National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for household purposes single-phase

  1. Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In 2009, getting to and from work accounted for about 27% of household vehicle-miles of travel (VMT). Work-related business was 8.4% of VMT in 2001, but declined to 6.7% in 2009, possibly due to advancements in computing technology making it possible for more business to be handled electronically. VMT for shopping was almost

  2. Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals You are ...

  3. Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purpose Determine which objects are attracted to a magnet. Performing the experiment 1. Touch the magnet to each object. Which objects or which portions of objects are attracted to the magnet? 2. See if you can attract the paper clip to one end of the magnet and then pick up another paper clip, or nail with the paper clip. 3. Rub the paper clip slowly over the magnet in its long direction about fifty times. Now try to pick up a second paper clip with the first paper clip, but without the

  4. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation.

  5. Permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-08-14

    A permanent split capacitor single phase electric motor achieves balanced operation at more than one operating point by adjusting the voltage supplied to the main and auxiliary windings and adjusting the capacitance in the auxiliary winding circuit. An intermediate voltage tap on an autotransformer supplies voltage to the main winding for low speed operation while a capacitive voltage divider is used to adjust the voltage supplied to the auxiliary winding for low speed operation. 4 figs.

  6. Single phase two pole/six pole motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-09-25

    A single phase alternating current two pole/six pole motor is provided with a main stator winding having six coils disposed unequally around the periphery of the machine. These coils are divided into two groups. When these groups are connected such that their magnetomotive forces are additive, two pole motor operation results. When the polarity of one of the groups is then reversed, six pole motor operation results. An auxiliary stator winding which is similar to the main stator winding is displaced from the main stator winding by 90 electrical degrees on a two pole basis. 12 figs.

  7. Single phase two pole/six pole motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current two pole/six pole motor is provided with a main stator winding having six coils disposed unequally around the periphery of the machine. These coils are divided into two groups. When these groups are connected such that their magnetomotive forces are additive, two pole motor operation results. When the polarity of one of the groups is then reversed, six pole motor operation results. An auxiliary stator winding which is similar to the main stator winding is displaced from the main stator winding by 90 electrical degrees on a two pole basis.

  8. Single phase four pole/six pole motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-10-09

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups each including the series connection of three coils. These coil groups can be connected in series for six pole operation and in parallel for four pole operation. The coils are approximately equally spaced around the periphery of the machine but are not of equal numbers of turns. The two coil groups are identically wound and spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart. One coil of each group has more turns and a greater span than the other two coils. 10 figs.

  9. Six pole/eight pole single-phase motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups which are connected to form eight poles for eight-pole operation and to form six poles for six-pole operation. Each group contains four series connected coil elements with each element spanning approximately one-seventh of the periphery of the machine. The coil groups are spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart such that each end coil of one group overlaps one of the end coils of the other group. An auxiliary stator winding having two coil groups with the same relative angular displacement as the main stator winding coil groups is included.

  10. Single phase four pole/six pole motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, Herbert S.

    1984-01-01

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups each including the series connection of three coils. These coil groups can be connected in series for six pole operation and in parallel for four pole operation. The coils are approximately equally spaced around the periphery of the machine but are not of equal numbers of turns. The two coil groups are identically wound and spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart. One coil of each group has more turns and a greater span than the other two coils.

  11. An Evaluation of Single Phase Ceramic Formulations for Plutonium Disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Scales, Charlie R.; Livens, Francis R.; Gilbert, Matthew

    2007-07-01

    Ceramics are promising potential hosts for the immobilization of actinide containing wastes. Work has been reported in the literature on multiphase systems, such as SYNROC [1], and on single phase systems such as pyrochlores [2] and zirconia [3], but assessment of the different waste-forms by direct comparison of literature data is not always easy due to the different processing and fabrication routes employed. In this study a potential range of different ceramic systems were investigated for plutonium disposition using the same processing scheme. Durable actinide containing minerals exist in nature and provided excellent target phases for the titanate, zirconate, silicate and phosphate based formulations examined here [4]. The Ce solid solution limits for each particular substitution mechanism were established and the processing parameters required to produce high quality ceramic specimens were optimised. Importantly, this was achieved within the constraints of a generic processing route suitable for fabrication of Pu bearing samples. (authors)

  12. Six pole/eight pole single-phase motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirschbaum, H.S.

    1984-07-31

    A single phase alternating current electric motor is provided with a main stator winding having two coil groups which are connected to form eight poles for eight-pole operation and to form six poles for six-pole operation. Each group contains four series connected coil elements with each element spanning approximately one-seventh of the periphery of the machine. The coil groups are spaced 180 mechanical degrees apart such that each end coil of one group overlaps one of the end coils of the other group. An auxiliary stator winding having two coil groups with the same relative angular displacement as the main stator winding coil groups is included. 10 figs.

  13. Household magnets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Household magnets Chances are very good that you have experimented with magnets. People have been fascinated with magnetism for thousands of years. As familiar to us as they may be, magnets still have some surprises for us. Here is a small collection of some of our favorite magnet experiments. What happens when we break a magnet in half? Radio Shack sells cheap ceramic magnets in several shapes. Get a ring shaped magnet and break it with pliers or a tap with a hammer. Try to put it back

  14. System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: System and method for single-phase, single-stage grid-interactive inverter The present invention provides for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources...

  15. EIA - Household Transportation report: Household Vehicles Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 August 1997 Release Next Update: EIA has discontinued this series....

  16. Phase-Locked Loop Noise Reduction via Phase Detector Implementation for Single-Phase Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thacker, Timothy; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Wang, Fei

    2011-01-01

    A crucial component of grid-connected converters is the phase-locked loop (PLL) control subsystem that tracks the grid voltage's frequency and phase angle. Therefore, accurate fast-responding PLLs for control and protection purposes are required to provide these measurements. This paper proposes a novel feedback mechanism for single-phase PLL phase detectors using the estimated phase angle. Ripple noise appearing in the estimated frequency, most commonly the second harmonic under phase-lock conditions, is reduced or eliminated without the use of low-pass filters, which can cause delays to occur and limits the overall performance of the PLL response to dynamic changes in the system. The proposed method has the capability to eliminate the noise ripple entirely and, under extreme line distortion conditions, can reduce the ripple by at least half. Other modifications implemented through frequency feedback are shown to decrease the settling time of the PLL up to 50%. Mathematical analyses with the simulated and experimental results are provided to confirm the validity of the proposed methods.

  17. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape039narumanchi2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D

  18. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  19. Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  20. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Appliances Tables (Million U.S. Households; 60 pages, 240 kb) Contents Pages HC5-1a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-3a. Appliances by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 5 HC5-6a. Appliances by Type of Rented

  1. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

  2. Note: Phase retrieval method for analyzing single-phase displacement interferometry data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X. H.; Zeng, X. L.; Fan, D.; Liu, Q. C.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M. Luo, S. N.

    2014-02-15

    We present a phase retrieval method (PRM) for analyzing single-phase displacement interferometry measurements on rapidly changing velocity histories, including photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV). PRM identifies the peaks and valleys as well as zero-crossing points in a PDV time series, performs normalization and extracts point-by-point phase and thus velocity information. PRM does not require a wide time window as in sliding window Fourier transformation, and thus improves the effective temporal resolution. This method is implemented in analyzing PDV data obtained from gas gun experiments, and validated against simultaneous measurements with velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

  3. housingunit_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  4. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  5. ac_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  6. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  7. A Two-length Scale Turbulence Model for Single-phase Multi-fluid Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarzkopf, J. D.; Livescu, D.; Baltzer, J. R.; Gore, R. A.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2015-09-08

    A two-length scale, second moment turbulence model (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) is proposed to capture a wide variety of single-phase flows, spanning from incompressible flows with single fluids and mixtures of different density fluids (variable density flows) to flows over shock waves. The two-length scale model was developed to address an inconsistency present in the single-length scale models, e.g. the inability to match both variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, as well as the inability to match both homogeneous shear and free shear flows. The two-length scale model focuses on separating the decay and transport length scales, as the two physical processes are generally different in inhomogeneous turbulence. This allows reasonable comparisons with statistics and spreading rates over such a wide range of turbulent flows using a common set of model coefficients. The specific canonical flows considered for calibrating the model include homogeneous shear, single-phase incompressible shear driven turbulence, variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, and shocked isotropic turbulence. The second moment model shows to compare reasonably well with direct numerical simulations (DNS), experiments, and theory in most cases. The model was then applied to variable density shear layer and shock tube data and shows to be in reasonable agreement with DNS and experiments. Additionally, the importance of using DNS to calibrate and assess RANS type turbulence models is highlighted.

  8. A grid-connected photovoltaic power conversion system with single-phase multilevel inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beser, Ersoy; Arifoglu, Birol; Camur, Sabri; Beser, Esra Kandemir

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power conversion system based on a single-phase multilevel inverter. The proposed system fundamentally consists of PV arrays and a single-phase multilevel inverter structure. First, configuration and structural parts of the PV assisted inverter system are introduced in detail. To produce reference output voltage waves, a simple switching strategy based on calculating switching angles is improved. By calculated switching angles, the reference signal is produced as a multilevel shaped output voltage wave. The control algorithm and operational principles of the proposed system are explained. Operating PV arrays in the same load condition is a considerable point; therefore a simulation study is performed to arrange the PV arrays. After determining the number and connection types of the PV arrays, the system is configured through the arrangement of the PV arrays. The validity of the proposed system is verified through simulations and experimental study. The results demonstrate that the system can achieve lower total harmonic distortion (THD) on the output voltage and load current, and it is capable of operating synchronous and transferring power values having different characteristic to the grid. Hence, it is suitable to use the proposed configuration as a PV power conversion system in various applications. (author)

  9. A Two-length Scale Turbulence Model for Single-phase Multi-fluid Mixing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwarzkopf, J. D.; Livescu, D.; Baltzer, J. R.; Gore, R. A.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2015-09-08

    A two-length scale, second moment turbulence model (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) is proposed to capture a wide variety of single-phase flows, spanning from incompressible flows with single fluids and mixtures of different density fluids (variable density flows) to flows over shock waves. The two-length scale model was developed to address an inconsistency present in the single-length scale models, e.g. the inability to match both variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, as well as the inability to match both homogeneous shear and free shear flows. The two-length scale model focuses on separating the decay and transport length scales,more » as the two physical processes are generally different in inhomogeneous turbulence. This allows reasonable comparisons with statistics and spreading rates over such a wide range of turbulent flows using a common set of model coefficients. The specific canonical flows considered for calibrating the model include homogeneous shear, single-phase incompressible shear driven turbulence, variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, and shocked isotropic turbulence. The second moment model shows to compare reasonably well with direct numerical simulations (DNS), experiments, and theory in most cases. The model was then applied to variable density shear layer and shock tube data and shows to be in reasonable agreement with DNS and experiments. Additionally, the importance of using DNS to calibrate and assess RANS type turbulence models is highlighted.« less

  10. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    or commercial trucks (See Table 1). Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 5 The 1991 RTECS count includes vehicles that were owned or used...

  11. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo printer-friendly version logo for Portable Document Format file Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 December 1993 Release Next Update: August 1997. Based on the 1991...

  12. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau; John Peterson; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou

    2012-05-01

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7 is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code to

  13. NUMERICAL VERIFICATION OF THE RELAP-7 CORE CHANNEL SINGLE-PHASE MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; Richard Martineau

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation of nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). All the physics in RELAP-7 are fully coupled and the errors resulted from the traditional operator-splitting approach are eliminated. By using 2nd order methods in both time and space and eliminating operator-splitting errors, the numerical error of RELAP-7 can be minimized. Numerical verification is the process to verify the orders of numerical methods. It is an important part of modern verification and validation process. The core channel component in RELAP-7 is designed to simulate coolant flow as well as the conjugated heat transfer between coolant flow and the fuel rod. A special treatment at fuel centerline to avoid numerical singularity for the cylindrical heat conduction in the continuous finite element mesh is discussed. One steady state test case and one fast power up transient test case are utilized for the verification of the core channel model with single-phase flow. Analytical solution for the fuel pin temperature and figures of merit such as peak clad temperature and peak fuel temperature are used to define numerical errors. These cases prove that the mass and energy are well conserved and 2nd order convergence rates for both time and space are achieved in the core channel model.

  14. A new friction factor correlation for laminar, single-phase flows through rock fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazridoust, K. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

    2006-09-30

    Single-phase flow through fractured media occurs in various situations, such as transport of dissolved contaminants through geological strata, sequestration of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs, and in primary oil recovery. In the present study, fluid flows through a rock fracture were simulated. The fracture geometry was obtained from the CT scans of a rock fracture produced by the Brazilian method in a sandstone sample. A post-processing code using a CAD package was developed and used to generate the three-dimensional fracture from the CT scan data. Several sections along the fracture were considered and the GambitTM code was used to generate unstructured grids for flow simulations. FLUENTTM was used to analyze the flow conditions through the fracture section for different flow rates. Because of the small aperture of the fractures, the gravitational effects could be neglected. It was confirmed that the pressure drop was dominated by the smallest aperture passages of the fracture. The accuracy of parallel plate models for estimating the pressure drops through fractures was studied. It was shown that the parallel plate flow model with the use of an appropriate effective fracture aperture and inclusion of the tortuosity factor could provide reasonable estimates for pressure drops in the fracture. On the basis of the CFD simulation data, a new expression for the friction factor for flows through fractures was developed. The new model predictions were compared with the simulation results and favorable agreement was found. It was shown that when the length of the fracture and the mean and standard deviation of the fracture are known, the pressure loss as a function of the flow rate could be estimated. These findings may prove useful for design of lab experiments, computational studied of flows through real rock fractures, or inclusions in simulators for large-scale flows in highly fractured rocks.

  15. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  16. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.
    Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  17. Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Use Cover Page Glossary Home > Households, Buildings & Industry >Transportation Surveys > Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Contact Us * Feedback * PrivacySecurity *...

  18. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for ...

  19. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Air Conditioning by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 20.5 13.6 6.8 2.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 Q Q 27.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  20. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Air Conditioning by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 37.2 19.3 6.4 11.5 1.5 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.4 Q Q Q 28.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  1. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.4 1.2 1.7 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 10.7 3.4 7.2 7.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.1 0.2 0.9 15.5 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 9.6 3.2

  2. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Air Conditioning by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 4.9 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 21.8 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  3. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Air Conditioning by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.8 1.4 1.3 1.4 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 36.8 13.6 18.9 13.6 4.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 21.4 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2 ........................................ 80.8 35.6 13.4

  4. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Air Conditioning by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 14.5 11.3 3.2 3.3 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.3 0.3 Q 28.3 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1

  5. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16.8 17.4 18.6 18.9 1.7 2.2 0.6 1.5 Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1991 15 Vehicle Miles Traveled per Vehicle (Thousand) . . . . . . . . ....

  6. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State ...

  7. char_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... Income Relative to Poverty Line Below 100 Percent ...... 15.0 13.2 1.8 Q ...

  8. char_household2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Contact: Stephanie J. Battles, Survey Manager (stephanie.battles@eia.doe.gov) World Wide Web: http:www.eia.doe.govemeuconsumption Table HC2-1a. Household Characteristics by ...

  9. Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends...

  10. I. Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance for EPAct 2005 Section 242 Program I. Purpose In the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005; Public Law 109-58) Congress established a new program to support the expansion of hydropower energy development at existing dams and impoundments through an incentive payment procedure. Under section 242 of EPAct 2005, the Secretary of Energy is directed to provide incentive payments to the owner or operator of qualified hydroelectric facilities for electric energy generated and sold from a

  11. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Air Conditioning by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 82.9 13.6 16.0 14.7 10.4 10.5 17.6 4.7 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 2.1 Q 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.5 27.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 2

  12. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Air Conditioning by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.8 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 59.5 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 5.2 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 1.2 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.3 Households Using

  13. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Air Conditioning by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.8 0.5 1.4 1.2 1.6 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ........ 23.4 58.7 6.5 12.4 5.3 6.1 Air Conditioners Not Used ............ 0.9 1.1 Q 0.6 Q 23.0 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning

  14. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Home Office Equipment by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 22.4 15.7 6.7 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0

  15. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Home Office Equipment by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 34.6 18.4 6.0 10.1 1.2 Personal Computers 1

  16. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 21.4 6.2 15.2 1.0 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 14.3 4.0 10.4 3.7 Number of

  17. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Home Office Equipment by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.1 1.4 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 17.9 12.8 5.0 1.3 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 10.9

  18. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... 29.1 5.3 22.7 3.8 1 Below 150 percent of poverty line or 60 percent of median State income

  19. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact 748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household ...

  20. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Air Conditioning Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.2 Households With Electric Air-Conditioning Equipment ...................... 82.9 4.9 6.0 7.4 6.2 2.4 Air Conditioners Not Used ........................... 2.1 0.1 0.8 Q 0.1 23.2 Households Using Electric Air-Conditioning 1 ........................................ 80.8 4.7 5.2 7.4 6.1 2.6 Type of Electric Air-Conditioning Used Central

  1. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Home Office Equipment by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Households Using Office Equipment .......................... 96.2 14.9 16.7 17.0 12.2 13.0 22.4 4.4 Personal Computers 2

  2. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 22.1 6.6 15.5 1.1 1

  3. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  4. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Appliances by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 23.8 16.6 7.2 NE 1

  5. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Appliances by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 36.2 19.4 6.4 10.3 1.5 1

  6. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.5 1.7 1.6 1.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 69.1 9.4 16.7 6.6 4.3 1

  7. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.3 0.4 2.1 3.1 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ...........................................

  8. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Appliances by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 33.4 10.1 7.3 14.9 1.1

  9. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Appliances by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 47.5 17.5 19.9 16.8 4.2 1

  10. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Appliances by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 19.6 14.5 5.2 1.1 1

  11. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2001 Home Office Equipment RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.1 1.0 1.5 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Households Using Office Equipment ......................................... 96.2 6.2 11.4 6.7 5.9 1.7 Personal Computers 1 ................................. 60.0 3.4 7.9 4.1 3.8 4.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1

  12. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0a. Space Heating by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.8 No

  13. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1a. Space Heating by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 38.8 20.2 6.8 11.8 NE Do Not Heat Home

  14. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.6 1.0 1.6 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 22.6 6.7 15.9 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 Q 0.7 10.6 No Heating Equipment

  15. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5a. Space Heating by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.4 1.9 3.0 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Heat Home ..................................... 72.4 63.0 2.0 1.7 5.7 6.7 Do Not Heat Home

  16. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6a. Space Heating by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Heat Home ..................................... 33.7 10.4 7.4 14.8 1.1 6.9 Do Not Heat Home

  17. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8a. Space Heating by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.6 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.3 Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 49.1 18.0 21.2 17.8 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 25.8 No Heating

  18. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9a. Space Heating by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Heat Home .................................................... 106.0 20.1 14.7 5.4 NE Do Not Heat Home ....................................... 1.0 Q Q Q 19.9 No

  19. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  20. Energy-efficient housing alternatives: a predictive model of factors affecting household perceptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckengost, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of household socio-economic factors, dwelling characteristics, energy conservation behavior, and energy attitudes on the perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Perceptions of passive solar, active solar, earth sheltered, and retrofitted housing were examined. Data used were from the Southern Regional Research Project, S-141, Housing for Low and Moderate Income Families. Responses from 1804 households living in seven southern states were analyzed. A conceptual model was proposed to test the hypothesized relationships which were examined by path analysis. Perceptions of energy efficient housing alternatives were found to be a function of selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, household economic factors, and household conservation behavior. Age and education of the respondent, family size, housing-income ratio, utility income ratio, energy attitude, and size of the dwelling unit were found to have direct and indirect effects on perceptions of energy-efficient housing alternatives. Energy conservation behavior made a significant direct impact with behavioral energy conservation changes having the most profound influence. Conservation behavior was influenced by selected household and dwelling characteristics, energy attitude, and household economic factors.

  1. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- 2,000 CDD or More and Fewer than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Fewer than 4,000 HDD 0.4 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total .................................................. 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 21.0 24.1 7.8 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven

  2. appl_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 14.3 17.2 17.8 12.9 13.7 25.9 4.2 1

  3. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2a. Space Heating by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.5 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.3 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 15.4 18.2 18.6 13.6 13.9 26.4 4.3 Do Not Heat Home ........................

  4. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4a. Space Heating by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Space Heating Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.4 1.7 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.4 Heat Home ..................................... 106.0 73.4 9.4 16.4 6.8 4.5 Do Not Heat Home ........................ 1.0 0.3 Q 0.6 Q 19.0 No

  5. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  6. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  7. Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada ...

  8. Energy Information Administration/Household Vehicles Energy Consumptio...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    , Energy Information AdministrationHousehold Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 ix Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 presents statistics about energy-related...

  9. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer ...

  10. Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Household Response To Dynamic Pricing Of Electricity: A Survey Of The Experimental Evidence Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Household Response To Dynamic...

  11. Single-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste: Comparison of start-up, reactor stability and process performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: Single-phase and two-phase systems were compared for fruit and vegetable waste digestion. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS and 83% VS removal. Substrate solubilization was high in acidification conditions at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2. Energy yield was lower by 33% for two-phase system compared to the single-phase system. Simple and straight-forward operation favored single phase process over two-phase process. - Abstract: Single-phase and two-phase digestion of fruit and vegetable waste were studied to compare reactor start-up, reactor stability and performance (methane yield, volatile solids reduction and energy yield). The single-phase reactor (SPR) was a conventional reactor operated at a low loading rate (maximum of 3.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d), while the two-phase system consisted of an acidification reactor (TPAR) and a methanogenic reactor (TPMR). The TPAR was inoculated with methanogenic sludge similar to the SPR, but was operated with step-wise increase in the loading rate and with total recirculation of reactor solids to convert it into acidification sludge. Before each feeding, part of the sludge from TPAR was centrifuged, the centrifuge liquid (solubilized products) was fed to the TPMR and centrifuged solids were recycled back to the reactor. Single-phase digestion produced a methane yield of 0.45 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS fed and VS removal of 83%. The TPAR shifted to acidification mode at an OLR of 10.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and then achieved stable performance at 7.0 kg VS/m{sup 3} d and pH 5.56.2, with very high substrate solubilization rate and a methane yield of 0.30 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD fed. The two-phase process was capable of high VS reduction, but material and energy balance showed that the single-phase process was superior in terms of volumetric methane production and energy yield by 33%. The lower energy yield of the two-phase system was due to the loss of energy during

  12. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  13. Microsoft Word - Household Energy Use CA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 20 40 60 80 100 US PAC CA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 US PAC CA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $250 $500 $750 $1,000 $1,250 $1,500 US PAC CA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household  California households use 62 million Btu of energy per home, 31% less than the U.S. average. The lower than average site

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolealov, Markta; Beneov, Libue; Zvodsk, Anita

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. The physicochemical characteristics were determined. The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural

  16. Fluid-elastic Instability of Helical Tubes Subjected to Single-Phase External Flow and Two-Phase Internal Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the fluid-elastic instability characteristics of steam generator helical type tubes in operating nuclear power plants. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted by a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for helical type tubes with various conditions. Investigated are the effects of the helix angle, the number of supports and the status of the inner fluid on the modal, and fluid-elastic instability characteristics of the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and stability ratio. (authors)

  17. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  18. Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances - Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Determinants of Household Use of Selected Energy Star Appliances Release date: May 25, 2016 Introduction According to the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), household appliances1accounted for 35% of U.S. household energy consumption, up from 24% in 1993. Thus, improvements in the energy performance of residential appliances as well as increases in the use of more efficient appliances can be effective in reducing household energy consumption and

  19. Fit for Purpose Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that needs to be addressed by current and future Fit-for-Purpose projects includes: Reservoir pressure management - In deep saline formations, pressure increases due to...

  20. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  1. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-10

    Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1987, Part 1: National Data is the second publication in a series from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is prepared by the Energy End Use Division (EEUD) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU), Energy Information Administration (EIA). The EIA collects and publishes comprehensive data on energy consumption in occupied housing units in the residential sector through the RECS. 15 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Household and environmental characteristics related to household energy-consumption change: A human ecological approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study focused on the family household as an organism and on its interaction with the three environments of the human ecosystem (natural, behavioral, and constructed) as these influence energy consumption and energy-consumption change. A secondary statistical analysis of data from the US Department of Energy Residential Energy Consumption Surveys (RECS) was completed. The 1980 and 1983 RECS were used as the data base. Longitudinal data, including household, environmental, and energy-consumption measures, were available for over 800 households. The households were selected from a national sample of owner-occupied housing units surveyed in both years. Results showed a significant( p = <.05) relationship between the dependent-variable energy-consumption change and the predictor variables heating degree days, addition of insulation, addition of a wood-burning stove, year the housing unit was built, and weighted number of appliances. A significant (p = <.05) relationship was found between the criterion variable energy-consumption change and the discriminating variables of age of the head of the household, cooling degree days, heating degree days, year the housing unit was built, and number of stories in the housing unit.

  3. A comparative study of optical absorption and photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline single-phase anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} doped with transition metal cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kernazhitsky, L.; Shymanovska, V.; Gavrilko, T.; Naumov, V.; Kshnyakin, V.; Khalyavka, T.

    2013-02-15

    The effect of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} doping with transition metal cations (Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}) on their optical absorption and photocatalytic properties was investigated. The obtained metal-doped TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that doping effect on anatase (A) and rutile (R) properties is quite different, being much stronger and complicated on A than on R. Contrary to doped R, doped A revealed a significant red shift of the absorption edge along with the band gap narrowing. Photocatalytic activity of anatase increases upon doping in the order: AR/Co>R/Cu>R/Fe>R/Cr, indicating the inhibitory effect of impurity cations. This fact correlates with the decrease in the UV absorption of the doped rutile in the region of the Hg-lamp irradiation at 4.88 eV. - Graphical abstract: A red shift of the absorption edge of nanocrystalline single-phase anatase after doping with transition metal cations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single-phase anatase and rutile powders surface-doped with transition metal cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption edge and band gap of rutile do not change with surface doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band gap of surface-doped anatase reduces being the lowest for A/Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface-doping improves photocatalytic activity of anatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface-doping inhibits photocatalytic activity of rutile.

  4. Systems Analysis Workshop Purpose

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on SAW purpose to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  5. Poster Presentation Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Presentation Purpose The primary purpose of the poster presentation is to provide an opportunity to communicate the results of research and to initiate discussion among science colleagues. Because poster presentations are usually done in groups, with observers milling around a large room of posters, the presentations are relaxed and more conducive to the exchange of ideas and techniques between presenters and observers. The Poster A good poster is uncluttered and clear in design. It has legible

  6. Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collecting Household Energy Data Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (700.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Homeowner and Contractor Surveys Mastermind: Jim Mikel, Spirit Foundation Generating Energy Efficiency Project Leads and Allocating Leads to Contractors

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-22

    This report is the third in the series of reports presenting data from the 1987 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). The 1987 RECS, seventh in a series of national surveys of households and their energy suppliers, provides baseline information on household energy use in the United States. Data from the seven RECS and its companion survey, the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS), are made available to the public in published reports such as this one, and on public use data files. This report presents data for the four Census regions and nine Census divisions on the consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and kerosene (as a single category), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Data are also presented on consumption of wood at the Census region level. The emphasis in this report is on graphic depiction of the data. Data from previous RECS surveys are provided in the graphics, which indicate the regional trends in consumption, expenditures, and uses of energy. These graphs present data for the United States and each Census division. 12 figs., 71 tabs.

  8. Appliance Commitment for Household Load Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Pengwei; Lu, Ning

    2011-06-30

    This paper presents a novel appliance commitment algorithm that schedules thermostatically-controlled household loads based on price and consumption forecasts considering users comfort settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum payment or maximum comfort. The formulation of an appliance commitment problem was described in the paper using an electrical water heater load as an example. The thermal dynamics of heating and coasting of the water heater load was modeled by physical models; random hot water consumption was modeled with statistical methods. The models were used to predict the appliance operation over the scheduling time horizon. User comfort was transformed to a set of linear constraints. Then, a novel linear, sequential, optimization process was used to solve the appliance commitment problem. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm is fast, robust, and flexible. The algorithm can be used in home/building energy-management systems to help household owners or building managers to automatically create optimal load operation schedules based on different cost and comfort settings and compare cost/benefits among schedules.

  9. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-02

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide.

  10. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  11. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ... to 79,999","80,000 or More" "Water Heating Characteristics" ...

  13. Single phase synthesis and room temperature neutron diffraction studies on multiferroic PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteppanavar, Shidaling; Angadi, Basavaraj; Rayaprol, Sudhindra

    2013-02-05

    The lead-iron-niobate, (PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} or PFN) was synthesized by low temperature sintering Single Step / Solid State Reaction Method. The 700 Degree-Sign C/2 hrs. calcined powder was sintered at 1050 Degree-Sign C/1 hr. The sintered pellets were characterized through X-Ray Diffraction and Neutron Diffraction at room temperature. It is found from the XRD pattern that the materials is in single phase with no traces of pyrochlore phase. It was also confirmed from the neutron diffraction pattern, the structure of PFN to be monoclinic, space group Cm. Structural studies has been carried out by refining the obtained neutron diffraction data by Rietveld refinement method using Fullprof program. The neutron diffraction pattern at 300 K (room temperature) was selected to refine the structure. The lattice parameters obtained are; a = 5.6709 A, b = 5.6732 A, c = 4.0136 A, and {alpha}= 90, {beta}= 89.881, {gamma}= 90. The P-E measurements showed hysteretic behavior with high remnant polarization.

  14. Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Marra, James; Fox, Kevin; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod; Tang, Ming

    2012-09-17

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

  15. Single phase melt processed powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 for the immobilization of Mo-rich nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin M.; Marra, James C.; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod V.; Tang, Ming

    2012-10-02

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO4 and CaMoO4 were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO4 and BaMoO4 powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 x 1013 Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m2).

  16. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  17. MENTORING PROGRAM Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Last Revised: February 5, 2013 MENTORING PROGRAM Purpose To provide a formal structure to develop employees through mentoring with other professionals at the Ames Laboratory. The mentoring program includes a focus on critical positions that have no succession planning in place. Objectives * To promote individual development through the transfer of skills, expert knowledge and insight. * To provide an additional resource for feedback and guidance. * To develop an internal pipeline for succession

  18. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall,more » the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.« less

  19. Perceptions of risk among households in two Australian coastal communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrick-Barr, Carmen E.; Smith, Timothy F.; Thomsen, Dana C.; Preston, Benjamin L.

    2015-04-20

    There is limited knowledge of risk perceptions in coastal communities despite their vulnerability to a range of risks including the impacts of climate change. A survey of 400 households in two Australian coastal communities, combined with semi-structured interviews, provides insight into household perceptions of the relative importance of climatic and non-climatic risks and the subsequent risk priorities that may inform household adaptive action. In contrast to previous research, the results demonstrated that geographic location and household characteristics might not affect perceptions of vulnerability to environmental hazards. However, past experience was a significant influence, raising the priority of environmental concerns. Overall, the results highlight the priority concerns of coastal households (from finance, to health and environment) and suggest to increase the profile of climate issues in coastal communities climate change strategies need to better demonstrate links between climate vulnerability and other household concerns. Moreover, promoting generic capacities in isolation from understanding the context in which households construe climate risks is unlikely to yield the changes required to decrease the vulnerability of coastal communities.

  20. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  1. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  2. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  3. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-12-31

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  4. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact 618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per ...

  5. "Table HC7.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Household Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  6. "Table HC7.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  7. "Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ... for 2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ...

  8. Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation, 1984-2010 | Department of Energy 8: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 Fact #748: October 8, 2012 Components of Household Expenditures on Transportation, 1984-2010 The overall share of annual household expenditures for transportation was lower in 2010 than it was in 1984, reaching its lowest point in 2009 at 15.5%. In the early to mid-1980s when oil prices were high, gasoline and motor oil made up a larger share of transportation

  9. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  10. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim; Schmoyer, Richard L; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New England, Middle

  11. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

  12. Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statistics | Department of Energy 8: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Fact #618: April 12, 2010 Vehicles per Household and Other Demographic Statistics Since 1969, the number of vehicles per household has increased by 66% and the number of vehicles per licensed driver has increased by 47%. The number of workers per household has changed the least of the statistics shown here. There has been a decline in the number of persons per household from 1969 to

  13. Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Magic Arcs - The bottom arc always looks bigger than the top one, yet they are actually the same size. You just can't trust your senses. The secret is that the longer edge of the ...

  14. Purpose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to achieve the Laboratory mission and strategic objectives. OHAP Outcomes As part of the Strategic Planning and Goal Setting process, laboratory management annually reviews...

  15. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  17. A Glance at China’s Household Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shui, Bin

    2009-10-01

    Known for its scale, China is the most populous country with the world’s third largest economy. In the context of rising living standards, a relatively lower share of household consumption in its GDP, a strong domestic market and globalization, China is witnessing an unavoidable increase in household consumption, related energy consumption and carbon emissions. Chinese policy decision makers and researchers are well aware of these challenges and keen to promote green lifestyles. China has developed a series of energy policies and programs, and launched a wide-range social marketing activities to promote energy conservation.

  18. Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America Shared Solar Projects Powering Households Throughout America January 31, 2014 - 2:30pm Addthis Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy’s myriad benefits, even though the system is not located on the consumer’s own rooftop. | Photo courtesy of the Vote Solar Initiative Shared solar projects allow consumers to take advantage of solar energy's myriad benefits, even though the system

  19. New York Household Travel Patterns: A Comparison Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2007-05-01

    In 1969, the U. S. Department of Transportation began collecting detailed data on personal travel to address various transportation planning issues. These issues range from assessing transportation investment programs to developing new technologies to alleviate congestion. This 1969 survey was the birth of the Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed to the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State (NYS), the state procured an additional sample of households in both the 1995 and 2001 surveys. In the 1995 survey, NYS procured an addition sample of more than 9,000 households, increasing the final NY NPTS sample size to a total of 11,004 households. Again in 2001, NYS procured 12,000 additional sample households, increasing the final New York NHTS sample size to a total of 13,423 households with usable data. These additional sample households allowed NYS to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas significantly smaller than for what the national NPTS and NHTS data are intended. Specifically, these larger sample sizes enable detailed analysis of twelve individual Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Furthermore, they allowed NYS to address trends in travel behavior over time. In this report, travel data for the entire NYS were compared to those of the rest of the country with respect to personal travel behavior and key travel determinants. The influence of New York City (NYC) data on the comparisons of the state of New York to the rest of the country was also examined. Moreover, the analysis examined the relationship between population density and travel patterns, and the similarities and differences among New

  20. Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Household heating bills expected to be lower this winter U.S. consumers are expected to pay less this winter on their home heating bills because of lower oil and natural gas prices and projected milder temperatures than last winter. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said households that rely on heating oil which are mainly located in the Northeast will pay the lowest heating expenditures in 9 years down 25% from last winter as consumers are expected to save about

  1. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main ...

  2. Table HC1-3a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Household Income...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ... RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral ...

  3. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Vehicles | Department of Energy 7: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of households with three or more vehicles grew from 2% in 1960 to nearly 20% in 2010. Before 1990,

  4. Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 9: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles Fact #729: May 28, 2012 Secondary Household Vehicles Travel Fewer Miles When a household has more than one vehicle, the secondary vehicles travel fewer miles than the primary vehicle. In a two-vehicle household, the second vehicle travels less than half of the miles that the primary vehicle travels in a day. In a six-vehicle household, the sixth vehicle travels fewer than five miles a day. Daily Vehicle

  5. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  6. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  7. DOE Workshop Overview and Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4/13/2016 eere.energy.gov DOE Workshop Overview and Purpose Workshop on Gas Clean-Up for Fuel Cell Applications 3/6/2014, Argonne National Laboratory Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Fuel Cells Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Fuel Cells Overview and Benefits The Role of Fuel Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions * 35-50%+ reductions for CHP systems (>80% with biogas) * 55-90%

  8. General single phase wellbore flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Liang-Biao; Arbabi, S.; Aziz, K.

    1997-02-05

    A general wellbore flow model, which incorporates not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow, is presented in this report. The new wellbore model is readily applicable to any wellbore perforation patterns and well completions, and can be easily incorporated in reservoir simulators or analytical reservoir inflow models. Three dimensionless numbers, the accelerational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub af}, the gravitational to frictional pressure gradient ratio R{sub gf}, and the inflow-directional to accelerational pressure gradient ratio R{sub da}, have been introduced to quantitatively describe the relative importance of different pressure gradient components. For fluid flow in a production well, it is expected that there may exist up to three different regions of the wellbore: the laminar flow region, the partially-developed turbulent flow region, and the fully-developed turbulent flow region. The laminar flow region is located near the well toe, the partially-turbulent flow region lies in the middle of the wellbore, while the fully-developed turbulent flow region is at the downstream end or the heel of the wellbore. Length of each region depends on fluid properties, wellbore geometry and flow rate. As the distance from the well toe increases, flow rate in the wellbore increases and the ratios R{sub af} and R{sub da} decrease. Consequently accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops have the greatest impact in the toe region of the wellbore. Near the well heel the local wellbore flow rate becomes large and close to the total well production rate, here R{sub af} and R{sub da} are small, therefore, both the accelerational and inflow-directional pressure drops can be neglected.

  9. Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily and Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (919.64 KB) More Documents & Publications EcoHouse Program Overview Strengthening Relationships Between Energy Programs and Housing Programs Targeted Marketing and Program

  10. Effect of Income on Appliances in U.S. Households, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    Entails how people live, the factors that cause the most differences in home lifestyle, including energy use in geographic location, socioeconomics and household income.

  11. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  12. Forum on Enhancing the Delivery of Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Households: Discussion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-20

    Summarizes discussions and recommendations from a forum for practitioners and policymakers aiming to strengthen residential energy efficiency program design and delivery for middle income households.

  13. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Purpose, Policies,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group Purpose, Policies, and Operations Draft document (last updated in 2010) discusses the purpose, policies, and operations of the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group. ...

  14. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians.

  15. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  16. Process for the utilization of household rubbish or garbage and other organic waste products for the production of methane gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunziker, M.; Schildknecht, A.

    1985-04-16

    Non-organic substances are separated from household garbage and the organic substances are fed in proportioned manner into a mixing tank and converted into slurry by adding liquid. The slurry is crushed for homogenization purposes in a crushing means and passed into a closed holding container. It is then fed over a heat exchanger and heated to 55/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ C. The slurry passes into a plurality of reaction vessels in which the methane gas and carbon dioxide are produced. In a separating plant, the mixture of gaseous products is broken down into its components and some of the methane gas is recycled by bubbling it through both the holding tank and the reaction tank, the remainder being stored in gasholders. The organic substances are degraded much more rapidly through increasing the degradation temperature and as a result constructional expenditure can be reduced.

  17. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  18. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  19. How Do You Encourage Everyone in Your Household to Save Energy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anyone who has decided to save energy at home knows that the entire household needs to be involved if you really want to see savings. Some people—be they roommates, spouses, children, or maybe even...

  20. EPA Webinar: Bringing Energy Efficiency and Renewable Housing to Low-Income Households

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, this webinar will explore the topic of linking and leveraging energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for limited-income households, including the need to coordinate with other energy assistance programs.

  1. Table 2.5 Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Household 1 Energy Consumption and Expenditures by End Use, Selected Years, 1978-2005 Year Space ... 3 Fuel Oil 4 LPG 5 Total Electricity 3 Natural Gas Elec- tricity 3 ...

  2. Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Impact More Than 42,000 Households Residential Network Members Impact More Than 42,000 Households Photo of a row of townhomes. Eligible Better Buildings Residential Network members reported completing 27,563 home energy upgrades during 2013 as part of the Residential Network's first reporting cycle. In addition, 13 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program partners completed 12,166 home energy upgrades, and six Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Sponsors completed 2,540 home energy

  3. Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Money | Department of Energy Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money Competition Helps Kids Learn About Energy and Save Their Households Some Money May 21, 2013 - 2:40pm Addthis Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Students can register now to save energy and win prizes with the Home Energy Challenge. Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  4. A Mixed Nordic Experience: Implementing Competitive Retail Electricity Markets for Household Customers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-11-15

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denmark. One problem has been institutional barriers involving metering, limited unbundling of distribution and supply, and limited access to reliable information on contracts and prices. (author)

  5. Developing extensible lattice-Boltzmann simulationsfor general-purpose graphics-programming units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, S C; Saar, M O

    2011-10-27

    Lattice-Boltzmann methods are versatile numerical modeling techniques capable of reproducing a wide variety of fluid-mechanical behavior. These methods are well suited to parallel implementation, particularly on the single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallel processing environments found in computer graphics processing units (GPUs). Although more recent programming tools dramatically improve the ease with which GPU programs can be written, the programming environment still lacks the flexibility available to more traditional CPU programs. In particular, it may be difficult to develop modular and extensible programs that require variable on-device functionality with current GPU architectures. This paper describes a process of automatic code generation that overcomes these difficulties for lattice-Boltzmann simulations. It details the development of GPU-based modules for an extensible lattice-Boltzmann simulation package - LBHydra. The performance of the automatically generated code is compared to equivalent purpose written codes for both single-phase, multiple-phase, and multiple-component flows. The flexibility of the new method is demonstrated by simulating a rising, dissolving droplet in a porous medium with user generated lattice-Boltzmann models and subroutines.

  6. Developing extensible lattice-Boltzmann simulators for general-purpose graphics-processing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, S C; Saar, M O

    2011-12-21

    Lattice-Boltzmann methods are versatile numerical modeling techniques capable of reproducing a wide variety of fluid-mechanical behavior. These methods are well suited to parallel implementation, particularly on the single-instruction multiple data (SIMD) parallel processing environments found in computer graphics processing units (GPUs). Although more recent programming tools dramatically improve the ease with which GPU programs can be written, the programming environment still lacks the flexibility available to more traditional CPU programs. In particular, it may be difficult to develop modular and extensible programs that require variable on-device functionality with current GPU architectures. This paper describes a process of automatic code generation that overcomes these difficulties for lattice-Boltzmann simulations. It details the development of GPU-based modules for an extensible lattice-Boltzmann simulation package - LBHydra. The performance of the automatically generated code is compared to equivalent purpose written codes for both single-phase, multiple-phase, and multiple-component flows. The flexibility of the new method is demonstrated by simulating a rising, dissolving droplet in a porous medium with user generated lattice-Boltzmann models and subroutines.

  7. Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian C. O'Neill

    2006-08-09

    This report describes results of the research project on "Improving Demographic Components of Integrated Assessment Models: The Effect of Changes in Population Composition by Household Characteristics". The overall objective of this project was to improve projections of energy demand and associated greenhouse gas emissions by taking into account demographic factors currently not incorporated in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) of global climate change. We proposed to examine the potential magnitude of effects on energy demand of changes in the composition of populations by household characteristics for three countries: the U.S., China, and Indonesia. For each country, we planned to analyze household energy use survey data to estimate relationships between household characteristics and energy use; develop a new set of detailed household projections for each country; and combine these analyses to produce new projections of energy demand illustrating the potential importance of consideration of households.

  8. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  9. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  10. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  11. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  12. EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households EERE Success Story-Kingston Creek Hydro Project Powers 100 Households August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Nevada-based contracting firm Nevada Controls, LLC used a low-interest loan from the Nevada State Office of Energy's Revolving Loan Fund to help construct a hydropower project in the small Nevada town of Kingston. The Kingston Creek Project-benefitting the Young Brothers Ranch-is a 175-kilowatt hydro generation plant

  13. Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Households to pay more than expected to stay warm this winter Following a colder-than-expected November, U.S. households are forecast to consume more heating fuels than previously expected....resulting in higher heating bills. Homeowners that rely on natural gas will see their total winter expenses rise nearly 13 percent from last winter....while users of electric heat will see a 2.6 percent increase in costs. That's the latest forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Propane

  14. Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 February 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Drivers of U.S. Household Energy Consumption, 1980-2009 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any

  15. Comparison of energy expenditures by elderly and non-elderly households: 1975 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siler, A.

    1980-05-01

    The relative position of the elderly in the population is examined and their characteristic use of energy in relation to the total population and their non-elderly counterparts is observed. The 1985 projections are based on demographic, economic, and socio-economic, and energy data assumptions contained in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. The model used for estimating household energy expenditure is MATH/CHRDS - Micro-Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System. Characteristics used include households disposable income, poverty status, location by DOE region and Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA), and race and sex of the household head as well as age. Energy use by fuel type will be identified for total home fuels, including electricity, natural gas, bottled gas and fuel oil, and for all fuels, where gasoline use is also included. Throughout the analysis, both income and expenditure-dollar amounts for 1975 and 1985 are expressed in constant 1978 dollars. Two appendices contain statistical information.

  16. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  17. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  18. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  19. Table 2.6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Household End Uses: Fuel Types, Appliances, and Electronics, Selected Years, 1978-2009 Appliance Year Change 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1984 1987 1990 1993 1997 2001 2005 2009 1980 to 2009 Total Households (millions) 77 78 82 83 84 86 91 94 97 101 107 111 114 32 Percent of Households<//td> Space Heating - Main Fuel 1 Natural Gas 55 55 55 56 57 55 55 55 53 52 55 52 50 -5 Electricity 2 16 17 18 17 16 17 20 23 26 29 29 30 35 17 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 0 Distillate

  20. Characterization of household hazardous waste from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathje, W.L.; Wilson, D.C.; Lambou, V.W.; Herndon, R.C.

    1987-09-01

    There is a growing concern that certain constituents of common household products, that are discarded in residential garbage, may be potentially harmful to human health and the environment by adversely affecting the quality of ground and surface water. A survey of hazardous wastes in residential garbage from Marin County, California, and New Orleans, Louisiana, was conducted in order to determine the amount and characteristics of such wastes that are entering municipal landfills. The results of the survey indicate that approximately 642 metric tons of hazardous waste are discarded per year for the New Orleans study area and approximately 259 metric tons are discarded per year for the Marin County study area. Even though the percent of hazardous household waste in the garbage discarded in both study areas was less than 1%, it represents a significant quantity of hazardous waste because of the large volume of garbage involved.

  1. The importance of China's household sector for black carbon emissions - article no. L12708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.; Aunan, K.

    2005-06-30

    The combustion of coal and biofuels in Chinese households is a large source of black carbon (BC), representing about 10-15% of total global emissions during the past two decades, depending on the year. How the Chinese household sector develops during the next 50 years will have an important bearing on future aerosol concentrations, because the range of possible outcomes (about 550 Gg yr{sup -1}) is greater than total BC emissions in either the United States or Europe (each about 400-500 Gg yr{sup -1}). In some Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios biofuels persist in rural China for at least the next 50 years, whereas in other scenarios a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies effectively mitigates BC emissions. This paper discusses measures and policies that would help this transition and also raises the possibility of including BC emission reductions as a post-Kyoto option for China and other developing countries.

  2. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank. 9 figs.

  3. Electronic multi-purpose material level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The present electronic multi-purpose material level sensor is based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line that is partially immersed in a liquid, powder, or other substance such as grain in a silo. The time difference of the reflections at the start of the transmission line and the air/liquid interface are used to determine levels to better than 0.01 inch. The sensor is essentially independent of circuit element and temperature variations, and can be mass produced at an extremely low price. The transmission line may be a Goubau line, microstrip, coaxial cable, twin lead, CPS or CPW, and may typically be a strip placed along the inside wall of a tank. The reflected pulses also contain information about strata within the liquid such as sludge-build-up at the bottom of an oil tank.

  4. Evaluation of bulk paint worker exposure to solvents at household hazardous waste collection events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, M.

    1995-09-01

    In fiscal year 93/94, over 250 governmental agencies were involved in the collection of household hazardous wastes in the State of California. During that time, over 3,237,000 lbs. of oil based paint were collected in 9,640 drums. Most of this was in lab pack drums, which can only hold up to 20 one gallon cans. Cost for disposal of such drums is approximately $1000. In contrast, during the same year, 1,228,000 lbs. of flammable liquid were collected in 2,098 drums in bulk form. Incineration of bulked flammable liquids is approximately $135 per drum. Clearly, it is most cost effective to bulk flammable liquids at household hazardous waste events. Currently, this is the procedure used at most Temporary Household Hazardous Waste Collection Facilities (THHWCFs). THHWCFs are regulated by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) under the new Permit-by Rule Regulations. These regulations specify certain requirements regarding traffic flow, emergency response notifications and prevention of exposure to the public. The regulations require that THHWCF operators bulk wastes only when the public is not present. [22 CCR, section 67450.4 (e) (2) (A)].Santa Clara County Environmental Health Department sponsors local THHWCF`s and does it`s own bulking. In order to save time and money, a variance from the regulation was requested and an employee monitoring program was initiated to determine actual exposure to workers. Results are presented.

  5. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  6. General Purpose Energy Storage (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    General Purpose Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: General Purpose Energy Storage You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  7. Household`s choices of efficiency levels for appliances: Using stated- and revealed-preference data to identify the importance of rebates and financing arrangements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Train, K.; Atherton, T.

    1994-11-01

    We examine customers` choice between standard and high-efficiency equipment, and the impact of utility incentives such as rebates and loans on this decision. Using data from interviews with 400 households, we identify the factors that customers consider in their choice of efficiency level for appliances and the relative importance of these factors. We build a model that describes customers` choices and can be used to predict choices in future situations under changes in the attributes of appliances and in the utility`s DSM and as part of the appliance-choice component of utilities` end-use forecasting systems. As examples, the model is used to predict the impacts of: doubling the size of rebates, replacing rebates with financing programs, and offering loans and rebates as alternative options for customers.

  8. The Impact of Carbon Control on Low-Income Household Electricity and Gasoline Expenditures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-06-01

    In July of 2007 The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA) released its impact analysis of 'The Climate Stewardship And Innovation Act of 2007,' known as S.280. This legislation, cosponsored by Senators Joseph Lieberman and John McCain, was designed to significantly cut U.S. greenhouse gas emissions over time through a 'cap-and-trade' system, briefly described below, that would gradually but extensively reduce such emissions over many decades. S.280 is one of several proposals that have emerged in recent years to come to grips with the nation's role in causing human-induced global climate change. EIA produced an analysis of this proposal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to generate price projections for electricity and gasoline under the proposed cap-and-trade system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrated those price projections into a data base derived from the EIA Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 and the EIA public use files from the National Household Transportation Survey (NHTS) for 2001 to develop a preliminary assessment of impact of these types of policies on low-income consumers. ORNL will analyze the impacts of other specific proposals as EIA makes its projections for them available. The EIA price projections for electricity and gasoline under the S.280 climate change proposal, integrated with RECS and NHTS for 2001, help identify the potential effects on household electric bills and gasoline expenditures, which represent S.280's two largest direct impacts on low-income household budgets in the proposed legislation. The analysis may prove useful in understanding the needs and remedies for the distributive impacts of such policies and how these may vary based on patterns of location, housing and vehicle stock, and energy usage.

  9. Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Lieberman, Evan 1 ; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. 1 ; Kober, Edward Martin 1 ; Rollett, Anthony 2 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, ...

  10. Method of manufacture of single phase ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B.; Goretta, K.C.; Chen, N.

    1995-03-28

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O{sub 2}) and that because of second phase precipitates, grain growth is prevented. The density of specimens sintered at 910 C increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O{sub 2}) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O{sub 2}) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910 C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of about 4 {mu}m. Post sintering annealing in a region of stability for the desired phase converts the second phases and limits grain growth. The method of pinning grain boundaries by small scale decompositive products and then annealing to convert its product to the desired phase can be used for other complex asides. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 230 MPa and high critical current density capacity. 25 figures.

  11. Method of manufacture of single phase ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitrenda P.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Chen, Nan

    1995-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O.sub.2) and that because of second phase precipitates, grain growth is prevented. The density of specimens sintered at 910.degree. C. increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O.sub.2) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O.sub.2) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910.degree. C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of about 4 .mu.m. Post sintering annealing in a region of stability for the desired phase converts the second phases and limits grain growth. The method of pinning grain boundaries by small scale decompositive products and then annealing to convert its product to the desired phase can be used for other complex asides. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 230 MPa and high critical current density capacity.

  12. Assessment of lead contamination in Bahrain environment. I. Analysis of household paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madany, I.M.; Ali, S.M.; Akhter, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of lead in household paint collected from various old buildings in Bahrain is reported. The atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, both flame and flameless (graphite furnace) techniques, were used for the analysis. The concentrations of lead in paint were found in the range 200 to 5700 mg/kg, which are low compared to the limit of 0.5% in UK and 0.06% in USA. Nevertheless, these are hazardous. Recommendations are reported in order to avoid paint containing lead. 17 references, 1 table.

  13. Table HC6.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total.............................................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day........................................... 8.2 1.4 1.9 1.4 1.0 2.4 2 Times A Day........................................................ 24.6 4.3 7.6 4.3 4.8 3.7 Once a Day............................................................ 42.3 9.9

  14. Table HC6.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 17.4 8.5 7.3 5.2

  15. Table HC6.12 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Home Electronics Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total................................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer............................. 35.5 16.3 9.4 4.0 2.7 3.2 Use a Personal Computer.......................................... 75.6 13.8 25.4 14.4 13.2 8.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.....................................................

  16. Table HC6.2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 Q 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 10.2 6.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 5.5 6.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 1,500 to

  17. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it......................

  18. Table HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC6.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S.............................................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Cooking Appliances Conventional Ovens Use an Oven.................................................. 109.6 29.5 34.4 18.2 15.7 11.8 1................................................................. 103.3 28.4 32.0 17.3 14.7 11.0 2 or More.................................................... 6.2 1.1 2.5 1.0 0.9 0.8 Do Not

  19. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  20. A Method for Modeling Household Occupant Behavior to Simulate Residential Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Brandon J; Starke, Michael R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Jackson, Roderick K; Tolbert, Leon M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for modeling the behavior of household occupants to estimate residential energy consumption. Using data gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau in the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), actions carried out by survey respondents are categorized into ten distinct activities. These activities are defined to correspond to the major energy consuming loads commonly found within the residential sector. Next, time varying minute resolution Markov chain based statistical models of different occupant types are developed. Using these behavioral models, individual occupants are simulated to show how an occupant interacts with the major residential energy consuming loads throughout the day. From these simulations, the minimum number of occupants, and consequently the minimum number of multiple occupant households, needing to be simulated to produce a statistically accurate representation of aggregate residential behavior can be determined. Finally, future work will involve the use of these occupant models along side residential load models to produce a high-resolution energy consumption profile and estimate the potential for demand response from residential loads.

  1. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J.; Arman, B. |

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  2. Program Evaluation: Purpose and Principles of Peer Reviews |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer reviews have a clear purpose and core principles. Purpose Peer review is essential to ... Core Principles for EERE In-Progress Peer Review Managers and staff in EERE will provide ...

  3. Title 40 CFR 1500 Purpose, Policy, and Mandate | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Purpose, Policy, and Mandate Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 40 CFR 1500 Purpose,...

  4. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Purpose, Policies, and Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Draft document (last updated in 2010) discusses the purpose, policies, and operations of the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group.

  5. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  6. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  7. Table HC6.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total..................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............ 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment............... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Main Space Heating Equipment................. 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Main Heating Fuel and

  8. Table HC6.5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total U.S. Housing Units.................................. 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Heating Equipment..................... 1.2 0.3 0.3 Q 0.2 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment....................... 109.8 29.7 34.5 18.2 15.6 11.8 Use Space Heating Equipment........................ 109.1 29.5 34.4 18.1 15.5 11.6 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.................... 0.8 Q Q Q Q Q Space Heating Usage During 2005

  9. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Household energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Northwest: Tracking changes between 1983 and 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed the changes in consumer energy conservation attitudes and behaviors in the Pacific Northwest between 1983 and 1985. The information was collected through stratified random telephone surveys on 2000 and 1058 households, respectively, for 1983 and 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This report covers four topic areas and tests two hypotheses. The topics are as follows: consumer perceptions and attitudes of energy use and conservation in the home; consumer perceptions of energy institutions and other entities; past and intended conservation actions and investments; and segmentation of homeowners into market prospect groups. The hypotheses tested are as follows: (1) There has been no change in the size and psychographic make-up of the original three market segments found in the 1983 survey analysis; and (2) image profiles of institutions with respect to familiarity, overall impression, and believability as sources of energy conservation information remain unchanged since 1983.

  11. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  12. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  13. Program Evaluation: Purpose and Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purpose and Costs Program Evaluation: Purpose and Costs Steps one through three will help you establish the purpose of and determine which resources are available for your evaluation (learn more about the other steps in general program evaluations): Step 1: Decide the Evaluation Objectives Step 2: Determine Resources Available Step 3: Determine the Timeline for Completing the Evaluation Step 1: Decide the Evaluation Objectives Evaluation objectives are determined by careful consideration of the

  14. Program Evaluation: Define Review Purpose and Scope | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Define Review Purpose and Scope Program Evaluation: Define Review Purpose and Scope The first step in preparation for a particular peer review is to determine the specific purpose and scope of the review within the context of other review and management activities. Improving program management and demonstrating public accountability, providing an honest independent technical review of the projects and program, and communicating the value of the programs to the larger public are all potentially

  15. Regulation Identifier Number Title/Subject/Purpose Rule Type

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regulation Identifier Number TitleSubjectPurpose Rule Type Status 1990-AA40 ... Amend DOE's statutory prescribed regulation, which set forth the procedural rules ...

  16. The Purpose and Value of Successful Technology Demonstrations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purpose and Value of Successful Technology Demonstrations - The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Demonstrations by Steve Bossart, NETL Senior Management and Technical...

  17. Remote Control of Laboratory Equipment for Educational Purposes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Control of Laboratory Equipment for Educational Purposes This invention consists of a method to remote control many types of laboratory equipment that is typically found in ...

  18. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gent, Janneane F.; Kezik, Julie M.; Hill, Melissa E.; Tsai, Eling; Li, De-Wei; Leaderer, Brian P.

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  19. Commercial viability of hybrid vehicles : best household use and cross national considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D. J.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-07-16

    Japanese automakers have introduced hybrid passenger cars in Japan and will soon do so in the US. In this paper, we report how we used early computer simulation model results to compare the commercial viability of a hypothetical near-term (next decade) hybrid mid-size passenger car configuration under varying fuel price and driving patterns. The fuel prices and driving patterns evaluated are designed to span likely values for major OECD nations. Two types of models are used. One allows the ''design'' of a hybrid to a specified set of performance requirements and the prediction of fuel economy under a number of possible driving patterns (called driving cycles). Another provides an estimate of the incremental cost of the hybrid in comparison to a comparably performing conventional vehicle. In this paper, the models are applied to predict the NPV cost of conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles vs. parallel hybrid vehicles. The parallel hybrids are assumed to (1) be produced at high volume, (2) use nickel metal hydride battery packs, and (3) have high-strength steel bodies. The conventional vehicle also is assumed to have a high-strength steel body. The simulated vehicles are held constant in many respects, including 0-60 time, engine type, aerodynamic drag coefficient, tire rolling resistance, and frontal area. The hybrids analyzed use the minimum size battery pack and motor to meet specified 0-60 times. A key characteristic affecting commercial viability is noted and quantified: that hybrids achieve the most pronounced fuel economy increase (best use) in slow, average-speed, stop-and-go driving, but when households consistently drive these vehicles under these conditions, they tend to travel fewer miles than average vehicles. We find that hours driven is a more valuable measure than miles. Estimates are developed concerning hours of use of household vehicles versus driving cycle, and the pattern of minimum NPV incremental cost (or benefit) of selecting the hybrid over

  20. Weatherization assistance for low-income households: An evaluation of local program performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Rayner, S.; Wolfe, A.K.; Mason, T.W.; Ragins, B.R.; Cartor, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds local agencies to provide weatherization services to low-income households. This report describes the most salient features of this program, examines relationships between organization and program outcomes, and presents recommendations for the program's further development. Data were collected by written surveys administered to local weatherization agencies, a telephone survey of 38 states and eight DOE support offices, and site visits to selected local agencies. Locally controlled factors found to be significantly related to program performance include the amount of the weatherization director's time spent on program administration, the use of established client selection criteria, the frequency of evaluation of local goal attainment, and the type of weatherization crews used. Factors controlled at the state or federal levels that influence program performance include delays in state reimbursements of local agency expenditures and local flexibility in the choice of weatherization measures. Data-gathering difficulties experienced during this project indicate a need for possible improvements in goal-setting and record-keeping procedures.

  1. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  2. Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainty in waste composition of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematically changed waste composition in a constructed waste management system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste composition important for the results of accounting LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust results for comparative LCA. - Abstract: This article takes a detailed look at an uncertainty factor in waste management LCA that has not been widely discussed previously, namely the uncertainty in waste composition. Waste composition is influenced by many factors; it can vary from year to year, seasonally, and with location, for example. The data publicly available at a municipal level can be highly aggregated and sometimes incomplete, and performing composition analysis is technically challenging. Uncertainty is therefore always present in waste composition. This article performs uncertainty analysis on a systematically modified waste composition using a constructed waste management system. In addition the environmental impacts of several waste management strategies are compared when applied to five different cities. We thus discuss the effect of uncertainty in both accounting LCA and comparative LCA. We found the waste composition to be important for the total environmental impact of the system, especially for the global warming, nutrient enrichment and human toxicity via water impact categories.

  3. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  4. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebo, Helge

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  5. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-07-19

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  6. Self-Direction of Public Purpose Charges (LECPPP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oregon's 1999 electric-utility restructuring legislation (SB 1149) required Pacific Power and Portland General Electric (PGE) to collect a 3% public-purpose charge from their customers to support...

  7. Attachment 1: DOE Phased Retirement Implementation Plan Purpose:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: DOE Phased Retirement Implementation Plan Purpose: Phased retirement is designed to assist agencies with knowledge management and continuity of operations in the short term. Although the main purpose is to enhance the mentoring and training of the employees who will be filling the positions or taking on duties of more experienced retiring employees, phased retirement may also be used to provide employees with the opportunity to share experiences across Departmental elements. Phased retirement

  8. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  9. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2011-08-15

    Research Highlights: > The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. > The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. > Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  10. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, July 19, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    19, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Collecting Household Energy Data Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  Is your program getting household energy data? How? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Janelle Beverly and Jeff Hughes, University of North Carolina Environmental Finance Center (http://www.efc.unc.edu/index.html) * Discussion:  What are successful strategies for obtaining

  11. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households March 13, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Becca Harmon Murphy (Indianapolis Neighborhood Housing Partnership)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in your loan programs for moderate- and low-income households? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective?  What

  12. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  13. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured.

  14. CRUSH TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-28

    The 9977 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed in response to the adoption of the crush test requirement in the US regulations for packages for radioactive materials (10 CFR 71). This presentation on crush testing of the 9977 GPFP Reviews origins of Crush Test Requirements and implementation of crush test requirements in 10 CFR 71. SANDIA testing performed to support the rule making is reviewed. The differences in practice, on the part of the US Department of Energy from those required by the NRC for commercial purposes, are explained. The design features incorporated into the 9977 GPFP to enable it to withstand the crush test and the crush tests performed on the 9977 are described. Lessons learned from crush testing of GPFP packagings are given.

  15. Regulation Identifier Number Title/Subject/Purpose Rule Type

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7/21/2016. Highlighted areas denote changes from the last update. Regulation Identifier Number Title/Subject/Purpose Rule Type Status 1990-AA40 Adminstrative Requirements for Other Transactions: revise requirements for technology investment agreements to broaden to support all types of other transactions. NOPR Drafting Notice of Proposed Rule-making for Federal Register 1901-AB37 Enforcement of Classified Information Security Requirements: Amend DOE's statutory prescribed regulation, which set

  16. Chapter 1 - Introduction and Statement of Purpose and Need

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PURPOSE AND NEED The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to construct and operate an Actinide Chemistry and Repository Science Laboratory (ACRSL) to support chemical research activities related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The laboratory would be located on New Mexico State University property adjacent to the existing Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center (CEMRC) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  17. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W.

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  18. Special purpose modes in photonic band gap fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Campbell, Sara

    2013-04-02

    Photonic band gap fibers are described having one or more defects suitable for the acceleration of electrons or other charged particles. Methods and devices are described for exciting special purpose modes in the defects including laser coupling schemes as well as various fiber designs and components for facilitating excitation of desired modes. Results are also presented showing effects on modes due to modes in other defects within the fiber and due to the proximity of defects to the fiber edge. Techniques and devices are described for controlling electrons within the defect(s). Various applications for electrons or other energetic charged particles produced by such photonic band gap fibers are also described.

  19. RADIOLOGICAL DATA FOR ALARA PLANNING PURPOSES Rev. 1 Contact

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RADIOLOGICAL DATA FOR ALARA PLANNING PURPOSES Rev. 1 Contact 1 ft 3 ft 10 ft 25 ft 50 ft 125 ft 100 mR/hr line 5 mR/hr line (R/hr) (R/hr) (R/hr) (R/hr) (R/hr) (R/hr) (R/hr) (feet) (feet) Outside of Cask (max) *Unshielded Liner (max) Top of *Unshielded Liner after the cask lid is removed *Unshielded Liner Inside of Cask/Lid Outside of Cask Lifting rig or any other support equipment Does the cask have fixed contamination that may "leach out" during transport (Yes/No)? If yes, please list

  20. Development of a General Purpose Power System Control Board

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, S.H.; Jeong, S.H.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, S.C.; Park, S.S.; Suh, J.H.; Bellomo, P.; Cassel, R.; Larsen, R.; Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC

    2007-07-23

    In an effort to control modern solid state power modules, a general purpose, multi function power system control board (PSCB) has been under development as a collaboration project between Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Korea, and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), USA. The PSCB is an embedded, interlock supervisory, diagnostic, timing, and set-point control board. It is designed to use in various power systems such as sequenced kicker pulsers, solid state RF modulators, simple DC magnet power supplies, etc. The PSCB has the Ethernet communication with the TCP/IP Modbus protocol.

  1. Dual-purpose desalting, RO versus MSF an economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, D.C.; Battey, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Capital and annual operating costs are estimated for producing water using three combinations of seawater reverse osmosis and gas turbines. The costs and operating parameters were developed for Middle East conditions assuming a Red Sea water source. The plants were designed to produce 37,850 m/sup 3//d (10 mgd) of potable water and to export 50,000 kW of power. The reverse osmosis plant utilizes energy recovery and was designed with full pretreatment for a surface water supply. Electricity is provided by either gas turbines, steam turbines, or combined cycle plants. Power and water costs developed for these systems were compared to costs for conventional, dual-purpose MSF/steam turbine plants for the same water and power production. These evaluations considered two levels of fuel costs. The results of this study show the significant effect of fuel costs on process selection and on water and power costs. Capital and operating costs were 20 to 28 percent less and 23 to 33 percent less, respectively, for the RO/gas turbine and RO/combined cycle plants as compared to conventional, dual-purpose MSF steam turbine plants. In addition to economics, the merits of the systems are discussed relative to delivery, ease and flexibility of operation, turndown capability, and so forth.

  2. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Air Conditioning Characteristics"

  3. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    HC7.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Home Appliances Characteristics" "Total

  4. " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Lighting Usage Indicators by Household Income, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"2005 Household Income",,,,,"Below Poverty Line","Eligible for Federal Assistance1" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Less than $20,000","$20,000 to $39,999","$40,000 to $59,999","$60,000 to $79,999","$80,000 or More" "Lighting Usage Indicators" "Total U.S. Housing

  5. Gen Purpose 1-D Finite Element Network Fluid Flow Heat Transfer System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-02

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanicsmore » module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems.« less

  6. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-05-15

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the

  7. International training course on nuclear materials accountability for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The two volumes of this report incorporate all lectures and presentations at the International Training Course on Nuclear Materials Accountability and Control for Safeguards Purposes, held May 27-June 6, 1980, at the Bishop's Lodge near Santa Fe, New Mexico. The course, authorized by the US Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act and sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, was developed to provide practical training in the design, implementation, and operation of a National system of nuclear materials accountability and control that satisfies both National and IAEA International safeguards objectives. Volume I, covering the first week of the course, presents the background, requirements, and general features of material accounting and control in modern safeguard systems. Volume II, covering the second week of the course, provides more detailed information on measurement methods and instruments, practical experience at power reactor and research reactor facilities, and examples of operating state systems of accountability and control.

  8. Multi-purpose canister system evaluation: A systems engineering approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Department of Energy (DOE) efforts to investigate various container systems for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The primary goal of DOE`s investigations was to select a container technology that could handle the vast majority of commercial SNF at a reasonable cost, while ensuring the safety of the public and protecting the environment. Several alternative cask and canister concepts were evaluated for SNF assembly packaging to determine the most suitable concept. Of these alternatives, the multi-purpose canister (MPC) system was determined to be the most suitable. Based on the results of these evaluations, the decision was made to proceed with design and certification of the MPC system. A decision to fabricate and deploy MPCs will be made after further studies and preparation of an environmental impact statement.

  9. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  10. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, L.J. ); Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. . Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.