.5} and 149 individual person-day CO samples were collected; during non-burn activities, 37 person-day PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected as controls. Time-activity diaries and post-work shift questionnaires were administered to identify factors influencing smoke exposure and to determine how accurately the firefighters qualitative assessment estimated their personal level of smoke exposure with discrete responses: 'none' or 'very little,' 'low,' 'moderate,' 'high,' and 'very high.' An average of 6.7 firefighters were monitored per burn, with samples collected on 30 burn days and 7 non-burn days. Size of burn plots ranged from 1-2745 acres (avg = 687.8). Duration of work shift ranged from 6.8-19.4 hr (avg = 10.3 hr) on burn days. Concentration of PM{sub 2.5} ranged from 5.9-2673 {mu}g/m{sup 3} on burn days. Geometric mean PM{sub 2.5} exposure was 280 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 140, 557 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 177) for burn day samples, and 16 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 10, 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, n = 35) on non-burn days. Average measured PM{sub 2.5} differed across levels of the firefighters categorical self-assessments of exposure (p < 0.0001): none to very little = 120 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 71, 203 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) and high to very high = 664 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (95% CL = 373, 1185 {mu}g/m{sup 3}); p < 0.0001 on burn days. Time-weighted average PM{sub 2.5} and personal CO averaged over the run times of PM{sub 2.5} pumps were correlated (correlation coefficient estimate, r = 0.79; CLs: 0.72, 0.85). Overall occupational exposures to particulate matter were low, but results indicate that exposure could exceed the ACGIH{reg_sign}-recommended threshold limit value of 3 mg/m{sup 3} for respirable particulate matter in a few extreme situations. Self-assessed exposure levels agreed with measured concentrations of PM{sub 2.5}. Correlation analysis shows that either PM{sub 2.5} or CO could be used as a surrogate measure of exposure to woodsmoke at prescribed burns.

  4. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascucci, Valerio

    of premixed burners capable of stably burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could

  5. Burning for Improvement of Macartney Rose-Infested Coastal Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, R.A.; Scifres, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    of Macartney rose to season of burning. Pre vious research emphasized the use of herbicides fol lowed by fIre, and winter was arbitrarily chosen for in stallation of burns (12). Therefore, information was needed relative to season of prescribed burning... Environmental conditions, including relative air temperature at 2 meters above ground temperature at 2.54 centimeters deep, and and direction at 2 meters above ground monitored during each burn. the plots were backfired on the leeward side(s) meters...

  6. Height Replacement of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Kitchen, L.M.; Scifres, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding CONTENTS ...................................... Summary . - i ,.z;.., s * ' ............................ a ,, Jntroduction.. v ~ ~ ~ z z . . 4 *- e -- .d 5- . ..... ...... .. * 2 $$escription... of Selected Woody Plants Following Burning or Shredding SUMMARY Woody plant reinvasion of tame pastures and native rangeland is a ' severe problem on the South Texas Plains. Shredding and/or pre- scribed burning may be employed as lowcost methods...

  7. Fuelwood Use by Rural Households in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox-Moore, Kellie J.

    2010-07-14

    Fuelwood is an important source of domestic energy in rural regions of Brazil. In the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, native species from the Atlantic Forest are an important source of fuelwood, supplemented by wood from ...

  8. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle Atlantic, and Pacific), MSA size, and the availability of rail. Extrapolating NHTS data within small geographic areas could risk developing and subsequently using unreliable estimates. For example, if a planning agency in City X of State Y estimates travel rates and other travel characteristics based on survey data collected from NHTS sample households that were located in City X of State Y, then the agency could risk developing and using unreliable estimates for their planning process. Typically, this limitation significantly increases as the size of an area decreases. That said, the NHTS contains a wealth of information that could allow statistical inferences about small geographic areas, with a pre-determined level of statistical certainty. The question then becomes whether a method can be developed that integrates the NHTS data and other data to estimate key travel characteristics for small geographic areas such as Census tract and transportation analysis zone, and whether this method can outperform other, competing methods.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve the question of whether or not potentially hazardous wastes were generated at three of the four CASs within CAU 490, and whether or not potentially hazardous and radioactive wastes were generated at the fourth CAS in CAU 490 (CAS 09-54-001-09L2). Suspected CAS-specific COPCs include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, explosives, and uranium and plutonium isotopes. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  10. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  11. BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES FROM THE ORAC-AATSR RETRIEVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    BIOMASS BURNING IN THE AMAZON: LINKS BETWEEN BURNING, SCIAMACHY TRACE GASES, AND AEROSOL@atm.ox.ac.uk AEROSOL AND GAS PROPERTIESSEASONALITY OF BURNING Biomass burning in the Amazon shows strong seasonal in aerosol optical depth (AOD) and effective radius, linked to biomass burning through detected fires. Use

  12. The Spinless Relativistic Woods-Saxon Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schoberl

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the observation of a recent renewal of rather strong interest in the description of bound states by (semi-) relativistic equations of motion, we revisit, for the example of the Woods-Saxon interactions, the eigenvalue problem posed by the spinless Salpeter equation and recall various elementary knowledge, considerations, and techniques that practitioners seeking solutions to this specific reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation may find helpful.

  13. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  14. Syst. Biol. 50(2):215242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    Syst. Biol. 50(2):215­242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms of wood-decaying fungi. Two basic forms of wood decay are known in homobasidiomycetes: white rot, in which analyses; wood decay.] The vast majority of terrestrial biomass takes the form of wood and other plant tis

  15. Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Gaans, Onno

    Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II Roeland Merks-like textures of wood (see Figure 1). These textures, called wood grain, form as new, elongated cells that are deposited on top of the existing wood in the vascular cambium, and align with the existing wood grain

  16. Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by wood pellet stoves, to large multi- building campuses heated by commercial wood chip boilers. SoonWhere Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado #12;Sun Wood Boiler Energy Energy CO2 CO2 Wood Fuel Nutrients AshNutrients Woody biomass is stored solar energy that is available 24

  17. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  19. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  20. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 .; , -, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,'...

  1. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17

    This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table...

  2. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  3. IntelliBurn | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA JumpDuimenMakingBiofuels Jump to: navigation,IntegrysIntelliBurn

  4. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex AAustria GeothermalInformation BKNStateMountainBoiseBurns

  5. Clean Burn Fuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) Jump to:New York:ClayBurn Fuels LLC Jump to: navigation,

  6. Category:Burns, OR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy014771°,North Dakota:BonnBoulder,Burns, OR

  7. Chemistry of burning the forest floor during the FROSTFIRE experimental burn, interior Alaska, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    in interior Alaska, and were analyzed for bulk density, major and trace elements, and organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon, nutrients, and several major and trace elements were significantly altered by the burn: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1030 Geochemistry: Geochemical cycles (0330); KEYWORDS: combustion, experimental

  8. Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors Todd F. Shupe Associate are a thousand times less than a lethal dose." Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood (Pressure Treated Wood

  9. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  10. Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appl Polym Sci 118: 3594­3601, 2010 Key words: coextrusion; mechanical properties; recycling recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot to use recycled, low quality plastic-fiber blends in the core layer. VC 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  11. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products exporters competing in the global market. This study was commissioned by the American Forest of illegally produced and traded wood products on the ability of U.S. producers to export into key overseas · Indonesia · Japan · Malaysia · Europe (EU-15) · West/Central Africa · Russia Collectively, these countries

  12. On the burning of his library, and On medical travel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholin, Thomas

    1961-01-01

    , and ordered his books to be burned by the aediles. According to [the elder] Seneca, Suasoria, ch. 7, Cicero deliberated whether or not to burn his writings, on the promise of Anthony that if he did so he would remain unharmed; for Anthony, inflamed... selves if in the past they spent some hours reading my books. According to Seneca, when by decree of the senate the books of Labienus were burned, Cassius Severus, his close associate, remarked: "Now I who know them by heart must be burned alive/' One...

  13. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    regions of skin, burns, psoriasis, basal cell carcinomas andinto diseased states like psoriasis, eczema, basal celland cancer, conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis,

  14. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI and European certified lean-burn GDI vehicles operating on ethanol blends

  15. Logistic regression models for predicting trip reporting accuracy in GPS-enhanced household travel surveys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrest, Timothy Lee

    2007-04-25

    This thesis presents a methodology for conducting logistic regression modeling of trip and household information obtained from household travel surveys and vehicle trip information obtained from global positioning systems (GPS) to better understand...

  16. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since 1969, the number of vehicles per household has increased by 66% and the number of vehicles per licensed driver has increased by 47%. The number of workers per household has changed the least...

  17. Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When a household has more than one vehicle, the secondary vehicles travel fewer miles than the primary vehicle. In a two-vehicle household, the second vehicle travels less than half of the miles...

  18. Impacts of Climate Conditions and Adaptations on Agricultural Output and Household Income in Inner Mongolia, China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wenjuan

    2014-07-31

    indicated that land degradation hurt the poorest household groups most and that conservation programs benefited the same groups the most significantly with respect to household income. In addition, diversification of income sources contribute significantly...

  19. Using Multiple Household Food Inventories to Measure Food Availability in the Home 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sisk, Cheree L.

    2010-10-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting multiple household food inventories over the course of 30 days to examine weekly food variability. Household food availability influences the foods ...

  20. Fact #747: October 1, 2012 Behind Housing, Transportation is the Top Household Expenditure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Except for housing, transportation was the largest single expenditure for the average American household in 2010. The average household spends more on transportation in a year than on food. Vehicle...

  1. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of...

  2. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to:Texas: EnergyWood, Wisconsin:

  3. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura| National2.11DESERTWater SavingsBetterBeverly Woods

  4. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the National ClimateDongyingOpen Energy3)Duffield Wood

  5. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:AngolaEnergyAquaAratua CentralArbuthnott Wood

  6. Keeler-Pennwalt Wood Pole Removal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) Sold toKeeler-Pennwalt-Wood-Pole-Removal Sign

  7. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  8. Rebound Effect in Energy Efficient Appliance Adopting Households 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn, Jacob Matthew

    2014-12-10

    This paper uses data from smart meter technology to estimate the occurrence of energy rebound, a “substitution” and “income’ effect where the price-per-use of an appliance falls relative to its energy efficiency. This causes households to have more...

  9. NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION ESTIMATION OF HOUSEHOLD VMT Young-Jun Kweon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION ESTIMATION OF HOUSEHOLD VMT Young-Jun Kweon (Corresponding Author Transportation Survey. The results are density functions and regression surfaces for VMT, in relation regressions perform better than their ordinary-least squares counterparts in many ways: they permit full

  10. MICROSIMULATION OF RESIDENTIAL LAND DEVELOPMENT AND HOUSEHOLD LOCATION CHOICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    maximization and bid-rent theory, this paper investigates single-family residential location choices of new distribution). On the demand side, individual households (characterized by size, income, and presence and land owners maximize profits and/or rents. The simulation analysis offers insights into key features

  11. Household scale slow sand filtration in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donison, Kori S. (Kori Shay), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Slow sand filtration is a method of water treatment that has been used for hundreds of years. In the past two decades, there has been resurgence in interest in slow sand filtration, particularly as a low-cost, household-scale ...

  12. Compatibility Between GFCI Breakers and Household Adjustable Speed Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    Compatibility Between GFCI Breakers and Household Adjustable Speed Drives Jonathan Kimball Senior circuit interrupter (GFCI) compatibility becomes crucial. As compared to industrial applications, the GFCI response of a commonly-used GFCI breaker is compared to the common-mode current of a commercially

  13. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in "Hybrid Households" Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    icVehicle (REV) s s (NGV) Reformulated Gasoline Vehicle (Among households that chose an NGV, chose to purchase the

  14. 10Tips to Spend Less on Household Goods Spend about $20 on a battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    and dishwasher. 3 You can use white distilled vinegar or baking soda for many household cleaning jobs. Read

  15. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    of a Permanent Magnet for Water Content Measurements of Wooda device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulpsystem. The results of water content measurements in wood

  16. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS JANUARY 16, 2015 06 00 00-1 06 00 00 GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES

  17. Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops October 25, 2011 Poplar stems (left) respond to bending stress by producing tension wood, which has...

  18. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory School of Renewable Natural, R.E. Taylor & Associates Ltd. Forest Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly

  19. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the United States has been increasing. Using wood to feed a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) station produces has a range of applica- tions, and these vary among the technologies. For instance, wind power generates electricity rather than heat or transportation fuel. Similarly, wood-based technologies have

  20. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry Working Paper #2 Louisiana Forest Paper #1 that examined the Louisiana secondary wood products industry (Vlosky et al. 1994). The broad (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  1. Wood Engineering Education Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Wood Engineering Education ­ Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1 and Vijaya Gopu2 1 Member ASCE, Associate Professor, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA

  2. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  3. Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridson, Robert

    Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture by Sean Meiji Sutherland B.Sc., The University for the simulation of the dynamics and fracturing char- acteristics of wood, specifically its anisotropic behaviour bundles of fibres. Additionally, we describe the conditions under which fracture occurs in the material

  4. Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's woodfuel boiler provides a renewable, and a woodfuel boiler provides space heating and hot water. Wood for the boiler comes from Bedgebury Forest and chipped to provide fuel for a 40 kilowatt Austrian-made boiler, which has been installed to provide

  5. A Study of Individual Household Water Consumption Borg, Edwards, Kimpel A Study of Individual Household Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    's goal is to investigate the weekly per capita indoor water use of three households in Davis, California will be evaluated for efficacy (water savings) and cost (excluding variable installation costs). The cost, and the nation in order to determine what are the most cost efficient ways in which to increase water

  6. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001â??2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  7. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, CS; Krolewski, AG; Tosca, MG; Randerson, JT

    2012-01-01

    C. S. Zender et al. : Tropical biomass burning smoke plumeslaboratory measurements of biomass-burning emis- sions: 1.aerosol optical depth biomass burning events: a comparison

  8. Presented at UFA Burning Plasma Science Workshop II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a Next Step Experiment in Magnetic Fusion · Compact High Field Approach - General Parameters · Burning for Resolving the Critical Fusion Plasma Science Issues for an Attractive MFE Reactor Burning Plasma Experiment 1, 2001 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion A Next Step Option for Magnetic Fusion for the FIRE Team

  9. Stellar Burning Falk Herwig, Alexander Heger, and Frank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herwig, Falk

    ]. In these objects, a thermonuclear runaway of the helium shell on top of an electron-degenerate core (a young White implications for the production of neutron- rich elements. log Tlog Teffeff Figure 1-- A thermonuclear runaway stellar conditions. We will include a stellar equation of state as well as thermonuclear burning (TN burn

  10. Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen properties. SCMs can be by-products from various industries or of natural origin, such as shale. Oil shale correctly, give a material with some cementitious properties known as burned oil shale (BOS). This study

  11. Analysis of Tracer Dispersion During a Prescribed Forest Burn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    to manage global warming (Wiedinmyer, 2010) As land managers consider increased burning, air quality our understanding of pollutant emission rates associated with prescribed forest burns. Methods Site tracer and pollutant dispersion patterns. Modeling The WindTrax stochastic particle dispersion model

  12. Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Mei

    Diagnosis of Aged Prescribed Burning Plumes Impacting an Urban Area S A N G I L L E E , * , , H Y November 30, 2007. An unanticipated wind shift led to the advection of plumes from two prescribed burning region should be considered in air quality models (e.g., receptor and emission- based models) to assess

  13. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  14. High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

    2010-04-21

    High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique ammonium perchlorate (AP) based propellant are required to design the base burn motor for a Raytheon weapon system. The results of these deflagration rate measurements will be key in assessing safety and performance of the system. In particular, the system may experience transient pressures on the order of 100's of MPa (10's kPSI). Previous studies on similar AP based materials demonstrate that low pressure (e.g. P < 10 MPa or 1500 PSI) burn rates can be quite different than the elevated pressure deflagration rate measurements (see References and HPP results discussed herein), hence elevated pressure measurements are necessary in order understand the deflagration behavior under relevant conditions. Previous work on explosives have shown that at 100's of MPa some explosives will transition from a laminar burn mechanism to a convective burn mechanism in a process termed deconsolidative burning. The resulting burn rates that are orders-of-magnitude faster than the laminar burn rates. Materials that transition to the deconsolidative-convective burn mechanism at elevated pressures have been shown to be considerably more violent in confined heating experiments (i.e. cook-off scenarios). The mechanisms of propellant and explosive deflagration are extremely complex and include both chemical, and mechanical processes, hence predicting the behavior and rate of a novel material or formulation is difficult if not impossible. In this work, the AP/HTPB based material, TAL-1503 (B-2049), was burned in a constant volume apparatus in argon up to 300 MPa (ca. 44 kPSI). The burn rate and pressure were measured in-situ and used to calculate a pressure dependent burn rate. In general, the material appears to burn in a laminar fashion at these elevated pressures. The experiment was reproduced multiple times and the burn rate law using the best data is B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} where B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Details of the experimental method, results and data analysis are discussed herein and briefly compared to other AP based materials that have been measured in this apparatus.

  15. Turbulent burning rates of methane and methane-hydrogen mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairweather, M. [School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ormsby, M.P.; Sheppard, C.G.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Woolley, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Methane and methane-hydrogen (10%, 20% and 50% hydrogen by volume) mixtures have been ignited in a fan stirred bomb in turbulence and filmed using high speed cine schlieren imaging. Measurements were performed at 0.1 MPa (absolute) and 360 K. A turbulent burning velocity was determined for a range of turbulence velocities and equivalence ratios. Experimental laminar burning velocities and Markstein numbers were also derived. For all fuels the turbulent burning velocity increased with turbulence velocity. The addition of hydrogen generally resulted in increased turbulent and laminar burning velocity and decreased Markstein number. Those flames that were less sensitive to stretch (lower Markstein number) burned faster under turbulent conditions, especially as the turbulence levels were increased, compared to stretch-sensitive (high Markstein number) flames. (author)

  16. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  17. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  18. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  19. Local Burn-Up Effects in the NBSR Fuel Element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown N. R.; Hanson A.; Diamond, D.

    2013-01-31

    This study addresses the over-prediction of local power when the burn-up distribution in each half-element of the NBSR is assumed to be uniform. A single-element model was utilized to quantify the impact of axial and plate-wise burn-up on the power distribution within the NBSR fuel elements for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. To validate this approach, key parameters in the single-element model were compared to parameters from an equilibrium core model, including neutron energy spectrum, power distribution, and integral U-235 vector. The power distribution changes significantly when incorporating local burn-up effects and has lower power peaking relative to the uniform burn-up case. In the uniform burn-up case, the axial relative power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 59% in the HEU single-element and 46% in the LEU single-element with uniform burn-up. In the uniform burn-up case, the plate-wise power peaking is over-predicted by as much as 23% in the HEU single-element and 18% in the LEU single-element. The degree of over-prediction increases as a function of burn-up cycle, with the greatest over-prediction at the end of Cycle 8. The thermal flux peak is always in the mid-plane gap; this causes the local cumulative burn-up near the mid-plane gap to be significantly higher than the fuel element average. Uniform burn-up distribution throughout a half-element also causes a bias in fuel element reactivity worth, due primarily to the neutronic importance of the fissile inventory in the mid-plane gap region.

  20. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI...

  1. Determination of the Burning Characteristics of a Slick of Oil on Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L; Olenick, Stephen M; Garo, Jean P; Vantelon, Jean P

    2003-01-01

    The burning rate of a slick of oil on a water bed is characterized by three distinct processes, ignition, flame spread and burning rate. Although all three processes are important, ignition and burning rate are critical. ...

  2. Ac#vi#es of the US Burning Plasma Organiza#on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Goals of the USBPO · Coordinate and advocate US burning plasma (BP) research=ons · USBPO ­ Coordinates US burning plasma research, to advance scien=fic understanding USBPO organizes the US Fusion Energy Science community to support burning plasma

  3. The influence of burning on nitrogen dynamics of a Pan American balsamscale community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greene, Thomas Alexander

    1983-01-01

    (Jorgensen and Wells 1971). Crude protein and P content (Old 1969), in vitro digestible organic matter, and ash content (Kucera and Ehrenreich 1962) of regrowth following burning may exceed that found in plants on unburned areas. Christensen (1977) found... phosphate fire retardant. Thus, six treatments (unburned, burned 1980, burned 1981, burned 1982, burned 1980 and 1982, and burned 1981 and 1982) were installed, each with four replications. Each block was fenced. to exclude cattle. Because of delays of 2...

  4. Vegetation response to burning thicketized live oak savannah on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, David Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    were more produc- tive than unburned areas based on evaluations for two growing seasons after the fires. Species diversity was increased by burning. Areas burned in the fall supported more diverse grass populations than either unburned areas... or areas burned in the spring. Forage, especially grasses, was apparently more available to grazing animals on burned than unburned areas. Forb production on uplands burned in the fall was five times that of unburned areas and twice that of areas burned...

  5. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  6. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a, *, Clifford E of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, United States 1. Introduction Large wood and accumulations of large wood (wood jams) are widely recognized as important features in forested stream ecosystems. Large

  7. The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low- Gradient Stream Reaches that large wood has a prominent role in habitat quality, however there is little research on the role of wood large wood loadings (759 vs. 329 vs. 39 m3 /ha). This study devises a new classification methodology

  8. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forests November .................................................ix Importance of Dead and Downed Wood....................................1 Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon...................3 Jack Ward Thomas Decaying Wood: An Overview of Its

  9. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  10. Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood Gary Jacobi a , Helena September 2006 Available online 2 January 2007 Abstract Construction and demolition (C&D) wood frequently contains treated wood including wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Many recycling options

  11. Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER) ABSTRACT Coupling agents in wood fiber and polymer composites (WFPC) play a very important role in improving the compatibility and adhesion between polar wood fibers and non-polar polymeric matri- ces

  12. The Warm Local ISM: Structure, Properties, and Theory Jeffrey L. Linsky, Seth Redfield, & Brian Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    Wood JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309­0440 USA Abstract. Ultraviolet spectra), and the second by Wood, Linsky, & Zank (2000) and by Wood, M¨uller, & Zank (2000). In this talk, we al (1995) and Wood et al (1996). Early­type stars and hot white dwarfs also prove background

  13. The Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extent, residential housing has always been one of the major drivers of wood demand in JapanThe Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is available will consider the potential impact on Chinese demand for wood products.) Japanese Market for Wood Products Japan

  14. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Wood Ash Samples Used in This Study. Regulatory Levels Provided for Comparison. Table II.1 Alternative

  15. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  16. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T. (Orinda, CA); Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Bowman, Barry R. (Livermore, CA); Burnham, Alan K. (Livermore, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (Pleasanton, CA); Comfort, III, William J. (Livermore, CA); Guymon, Lloyd G. (Livermore, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Pedersen, Knud B. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA); Smith, Joseph A. (Livermore, CA); Strauch, Mark S. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  17. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  18. The role of water in the behavior of wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominique Derome; Ahmad Rafsanjani; Stefan Hering; Martin Dressler; Alessandra Patera; Christian Lanvermann; Marjan Sedighi-Gilani; Falk K. Wittel; Peter Niemz; Jan Carmeliet

    2015-09-17

    Wood, due to its biological origin, has the capacity to interact with water. Sorption/desorption of moisture is accompanied with swelling/shrinkage and softening/hardening of its stiffness. The correct prediction of the behavior of wood components undergoing environmental loading requires that the moisture behavior and mechanical behavior of wood are considered in a coupled manner. We propose a comprehensive framework using a fully coupled poromechanical approach, where its multiscale implementation provides the capacity to take into account, directly, the exact geometry of the wood cellular structure, using computational homogenization. A hierarchical model is used to take into account the subcellular composite-like organization of the material. Such advanced modeling requires high resolution experimental data for the appropriate determination of inputs and for its validation. High-resolution x-ray tomography, digital image correlation, and neutron imaging are presented as valuable methods to provide the required information.

  19. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    The move towards performance-based design of the fire resistance of structures requires more accurate design methods. An important variable in the fire performance of timber structures is the in-depth temperature distribution, as wood is weakened...

  20. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  1. Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain Antti Sirkka University of Tampere TietoEnator Forest & Energy Oy Kalevantie 4, 33014 Tampere, Finland Häkiläpolku 3 A, 33101 Tampere, Finland antti

  2. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddoul, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

  3. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! · Powerful energy industry · Future? · Today´s discussion! #12;Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different

  4. Photo by Helvetas Moambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Photo by Helvetas Moçambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering #12;IWRM in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without CAS consists of the following units: - Basic knowledge in order to follow the class

  5. Disentangling Biodiversity and Climatic Determinants of Wood Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested whether tree wood incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration. Citation

  6. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    - plications in the wood industry for pulsed terahertz radiation.5,6 This is so primarily because pulsed tera is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the pho- toconductive switch

  7. Stephen E. Wood Department of Earth & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    .S. Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS for Phase A study; designed solar-powered thermal ice drill RESEARCH GRANTS-I's: Stephen Wood, Collab: Eric R. Parteli (FAU, Germany), Wind regime, sediment

  8. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01

    In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential...

  9. Fuel burn reduction potential from delayed deceleration approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. One promising ...

  10. Mirror and Shadow: Social Media in the Burning Man Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aveline, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    record. The survey is open to Burners everywhere (as long asBurning Man participants (Burners)? Yes / No 15. If yes,I thank all those anonymous burners who contributed to the

  11. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To this end, there has been considerable recent interest in the development of premixed burners capable of sta- bly burning ultra-lean hydrogen-air fuel mixtures. Such burners could, for example, be used as one

  12. Burning Rate of Liquid Fuel on Carpet (Porous Media) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Tingguang; Olenick, Stephen M; Klassen, Michael S; Roby, Richard J; Torero, Jose L

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of a liquid fuel burning on carpet has been involved in many incendiary and accidental fires. While the research on a liquid fuel fire on carpet is still limited, much work on porous media has been ...

  13. The Challenge Human activities, such as the burning of fossil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels oil, gas fields or saline aquifers. Emissions from fossil fuel power stations could then be reduced

  14. Isothermal model of ICF burn with finite alpha range treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Conner Daniel (Conner Daniel Cross)

    2009-01-01

    A simple model for simulating deuterium tritium burn in inertial confinement fusion capsules is developed. The model, called the Isothermal Rarefaction Model, is zero dimensional (represented as ordinary differential ...

  15. Impact of prescribed burning on Gulf Coast tick populations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Thomas Walter

    1983-01-01

    on adjacent unburned areas. Tick numbers remained lower on burned and unburned areas the second growing season after burning on mesquite- mixedgrass and bunchgrass-annual forb sites. Standing crops of herbaceous vegetation and mulch were reduced following... and unburned plant community . Adult ticks present in the vegetation and mulch layer were initially killed by the heat of the passing fire front. Habitat alterations caused by the fire limited tick numbers until vegetation recovered and senesced to form a...

  16. Gulf Cordgrass Production, Utilization, and Nutritional Value Following Burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oefinger, R.D.; Scifres, F.J.

    1977-01-01

    ). Growth characteristics of gulf cordgrass give rise to its apparent adaptability to fire. Regrowth follow ing burning progresses rapidly, thus quickly rendering succulent regrowth acceptable as forage to domestic grazing animals (6). Young regrowth... and species of Acacia) on the uplands to the west. Soil Characteristics Physical and Chemical Components The loamy sand sites, burned in fall 1974 were characterized by a near neutral soil surface, becoming more basic to 30 centimeters deep (Table 1...

  17. Radiochemical Mix Diagnostic in the Presence of Burn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2014-01-28

    There is a general interest in radiochemical probes of hydrodamicalmix in burning regions of NIF capsule. Here we provide estimates for the production of 13N from mixing of 10B ablator burning hotspot of a capsule. By comparing the 13N signal with x-ray measurements of the ablator mix into the hotspot it should be possible to estimate the chunkiness of this mix.

  18. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  19. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Check Correct All Grammar Errors And Enhance Your Writing. Try Now! www.Grammarly.com Free TradingHome Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009

  20. Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning Ethan Burns1 Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 2 / 22'd s Contributions Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On

  1. Form EIA-457E (2001) -- Household Bottled Gas Usage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesE (2001) - Household

  2. Form EIA-457E (2001) -- Household Bottled Gas Usage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesE (2001) - HouseholdF

  3. Form EIA-457E (2001) -- Household Bottled Gas Usage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesE (2001) - HouseholdFG

  4. Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide toHigh oilHousehold

  5. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    households in reducing greenhouse gases. Energy Policy (Tradable Permits for Greenhouse Gas Emissions: a Primer WithEIA, 2006a. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United

  6. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  7. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than...

  8. "Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than...

  9. Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from UK household2002. Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the2002). Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the

  10. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  11. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  12. The Other Energy Crisis: Managing Urban Household Energy Use in Senegal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitmann, Josef

    1989-01-01

    TH E OTHER ENERGY CRISIS: Managing Urban Household Energyimpact of this other energy crisis, the case of Senegal ingrowth and stability -- the energy crisis. With increasingly

  13. Essays on Price Dynamics, Welfare Analysis, Household Food Insecurity in Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magana Lemus, David

    2013-09-20

    Higher and more volatile food prices, as reported in recent years, have consequences on household welfare and potentially on public policy. Analysis of agricultural commodities price dynamics, welfare ...

  14. Incentives & Nutrition For Rotten Kids: The Quantity & Quality Of Food Allocated Within Philippine Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubois, Pierre; Ligon, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    rural poor: a study of Philippine farm households. Boulder:and food allocation in the Philippines. Unpublished Manu-planning in the rural Philippines. Journal of Southeast

  15. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  16. A study of owner preferences for steel and wood framed homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Bruce Whitney

    1997-01-01

    This thesis reports the findings of a mail survey of 386 single family residential households from the Las Vegas, Nevada area. The purpose of the study was to develop an understanding of the differences, if any, between those households...

  17. Rapid energy savings in London's households to mitigate an energy crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Aurore; Barrett, Mark; Croxford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    3), pp.325-343. A. Julien, UCL Energy Institute, London, UKConference 2011, Washington Rapid energy savings in London'shouseholds to mitigate an energy crisis Wood, G. &

  18. Pilot Study of Fuel and Stove Use Behavior of Mongolian Ger Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    fueling procedure and type of coal and wood used; and amounttype and amount of fuel used, ash removal rates, and the presence of smoldering or hot coal

  19. Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Promnitz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

  20. Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

  1. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: Results of a throughfall reduction experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground136, 68005-080 Santare´m, Para´, Brazil Woods Hole ResearchCenter, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02543, USA

  2. Polar Shear Lag Analysis of a Composite of Concentric Cylinders with Longitudinal Cracks: Application to Internal Checking in Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    : Application to Internal Checking in Wood J.A.Nairn Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University the existence of internal checks lowers the value of the wood when it is milled into lumber (due to detrimental

  3. A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Survey A household carbon footprint calculator for islands: Case study of the United States Virgin xxxx Keywords: Carbon footprint Green house gas emissions Small Island Developing States Island regions the carbon footprint of typical households within the US Virgin Islands. We find the average carbon footprint

  4. NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES HOUSEHOLD RESPONSE TO THE 2008 TAX REBATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES HOUSEHOLD RESPONSE TO THE 2008 TAX REBATE: SURVEY EVIDENCE AND AGGREGATE, including © notice, is given to the source. #12;Household Response to the 2008 Tax Rebate: Survey Evidence/University of Michigan survey report that the 2008 tax rebates led them to mostly increase spending, while over half said

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Long-term dynamics of household size and their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    impact Á Household size Á IPHoG Á Population Á Sustainable development Introduction The impacts of human the impacts of increased housing present a threat to sustainability even when population growth slows. Future research addressing environmental impacts of declining household size could use an adapted IPAT model, I

  6. Environmental and Resource Economics Household Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting for regional prices and rapid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    growth, China's energy consumption is rising at one of the fastest rates in the world, almost 8% per year, in particular, household electricity use rose by 12.6% per year, and natural gas by 19.5% in the last decade1Environmental and Resource Economics Household Energy Demand in Urban China: Accounting

  7. Frequency and longitudinal trends of household care product use Rebecca E. Moran a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    SUPERB Indoor environment d-limonene a b s t r a c t The use of household cleaning products and air infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance

  8. Edinburgh Research Explorer Influencing household energy practices: a critical review of UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Edinburgh Research Explorer Influencing household energy practices: a critical review of UK smart & Webb, J 2014, 'Influencing household energy practices: a critical review of UK smart metering standards Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use

  9. A 3D Interface for Selecting Household Paint Colors Seth Berrier, Gary Meyer and Danny Rado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    A 3D Interface for Selecting Household Paint Colors Seth Berrier, Gary Meyer and Danny Rado Digital Abstract Commercially available tools for searching collections of paint colors are critically examined and a new computer interface for selecting household paint colors is proposed. The new system is organized

  10. Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Passive sampling methods to determine household and personal care product use DEBORAH H. BENNETTa, cleaning products, passive sampling, SUPERB, longitudinal. Introduction Personal care and household care products, such as cleaning products and pesticides, are frequently used in most house- holds although

  11. Determinants of SNAP Participation: Employing a Structural Vulnerability of Poverty Framework to Examine SNAP Participation Among Low-Income Heads of Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Gina L

    2015-01-01

    Among  Low-­?Income   Heads  of  Households.  Association  Participation Among Low-Income Heads of Households By GinaRecession among elderly low-income heads of households. The

  12. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  13. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  14. Iron/potassium perchlorate pellet burn rate measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.; Walters, R.R.

    1995-01-25

    A burn rate test having several advantages for low gas-producing pyrotechnic compacts has been developed. The technique involves use of a high speed video motion analysis system that allows immediate turnaround and produces all required data for rate computation on magnetic tape and becomes immediately available on the display screen. The test technique provides a quick method for material qualification along with data for improved reliability and function. Burn rate data has been obtained for both UPI and Eagle Pitcher Iron/Potassium Perchlorate blends. The data obtained for the UPI blends cover a range of composition, pellet density, and ambient (before ignition) pellet temperature. Burn rate data for the E-P blends were extended to include surface conditions or particle size as a variable parameter.

  15. Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3.4 Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products Focus Europe WOOD & PAPER- BASED PRODUCTS #12;3.5 Selected tools Forest conversion Social issues Pollution

  16. Activity-based Travel Demand Model with Time-use and Microsimulation incorporating Intra-household Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hee-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    actions that maximize the joint family income by acting inincome under which individual finds consumption to maximizemaximize the individual utility function subject to the distribution of the household’s full income.

  17. A REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS IN EPRI EA-3409, "HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE CHOICE: REVISION OF REEPS BEHAVIORAL MODELS"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    to separate fuel price and capital cost effects from non-for any household's heat pump capital costs, and replace theto own fuel prices, own capital costs, and household income.

  18. Household- and Market-Level Perspectives on the Peter Pan Peanut Butter Recall Using Nielsen Homescan Panel Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakhtavoryan, Rafael

    2012-02-14

    Using household level scanner data for 2006, 2007, and 2008, this dissertation consists of four studies, which present household- and market-level analyses of food safety issues concerning the 2007 Peter Pan recall on the ...

  19. Modeling household adoption of earthquake hazard adjustments: a longitudinal panel study of Southern California and Western Washington residents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlikatti, Sudha S

    2006-10-30

    This research, aimed at advancing the theory of environmental hazard adjustment processes by contrasting households from three cities in a high seismic hazard area with households from three other cities in a moderate seismic hazard area...

  20. The morphological development of a wood burl shader 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert Simms

    2004-09-30

    THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject...: Visualization Sciences THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  1. Wood residuals find big uses in small pieces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.

    1996-12-01

    With a history of finding economic uses for leftovers, the wood industry explores sustainable options for creating higher value products. Years ago, companies saw the use - any use - of residues as a sound, economic business practice. Today, many companies are looking to go beyond low value products such as mulch, animal bedding and fuel, and market to higher value end users. Additionally, with so much material from the primary industries already accounted for, consumers of wood residue are in need of additional supply from sources such as secondary mills (furniture manufacturers, etc.), as wells as the C&D and MSW streams. This paper discusses these products and markets.

  2. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:Wood

  3. Range Vegetation Response to Burning Thicketized Live Oak Savannah. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C.J.; Kelly, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    centimeters deep for gravimetric determination of soil water content. Soil textures from the same depths were determined by the hy- drometer method (Bouyoucos, 1962), and pH on a 1:4 slurry (Mortensen, 1965). Post burn standing crop of herbaceous... bluestem tended to in- crease in impom during the second growing sea- f% following W burns. In April 1976, dune paspalum and Heller 'cum accounted or 64 percent of the green grass ding crop on unburned areas (Table 4). Ckdy 12 F ,&ent of green grass...

  4. Communication Support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hegna, Chris [University of Wisconsin] [University of Wisconsin

    2014-02-05

    The role of this DOE grant was to provide administrative and software support for the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO). The USBPO is a grassroots organization of fusion plasma scientists that concentrates broadly on issues of interest in burning plasma physics in general with a particular emphasis on the needs of the ITER program. The particular role of this grant was to provide support of the communication needs of the USBPO primarily through the administration and maintenance of the USBPO server, the public USBPO website, e-mail lists and numerous members-only discussion forums and mail lists.

  5. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; H. R. Trellue; Michael Martin Nieto; W. B. WIlson

    2011-10-03

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  6. Theory of Antineutrino Monitoring of Burning MOX Plutonium Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, A C; Nieto, Michael Martin; WIlson, W B

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents the physics and feasibility of reactor antineutrino monitoring to verify the burnup of plutonium loaded in the reactor as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. It examines the magnitude and temporal variation in the antineutrino signals expected for different MOX fuels, for the purposes of nuclear accountability and safeguards. The antineutrino signals from reactor-grade and weapons-grade MOX are shown to be distinct from those from burning low enriched uranium. Thus, antineutrino monitoring could be used to verify the destruction of plutonium in reactors, though verifying the grade of the plutonium being burned is found to be more challenging.

  7. The Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in the Germination of Chaparral Herbs1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the effect of heating, at temperatures similar to those found in fire, and tests with wood ash alone failed

  8. Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    /environmental concerns c. Special handling 4. Management options for treated wood a. Is treated wood a solid waste? b for homeowners, contractors, waste management professionals, and other parties needing information on managementManagement of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators Prepared by

  9. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  10. Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon Nicole M. Czarnomski a conceptual model of wood dynamics in stream networks that considers legacies of forest management practices, floods, and debris flows. We combine an observational study of wood in 25 km of 2nd- through 5th

  11. A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products to carbon stored in harvested wood products (HWP) and for evaluating uncertainty. The method uses data suggest that uncertainty is most sensitive to uncertainty in production data for solid- wood products

  12. Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    META ANALYSIS Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of functional and their phylogenetic history influence decay rates of dead wood and leaf litter, but it remains unknown if decay rates of wood and litter covary over a wide range of tree species and across ecosystems. We evaluated

  13. The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set Nathan J-offs, long-term ecological research, phylogenetic independent contrasts, trait conservatism. Summary · Wood in mortality rates with wood density, drawing on data for 765 500 trees from 1639 species at 10 sites located

  14. Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2 Abstract, Biodeterioration Research, concentrates on studying the basic mechanism of wood decay. Most of the Forest Service's work on wood decay is being done in two work units in Forest Insect and Disease Research (FIDR) housed

  15. Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability and habitat selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability-introduction of large wood for expanding hydraulic variability is an increasingly common prac- tice, yet it is not yet on flow strength, depth, distance to wood, or based on temporal or spatial variability of the flow field

  16. Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material Krista Stancombe, Fang Chen in preparing wood fiber (WF) composites. The goal in developing this material is to produce a shape stabilized (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). References Conclusion LA crystals LA crystals Wood Fiber

  17. World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce An Oxymoron or Wave of the Future Presented by: Thomas J. Westbrook, JD President & CEO World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. http Collapsing time and space Communication World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 The Promise of the Internet

  18. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada Alexander P. Wolfe1 preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.360.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood

  19. Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q W.T.Y. Tze a 37831-6116, USA d Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of individual, native wood fibers using

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN

  1. WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia community diversity and composition. Wood-boring insects in particular can cause considerable damage. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

  2. Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information and Mapping Technique William of the system to determine the allocation and association of wood sources and markets. INTRODUCTION In December strategies of wood origins and potential markets to be correlated very accurately and rapidly. Transportation

  3. On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Geoff

    1 Article 6 On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith Abstract The ten pairs of directly similar triangles in perspective in the Wood-Desargues' configuration are similar to the five cyclic quadrangles of the initial Wood-Desargues' configuration and that these five

  4. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

  5. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS Working Post Doctoral Researcher Wood Products Processing Richard Vlosky Assistant Professor Forest Products Marketing February 7, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT A study of equipment usage in the Louisiana secondary wood

  6. EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS John T. Axtell, Lloyd V Pullman, WA 99164-2920 ABSTRACT This study examines the durability of a laminated wood baseball bat. The measured and predicted results are in good agreement. Wood lamination was observed to decrease the scatter

  7. Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington Tim B Mountains in NW Washington reveal basin-wide patterns of distinctive wood debris (WD) accumulations development. The classification of wood debris accumulations in the Queets river basin is based on physical

  8. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event ESTELLE. More- over, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response

  9. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood within preservative-treated wood. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments

  10. Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products By Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects

  11. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    -treated wood Xinde Cao*, Lena Q. Ma Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk

  12. PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled mushrooms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled production. Understanding of the higher-level relationships of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes has advanced. This project will perform monographic research and training in two major groups of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes

  13. International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Amount(inmillioncubicmetresWRME) Recovered paper Net pulp fossil fuel prices · Energy security · Policies to reduce climate change · Wood industries' wood needs consumption, e.g. China ­ Nuclear safety #12;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA

  14. Illegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the production and use of wood energy, in the context of broader policy frameworks, for renewable energiesIllegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP PRESS RELEASE [Index] Illegal logging and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy

  15. Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    85 Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds Stephen T controls on supply and transport of sediment and wood in a small (approximately two square kilometers) basin in the Oregon Coast Range, typical of streams at the interface between episodic sediment and wood

  16. Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Peter

    Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng Representation.12.007 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: S.Wood@sussex.ac.uk (S. Wood). Computers in Human Behavior 22 (2006) 588 an incremental extension of existing technologies. From stud- ies of other design oriented disciplines

  17. Field Document No.50 REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood energy data, leading to best estimates of future consumption. It also tries to estimate. The work continues, particularly in much- needed efforts to strengthen the available wood energy data-use Conversion 22 3.7 Quotes 23 4. Selected Wood Energy Data 27 4.1 Energy Balances in RWEDP Member-countries 27

  18. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background and Purpose The purpose of the Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Price Wood River LRR and the overall scope of the project, the final panel members were selectedFinal Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Limited

  19. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E.; Kim, S-H.; Koechl, F.

    2014-09-01

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  20. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    those found in municipal solid waste (MSW) (e.g., food waste). However, research has shown that C liners (11). When CCA-treated wood is managed in the C&D debris waste stream and is disposed in unlined C&D debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers

  1. Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Final Report Prepared by: Robert Gerard and David Barber Arup North America Ltd San Francisco, CA Armin Wolski San Francisco, CA © December 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK QUINCY

  2. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  3. Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect...

  4. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  5. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  6. MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding The 2013 FABI/ CTHB UPwith of antibacterial products being advertised. The aim was to explore the idea created by these products that bacteria this by testing whether all bacteria can survive in every environment; will bacteria isolated from the UP

  7. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1997-14 Prepared for: Environment Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada is not responsible

  8. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  9. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  10. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  11. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  12. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    ,4 1 #12;It has been recognized early on that there may be applications to the wood industry for pulsed power from an 80 MHz, 100 fs, Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The optical beam is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the photoconductive switch, and the emitted terahertz radiation

  13. Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc there any special thing I should do about it?", etc. To support this kind of activity, a substantial part something. TO support the above uses of knowledge, an important characteristic required of an efficient

  14. RUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV. (Bloodborne pathogens as they relate to the use of animal blood may also be covered by the policies of the University's research animal care facilities for University staff, students, faculty, and house staff. 1. Each RUTGERS Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

  15. Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces M.J. Benjamin, K Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are man made inorganic solids that lie in between hydraulic cements and ceramics . Normally, ceramics are sintered at temperatures ranging from 700-2000C

  16. FIEA Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    FIEA ­ Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship Forest Industry, including any NZQA Unit Standards that you have completed. NOTES: 1. The Regulations for this award be received by the Dunedin office of Forest Industry Engineering Association by 1 March 2012

  17. The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

  18. Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina John W. van de Lindt, M.ASCE1 ; and Kenneth J. Fridley, M.ASCE6 Abstract: The costliest natural disaster in U.S. history was Hurricane Katrina; Hurricanes; Damage; Gulf of Mexico. Introduction The data reconnaissance consisted of 3 days of data

  19. Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study

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    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to the design criterion of a safety factor of 1.6, as well as a lower factor of safety for the temporary USACE criteria require a minimum factor of safety of 1.6. b. Parametric study to understand#12;1 Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study Limited Reevaluation

  20. Thomas F. Burns Deputy Assistant Administrator for Systems

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    in Redondo Beach, CA, supporting government satellite and ground system projects,including Peacekeeper failures and major milestone readiness. Dr. Burns is the recipient of the NRO Medal of Distinguished control. He enjoys spending time with his family and distance running, having completed over twenty