National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hourly co2 nox

  1. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  2. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

  3. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  4. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  5. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  6. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01

    and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

  7. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, George D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Al-Saidi, Wissam A. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Jordan, Kenneth D. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Voora, Vamsee, K. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lopano, Christina L (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Myshakin, Eugene M. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Hur, Tae Bong (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Warzinski, Robert P. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lynn, Ronald J. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Howard, Bret H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2 molecules may remain trapped for several months following several hours of exposure to high pressure (supercritical conditions), high temperature (above boiling point of water) or both. Such trapping is well preserved in either inert gas or the ambient environment and appears to eventually result in carbonate formation. We performed computer simulations of CO2 interaction with free cations (normal modes of CO2 and Na+CO2 were calculated using B3LYP / aug-cc-pVDZ and MP2 / aug-cc-pVDZ methods) and with clay structures containing interlayer cations (MD simulations with Clayff potentials for clay and a modified CO2 potential). Additionally, interaction of CO2 with hydrated Na-montmorillonite was studied using density functional theory with dispersion corrections. The sorption energies and the swelling behavior were investigated. Preliminary modeling results and experimental observations indicate that the presence of water molecules in the interlayer region is necessary for intercalation of CO2. Our preliminary conclusion is that CO2 molecules may intercalate into interlayer region of swelling clay and stay there via coordination to the interlayer cations.

  8. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  9. Isothermal desulfation of pre-sulfated Pt-BaO/?-Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts with H2: the effect of H2 concentration and the roles of CO2 and H2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-01-12

    The desulfation mechanisms of pre-sulfated Pt-BaO/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lean NOx trap catalysts were investigated under isothermal conditions (600 C) using H{sub 2} as the reductant. Sulfates were found to be reduced first with H{sub 2} to produce SO{sub 2}, followed by a reaction between SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to produce H{sub 2}S. Gas analysis during the rich pulse reveals that the sulfur removal efficiency is initially proportional to the H{sub 2} concentration. At constant H{sub 2} concentration the overall desulfation efficiency decreases in the order of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O > H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} > H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O > H{sub 2}, as confirmed by XPS analysis of residual sulfur in the desulfated samples. H{sub 2}O limits the evolution of SO{sub 2} at an early stage of the rich pulse and enhances the production of H{sub 2}S in later stages of reduction. CO{sub 2} is involved in both the formation of COS and the production of H{sub 2}O (via the reverse water-gas shift reaction), therefore, resulting in an increased overall efficiency.

  10. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  11. Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants By: Ben Bernardo #12;Main Control2 2 H2S + SO2 2 H2O + 3 S The elemental sulfur is then sold and the emissions of SO2 and H2S 2 CaSO3 + CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO3 + CO2 #12;Main Control Technologies for NOx Combustion

  12. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  13. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  14. Developing the Fuels of the Future Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Vast majority of vehicles are powered by hydrocarbon fuels ·Situation unlikely to change soon. Hydrogen required to develop new fuels, reducing NOx, CO2, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates. All new secondary. This allows measurement of the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a strategy used to reduce NOx

  15. Equilibrium and transport properties of CO2+N2O and CO2+NO mixtures. A molecular simulation and equation of state modelling study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    viscosities were determined for CO2+NOx mixtures. Due to the strong similarities between carbon dioxide simulation; Equation of state. 1. Introduction In Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) operations to a pure carbon dioxide. This may have impacts on the different stages of the CCS chain: capture

  16. An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration through Mineralization Conference on Sustainable Construction area and increased availability of CO2 for rapid carbonation. The hardened and carbonated materials Slag #12;Carbonation Chemistry Dissolution of CO2 in water. CO2(g) CO2(aq) Formation of carbonic acid

  17. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  18. Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Active Soot Filter Regeneration...

  19. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina: Part 1. Plasma assisted NOx reduction over NaY and Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Ilsop S.; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    The role of plasma processing on NOx reduction over gammma-alumina and a basic zeolite, NaY was examined. During the plasma treatment NO is oxidized to NO2 and propylene is partially oxidized to CO, CO2, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum NOx conversion was 70% between 180 and 230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. For both catalysts a simultaneous decrease in NOx and aldehydes concentrations was observed, which suggests that aldehyde may be important components for NOx reduction in plasma-treated exhaust.

  20. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01

    numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

  1. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

  2. Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Socolow, RH

    2014-01-01

    us My IOPscience Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions This9326/9/8/084018 Commitment accounting of CO 2 emissionsthe potential for ‘commitment accounting’ to inform public

  3. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    E EPM2- TIP4P2005 PPL- TIP4P2005 Predicted (f) a P ? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE a Surface excess CO

  4. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  5. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

  6. Fluid flow and CO2fluidmineral interactions during CO2-storage in sedimentary basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    mineral dissolution rates. Observations from CO2-EOR exper- iments and natural analogues suggestFluid flow and CO2­fluid­mineral interactions during CO2-storage in sedimentary basins Niko Kampman Natural CO2 analogues Modelling the progress of geochemical processes in CO2 storage sites is frustrated

  7. QGESS: CO2 Impurity Design Parameters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health NOx Oxides of nitrogen SAS Saline aquifer sequestration SCR Selective catalytic reduction TWA Total Weighted Average National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of...

  8. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Cost Model FENETL CO2 Transport Cost Model About the model: This model was developed to estimate the cost of transporting a user-specified mass rate of CO2 by pipeline...

  9. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbero, Roberto Juan

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalysed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was ...

  10. CO2 Cycle du Fiche dtaille

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dintrans, Boris

    CO2 ­ Cycle du Carbone Polluants Fiche détaillée Niveau (A partir de la 2nd) #12;I. Introduction Les origines du CO2 atmosphérique dépendent de l'échelle de temps que l'on considère. A l, ce cycle commence avec la dissolution du CO2 dans l'eau de pluie pour former de l'acide carbonique

  11. CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

  12. Argus NOx/SCR report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document reports on NOx units at more than 350 coal and gas-fired power plants in the USA. Formerly known as the Argus SCR Report, the data are now expanded to include other forms of NOx control, including selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), low NOx burners and overfire air.

  13. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  14. Using CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    global data of column- averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) at high spatial resolutions. These dataUsing CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals A. A 2008; published 29 August 2008. [1] Satellite measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry- air mole

  15. CO2-avskiljning med syrgasfrbrnning -nya tekniska mjligheter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemurell, Stefan

    ;High-temperature NOx reduction N2 + O2 2 NO Thermal #12;High-Temperature NOx Reduction · Plug, Danmark #12;Rening av Kväveoxider (NOx) i syrgasförbränning #12;· Feed gas composition · Concentration

  16. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  17. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  18. CO2 Conference Presentation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Conference Presentation More Documents & Publications POWER-GEN Conference Presentation U.S. Energy Association Presentation EEI Environment Meetings Presentation...

  19. CO2watermineral reactions during CO2 leakage: Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of a CO2 injection field test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be addressed during the selection and characterization of suitable CO2 storage sites (IEA-GHG, 2011; Lemieux., 2007; IEA-GHG, 2011). Considering a sce- nario where CO2 ­ or brine or both ­ escapes from the storage., 2010; Kharaka et al., 2010; Humez et al., 2011a, 2011b; IEA-GHG, 2011; Lemieux, 2011; Keating et al

  20. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites An integrated framework for CO2 accounting and risk analysis of CO2-EOR Authors: Dai, Zhenxue 1 ; Viswanathan, Hari S....

  1. SecuestrodeCO2enestructurasgeolgicas Modelacin numrica de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Inyección CO2 en medio carbonatado #12;SecuestrodeCO2enestructurasgeológicas Gases de efecto invernadero #12

  2. Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage Jason Heinrich Working Paper Laboratory for Energy the deployment of CO2 storage technologies used in the marine environment. This paper will address some of the legal issues involved in ocean storage of carbon dioxide from a US perspective. The following paragraphs

  3. The Outlook for CO2 Capture Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Common Measures of CCS Cost · Capital cost · Increased cost of electricity · Cost of CO2 avoided · Cost of CO2 captured E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Elements of Capital Cost Note: · Nomenclature and cost items construction Total Capital Requirement (TCR) E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Cost of Electricity (COE) COE ($/MWh

  4. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  5. 2, 711743, 2006 Glacial CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 change: a simple "hypsometric effect" on deep-ocean carbon sequestration? L. C. Skinner Godwin carbon sequestration, this mechanism may help to significantly reduce the "deficit" of explained glacialCPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title Page Abstract Introduction

  6. CASSEMCHAPTER 5 HOW DOWE KNOWWHERETHE CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    where some minimum threshold volume or saturation of CO2 has been exceeded within a subsurface reservoir reservoir engineering by repeated or continuous assessment that informs on the evolving physical conditions to a large amount of injected CO2 are only viable (1) for onshore reservoirs and (2) where the target

  7. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  8. 4, 23852405, 2007 CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 2385­2405, 2007 CO2 and climate affect European carbon ballance R. Harrison and C. Jones Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance R. Harrison and C. Jones Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK Received: 13 April 2007

  9. Study of CO2 Mobility Control in Heterogeneous Media Using CO2 Thickening Agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Yousef, Zuhair

    2012-10-19

    CO2 injection is an effective method for performing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). There are several factors that make CO2 useful for EOR, including promoting swelling, reducing oil viscosity, decreasing oil density, and vaporizing and extracting...

  10. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  11. meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both the facilities, and durable flow meter to install in all of the CO2 chambers in all of the vivaria. When a specific model and laboratories will need flow meters. ULAR is currently in the process of identifying a cost-effective, accurate

  12. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  13. = 17 Hours 0 = 16 Hours 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    Senior Status Required Degree Hours = 129 / Engineering Hours = 52 (see Note 10) This is not an official

  14. = 17 Hours 0 = 16 Hours 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    Senior Status Required Degree Hours = 129 / Engineering Hours = 52 (see Note 9) This is not an official

  15. Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National...

  16. Flexible NOx Abatement from Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Integrated Global System Model. Through this integrated model, the Program seeks to: discover new quality management strategies for NOx emissions from electric generating units. Results from a modelFlexible NOx Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States* Lin Sun, Mort Webster, Gary

  17. Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements Robert Slott, Consultant, Donald Stedman and Saj tailpipe emissions (HC, CO, NOx) are changing with time hUse remote sensing hMeasurements in at least 4 of the year at each location hUniform QC/QA and data reporting Paper # 2001-01-3640 #12;Remote Sensing

  18. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  19. Heterogenised Molecular Catalysts for CO2 Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Windle, Christopher D.; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-08-01

    perspective, these systems do not utilise solar light directly but could be powered by photovoltaics. 2) No electrode is required in photocatalysis and the energy for the reaction is obtained through light absorption. Electrons are typically supplied by a... cluster.[3a] 2. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction Photocatalytic CO2 reduction cuts out the electrolytic middleman in solar fuels synthesis. Instead of relying on a photovoltaic panel for providing the electricity to drive electrolysis, photocatalysis...

  20. Version 3.0 SOP 4 --p(CO2) October 12, 2007 (p(CO2))

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Version 3.0 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) October 12, 2007 91 SOP 4 (p(CO2)) - 1. . microatmospheres . (20°C 250-2000 µatm) (mole fraction) . 2. CO2 (mole fraction) . 2 2(CO ) (CO( ) . . Frit . #12;October 12, 2007 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) Version 3.0 92 CO2 CO2 2 . p(CO2) (1) . 4. 3

  1. Growth, CO2 Consumption, and H2 Production of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U under Different Irradiances and CO2 Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Barra, Natasha; Pilon, Laurent; Jay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Phase Medium Irradiance ? H2 ? CO2 Maximum Reported Ratesa) Specific CO 2 uptake rate, ? CO2 (kg CO 2 /kg dry cell/h)

  2. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30

    For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

  3. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    WITH SITE SCREENING AND SELECTION FOR CO 2 STORAGE D. A.77 ASSESSING AND EXPANDING CO 2 STORAGE CAPACITY IN DEPLETEDFOR CO 2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE IN CENTRAL COAL BASIN (NORTHERN

  4. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    20-22, 2006 End of CO2 injection Fraction Variation 5E-05 -point. End of CO2 injection Fraction Variation Figure 3.poin Y (m (m X End of CO2 storage Fraction Variation Y (m (m

  5. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we...

  6. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    of the buoyancy of supercritical CO2 in the presence ofindividual pock- ets of supercritical CO2 to form, therebydomain. Injection of supercritical CO2 occurs at a depth of

  7. Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Presents integrated system for post-combustion CO2 capture from mobile sources p-16davis.pdf More...

  8. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    of Geologic Storage of CO2, in Carbon Dioxide Capture forFormations - Results from the CO2 Capture Project: GeologicBenson, Process Modeling of CO2 Injection into Natural Gas

  9. New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    2002-01-01

    Rules: Implications and Solutions Impact ofNew NOx Regulations in the Houston Galveston Area (HGA) Ron Cascone - Mgr. Special Projects, Utilities &Environ. ABSTRACT New regulations drastically cut the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) allowed... monitored six key atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), lead, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM IO ), sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds (YOCs). Except for NOx, emissions of all have decreased significantly. NOx...

  10. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air (Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry 1982; O'Leary 1984

  11. Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19,...

  12. Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Coal is the workhorse of our power industry, responsible for...

  13. Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Mgt. Technologies Utilizing and Storing Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantum Alloys Offer Unique Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...

  14. Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Ubiquitous clay minerals can play an important role in assessing...

  15. Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ricardo 2002deergraham.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of...

  16. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  17. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture...

  18. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    CONSTRAIN CO2 INJECTION FEASIBILITY: TEAPOT DOME EOR PILOTEOR, and coupled process modeling will investigate the total system including preliminary estimates of CO2

  19. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Texas •? Over 30 years of CO2-EOR •? Sampled outside ofF Monitoring studies above EOR-CO2 fields Weyburn-Midale

  20. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

  1. Buildings, Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    .6% of world CO2 emissions)? US commercial sector use ~50% of world commercial use? Asia today 10-20% of world commercial use 2055200514 7 Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year 1955 0 C Flat path Historicalemissions 1.9 ?Æ?Æ 2105 14 GtC/y7 GtC/y Seven..., Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2 Asian Pacific Building Commissioning Conference ICEBONovember 8, 2006Shenzhen, ChinaPresented ByDavid E. ClaridgeEnergy Systems LaboratoryTexas A&M University Commissioning New Buildings Beginnings Building Handover...

  2. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  3. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    40 Figure E1. NOx Emissions (lb/MWh) for ICEs, Californa Air53 Figure E2. NOx Emission Histogram for SimulatedNOx emissions.

  4. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    impose a price on the carbon in their own fossil fuels forprice A nthropogenic climate change is driven by CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (fossil fuel resources are suf?ciently concentrated such that, if the relatively few countries that extract the most fuels imposed a price

  5. Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Michael J.

    reserved 1941-1405/09/0115-0169$20.00 Key Words biogeochemistry, calcification, carbon dioxide, climate of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well

  6. BUILDING A CO2 STORAGE HUB IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    , once at the forefront of this innovative technology that can give us clean energy from abundant fossil technology we have in the battle to reduce CO2 emissions from power and industrial sources. Without it we and global reliance on low-cost energy from coal and gas shows no sign of diminishing, the time has come

  7. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14

    Storage of carbon dioxide is being actively considered for the reduction of green house gases. To make an impact on the environment CO2 should be put away on the scale of gigatonnes per annum. The storage capacity of deep saline aquifers...

  8. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  9. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-11-13

    . The results are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels and widely distributed all over the world. However, the emission inten- sities of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulfur oxide (SOx) by using coal are generally larger than... those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to con- trol such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. ct of CO2, carbon a key technology, l...

  11. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    /ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, rangingThe millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 David Archer & Victor Brovkin Received: 19

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress. #12;3 Abstract The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine transfer area as IMTP#40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO2 solubility give a CO2 loading

  13. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest Colleen2 Ecological Society of America, 2008 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;+ [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] + C and N storage in biomass #12;+ Net primary production

  14. Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    production - superheated steam injection The CO2 phase, whether gas, liquid or supercritical, is determined

  15. Rate Determination of the CO2* Chemiluminescence Reaction CO + O + M = CO2* + M 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Madeleine Marissa, 1987-

    2012-10-15

    numerous works have monitored CO2* chemiluminescence, a full kinetic scheme for the species has yet to be developed. A series of shock-tube experiments was performed in H2-N2O-CO mixtures highly diluted in argon at conditions where emission from CO2... for eleven common collision partners. The final mechanism developed for CO2* consisted of 14 reactions and 13 species. The rate for R1 was determined based on low-pressure experiments performed in two different H2-N2O-CO-Ar mixtures. Final mechanism...

  16. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related to CO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    underground injection of supercritical CO2 in a hypotheticalthe CO2-rich phase (supercritical CO2 with small amounts of

  17. Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and Produce Biofuel Feedstock Tryg Lundquist Cal Poly State of the Industry and Growth · Algae's Role in WW Treatment · CO2's New Role · Research at Cal Poly · Future Work/MG 0.3 MGD average flow per facility #12;Reclaimed Algae Bacteria O2 CO2 N Organics N P CO2 P CO2 Waste

  18. CO2 cost pass through and windfall profits in the power sectorâ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Chen, Yihsu

    unit concerned. As a consequence, the CO2 costs pass through is defined as the average increase in power price over a certain period due to the increase in the CO2 price of an emission allowance. Pri ce/ MW h Hours/year 8760Oil CCGT Gas Coal... -generation power- intensive industry would benefit from the economic rent due to the transfer of valuable, freely allocated assets. The extent to which carbon costs are passed through to power prices depends also on changes in the merit order of the supply...

  19. The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    The response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O. Paul, MN 55108 USA Abstract We measured soil CO2 ¯ux over 19 sampling periods that spanned two growing three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N

  20. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 D. J. Erickson III,1,2 R. T. Mills,1 J. Gregg,3 T. J. Blasing,4 F. M. Hoffman,1 R. J. Andres,4 of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series

  1. CO2-H2O mixtures in the geological sequestration of CO2. II ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-07-01

    experimental and field data. ... In all studies discussed above, the solubility of CO2 in water ...... Li Y., and Nghiem L. X. (1986) Phase equilibria of oil, gas and.

  2. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  3. 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

  4. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  5. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  6. Control of NOx by combustion process modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

  7. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  8. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental targets and quality of the feed to other sections, wherever applicable, without violating the operating constraints, and without sacrificing the efficiency. However, it was found that the emission of acid gases may far exceed the environmental targets and the overshoot of some of the key variables may be unacceptable under transient operation while following the load. A number of operational strategies and control configurations is explored for achieving these stringent requirements. The transient response of the plant is also studied by perturbing a number of key inputs.

  9. Near-Zero NOx Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utzinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    emissions, and conserve natural resources. Recently the company announced the development of a technology that dramatically reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the exhaust gas of gas-fired steam boilers to below 1ppm (at O2=0% equivalent...

  10. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  11. NETL CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMoveMuncriefB NESEA Newsletter ContentCO2

  12. CO2 Compression | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplex earning FPEComplex CNS,CO2

  13. CO2 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEATCNAA Jump to:Emissions fromCO2

  14. CO2 Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETOof Energy Office ofCERTIFIED2,May 4, 2011CO2

  15. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, J. Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Faulkner, Stephen A. (Stamford, GB); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  16. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01

    be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have an adverse effects of health and environment... NOx burners ? Flue gas recirculation ? Steam injection ? Staged combustion NOx reduction I eChnology IN U x ppm IN U x In Ibs/m m Btu L. oDventlona l.J as Burn e r lU 1?.16 Low N 0 x Burn e r 7:> ,U .1 Ultra LOw NUx Burn e r ,Z:> I U . U...

  17. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2010-01-01

    CO 2 sequestration; In Salah; geomechanics; ground surfaceCO 2 injection, geomechanics, and ground surface

  18. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakib Bouallou

    2010-08-12

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  19. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  20. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National...

  1. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    emission and resource accounting. Ecol Econ 69:211–222. 12.Consumption-based accounting of CO 2 emissions Steven J.Consump- tion-based accounting of CO 2 emissions differs

  2. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

  3. UPDATE ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIMENT ON CO2 OCEAN SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    discussed strategies for ocean carbon sequestration are direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean and iron effort is solely focused on the direct injection approach. In this method, liquid CO2 is injected

  4. HYDROMECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR SITE SELECTION IN CO2 PERMANENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    of info and lack of info Arguments against: - It increases electricity cost + extra CO2 (CO2 market Sleipner In Salah Weyburn Snohvit #12;Uplift of 5 mm/yr in In Salah (Rutqvist et al., 2010, IJGGC

  5. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  6. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    phase dispersivity test (BTC) Porosity-thickness product oftest Two-phase tracer BTC Evolution of CO 2 saturation

  7. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  8. Variability of primary production and air-sea CO 2 flux in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shanlin; Moore, J. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Lima (2007), Enhanced CO 2 outgassing in the Southern OceanCO 2 run, there is a CO 2 outgassing trend of 0.07 PgC/yr/sink and a natural CO 2 outgassing. The anthropogenic CO 2

  9. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  10. Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 11 -13 July 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Tufts European Center Talloires, France Institute | | Clean Air Task Force | | Asia Clean Energy Innovation Initiative | #12;Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Talloires, France PROCEEDINGS: Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop

  11. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ?30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  12. Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

  13. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing% inlet CO2. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast

  14. Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle H O R M O an integrated assessment of the nitrogen (N) cycle and whether it is influenced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 significantly changes foliage d15 N in a wide range

  15. he leading technology under development for management of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    T he leading technology under development for management of CO2 separated and captured from large assessment in relation to deploy- ment of the technology. Potential mechanisms for leakage from CO2 storage Series*sponsored by John J. Kirlin Lecture funds Geologic Sequestration of CO2 : Evaluating

  16. Cimpor inventa nova frmula para reduzir pegada de CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cimpor inventa nova fórmula para reduzir pegada de CO2 CIMENTO. A Cimpor descobriu uma nova fórmula para produzir ci- mento que lhe permitirá reduzir a pegada de CO 2 em 25%. Segundo as contas da as fábricas do grupo, seriam emitidos menos quatro milhões de toneladas de CO 2 por ano, o que permitiria uma

  17. CO2 dissolution in water using long serpentine microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    CO2 dissolution in water using long serpentine microchannels Thomas Cubaud,a) Martin Sauzade dioxide-water is particularly impor- tant to the environment. When CO2 dissolves in water, it forms a weak shells.2 A method for enriching minute amount of water with CO2 on-chip would facilitate biological

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO2 when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO3/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO2/mol MEA. #12

  20. Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2 Gordon F. Buchanana,b,1 and George B neurons are stimulated by CO2, and sero- tonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal

  1. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing use. Extensive measurements of CO2 solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60o C have confirmed the work

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO2 removal. The stripper rate model shows

  3. Directed Technical Change and the Adoption of CO2 Abatement Technology: The Case of CO2 Capture and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Vincent M.

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2 trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement ...

  4. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  5. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Concept Utilizing Supercritical CO2 Instead of Water,Feasibility of Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmissionsupercritical CO 2 and rock minerals. Studies of geochemical interactions in EGS-CO2

  6. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Changes in Response to CO2 Leakage from Deep Geologicalstudy mineral trapping for CO2 disposal in deep arenaceousconstituents as function of P(CO2)? function of P(CO2)? – –

  7. CO2 exposure at pressure impacts metabolism and stress responses in the model sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Hoyt, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Alderson, Paul A.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Tucker, Abigail E.; Walter, Eric D.; Linggi, Bryan E.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Taylor, Ronald C.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration drives physical and geochemical changes in deep subsurface environments that impact indigenous microbial activities. The combined effects of pressurized CO2 on a model sulfate-reducing microorganism, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, have been assessed using a suite of genomic and kinetic measurements. Novel high-pressure NMR time-series measurements using 13C-lactate were used to track D. vulgaris metabolism. We identified cessation of respiration at CO2 pressures of 10 bar, 25 bar, 50 bar, and 80 bar. Concurrent experiments using N2 as the pressurizing phase had no negative effect on microbial respiration, as inferred from reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Complementary pressurized batch incubations and fluorescence microscopy measurements supported NMR observations, and indicated that non-respiring cells were mostly viable at 50 bar CO2 for at least four hours, and at 80 bar CO2 for two hours. The fraction of dead cells increased rapidly after four hours at 80 bar CO2. Transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) measurements on mRNA transcripts from CO2-incubated biomass indicated that cells up-regulated the production of certain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine) following CO2 exposure at elevated pressures, likely as part of a general stress response. Evidence for other poorly understood stress responses were also identified within RNA-Seq data, suggesting that while pressurized CO2 severely limits the growth and respiration of D. vulgaris cells, biomass retains intact cell membranes at pressures up to 80 bar CO2. Together, these data show that geologic sequestration of CO2 may have significant impacts on rates of sulfate reduction in many deep subsurface environments where this metabolism is a key respiratory process.

  8. Surface controls on the characteristics of natural CO2 seeps: implications for engineered CO2 stores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    be characterized to design the most effective monitoring strategy. Key words: carbon capture and storage, carbon are considering adoption of carbon capture and storage technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK ABSTRACT Long-term security of performance of engineered CO2 storage is a principle

  9. INTEGRATING MEA REGENERATION WITH CO2 COMPRESSION AND PEAKING TO REDUCE CO2 CAPTURE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    by combining use of the heat integration configurations evaluated in this study and for the support and guidance of the DOE/NETL project manager, Jose D. Figueroa. Platte River Power Authority's insight on integrating a CO2 capture system into a full-scale power plant was also of great value

  10. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  11. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  12. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2005-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  13. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  14. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  15. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  16. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATK’s design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  17. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  18. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  19. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Interactions at the Supercritical CO2–liquid InterfaceEnergy Concept Utilizing Supercritical CO2 Instead of Water,Feasibility of Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmission

  20. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Chao

    2015-01-01

    351. Tsung, F. , et al. , CO2 Laser acceleration of forwardJoshi, Fifteen terawatt picosecond CO2 laser system. Opticspicosecond, multiwavelength CO2 laser pulse. Applied Optics,

  1. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (? 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ? 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ? 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ? 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ? 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97% CO2 product purity was achieved throughout the test. Membrane contactor modules have been scaled from bench scale 2-inch diameter by 12-inch long (20 ft2 membrane surface area) modules to 4-inch diameter by 60-inch long pilot scale modules (165 ft2 membrane surface area). Pilot scale modules were tested in an integrated absorption/regeneration system for CO2 capture field tests at a coal-fired power plant (Midwest Generation’s Will County Station located in Romeoville, IL). Absorption and regeneration contactors were constructed utilizing high performance super-hydrophobic, nano-porous PEEK membranes with CO2 gas permeance of 2,000 GPU and a 1,000 GPU, respectively. Field tests using aMDEA solvent achieved greater than 90% CO2 removal in a single stage. The absorption mass transfer coefficient was 1.2 (sec)-1, exceeding the initial target of 1.0 (sec)-1. This mass transfer coefficient is over one order of magnitude greater than that of conventional gas/liquid contacting equipment. The economic evaluation based on field tests data indicates that the CO2 capture cost associated with membrane contactor technology is $54.69 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured when using aMDEA as a solvent. It is projected that the DOE’s 2025 cost goal of $40 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured can be met by decreasing membrane module cost and by utilizing advanced CO2 capture solvents. In the second stage of the field test, an advanced solvent, Hitachi’s H3-1 was utilized. The use of H3-1 solvent increased mass transfer coefficient by 17% as compared to aMDEA solvent. The high mass transfer coefficient of H3-1 solvent combined with much more favorable solvent regeneration requirements, indicate that the projected savings achievable with membrane contactor process can be further improved. H3-1 solvent will be used in the next pilot-scale development phase. The integrated absorption/regeneration process design and high performance membrane contactors developed in the current bench-scale program will be used as the base technology for future pilot-scale development.

  2. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  3. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress. #12;3 Abstract The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m3 .s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO2/ mol MEA

  4. NAME/TEAM: ______________________________________ NOx prelab -1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    by the term "3-way catalyst?" 4) Vehicles are a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Why do we have to be concerned with CO2 emissions and what steps can be taken to reduce CO2 emissions from automobiles? Do

  5. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts Investigating Water Extraction •! LLNL –! Active CObenefits of various water extraction, treatment, and reuseof CO 2 storage and water extraction scenarios –! Technical

  6. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    COAL MODEL Significant potential exists for carbon sequestration and enhanced methane recoverycoal zones within the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Assessment of the CO 2 sequestration and enhanced recovery

  7. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    The geomechanics of CO 2 storage in deep sedimentaryThis paper provides a review of the geomechanics andmodeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon

  8. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    and performance of oil well cement with 30 years of CO 2cement –? Carbonation –? Sulfate attack –? Acid attack State of Alaska Oil and Gas Division Old Wells

  9. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow the adsorption and activation of CO2,...

  10. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward...

  11. Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force under a grant from...................................................................................... 3 2. Current Status of Post-Combustion Capture

  12. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 capture and storage In a perspective paper published in Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, researchers examined a new approach that could potentially overcome many...

  13. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    by well/VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) data. Fractures andat the Frio site, a vertical seismic profile ficult due towells VSP (vertical seismic profile) CO 2 distribution updip

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Enhanced...

  15. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  16. Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle Receiver...

  17. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    implications for CO 2 storage risk. Energy Procedia 4:3699–storage events and putting risk into perspective with other areas of the energy

  18. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  19. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Lean DI Engines Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Lean DI Engines Presentation from the...

  20. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor...

  1. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  2. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  3. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  4. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  5. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  6. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty...

  7. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  8. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  9. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions...

  10. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx...

  11. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  12. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  13. Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst...

  14. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding NOx SCR...

  15. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  16. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  17. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  18. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  19. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  20. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  1. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  2. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  3. Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Fuel Effects on...

  4. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...

  5. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  6. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Poster presentation at...

  7. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning...

  8. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  9. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) is available at no charge to help the petroleum refining and chemicals industries develop a cost-effective, plant-wide strategy for NOx reduction and energy efficiency improvements.

  10. Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (EPRI); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

    2008-05-01

    A lean-premixed advanced vortex combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx /CO/unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions corrected to 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated marked acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions, which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean-premixed combustion approaches. In addition, the measured 1.75% pressure drop is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors, which could translate into an overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvement. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drop achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  11. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    is the largest source of NEU-CO2 emissions (233 Mt CO 2 ),black (another key source of NEU-CO2 emissions reported bysource and geographical distributions of NEU-CO2 emissions.

  12. Solid molecular basket sorbent for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State University; Ma, Xiaoliang [Pennsylvania State University; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Clark, Jason C [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Zhao, Shuqi [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Xu, Xiaochun [Pennsylvania State University; Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State University

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a solid molecular basket sorbent, 50 wt% PEI/SBA-15 was studied for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions. The sorbent was able to effectively and selectively capture CO2 from a gas stream containing 1% CO2 at 75 C, with a breakthrough and saturation capacity of 63.1 and 66.7 mg/g, respectively, and a selectivity of 14 for CO2/CO and 185 for CO2/Ar. The sorption performance of the sorbent was influenced greatly by the operating temperature. The CO2-TPD study showed that the sorbent could be regenerated at mild conditions (50-110 C) and was stable in the cyclical operations for at least 20 cycles. Furthermore, the possibility for CO2 capture from air using the PEI/SBA-15 sorbent was studied by FTIR and proved by TPD. A capacity of 22.5 mg/g was attained at 75 C via TPD method using a simulated air with 400 ppmv CO2 in N2.

  13. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites, Vadose Zoneseepage from geologic carbon sequestration sites may occur.

  14. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City ofNovel CO 2

  15. Version 3.0 SOP 5 --Underway p(CO2) October 12, 2007 Determination of p(CO2) in air that is in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the product of the mole fraction of CO2, x(CO2), in the equilibrated gas phase and the total pressure (p . The analyzer is calibrated using gases of known CO2 concentration (mole fraction). The partial pressure, p(CO2 in sea water, it is necessary to convert the mole fraction to fugacity, (CO2), to account for the fact

  16. Greener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    to remove CO2 from dilute gas streams because they have very high affinity for CO2. Unfortunately high solvents that balance high affinity for CO2 with ease of solvent recovery and reuse. Because the numberGreener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from

  17. Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n,,H2O...m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n 2006; published online 20 October 2006 Pure neutral CO2 n clusters and mixed CO2 n H2O m clustersV. The distribution of pure CO2 n clusters decreases roughly exponentially with increasing cluster size. During

  18. LIBRARY SERVICES LIBRARY HOURS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    LIBRARY SERVICES LIBRARY HOURS Up-to-date library hours are posted at http Wesleyan ID that is linked to the library circulation database is needed to charge out library materials to visit the Circulation Office in Olin Library 115 to set up their borrowing privileges. If you have

  19. Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da

    2012-09-01

    To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

  20. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Interactions at the Supercritical CO2–liquid InterfaceProperties of the Supercritical CO2–Water Pure Interface, J.

  1. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    displaces. In situ, the supercritical CO2 partitions betweenprocess, CO2 is injected in a supercritical state that has a

  2. Intercomparison of simulation models for CO2 disposal in underground storage reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Law, David; Oldenburg, Curt

    2001-01-01

    experience with using CO2 for EOR projects (SPE, 1999), andoil recovery (EOR) using CO2 requires an understanding of

  3. Vehicular Sensing System for CO2 Monitoring Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    --We are interested in monitoring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas in a large field such as an urban area sensor, vehicular sensing system, wireless sensor network. I. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has concentration in Hsin-Chu city, Taiwan. The collected data is reported to a remote server, which is integrated

  4. CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . In order to perform a safe and efficient carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) project, a comprehensive. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process including the capture of CO2 from high production, USA Abstract Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources and depositing

  5. Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination and isoforcing in the upper Midwest, United vegetation on the 13 CO2 photosynthetic discrimination and atmospheric isotopic forcing in the upper Midwest discrimination within this heterogeneous landscape? (3) To what extent does land use change (i.e., a change in C4

  6. CO2 Injection in the Subsurface Kjetil Haugen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    (1015 BTU) Year Oil Coal Gas Hydro Nuclear Other Figure 1: World energy consumption by energy type. Thus, replacing oil and coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas, is probably the fastest way of achieving a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. CO2 Capture Natural gas is the most clean burning fossil

  7. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exchange. Observed 13 were described well by the classical model of5 Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry (1982 enzymes, as well as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air9 (O'Leary, 1984; Farquhar, O'Leary

  8. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    gross world product, E is global energy consumption, Authorglobal consumption-based CO 2 emissions inventory and calcula- tions of associated consumption-based energyenergy consumption, and combustion-based CO 2 emissions of each region sector were all taken from Version 7 of the Global

  9. Comprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    , carbon sequestration, ecosystem, multi-tier, multi-modal, multi-scale, self organized, sensor array to comprehensively monitor ecosystem carbon sequestration. The network consists of CO2, Weather (pressureComprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems and Its Relation

  10. The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development Qi, and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 242 April 2013 China Energy & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT

  11. Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean C. L. Sabine,1 R. A. Feely,2 R. M. Key,3 J] This work presents an estimate of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean based on measurements from the WOCE tracers; 9355 Information Related to Geographic Region: Pacific Ocean; KEYWORDS: Pacific Ocean

  12. CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Updated Analysis of Advanced/2003) #12;PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Analysis of Advanced Technology, by itself, the scope or quantity of greenhouse gas emissions reductions needed to achiev

  13. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  14. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  15. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore »species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  16. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical CO 2 as Heat Transmission Fluid in the EGSof Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid in anEGS) with CO 2 as Heat Transmission Fluid - A Scheme for

  17. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Could Sequestration of CO2 be Combined with the DevelopmentTOUGH2 Code for Studies of CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers,and J. Ennis- King. CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological

  18. Odors that Modify CO2 Receptor Activity in Insects and Their Effect on Innate CO2-Mediated Behavior and Neuronal Plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Intermediates in Insect CO2 Sensory Systems. Science Certel,2007). The molecular basis of CO2 reception in Drosophila.J. (2004). Floral CO2 Reveals Flower Profitability to Moths.

  19. "Target CO2" publication, "Obstruction" clarification, Paterson letter 1. "Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?" will appear in 3-4 days in The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    "Target CO2" publication, "Obstruction" clarification, Paterson letter 1. "Target Atmospheric CO2 the Australian position, but their subsequently stated goals of 450-550 ppm CO2 does. That plan appears to have

  20. CO2 diffusion in polar ice: observations from naturally formed CO2 spikes in the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raggio Parkway, Reno, Nevada 89512-1095, USA ABSTRACT. One common assumption in interpreting ice-core CO2 records is that diffusion in the ice does not affect the concentration profile. However, this assumption/Ar and Kr/Ar), electrical conductivity and Ca2+ ion concentrations to show that substantial CO2 diffusion

  1. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

  2. (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290320 nm). NOx emission decreased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290­320 nm). NOx emission decreased from shoots, and the compensation point was estimated to be around 1 p.p.b. As ultraviolet radiation induces NOx emission from P exposure to ultraviolet light and NOx emission, and between the ambient con- centration of NOx and its

  3. PVTx properties of the CO2H2O and CO2H2ONaCl systems below 647 K: Assessment of experimental data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polly, David

    PVTx properties of the CO2­H2O and CO2­H2O­NaCl systems below 647 K: Assessment of experimental-composition (PVTx) properties for the CO2­H2O and CO2­H2O­NaCl systems. This paper presents a comprehensive review. Keywords: CO2 sequestration; PVTx properties; Volume; Density; Thermodynamic modeling 1. Introduction CO2­H

  4. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  5. Influence of Ceria on the NOx Storage/Reduction Behavior of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yaying; Choi, Jae-Soon; Toops, Todd J; Crocker, Dr. Mark; Naseri, Mojghan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of La2O3-stabilized ceria incorporation on the functioning of fully formulated lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated. Monolithic catalysts were prepared, corresponding to loadings of 0, 50 and 100 g CeO2/L, together with a catalyst containing 100 g/L of ceria-zirconia (Ce0.7Zr0.3O2). Loadings of the other main components (Pt, Rh and BaO) were held constant. Catalyst evaluation was performed on a bench flow reactor under simulated diesel exhaust conditions, employing NOx storage/reduction cycles. NOx storage efficiency in the temperature range 150-350 C was observed to increase with ceria loading, resulting in higher NOx conversion levels. At 150 C, high rich phase NOx slip was observed for all of the catalysts, resulting from an imbalance in the rates of nitrate decomposition and NOx reduction. Optimal NOx conversion was obtained in the range 250-350 C for all the catalysts, while at 450 C high rich phase NOx slip from the most highly loaded ceria-containing catalyst resulted in lower NOx conversion than for the ceria-free formulation. N2O was the major NOx reduction product at 150 C over all of the catalysts, although low NOx conversion levels limited the N2O yield. At higher temperatures N2 was the main product of NOx reduction, although NH3 formation was also observed. Selectivity to NH3 decreased with increasing ceria loading, indicating that NH3 is consumed by reaction with stored oxygen in the rear of the catalyst.

  6. Methanogenic Conversion of CO2 Into CH4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, S.H., Ferry, J.G., Schoell, M.

    2012-05-06

    This SBIR project evaluated the potential to remediate geologic CO2 sequestration sites into useful methane gas fields by application of methanogenic bacteria. Such methanogens are present in a wide variety of natural environments, converting CO2 into CH4 under natural conditions. We conclude that the process is generally feasible to apply within many of the proposed CO2 storage reservoir settings. However, extensive further basic R&D still is needed to define the precise species, environments, nutrient growth accelerants, and economics of the methanogenic process. Consequently, the study team does not recommend Phase III commercial application of the technology at this early phase.

  7. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  8. Effect of reductive treatments on Pt behavior and NOx storage in lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xianqin; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Chong M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-01

    Lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts represent a promising approach to meet increasingly stringent NOx emission regulations on diesel and other lean-burn engines. Pt material properties, including dispersion and particle size, are known to be important factors in determining NOx uptake performance, since Pt provides active sites for NO oxidation to NO2 necessary for storing NOx as nitrates, and for the reduction of nitrates to N2. In this work, the physicochemical properties of Pt in Pt-BaO/Al2O3 LNT catalysts, such as the Pt accessible surface area and particle size, were investigated by using various tools, such as irreversible volumetric H2 chemisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), following successive reductive treatments at elevated temperatures. NOx uptake activities were also measured to establish a relationship between the properties of Pt and NOx storage following identical high-temperature reductive treatments. We find that the reductive treatments of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts at temperatures up to 500 ºC promote a significant increase in NOx uptake explained, in part, by an induced close interaction between Pt and BaO phases in the catalyst, thus enabling facilitation of the NOx storage process.

  9. NOx Formation in a Premixed Syngas Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, S.L. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Givi, P. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Strakey, P.; Casleton, K.

    2006-11-01

    Reduction of NOx is a subject of significant current interest in stationary gas turbines. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of turbulence on non-thermal NOx formation in a syngas flame. This is archived by a detailed parametric study via PDF simulations of a partially stirred reactor and a dumped axisymmetric premixed flame. Several different detailed and reduced kinetics schemes are considered. The simulated results demonstrate the strong dependence of combustion process on turbulence. It is shown that the amount of NOx formation is significantly influenced by the inlet conditions. That is, the turbulence intensity can be tweaked to attain optimal ultra-low NOx emissions at a given temperature.

  10. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Richard G. Herman

    2004-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 30, 2004 time period.

  11. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Song Wu; Richard G. Herman

    2004-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the April 1 to June 30, 2004 time period.

  12. Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs

  13. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2005 time period.

  14. Further improvement of conventional diesel NOx aftertreatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Future Directions in Engines and Fuels Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance A View from the Bridge...

  15. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but performed well overall. (b) Testing confirmed that algae can be grown in a sustainable fashion in the pilot bioreactor, even with intermittent availability of sunlight. (c) The pilot-scale tests indicated that algal growth rate followed photon delivery during productivity testing. (3) Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (a) The aeration of growth media with 5% CO{sub 2} in air stimulates cyanobacterial growth 10-20 times over that with air alone. It is possible that the rate of the stimulation of cyanobacterial growth in the CRF will be higher because cyanobacteria will be grown as a biofilm. We plan to increase the concentration to 15% CO{sub 2} in air. (b) Tests have shown a doubling time of the cyanobacterial culture of about 7.5 hours with illumination of about 170 {micro}mol m{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. All lower levels of illumination led to a decrease in the cyanobacterial growth rate. (c) Macroscopical and microscopical observations suggest that the culture of this isolate undergoes significant morphological changes after 60-70 hours of incubation in the batch culture mode. First of all, the culture begins to clump. This clumping could lead to the decrease of effective illumination of culture and may reflect a medium alkalinization. (d) Organization of our collection of the thermophilic cyanobacteria isolated from Yellowstone National Park has resulted in 13 unialgal cultures of thermophilic cyanobacteria. (e) A new species (even probably a new genus) of cyanobacteria, 5.2 s. c. 1, isolated from LaDuke Spring in Great Yellowstone Basin, demonstrates an elevated resistance to some compounds of iron. This might be very important for our project, because plant gases may have elevated amount of iron. Our study of the effect of different concentration of FeCl{sub 3}* 6H{sub 2}O on the growth of the 5.2 s.c.1 isolate showed that iron additions stimulated rather then inhibited the growth of the isolate. Because of this we would recommend this isolate for further experiments. (f) The shape of the Chlorogloeopsis siderophila cells (cyanobacteria) was found to be affected b

  16. Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled with CHIMERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    Impact of realistic hourly emissions profiles on air pollutants concentrations modelled Keywords: Atmospheric composition European air quality Anthropogenic emissions a b s t r a c t Regional inputs data like anthropogenic surface emissions of NOx, VOCs and particulate matter. These emissions

  17. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    clean sources of energy. Asturias, in northern Spain, is theThe CO 2 emissions in Asturias represent the 8% of total COsequestration in Asturias are deep saline aquifers and

  18. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    right. Figure 14: Surface gravity response (?Gal) for theAbsolute and relative gravity integration for high precision2003, Seafloor Micro-gravity Survey of the Sleipner CO 2

  19. Modeling the release of CO2 in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liro, Christopher R.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of capturing and disposing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants has recently received attention as a possible mitigation strategy to counteract potential global warming due ...

  20. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Climatedependent CO2 emissions from lakes Sarian Kosten,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in 83 shallow lakes over a large climatic gradient in South influence lakes' metabolism as well. For instance through its effect on the hydraulic residence time, which

  2. Novel CO2-Thickeners for Improved Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2002-01-15

    The objective of this contract was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO2.

  3. Bees, Balloons, Pollen Used as Novel CO2 Monitoring Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have discovered an innovative way to use bees, pollen, and helium-filled balloons to verify that no carbon dioxide (CO2) leaks from carbon sequestration sites.

  4. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90 times faster than catalysts commonly used for this reaction today. What to Do with CO2? Recently, the United States and China announced a joint agreement setting targets for...

  5. Secretary Moniz Announces New CO2 Storage Network at Multinational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    collaboration builds on the success of the CO2 Capture Test Center Network, chaired by Norway since 2013. The U.S. will take the lead on the capture center initiative next year. At...

  6. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    reservoir, a natural gas power plant that burns CH 4 , CO 2from the natural gas power plant, there are two otherflue gas of the natural gas power plant in the system. When

  7. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  8. EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2 as a working fluid. less Authors: Earl D. Mattson ; Travis L. McLing ; William Smith ; Carl Palmer Publication Date: 2013-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1076541 Report Number(s):...

  9. Alabama Project Testing Potential for Combining CO2 Storage with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to sequester 1.1 gigatons to 2.3 gigatons of CO2--approximately the amount that Alabama's coal-fired power plants emit in two decades. Enhanced coalbed methane recovery combined...

  10. CO2ReMoVe - Progress Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilo R. Velis

    of CO2 and brine or oil at liquid, supercritical and gaseous conditions, using a Biot-Gassmann ...... micro-heterogeneous water saturation field S. (j) w . We obtain ...

  11. Seismic modeling to monitor CO2 geological storage: The Atzbach ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-30

    Jun 8, 2012 ... When CO2 is stored into depleted oil and gas fields or unmineable .... where rb is the water (brine) density and g is the acceleration of gravity.

  12. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    the arrival of CO 2 . The drilling fluids were tagged withSeismic survey Drilling phase Fluid loss record, PWD Leak-as fluid path should be investigated during drilling phase.

  13. Canada’s Bitumen Industry Under CO2 Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.-H. Henry

    We investigate the effects of implementing CO2 emissions reduction policies on Canada’s oil sands industry, the largest of its kind in the world. The production of petroleum products from oils sands involves extraction of ...

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of the CO2 chemisorption mechanism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of the CO2 chemisorption mechanism on Na2TiO3: Experimental and theoretical evidences Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  15. Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture Capability of Na2-xMxZrO3 ( MLi ,K): Density-Functional Calculations and Experimental Validations Citation...

  16. Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic Structure, Phonon Dynamical Properties, and CO2 Capture Capability of Na2-xMxZrO3 ( MLi ,K): Density-Functional Calculations and Experimental...

  17. Improving CO2 Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, Reid B.; Svec, Robert K.

    2003-03-10

    The work strived to improve industry understanding of CO2 flooding mechanisms with the ultimate goal of economically recovering more of the U.S. oil reserves. The principle interests are in the related fields of mobility control and injectivity.

  18. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  19. CO2 Removal using a Synthetic Analogue of Carbonic Anhydrase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-09-14

    Project attempts to develop a synthetic analogue for carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it in a membrane for separation of CO2 from coal power plant flue gas. Conference poster presents result of first 9 months of project progress including concept, basic system architecture and membrane properties target, results of molecular modeling for analogue - CO2 interaction, and next steps of testing analogue resistance to flue gas contaminants.

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  1. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted...

  2. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable Control of NOx Emissions in Deep Space Missionsfrom rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deepon the control of NOx emissions. The approach involves the

  3. Dynamic micro-mapping of CO2 sorption in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Cheng, Gang [ORNL; Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey

    2009-01-01

    We have applied X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques (SAXS, SANS and USANS) to study the interaction between fluids and porous media in the particular case of sub- and super-critical CO2 sorption in coal. These techniques are demonstrated to give unique, pore-size-specific insights into the kinetics of CO2 sorption in a wide range of coal pores (nano to meso), and to provide data that may be used to determine the density of the sorbed CO2. We observed densification of the adsorbed CO2 by a factor up to five compared to the free fluid at the same (p,T) conditions. Our results indicate that details of CO2 sorption into coal pores differ greatly between different coals and depend on the amount of mineral matter dispersed in the coal matrix: a purely organic matrix absorbs more CO2 per unit volume than one contaminated with mineral matter, but mineral matter markedly accelerates the sorption kinetics.

  4. Modeling long-term CO2 storage, sequestration and cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-11-11

    The application of numerical and analytical models to the problem of storage, sequestration and migration of carbon dioxide in geologic formations is discussed. A review of numerical and analytical models that have been applied to CO2 sequestration are presented, as well as a description of frameworks for risk analysis. Application of models to various issues related to carbon sequestration are discussed, including trapping mechanisms, density convection mixing, impurities in the CO2 stream, changes in formation porosity and permeability, the risk of vertical leakage, and the impacts on groundwater resources if leakage does occur. A discussion of the development and application of site-specific models first addresses the estimation of model parameters and the use of natural analogues to inform the development of CO2 sequestration models, and then surveys modeling that has been done at two commercial-scale CO2 sequestration sites, Sleipner and In Salah, along with a pilot-scale injection sites used to study CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers (Frio) and an experimental site designed to test monitoring of CO2 leakage in the vadose zone (ZERT Release Facility).

  5. The unstable CO2 feedback cycle on ocean planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitzmann, D; Godolt, M; Grenfell, J L; Heng, K; Patzer, A B C; Rauer, H; Stracke, B; von Paris, P

    2015-01-01

    Ocean planets are volatile rich planets, not present in our Solar System, which are thought to be dominated by deep, global oceans. This results in the formation of high-pressure water ice, separating the planetary crust from the liquid ocean and, thus, also from the atmosphere. Therefore, instead of a carbonate-silicate cycle like on the Earth, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is governed by the capability of the ocean to dissolve carbon dioxide (CO2). In our study, we focus on the CO2 cycle between the atmosphere and the ocean which determines the atmospheric CO2 content. The atmospheric amount of CO2 is a fundamental quantity for assessing the potential habitability of the planet's surface because of its strong greenhouse effect, which determines the planetary surface temperature to a large degree. In contrast to the stabilising carbonate-silicate cycle regulating the long-term CO2 inventory of the Earth atmosphere, we find that the CO2 cycle feedback on ocean planets is negative and has strong...

  6. Hopper Hours Used

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.Food Drive HolidayHours Used Hopper Hours Used 2015

  7. Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Photosynthesis, carboxylation and leaf nitrogen responses of 16 species to elevated pCO2 across four free-air CO2 enrichment experiments in forest, grassland and desert D AV I D S . E L L S W O R T H species under long-term elevated CO2 exposure (elevated pCa) directly impacts ecosystem CO2 assimilation

  8. Ris Energy Report 6 CO2 capture and storage 2 6.1 What is CO2 capture and storage?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gas Biomass Power & heat Power & heat Power & heat Gasification Air separation Process+CO2 sep-combustion Pre-combustion Oxyfuel Industrial processes Coal Gas Biomass Coal Gas Biomass Coal Gas Biomass Coal

  9. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2011-01-01

    1980). Mole fraction of organics in CO2 60 C o benzene+CO2,1980). Mole fraction of organics in CO2 100 C phenol+CO2,o VP CO2 Vapor pressure (bar) VP C6H6 0 Mole fraction of CO

  10. Low-temperature reactive coupling at polymerpolymer interfaces facilitated by supercritical CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-temperature reactive coupling at polymer­polymer interfaces facilitated by supercritical CO2 S online 22 August 2005 Abstract Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has been used to facilitate reactions in thin,6,7], the formation of such BCPs via reactive compatibilization [8­10], and the use of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) [11

  11. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  12. Fulfilled by Hours Earned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    or equivalent) Public Speaking (Comm 104 or equivalent) Art History/Music Appreciation/Theatre History (choose 1) US/European/World History (choose 1) Philosophy/Religious Studies/Ethics/Literature (choose 1 student #12;Fulfilled by Course Hours Earned CSCI 112: Communications Technology & the Internet CSCI 115

  13. Rechargeable Li/CO2O2 (2 : 1) battery and Li/CO2 Yali Liu, Rui Wang, Yingchun Lyu, Hong Li* and Liquan Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    under suitable conditions. Therefore, it is plausible that a recharge- able Li/CO2 battery couldRechargeable Li/CO2­O2 (2 : 1) battery and Li/CO2 battery Yali Liu, Rui Wang, Yingchun Lyu, Hong Li* and Liquan Chen A Li/CO2­O2 (2 : 1, volume ratio) battery and a Li/CO2 battery with discharging specific

  14. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to increase from 36 to 70 Pa CO2 before the end of the 21st century. High pCO2 often increases the growth and repro- duction of C3 annuals, whereas low pCO2 decreases growth and may reduce or prevent

  15. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  16. CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01

    Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of “CO2-phillic” groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin “polymer-like” surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

  17. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine, Christopher; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H; Bakker, D C E; Pfeil, B; Olsen, A; Metzl, N; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J; Akl, J; Alin, S R; Bellerby, R G J; Borges, A; Boutin, J; Cai, W-J; Chavez, F P; Chen, A; Cosa, C; Feely, R A; Gonzalez-Davila, M; Goyet, C; Hardman-Mountford, N; Heinze, C; Hoppema, M; Hunt, C W; Hydes, D; Ishii, M; Johannessen, T; Key, R M; Kortzinger, A; Landschutzer, P; Lauvset, S K; Lefevre, N; Lourantou, A; Mintrop, L; Miyazaki, C; Murata, A; Nakadate, A; Nakano, Y; Nakaoka, S; Nojiri, Y; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  18. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  19. CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    2486.2007.01439.x CO 2 balance of boreal, temperate, andR T et al. Fig. 10 Observed CO 2 balance for boreal biomes.These CO 2 balances were not closed and therefore the

  20. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO 2emissions (233 Mt CO 2 ), accounting for around one-third ofCO2 emissions? 3 Accounting challenges and opportunities

  1. Experiment-based modeling of geochemical interactions in CO2-based geothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Y.

    2014-01-01

    associated with CO 2 -EGS,” Proceedings, 37th Workshop onEnhanced geothermal systems (EGS) using CO 2 as workingenhanced geothermal system (EGS) using CO 2 instead of water

  2. Experiment-based modeling of geochemical interactions in CO2-based geothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Y.

    2014-01-01

    K. (2006), “Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) using CO 2 asBehavior of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO 2 as Workingof operating enhanced geothermal system (EGS) using CO 2

  3. Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based Engineered Geothemal System Single-well Low Temperature CO2- based...

  4. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondary accumulation at shallow depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs,S.T. Nelson. Natural Leaking CO2-charged Systems as AnalogsY. Sano, and H.U. Schmincke. CO2-rich Gases from Lakes Nyos

  5. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from a Geologic Storage Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    1 - 16, 1987. Skinner, L. CO2 Blowouts: An Emerging Problem,Assessment for Underground CO2 Storage, paper 234, presentedReservoir Performance Risk in CO2 Storage Projects, paper

  6. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  7. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction...

  8. Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap...

  9. Impact of Sulfation and Desulfation on NOx Reduction Using Cu-Chabazite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, Daniel W; Nam, Jeong-Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Binder, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 C; however, above 250 C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements reveal that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Furthermore, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.

  10. CATALYST CATALYSTADSORBENT ADSORBENT HCS + H2O H2 + CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    - CO2 Adsorbent Effect of Membrane Properties On HAMR performance 3.190.3883--H2O --54.30.0248Ar --67 CATALYST CATALYSTADSORBENT ADSORBENT C O 2CO2 CO2 CO2 HCS + H2O H2 + CO2 Mork Family Department of Chemical using hydrotalcite-type CO2 adsorbents and nanoporous H2-selective carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMS

  11. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna, R; Domingo, M; Satorre, M A

    2008-01-01

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  12. Thermal desorption of CH4 retained in CO2 ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Luna; C. Millan; M. Domingo; M. A. Satorre

    2008-01-21

    CO2 ices are known to exist in different astrophysical environments. In spite of this, its physical properties (structure, density, refractive index) have not been as widely studied as those of water ice. It would be of great value to study the adsorption properties of this ice in conditions related to astrophysical environments. In this paper, we explore the possibility that CO2 traps relevant molecules in astrophysical environments at temperatures higher than expected from their characteristic sublimation point. To fulfil this aim we have carried out desorption experiments under High Vacuum conditions based on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance and additionally monitored with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. From our results, the presence of CH4 in the solid phase above the sublimation temperature in some astrophysical scenarios could be explained by the presence of several retaining mechanisms related to the structure of CO2 ice.

  13. Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

    2007-01-01

    2004. Experience curves for power plant emission controlassessments of fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capturethe future cost of power plants with CO 2 capture Edward S.

  14. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    as NEU-CO2 emissions (i.e. , a carbon storage fraction ofand stored fractions. It follows that, in practice, NEU-CO2

  15. Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-01-01

    of “recovery factor”. IEA Oil Reserves Conference, Paris,used today for CO 2 -enhanced oil recovery. Pipeline CO 2 is

  16. Experiment-based modeling of geochemical interactions in CO2-based geothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Y.

    2014-01-01

    in a granite-hosted geothermal system: Experimental insightsof CO 2 -based geothermal systems,” Proceedings, 38thK. (2006), “Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) using CO 2 as

  17. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easlon, Hsien M; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-01-01

    Does low g enhance growth at elevated CO 2 ? To whomEcophysiology and Sustainability Does low g enhance growthat elevated CO 2 ? Does low stomatal conductance or

  18. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on "CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumley, D.

    2010-01-01

    L. and McPherson, B. , 2008, Microseismic monitoring of CO 2profiling) and passive microseismic, are being used toactivity in passive microseismic techniques to monitor CO 2

  19. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration,...

  20. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    with the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems? , paper2004. Pruess, K. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Using CO2Behavior of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO 2 as Working

  1. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy5. Regional Results for the CO2 Pricing Scheme no-invest

  2. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  3. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

  4. CO2 hydrogenation to formate and methanol as an alternative to photo- and electrochemical CO2 reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Wan -Hui; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T.; Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko

    2015-09-03

    In this study, carbon dioxide is one of the end products of combustion, and is not a benign component of the atmosphere. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has reached unprecedented levels and continues to increase owing to an escalating rate of fossil fuel combustion, causing concern about climate change and rising sea levels. In view of the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels, a possible solution to this problem is the recycling of carbon dioxide, possibly captured at its point of generation, to fuels. Researchers in this field are using solar energy for CO2 activation and utilization in severalmore »ways: (i) so-called artificial photosynthesis using photo-induced electrons; (ii) bulk electrolysis of a CO2 saturated solution using electricity produced by photovoltaics; (iii) CO2 hydrogenation using solar-produced H2; and (iv) the thermochemical reaction of metal oxides at extremely high temperature reached by solar collectors. Since the thermodynamics of CO2 at high temperature (> 1000 ºC) are quite different from those near room temperature, only chemistry below 200 ºC is discussed in this review.« less

  5. On modeling the potential impacts of CO2 sequestration on shallow groundwater: Transport of organics and co-injected H2S by supercritical CO2 to shallow aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2014-01-01

    F.C. Knopf, 1991. Supercritical CO2 extraction of organicaqueous sulfide and supercritical CO2. Chemical Geology 271(reactivity with supercritical CO2 and aqueous sulfide.

  6. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  7. Hours Available FY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D.Food Drive HolidayHours UsedFire 1 in 3 students

  8. Hours of Duty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-Summer 2014to PLAs Hourly Wage

  9. Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence David Stevenson aircraft NOx emissions in January, April, July and October of the 1st year. Figure 1 shows perturbations that the initial NOx anomaly mirrors the aircraft emissions distribution, with only limited transport and mixing

  10. Nitrogen Isotopes as Indicators of NOx Source Contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO4 2-, or NO3 - concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U

  11. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations R. G. Derwent & D. S distributions of methane CH4 and ozone O3 following the emission of pulses of the oxides of nitrogen NOx. Month-long emission pulses of NOx produce deficits in CH4 mixing ratios that bring about negative radiative forcing

  12. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO 2 Emissions, ACEEEDistributed   Energy  Costs  and  CO 2  Abatement:     A  of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO 2 Abatement: A

  13. Experimental study of rock-fluid interaction using automated multichannel system operated under conditions of CO2-based geothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petro, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions in CO 2 -based EGS,” 38 th Workshop onimportant aspects of the CO 2 -EGS reservoir development andof a potential CO 2 -EGS project. Originally, both illite

  14. The solubility and kinetics of minerals under CO2-EGS geothermal conditions: Comparison of experimental and modeling results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2014-01-01

    K. , 2006. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Using CO 2 asinteractions in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO 2behavior of enhanced geothermal systems with CO 2 as Working

  15. COS: A new tracer to constrain photosynthetic CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    COS: A new tracer to constrain photosynthetic CO2 fluxes Dan Yakir1, Max Berkelhammer2, Hulin Chen2 COS (110-190) Indirect CS2, DMS (149-330) Unknown (~600) Stratosphere COSàSO2 OH uptake (82-110) Global COS Budget (Gg S a-1; Kettle et al., 2002; Montzka et al., 2007; Berry et al., 2013 ) Mean

  16. Chemical Looping Combustion for inherent CO2 capture in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HRSG Stack Steam TurbineFuel Compr. Air Flue gas H2O CO2 to compression Depleted air HP Steam not possible with Ni/NiO 6 CLC in a combined cycle power plant Fuel Reactor Air Reactor Gas Turbine Gas Turbine) ­ adiabatic, 20 bar Stoichiometric MeO Air-fuel ratio Stoichiometric ­ 3*Stoicihometric Gas turbine

  17. CO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capital, engineering and home office overhead, project and process contingencies, and miscellaneousCO2 Storage and Sink Enhancements: Developing Comparable Economics B.R. Bock1 , R.G. Rhudy2 , and H Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, USA 3 Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, Massachusetts Institute

  18. Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

  19. Challenges in elevated CO2 experiments on forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA 4 Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark 5 University concentrations in future experiments to better predict the effects of climate change? Plantations and natural. Forest ecosystems under climate change Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas emitted

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE Nitrogen cycle responses to elevated CO2 depend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    carbon dioxide (CO2) concentra- tion leads to an increase in the net flux of carbon (C) from sequestration of C (Drigo et al. 2008). Potentially, the additional sequestration of C in SOM will also cause-Liebig-University Giessen, Gießen, Germany 123 Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst DOI 10.1007/s10705-015-9683-8 #12;(N) sequestration

  1. INFLUENCE OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE ON CO2 STORAGE AND MONITORING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    - 0.3 sin 1 - 0.5 sin : pore pressure : critical porosity 0: initial porosity : bulk INFLUENCE OF CAPILLARY PRESSURE ON CO2 STORAGE AND MONITORING Juan E. Santos Work in collaboration and capillary pressure relations) are determined from on-site resistivity measurements. In particular we

  2. Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adsorption and Strain: The CO2-Induced Swelling of Coal M. Vandamme1 , L. Brochard2 , B. Lecampion3.07.014 #12;Abstract Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling

  3. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  4. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  5. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  6. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    capture of CO 2 from gasifier process producing electricalPlaquemine, Louisiana. The gasifier is a proprietary designGasifier .

  7. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  8. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

  9. Deep Pacific CaCO3 compensation and glacialinterglacial atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    Analysis of air trapped in Antarctic ice cores indicates that atmospheric CO2 concentrations have varied

  10. Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature­2001 are spatially correlated to anthropogenic surface CO2 emissions, which we use as a measure of industrialization change, CO2 emissions. Citation: de Laat, A. T. J., and A. N. Maurellis (2004), Industrial CO2 emissions

  11. Economically Efficient Operation of CO2 Capturing Process Part II: Control Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    be considered as the CO2 recovery in the absorber and the CO2 mole fraction at the bottom of the stripper Efficient Operation of CO2 Capturing Process Part II: Control Layer Mehdi Panahi, Sigurd Skogestad regions of a post-combustion CO2 capturing process using the top-down steady-state economic part

  12. Forest Sensitivity to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and its Relevance to Carbon Management Richard J. Norby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the airborne fraction of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, and, therefore, the rate of increase of CO2Forest Sensitivity to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and its Relevance to Carbon Management Richard J the responses of forest trees to rising concentrations of atmospheric CO2 has for the past two decades been

  13. Efficient parallel simulation of CO2 geologic sequestration in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Keni; Doughty, Christine; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    +6s, no salt, 3D CO2 Mass Fraction Z (m) Y(m) Figure 6. CO 2s), salt=12.5%, 3D CO2 mass fraction Z (m) X (m) Figure 7.25% with Large K, 3D CO2 mass fraction Z (m) Y (m) Figure 9.

  14. Recent advances in well-based monitoring of CO2 sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freifeld, B.

    2009-01-01

    seismic tomography for monitoring the pilot CO2 injection into an onshore aquifer, Nagaoka, Japan, Exploration

  15. Stoichiometry of CH4 and CO2 flux in a California Rice Paddy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMillan, Andrew M. S.; Goulden, Michael L.; Tyler, Stanley C.

    2007-01-01

    harvest. Respiratory losses (positive fluxes of CO 2 ) were highest following the drainage of standing water

  16. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are a strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gasEnhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification Youn-Sang Bae

  17. Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Jaideep

    for source locations #12;Background on ffCO2 inversion · Unlike biogenic CO2 emissions, anthropogenicWavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements J. Ray1, V: Develop a technique to estimate anthropogenic (fossil- fuel) CO2 emissions from sparse observations

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE -CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2 MSDS (DOCUMENT #001013) PAGE 1 OF 12 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, GASEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, CRYOGENIC CARBON DIOXIDE - CO2, SOLID Document Number: 001013 PRODUCT USE: For general analytical

  19. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000032 The Immobility of CO2 in Marine Sediments Beneath 1500

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    -than-sea- water CO2 in deep-sea sediments is inherently more secure then storing buoyant supercritical CO2 with the mobility of supercritical CO2 that has been injected into geologically equivalent (i.e., identical porosityDOI: 10.1002/cssc.201000032 The Immobility of CO2 in Marine Sediments Beneath 1500 Meters of Water

  20. Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Observations and simulations of synoptic, regional, and local variations in atmospheric CO2 Jih] Synoptic events may play an important role in determining the CO2 spatial distribution and temporal 2001, which had the most significant CO2 concentration variation in our case pool. The CO2

  1. Using CO2:CO correlations to improve inverse analyses of carbon fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Using CO2:CO correlations to improve inverse analyses of carbon fluxes Paul I. Palmer,1,2 Parvadha 30 June 2006. [1] Observed correlations between atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CO represent potentially powerful information for improving CO2 surface flux estimates through coupled CO2-CO inverse

  2. CO2 enrichment accelerates successional development of an understory plant community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    CO2 enrichment accelerates successional development of an understory plant community Contact Research · Over 11 years of CO2 enrichment in the ORNL FACE experiment, the understory community changed dramatically. · Aboveground biomass was on average 25% greater in elevated [CO2] than in ambient [CO2] plots

  3. Pilot plant for CO2 capture with aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate , Gary T. Rochelle1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    GHGT-8 1 Pilot plant for CO2 capture with aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate Eric Chen1 , Gary pilot for CO2 capture was successfully operated using potassium carbonate promoted with piperazine heat duty for a given CO2 removal efficiency than 6.4m K+ /1.6m PZ. Keywords: CO2, pilot plant

  4. CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 efflux from Amazonian headwater streams represents a significant fate for deep soil respiration amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, while the magnitude of CO2 degassing from small streams remains a major was as terrestrially-respired CO2 dissolved within soils, over 90% of which evaded to the atmosphere within headwater

  5. Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic measurements during the last deglaciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Click Here for Full Article Constraint of the CO2 rise by new atmospheric carbon isotopic increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) during the last glacialinterglacial climatic transition remain debated. We analyzed the parallel evolution of CO2 and its stable carbon isotopic ratio (d13 CO2

  6. Physical controls on the isotopic composition of soil-respired CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical controls on the isotopic composition of soil-respired CO2 Nick Nickerson1 and Dave Risk1] Measurement of the isotopic composition of soil and soil-respired CO2 (d13 CO2) has become an invaluable tool in understanding the effects of diffusive transport on soil CO2 isotopic composition, it is crucial

  7. Summary Trees exposed to elevated CO2 partial pressure ([CO2]) generally show increased rates of photosynthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), nighttime respiration, number of mitochondria. Introduction Terrestrial plant photosynthesis and respiration the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere are large, because photosynthesis assimilates about 120 Pg C year­1- nistically explained in large part by the direct effect of ele- vated [CO2] on Rubisco kinetics (Farquhar

  8. Experimental Assessment of CO2Mineral-Toxic Ion Interactions in a Simplified Freshwater Aquifer: Implications for CO2 Leakage from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that remobilization of trace elements by CO2 intrusion is not a universal physicochemical effect. In fact goethite, a decrease in pH resulting from CO2 intrusion could reactivate the adsorption of Se(IV) and As(V) if goethite, arsenite As(III) is significantly adsorbed on goethite, but is partially remobilized by CO2 intrusion

  9. Modeling Density Effects in CO2 Injection in Oil Reservoirs and A Case Study of CO2 Sequestration in a Qatari Saline Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Tausif

    2012-10-19

    CO2 injection has been used to improve oil recovery for several decades. In recent years, CO2 injection has become even more attractive because of a dual effect; injection in the subsurface 1) allows reduction of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere...

  10. 1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances' Optimal Operation of a CO2 Capturing Plant for a Wide Range of Disturbances Mehdi Panahi Sigurd Skogestad 18.10.2011 AIChE Annual Meeting #12;2M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Optimal Operation of a CO2

  11. Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    and the reservoir properties (CO 2 saturation distribution).residual CO 2 saturation and the associated reservoir CO 2reservoir model (top) with zoom of central portion showing predicted CO 2 saturation

  12. Numerical Modeling Studies of The Dissolution-Diffusion-Convection Process During CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Properties of the Supercritical CO2–Water Pure Interface, J.and pressure conditions, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has lowerthe overlying free supercritical CO2 phase. This is modeled

  13. Grading System & GPA Calculation UMass Credit Hour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    semester. This standard assumes that each credit hour generates two hours of assigned work for every hour

  14. The role of CO2 in CH4 exsolution from deep brine: Implications for geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    to CO 2 -enhanced geothermal systems. Trans. Porous Med.to CO 2 -enhanced geothermal systems. Trans. Porous Med.

  15. Photodesorption of ices I: CO, N2 and CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2009-01-23

    A longstanding problem in astrochemistry is how molecules can be maintained in the gas phase in dense inter- and circumstellar regions. Photodesorption is a non-thermal desorption mechanism, which may explain the small amounts of observed cold gas in cloud cores and disk mid-planes. This paper aims to determine the UV photodesorption yields and to constrain the photodesorption mechanisms of three astrochemically relevant ices: CO, N2 and CO2. In addition, the possibility of co-desorption in mixed and layered CO:N2 ices is explored. The ice photodesorption is studied experimentally under ultra high vacuum conditions and at 15-60 K using a hydrogen discharge lamp (7-10.5 eV). The ice desorption during irradiation is monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy of the ice and simultaneous mass spectrometry of the desorbed molecules. Both the UV photodesorption yields per incident photon and the photodesorption mechanisms are molecule specific. CO photodesorbs without dissociation from the surface layer of the ice. N2, which lacks an electronic transition in this wavelength range, has a photodesorption yield that is more than an order of magnitude lower. This yield increases significantly due to co-desorption when N2 is mixed in with or layered on top of CO ice. CO2 photodesorbs through dissociation and subsequent recombination from the top 10 layers of the ice. At low temperatures (15-18 K) the derived photodesorption yields are 2.7x10^-3 and CO2 photodesorption yield is 1.2x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/2.9)) + 1.1x10^-3x(1-e^(-X/4.6)) molecules photon-1, where X is the ice thickness in monolayers and the two parts of the expression represent a CO2 and CO photodesorption pathway.

  16. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  17. STOMP Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases: STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e Guide: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. Peter; Watson, David J.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2012-04-03

    This STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) guide document describes the theory, use, and application of the STOMP-CO2 and STOMP-CO2e operational modes. These operational modes of the STOMP simulator are configured to solve problems involving the sequestration of CO2 in geologic saline reservoirs. STOMP-CO2 is the isothermal version and STOMP-CO2e is the nonisothermal version. These core operational modes solve the governing conservation equations for component flow and transport through geologic media; where, the STOMP-CO2 components are water, CO2 and salt and the STOMP-CO2e operational mode also includes an energy conservation equation. Geochemistry can be included in the problem solution via the ECKEChem (Equilibrium-Conservation-Kinetic-Equation Chemistry) module, and geomechanics via the EPRMech (Elastic-Plastic-Rock Mechanics) module. This addendum is designed to provide the new user with a full guide for the core capabilities of the STOMP-CO2 and -CO2e simulators, and to provide the experienced user with a quick reference on implementing features. Several benchmark problems are provided in this addendum, which serve as starting points for developing inputs for more complex problems and as demonstrations of the simulator’s capabilities.

  18. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled “Mardi Gras: Made in China” provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. It’s workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer — all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of China’s fast rise to the world’s top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  19. Effects of CO2 on H2O band profiles and band strengths in mixed H2O:CO2 ices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin I. Oberg; Helen J. Fraser; A. C. Adwin Boogert; Suzanne E. Bisschop; Guido W. Fuchs; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Harold Linnartz

    2006-10-25

    H2O is the most abundant component of astrophysical ices. In most lines of sight it is not possible to fit both the H2O 3 um stretching, the 6 um bending and the 13 um libration band intensities with a single pure H2O spectrum. Recent Spitzer observations have revealed CO2 ice in high abundances and it has been suggested that CO2 mixed into H2O ice can affect relative strengths of the 3 um and 6 um bands. We used laboratory infrared transmission spectroscopy of H2O:CO2 ice mixtures to investigate the effects of CO2 on H2O ice spectral features at 15-135 K. We find that the H2O peak profiles and band strengths are significantly different in H2O:CO2 ice mixtures compared to pure H2O ice. In all H2O:CO2 mixtures, a strong free-OH stretching band appears around 2.73 um, which can be used to put an upper limit on the CO2 concentration in the H2O ice. The H2O bending mode profile also changes drastically with CO2 concentration; the broad pure H2O band gives way to two narrow bands as the CO2 concentration is increased. This makes it crucial to constrain the environment of H2O ice to enable correct assignments of other species contributing to the interstellar 6 um absorption band. The amount of CO2 present in the H2O ice of B5:IRS1 is estimated by simultaneously comparing the H2O stretching and bending regions and the CO2 bending mode to laboratory spectra of H2O, CO2, H2O:CO2 and HCOOH.

  20. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  1. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  2. NREL's Cyanobacteria Engineering Shortens Biofuel Production Process, Captures CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's work to systematically analyze the flow of energy in a photosynthetic microbe and show how the organism adjusts its metabolism to meet the increased energy demand for making ethylene. This work successfully demonstrates that the organism could cooperate by stimulating photosynthesis. The results encourage further genetic engineering for the conversion of CO2 to biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting. biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  3. 2015 CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30, 2013Program95 CalendarCO2 Capture

  4. CantorCO2e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick,CalendarFork Electric Coop,CantorCO2e Jump

  5. CO2 Capture Poject CCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine:Kansas: Energy Resources JumpCIA-The World FactbookCN Solar CoCO2

  6. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l DeInsulation at04-86)ContractorsCNG Exports by Truck out ofCO2

  7. co2 capture meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative ccsi.jpglibfabric:Nauru:2012 NETL CO2

  8. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming Upgrades toFreezingHSA BankFriendshipsFrom CO2

  9. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

  10. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

  11. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  12. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis...

  13. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment...

  14. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools...

  15. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase...

  16. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. and Johnson-Matthey 2004deerli.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Desulfurization Fuel Filter...

  17. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide...

  18. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  19. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx...

  20. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  1. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN)...

  2. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future A low precious metal loading ammonia-slip catalyst was developed that is able to oxidize the ammonia that...

  3. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  4. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  5. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Ronald; Wicks, John; Perry, Christopher

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian “Clinton” sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test (“Huff-n-Puff”) was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a “Clinton”-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day “soak” period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the “Clinton” sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of the CO2 within the reservoir during the ensuing monitored production period; and (D) a large amount of CO2 continually off-gassed from wellhead oil samples collected as late as 3½ months after injection. After the test well was returned to production, it produced 174 bbl of oil during a 60-day period (September 22 to November 21, 2008), which represents an estimated 58 percent increase in incremental oil production over preinjection estimates of production under normal, conditions. The geologic model was used in a reservoir simulation model for a 700-acre model area and to design a pilot to test the model. The model was designed to achieve a 1-year response time and a five-year simulation period. The reservoir simulation modeling indicated that the injection wells could enhance oil production and lead to an additional 20 percent recovery in the pilot area over a five-year period. The base case estimated that by injecting 500 MCF per day of CO2 into each of the four corner wells, 26,000 STBO would be produced by the central producer over the five-year period. This would compare to 3,000 STBO if a new well were drilled without the benefit of CO2 injection. This study has added significant knowledge to the reservoir characterization of the “Clinton” in the ECOF and succeeded in identifying a range on CO2-EOR potential. However, additional data on fluid properties (PVT and swelling test), fractures (oriented core and microseis), and reservoir characteristics (relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wet ability) are needed to further narrow the uncertainties and refine the reservoir model and simulation. After collection of this data and refinement of the model and simulation, it is recommended that a larger scale cyclic- CO2 injection test be conducted to better determine the efficacy of CO2-EOR in the “Clinton” reservoir in the ECOF.

  6. Silurian "Clinton" Sandstone Reservoir Characterization for Evaluation of CO2-EOR Potential in the East Canton Oil Field, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Riley; John Wicks; Christopher Perry

    2009-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the East Canton oil field (ECOF). Discovered in 1947, the ECOF in northeastern Ohio has produced approximately 95 million barrels (MMbbl) of oil from the Silurian 'Clinton' sandstone. The original oil-in-place (OOIP) for this field was approximately 1.5 billion bbl and this study estimates by modeling known reservoir parameters, that between 76 and 279 MMbbl of additional oil could be produced through secondary recovery in this field, depending on the fluid and formation response to CO2 injection. A CO2 cyclic test ('Huff-n-Puff') was conducted on a well in Stark County to test the injectivity in a 'Clinton'-producing oil well in the ECOF and estimate the dispersion or potential breakthrough of the CO2 to surrounding wells. Eighty-one tons of CO2 (1.39 MMCF) were injected over a 20-hour period, after which the well was shut in for a 32-day 'soak' period before production was resumed. Results demonstrated injection rates of 1.67 MMCF of gas per day, which was much higher than anticipated and no CO2 was detected in gas samples taken from eight immediately offsetting observation wells. All data collected during this test was analyzed, interpreted, and incorporated into the reservoir characterization study and used to develop the geologic model. The geologic model was used as input into a reservoir simulation performed by Fekete Associates, Inc., to estimate the behavior of reservoir fluids when large quantities of CO2 are injected into the 'Clinton' sandstone. Results strongly suggest that the majority of the injected CO2 entered the matrix porosity of the reservoir pay zones, where it diffused into the oil. Evidence includes: (A) the volume of injected CO2 greatly exceeded the estimated capacity of the hydraulic fracture and natural fractures; (B) there was a gradual injection and pressure rate build-up during the test; (C) there was a subsequent, gradual flashout of the CO2 within the reservoir during the ensuing monitored production period; and (D) a large amount of CO2 continually off-gassed from wellhead oil samples collected as late as 3 1/2 months after injection. After the test well was returned to production, it produced 174 bbl of oil during a 60-day period (September 22 to November 21, 2008), which represents an estimated 58 percent increase in incremental oil production over preinjection estimates of production under normal, conditions. The geologic model was used in a reservoir simulation model for a 700-acre model area and to design a pilot to test the model. The model was designed to achieve a 1-year response time and a five-year simulation period. The reservoir simulation modeling indicated that the injection wells could enhance oil production and lead to an additional 20 percent recovery in the pilot area over a five-year period. The base case estimated that by injecting 500 MCF per day of CO2 into each of the four corner wells, 26,000 STBO would be produced by the central producer over the five-year period. This would compare to 3,000 STBO if a new well were drilled without the benefit of CO2 injection. This study has added significant knowledge to the reservoir characterization of the 'Clinton' in the ECOF and succeeded in identifying a range on CO2-EOR potential. However, additional data on fluid properties (PVT and swelling test), fractures (oriented core and microseis), and reservoir characteristics (relative permeability, capillary pressure, and wet ability) are needed to further narrow the uncertainties and refine the reservoir model and simulation. After collection of this data and refinement of the model and simulation, it is recommended that a larger scale cyclic-CO2 injection test be conducted to better determine the efficacy of CO2-EOR in the 'Clinton' reservoir in the ECOF.

  7. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on "CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumley, D.

    2010-01-01

    on “CO 2 Sequestration Geophysics” David Lumley (U. W.on “CO 2 Sequestration Geophysics” was held August 23-27,sequestration: Model Studies: Geophysics, 73, WA105-WA112.

  8. Advanced Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advanced Development Of The Coal Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2 Separation ADECOS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Development Of The Coal-Fired Oxyfuel Process With CO2...

  9. Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biases of CO2 Storage in Eddy Flux Measurements pertinent to Vertical Configurations of a Profile System and CO2 Density Averaging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biases...

  10. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    for CO2 geological storage, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control,1008, DOI Bachu, S. CO2 Storage in Geological Media: Role,R.H. Worden. Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, in: S.J.

  11. DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site DOE-Funded Project Testing Laser CO2 Monitoring at Carbon Storage Site June 3, 2015 - 8:44am Addthis Photo...

  12. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    of Enhanced Geothermal Systems? , paper presented at ThirdPruess, K. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Using CO2 asBehavior of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO 2 as Working

  13. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    to all DER technologies, PV adoption increases, but only in2 Pricing Scheme on CHP/PV adoption and CO 2 emissions SinceCO 2 price, PV and solar thermal adoption increases in all

  14. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01

    related to fuel use or emissions than car ownership alone.Limiting CO2 Emissions from new cars promulgated by the EU (of 120 gm/km CO2 emissions from new cars, which corresponds

  15. Interaction between CO2-rich solutions and reservoir-seal rocks. Experimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    coal systems 5.Use of CO2 in enhanced coal bed methane recovery 6.Other suggested options (basalts, oil shales, cavities) #12;Motivation CO2 subsurface behavior and trapping mechanisms Four basic trapping

  16. Nonclassical hydrodynamic behavior of Sn plasma irradiated with a long duration CO2 laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Y.; Tillack, M. S.; Yuseph, S.; Burdt, R.; Najmabadi, F.

    2010-01-01

    a long duration CO 2 laser pulse Y. Tao · M.S. Tillack · S.a long duration CO 2 laser pulse is much shorter than thatsource. When an intense laser pulse arrives at the surface

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical CO 2 as Heat Transmission Fluid in the EGSof Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid in an2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown,

  18. On the production behavior of enhanced geothermal systems with CO2 as working fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    either CO 2 or water as heat transmission fluid. For a modelsystems (EGS), heat transmission, thermal breakthrough, CO 2instead of water as heat transmission fluid was proposed by

  19. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    Future CO 2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energynon-energy emissions could diminish in the future. In viewfuture CO 2 emissions is much greater in China, because China’s energy

  20. CO2 migration in saline aquifers. Part 1. Capillary trapping under slope and groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMinn, Christopher W.

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into geological formations is widely regarded as a promising tool for reducing global atmospheric CO2 emissions. To evaluate injection scenarios, estimate reservoir capacity and assess ...

  1. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency...

  2. Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminski, Edouard

    Porous compaction in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 in transient creep regime and implications for melt, petroleum, and CO2 circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B

  3. Assessing velocity and impedance changes due to CO2 saturation using interferometry on repeated seismic sources.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Barcelona : Spain (2010)" #12;Introduction The role played by the industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in climate change has been well documented. Geological sequestration is a process to store CO2

  4. Non-CO2, Non-Greenhouse, Non-Gas Forcing Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    AEROSOLS: Non-CO2, Non-Greenhouse, Non-Gas Forcing Stephen E. Schwartz Symposium on Controlling Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols: Scientific and Policy Challenges http

  5. CO2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.

    2011-01-01

    CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

  6. CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement Effect of CO2 on the Integrity of Well Cement under Geologic Storage Conditions Geologic carbon storage is the separation and capture of carbon...

  7. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage Program: Closing Long-Term CO2 Geological Storage Gaps Relevant to Regulatory and Policy Development Jump to:...

  8. Impacts of CO2 Mandates for New Cars in the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    CO2 emissions mandates for new light-duty passenger vehicles have recently been adopted in the European Union (EU), which require steady reductions to 95 g CO2/km in 2021. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, ...

  9. Evaluation of KDOT's Vehicle Fleet's CO2 Emissions and Possible Energy Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Eric

    2012-12-31

    Increasing energy demands require more energy extraction from fossil fuels. The energy is extracted through combustion and results in mainly CO2 emissions as well as other trace emissions. Reducing energy usage can save money and CO2 emissions...

  10. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    He, et. al. 2005. “Oil consumption and CO2 emissions inHe, et. al. 2005. “Oil consumption and CO2 emissions inin all types of oil consumption are needed to reduce crude

  11. Properties of CO2-Rich Pore Fluids and Their Effect on Porosity Evolution in EGS Rocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Quantify key parameters critically needed for developing and validating numerical modeling of chemical interactions between EGS reservoir rocks and supercritical CO2and CO2-rich aqueous fluids.

  12. U.S. Manufacturers Save $1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy Efficiency Investments U.S. Manufacturers Save 1 Billion, 11 Million Tons of CO2 through Energy...

  13. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a...

  14. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy...

  15. Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the Industry Does and What the Government Can Do Reduction of Heavy-Duty Fuel Consumption and CO2 Generation -- What the...

  16. CO2 interaction with aquifer and seal on geological timescales: the Miller oilfield, UK North Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a feasible technology to reduce CO2 emissions whilst permitting the continued use of fossil fuels. Injected CO2 must remain efficiently isolated from the atmosphere ...

  17. Aminoguanidine inhibits aortic hydrogen peroxide production, VSMC NOX activity and hypercontractility in diabetic mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Ji-Youn; Cai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    likely via a reduction in NOX-linked hypercontractility.signif- icant reduction in VSMC NOX activity remains to beNOX-derived O 2•- in diabetic VSMC might underlie AG reduction

  18. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  19. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  20. APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  1. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project...

  2. Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  3. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Martin; Edmonds, James A.; Emori, S.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kainuma, M.; Keeling, Ralph; Kram, Tom; Manning, Andrew; Meinhausen, Malte; Moss, Richard H.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; Rose, Steven K.; Smith, Steven J.; Swart, Robert; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2010-06-01

    Estimates of recent fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been compared with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios that had been developed for analysis of future climate change, impacts and mitigation. In some cases this comparison uses averages across subgroups of SRES scenarios and for one category of greenhouse gases (industrial sources of CO2). That approach can be misleading and cause confusion as it is inconsistent with many of the papers on future climate change projections that are based on a specific subset of closely scrutinized SRES scenarios, known as illustrative marker scenarios. Here, we show that comparison between recent estimates of fossil fuel emissions trends and the SRES illustrative marker scenarios leads to the conclusion that recent trends are not outside the SRES range. Furthermore, the recent economic downturn appears to have brought actual emission back toward the middle of the SRES illustrative marker scenarios. We also note that SRES emission scenarios are designed to reflect potential alternative long-term trends in a world without climate policy intervention and the trend in the resulting climate change is not sensitive to short-term fluctuations.

  4. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2Fluid, Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali,Remain? Transactions, Geothermal Resources Council, Vol. 17,

  5. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO 2the inventory of most hazardous trace elements are capturedequilibrium concentrations of hazardous trace elements in

  6. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2of Enhanced Geothermal Systems? , paper presented at Thirdfrom Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Proceedings, Paper

  7. A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    of water as the heat transmission ?uid in EGS has beena sys- tem with CO 2 as heat transmission ?uid requires an

  8. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2 as WorkingTransmission Fluid in the EGS Integrating the Carbon Storageand F. Rummel. The Deep EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System)

  9. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2with the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems? , paperProspects from Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Proceedings,

  10. A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    the development of enhanced geothermal systems? In: PaperThe deep EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) project at Soultz-Application to CO 2 -Enhanced Geothermal Systems Moore, J.

  11. Continuous active-source seismic monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Thomas M.; Solbau, Ray D.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-01-01

    INTERPRETATION The injection of CO 2 causes a decrease in seismicseismic monitoring during injection. Although quantitative interpretation

  12. Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: A Discussion of Natural Analogs, FEPS, and Modeling Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, J.; Pruess, K.; Lewicki, J.L.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.; Karimjee, A.

    2008-01-01

    migration away from the primary storage reservoir, towards shallow depthsextend from depth to surface. During upward migration, CO 2

  13. Large releases from CO2 storage reservoirs: Analogs, scenarios, and modeling needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2006-01-01

    migration away from the primary storage reservoir, towards shallow depthsextend from depth to surface. During upward migration, CO 2

  14. Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    risk from surface CO2 seeps. Data were elicited from Googas (17), a web-based catalogue of degassing

  15. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    14. International Energy Agency (IEA), CO 2 Emissionsfrom Fuel Combustion (IEA, Paris, 2009). 15. G. A. Meehl et

  16. Patterns and Controls of Temporal Variation in CO2 Sequestration and Loss in Arctic Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oechel, Walter C.

    2002-03-21

    Determine seasonal and interannual patterns of net ecosystem CO2 flux from wet coastal and moist tussock tundra.

  17. A Framework for Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2013-01-01

    OF  CO2  CAPTURE  AND  STORAGE   SYSTEMS   Roger  Sathre,  2  Capture  and  Storage  Systems   Roger Sathre 1 , Mikhail

  18. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houseworth, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Framework Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO 2Risk Assessment..confidence in the risk assessment. . Potential Sequestration

  19. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on "CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumley, D.

    2010-01-01

    groundwater, natural gas storage, waste disposal…). Rock andfrom CO 2 EOR and natural gas storage projects, the risk of

  20. 6.11 Atmospheric CO2 and O2 During the Phanerozoic: Tools, Patterns, and Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    6.11 Atmospheric CO2 and O2 During the Phanerozoic: Tools, Patterns, and Impacts DL Royer, Wesleyan.11.2 Models for Atmospheric CO2 and O2 Estimation 251 6.11.2.1 Key Principles 251 6.11.2.2 GEOCARB Models 252.11.2.2.5 Estimates of CO2 and O2 from the GEOCARB model 254 6.11.2.3 Other Models for CO2 and O2 Reconstruction 254 6

  1. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2011-01-01

    third primary variable (CO2 mass fraction) from X = 0 to X =1# X X " b " CO2 where X is the mass fraction of CO 2 in theCO2 X = Assuming a single co-existing CO 2 -rich phase, water mass fraction

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Use of Water Soluble Polyacrylamides as Thickeners During CO_(2) WAG EOR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tovar, Francisco

    2014-07-24

    of polymers as water thickeners during CO_(2). The work has been divided into three stages: An investigation on the stability of acrylamide based polymers exposed to CO_(2) for 328 days at 122 °F. The determination of the MMP for the system crude oil – CO_(2...

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone transcript induction the abundance of SA compared with plants grown in ambient CO2. A mild reduction in soil water content had herbivory. When applied in combination, elevated CO2 and reduced soil water content suppressed

  4. Hollow-waveguide delivery systems for high-power, industrial CO2 lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollow-waveguide delivery systems for high-power, industrial CO2 lasers Ricky K. Nubling and James to deliver CO2 laser power for industrial laser applications. The transmission, bending loss, and output, beam delivery, industrial lasers, power delivery, CO2 lasers. r 1996 Optical Society of America 1

  5. The Role of Non-CO2 GHGs in Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Furthermore, we estimate the costs of the non-CO2 policies to be a small fraction of the Kyoto policy. Whether503 The Role of Non-CO2 GHGs in Climate Policy: Analysis Using the MIT IGSM John Reilly, Marcus comprehensive in term of greenhouse gases (GHGs), including only the non-CO2 GHGs, but is geographically

  6. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard J. Norby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate-carbon cycleFree-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard J. Norby PARTICIPATING Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) project is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest

  7. Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    LETTERS Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields Stuart M, dissolu- tion in formation water at a pH of 5­5.8 is the sole major sink for CO2. In two fields dissolved in water. Noble gas and CO2 carbon isotopes are powerful tracers of crustal fluid processes

  8. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals: current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.005 Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere will needAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals further undesirable climate change. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 into value-added chemicals using

  9. Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Growing concern over the potential adverse effects of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) buildup in the atmosphere in three world-class CO2 storage projects that are endorsed by the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum04/2008 Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2 : the Geo-Seq Project Background

  10. Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Report TKK-ENY-9 Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases Jens Kohlmann 1 University of Technology was "Mineral carbonation for long-term storage of CO2 from flue gases"; the progress storage by mineral carbonation in Finland (CO2 lagring genom mineral karbonering i Finland)" Ron

  11. An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilley, George

    An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration J. L the success of geologic carbon sequestration projects. To detect subtle CO2 leakage signals, we present), An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res

  12. Carborane-based metalorganic frameworks as highly selective sorbents for CO2 over methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (PSA) are attractive due to their low cost and high energy efficiency.1 High CO2 selectivityCarborane-based metal­organic frameworks as highly selective sorbents for CO2 over methane Youn Article on the web 15th July 2008 DOI: 10.1039/b805785k Separation of CO2/CH4 mixtures was studied

  13. Plumbing the Depths: Testing Natural Tracers of Subsurface CO2 Origin and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfillan, Stuart

    to be added to the CO2 at the time of injec- tion. This will marginally increase the cost of storagePlumbing the Depths: Testing Natural Tracers of Subsurface CO2 Origin and Migration, Utah Mark storage of fluid CO2 in porous subsurface rock will re- quire the ability to track, and identify

  14. Interactions among mycorrhizae, atmospheric CO2 and soil N impact plant community composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    of several C3 forbs and may suggest that CO2 enrichment ameliorates the carbon cost of some AM symbiosesREPORT Interactions among mycorrhizae, atmospheric CO2 and soil N impact plant community of atmospheric CO2 and soil N. Communities of 14 plant species were grown in mesocosms containing living

  15. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    for preliminary cost–bene?t analyses of discrete NEU-CO2of the costs and bene?ts of various NEU-CO2 emissionscosts and GHG emissions reduction bene?ts as compared to competing options—will require greater NEU-CO2

  16. UV absorption of CO2 for temperature diagnostics of hydrocarbon combustion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    CO2 LIF [8], which for hydrocarbon combustion effluent can interfere with NO-LIF measurements [9UV absorption of CO2 for temperature diagnostics of hydrocarbon combustion applications J and 320 nm. Because CO2 is a major product of hydrocarbon combustion and because both the magnitude

  17. Using the National Fire Research Laboratory as a Test Bed for Traceable CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the source ­ Predicted Emissions vs Direct Emissions #12;Hydrocarbon Fuels GHG: CO2 Hydrocarbon Fuels GHG: CO Research Laboratory · Goal: Measure CO2 emissions with ±1% uncertainty · Reconcile the carbon mass balanceUsing the National Fire Research Laboratory as a Test Bed for Traceable CO2 Measurements Rodney

  18. The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    their CO2 emissions. Point-source CCS could be implemented without significant changes for consumers, which, 11). Point-source CCS and air capture are not the only options for reducing CO2 emissions. Stationary as insurance against CO2 leaking from storage and furthermore may provide an option for dealing with emissions

  19. Quick Notes on CO2 Diagram and Energy Diagram For the ESRP 285 Website (Spring 2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    (CO2) emissions are the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for over 80% of the emissions in the USA (EIA 2003, p. 35). CO2 emissions arise from the combustion of carbon fuels arrows are sized to represent emissions in million metric tons of CO2 equivalent, hereafter abbreviated

  20. SPECIAL ISSUE Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    vegetation near shallow subsurface CO2 releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research to the CO2 sink­source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain sequestration for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is accompanied by a need for methods to detect CO2

  1. emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP) Carl-Johan Fogelholm, Project leader, professor Sanni

  2. ORNL/CDIAC-152 GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/CDIAC-152 NDP-088r GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE: MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................................................................................9 #12;#12;v LIST OF FIGURES 1 Location of LDEO master database of sea surface pCO2 observations. .............................................2 LIST OF TABLES 1 List of data contributors to the global surface water pCO2 LDEO database

  3. Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltrami, Hugo

    Soil CO2 production and surface flux at four climate observatories in eastern Canada David Risk December 2002. [1] Soils constitute the largest terrestrial source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere the climatic controls on soil respiration. We use subsurface CO2 concentrations, surface CO2 flux and detailed

  4. Effect of CO2 Sorption and Desorption on the Creep Response of Polycarbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    foams can be found in Kumar [3]. The motivation for studying the effect of CO2 sorption and desorptionEffect of CO2 Sorption and Desorption on the Creep Response of Polycarbonate Arun Pasricha, Gregory, Easton, Pennsylvania 18042 In this article, experimental results on the effect of CO2 sorption

  5. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ping

    2012-08-31

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has been undergoing for four decades and is now a proven technology. CO2-EOR increases oil recovery, and in the meantime reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by capture CO2 underground. The objectives...

  6. Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1 and Haibin Li1 Received 15 July solar dimming and upward CO2 trends, we conducted experiments with a sophisticated land surface model. Li (2006), Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20708

  7. Uncertainty Analysis of Otway CO2 Sequestration Project Shohreh Amini 1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    this Surrogate Reservoir Model enables us to predict the pressure, phase saturation, and CO2 distribution presents the application of a grid-based Surrogate Reservoir Model (SRM) to a real case CO2 sequestration project in which CO2 were injected into a depleted gas reservoir. This project is a part of the National

  8. Complex Flow and Composition Path in CO2 Injection Schemes from Density Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    is that the downward flow of the CO2 and oil mixture may not be gravity-stable, despite the widespread assumption States ABSTRACT: CO2 injection has been used to improve oil recovery for the last 4 decades. In recent) improves the oil recovery. One of the screening criteria for CO2 injection as an enhanced oil recovery

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE MODELS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE CO2 RELEASES TOXIC EFFECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the global warming due to high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, in case of massive accidental to specific properties regarding its triple point. Then, this CO2 flakes creation may be followed1 ASSESSMENT OF THE MODELS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE CO2 RELEASES TOXIC EFFECTS Frédéric Antoine

  10. Effect of CO2 on wood properties of Liquidambar styraciflua after

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1/18/2010 1 Effect of CO2 on wood properties of Liquidambar styraciflua after 10 years-Knoxville face.ornl.gov IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction FACEFACEFACEFACE The free air CO2 enrichment experiment on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park The effect of CO2 enrichment

  11. Generation of CO2-rich melts during basalt magma ascent and degassing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to solubilities. In contrast, the rate of vesiculation controls the final melt CO2 concentration. HighGeneration of CO2-rich melts during basalt magma ascent and degassing Michel Pichavant . Ida Di magma degassing, continuous decompressions of volatile-bearing (2.7-3.8 wt% H2O, 600-1300 ppm CO2

  12. Environmental control of CO2 assimilation rates and stomatal conductance in five oak species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Short note Environmental control of CO2 assimilation rates and stomatal conductance in five oak compared CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance of five oak species from the beginning of May'assimilation nette de CO2 et la conductance sto- matique de cinq espèces de chênes en plantation en Grèce. Cette

  13. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  14. CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 Eric Chassefirea,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and maintained a global average surface temperature ~230 K. Because35 clathrates trap SO2 more favorably than CO2 as a possible greenhouse gas which worked together55 with CO2 to raise the surface temperature of early Mars1 CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 2 Eric Chassefièrea,b , Emmanuel Dartoisc

  15. Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere due to doubling of CO2 R. A. Akmaev1 , V. I 1998 Abstract. A new parameterization of infrared radiative transfer in the 15-lm CO2 band has been to calcu- lations of heating rates above approximately 15 km for arbitrary vertical pro®les of the CO2

  16. Constraining the density of CO2 within the Utsira formation using time-lapse gravity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nooner, Scott

    best fit a high temperature forward model based on the seismically determined CO2 geometry, suggesting to study the behavior and physical properties of the injected CO2. The gravity measurements show1 Constraining the density of CO2 within the Utsira formation using time-lapse gravity measurements

  17. Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions and oxidizing agents are delivered in liquid and supercritical CO2. A cyclic deposition process is presented properties of supercritical CO2 can aid in the delivery of precursors and in the removal of byproducts

  18. Enhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Enhanced Miscibility of Low-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene/Polyisoprene Blends in Supercritical CO2 solution temperature (UCST) polymer blend in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 been examined as a function of temperature in scCO2 by visual inspection, small-angle neutron

  19. Solubility measurements and modeling of molecules of biological and pharmaceutical interest with supercritical CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    with supercritical CO2 G. I. Burgos-Solórzano, J. F. Brennecke* and M. A. Stadtherr Department of Chemical behavior. Here we explore the use of supercritical CO2 to dissolve molecules of potential interest and erythromycin in supercritical CO2 at temperatures between 40 and 60 °C and pressures up to 300 bar

  20. Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement Mark Jaccard *, Nic Rivers assumptions, an early start at CO2 abatement for long-lived capital stocks would be economically optimal for achieving long run targets for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. If the target is a specific concentration