Sample records for hot carbonate absorption

  1. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily demonstrated. In addition to the experimental studies, the technical challenges pertinent to fouling of slurry-handling equipment and the design of the crystallizer and stripper were addressed through consultation with vendors and engineering analyses. A process flow diagram of the Hot-CAP was then developed and a TEA was performed to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe subcritical pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plant without CO{sub 2} capture (DOE/NETL Case 9) with the benchmark MEA-based post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC; DOE/NETL Case 10) and the Hot-CAP-based PCC. The results revealed that the net power produced in the PC + Hot-CAP is 609 MWe, greater than the PC + MEA (550 MWe). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the PC + Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} transportation and storage, is 120.3 mills/kWh, a 60% increase over the base PC plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The LCOE increase for the Hot-CAP is 29% lower than that for MEA. TEA results demonstrated that the Hot-CAP is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.

  2. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETLĺs Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  3. Chukwuemeka I. Okoye Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Copyright by Chukwuemeka I. Okoye 2005 #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate _______________________ Nicholas A. Peppas #12;Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O for. #12;iii Carbon Dioxide Solubility and Absorption Rate in Monoethanolamine/Piperazine/H2O

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha Kothandaraman Students #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Dioxide Capture by Chemical Absorption: A Solvent Comparison Study by Anusha with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total1 . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is one

  5. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  6. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. Modeling.................................................................................................................................. 11 Task 1 ┬ş Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous.................................................................................................................................... 8 Task 1 ┬ş Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing...................................................................................................................................11 Task 1 ┬ş Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  10. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing.................................................................................................................................. 10 Task 1 ┬ş Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  11. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K2CO3 promoted by piperazine. In Campaign.................................................................................................................................... 9 Task 1 ┬ş Modeling Performance of Absorption/Stripping of CO2 with Aqueous K2CO3 Promoted

  12. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Absorption of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Piperazine/Methyldiethanolamine Sanjay Bishnoi and Gary T dioxide absorption in 0.6 M piperazine PZ r4 M methyldiethanolamine ( )MDEA was measured in a wetted wall loading. The absorption rate did not follow pseudo first-order beha®ior except at ®ery low loading. All

  13. Charmonium in a hot medium: melting vs absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Z. Kopeliovich; I. K. Potashnikova; Ivan Schmidt; M. Siddikov

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A charmonium produced in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC propagates through a dense co-moving matter with a rather high relative momentum, =4-10GeV^2. In spite of Debye screening of the binding potential, the charmonium survives with a substantial probability, even if the c-cbar potential is completely screened in the hot environment. In addition, the color-exchange interaction with the medium is another important source of charmonium suppression. Attenuation in a hot medium caused by both effects is evaluated by means of the path integral technique, which requires ability of boosting the binding potential to a moving reference frame. This problem is solved in the approximation of small intrinsic velocities of the charmed quarks.

  14. Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Correction to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon to ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns, doi:10.1029/2007JD009378. [1] In the paper ``Scanning Imaging Absorption Spec- trometer

  15. Confirmation of X-ray Absorption by Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in the Sculptor Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Taotao

    In a previous paper, we reported a 3? detection of an absorption line from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using the Chandra and XMM X-ray grating spectra of the blazar H2356-309, the sight line of which intercepts ...

  16. WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, William

    WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY by WM. M. GRAY, WM. M. FRANK, M OF SOLAR ENERGY by w. M. Gray, W. M. Frank, M. L. Corrin and C. A. Stokes Department of Atmospheric Science interception of solar energy. Growing population pressures and predicted future global food shortages dictate

  17. Optical hydrogen absorption consistent with a thin bow shock leading the hot Jupiter HD 189733b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauley, P Wilson; Jensen, Adam G; Barman, Travis; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bow shocks are ubiquitous astrophysical phenomena resulting from the supersonic passage of an object through a gas. Recently, pre-transit absorption in UV metal transitions of the hot Jupiter exoplanets HD 189733b and WASP12-b have been interpreted as being caused by material compressed in a planetary bow shock. Here we present a robust detection of a time-resolved pre-transit, as well as in-transit, absorption signature around the hot Jupiter exoplanet HD 189733b using high spectral resolution observations of several hydrogen Balmer lines. The line shape of the pre-transit feature and the shape of the time series absorption provide the strongest constraints on the morphology and physical characteristics of extended structures around an exoplanet. The in-transit measurements confirm the previous exospheric H-alpha detection although the absorption depth measured here is ~50% lower. The pre-transit absorption feature occurs 125 minutes before the predicted optical transit, a projected linear distance from the ...

  18. Detection of 6.7 GHz methanol absorption towards hot corinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Pandian; S. Leurini; K. M. Menten; A. Belloche; P. F. Goldsmith

    2008-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz have been found exclusively towards high-mass star forming regions. Recently, some Class 0 protostars have been found to display conditions similar to what are found in hot cores that are associated with massive star formation. These hot corino sources have densities, gas temperatures, and methanol abundances that are adequate for exciting strong 6.7 GHz maser emission. This raises the question of whether 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be found in both hot corinos and massive star forming regions, and if not, whether thermal methanol emission can be detected. We searched for the 6.7 GHz methanol line towards five hot corino sources in the Perseus region using the Arecibo radio telescope. To constrain the excitation conditions of methanol, we observed thermal submillimeter lines of methanol in the NGC1333-IRAS 4 region with the APEX telescope. We did not detect 6.7 GHz emission in any of the sources, but found absorption against the cosmic microwave background in NGC1333-IRAS 4A and NGC1333-IRAS 4B. Using a large velocity gradient analysis, we modeled the excitation of methanol over a wide range of physical parameters, and verify that the 6.7 GHz line is indeed strongly anti-inverted for densities lower than 10^6 cm^-3. We used the submillimeter observations of methanol to verify the predictions of our model for IRAS 4A by comparison with other CH3OH transitions. Our results indicate that the methanol observations from the APEX and Arecibo telescopes are consistent with dense (n ~ 10^6 cm^-3), cold (T ~ 15-30 K) gas. The lack of maser emission in hot corinos and low-mass protostellar objects in general may be due to densities that are much higher than the quenching density in the region where the radiation field is conducive to maser pumping.

  19. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  20. Radiofrequency field absorption by carbon nanotubes embedded in a conductive host

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, George

    Radiofrequency field absorption by carbon nanotubes embedded in a conductive host Mikhail V. Shuba centimeters depth penetration of visible and infrared radiation in tissue. Thermoacoustic imaging refers

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND ABSORPTION ON OHMIC DISSIPATION IN HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semi-analytical, one-dimensional models, we elucidate the influence of scattering and absorption on the degree of Ohmic dissipation in hot Jovian atmospheres. With the assumption of Saha equilibrium, the variation in temperature is the main driver of the variations in the electrical conductivity, induced current, and Ohmic power dissipated. Atmospheres possessing temperature inversions tend to dissipate most of the Ohmic power superficially, at high altitudes, whereas those without temperature inversions are capable of greater dissipation deeper down. Scattering in the optical range of wavelengths tends to cool the lower atmosphere, thus reducing the degree of dissipation at depth. Purely absorbing cloud decks (in the infrared), of a finite extent in height, allow for localized reductions in dissipation and may reverse a temperature inversion if they are dense and thick enough, thus greatly enhancing the dissipation at depth. If Ohmic dissipation is the mechanism for inflating hot Jupiters, then variations in the atmospheric opacity (which may be interpreted as arising from variations in metallicity and cloud/haze properties) and magnetic field strength naturally produce a scatter in the measured radii at a given strength of irradiation. Future work will determine if these effects are dominant over evolutionary effects, which also contribute a scatter to the measured radii.

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  3. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  4. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  5. Triplet absorption in carbon nanotubes: a TD-DFT study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Tretiak

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We predict properties of triplet excited states in single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT). We show that the lowest triplet state energy in CNTs to be about 0.2-0.3 eV lower than the lowest singlet states. Like in $\\pi$-conjugated polymers, the lowest CNT triplets are spatially localized. These states show strong optical absorption at about 0.5-0.6 eV to the higher lying delocalized triplet states. These results demonstrate striking similarity of the electronic features between CNTs and $\\pi$-conjugated polymers and provide explicit guidelines for spectroscopic detection of CNT triplet states.

  6. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  7. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen, but 50 to 250 ppm reduces corrosion to less than 2 mpy in the presence of oxygen.

  8. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1.2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalatecarbonate is ineffective in the absence of oxygen, but 50 to 250 ppm reduces corrosion to less than 2 mpy in the presence of oxygen.

  9. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  10. Limits on Hot Galactic Halo Gas from X-ray Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Yangsen

    Although the existence of large-scale hot gaseous halos around massive disk galaxies has been theorized for a long time, there is yet very little observational evidence. We report the Chandra and XMM-Newton grating spectral ...

  11. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will load heavily onto activated carbon and should be removed from groundwater upstream of the activated carbon pre-treatment system. Unless removed upstream, the adsorbed loadings of these organic constituents could exceed the land disposal criteria for carbon.

  12. Hot

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in graphene by Meng-Chieh Ling A

  13. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. A simple thermodynamic model has been developed to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. A rate model has been formulated to predict the CO{sub 2} flux with these solutions under absorber conditions. A process and instrumentation diagram and process flow diagram have been prepared for modifications of the existing pilot plant system.

  14. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  15. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Terraun Jones

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed with a stand-alone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Parameters have been developed for use of the electrolyte NRTL model in AspenPlus. Analytical methods have been developed using gas chromatography and ion chromatography. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been ordered.

  16. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  17. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. CO{sub 2} mass transfer rates are second order in piperazine concentration and increase with ionic strength. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ will require 25 to 46% less heat than 7 m MEA. The first pilot plant campaign was completed on June 24. The CO{sub 2} penetration through the absorber with 20 feet of Flexipac{trademark} 1Y varied from 0.6 to 16% as the inlet CO{sub 2} varied from 3 to 12% CO{sub 2} and the gas rate varied from 0.5 to 3 kg/m{sup 2}-s.

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  19. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Daniel Ellenberger

    2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that vacuum stripping may be an attractive configuration for all solvents. Flexipac 1Y structured packing performs in the absorber as expected. It provides twice as much mass transfer area as IMTP No.40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility give a CO{sub 2} loading that is 20% lower than that Cullinane's values with 3.6 m PZ at 100-120 C. The effective mass transfer coefficient (K{sub G}) in the absorber with 5 m K/2.5 m PZ appears to be 0 to 30% greater than that of 30 wt% MEA.

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas; John McLees; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. In Campaign 3 of the pilot plant, the overall mass transfer coefficient for the stripper with 7 m MEA decreased from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m{sup 3}.s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA. Anion chromatography has demonstrated that nitrate and nitrite are major degradation products of MEA and PZ with pure oxygen. In measurements with the high temperature FTIR in 7 m MEA the MEA vapor pressure varied from 2 to 20 Pa at 35 to 70 C. In 2.5 m PZ the PZ vapor pressure varied from 0.2 to 1 Pa from 37 to 70 C.

  1. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests the energy requirement with a simple stripper will be about the same for 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ and 7 m MEA. Modeling with a generic solvent shows that the optimum heat of CO{sub 2} desorption to minimize heat duty lies between 15 and 25 kcal/gmol. On-line pH and density measurements are effective indicators of loading and total alkalinity for the K+/PZ solvent. The baseline pilot plant campaign with 30% MEA has been started.

  2. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Taotao

    We present a survey of six low- to moderate-redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the warm-hot intergalactic ...

  3. Emission and Absorption of Light by Hot Electrons in Multivalley Semiconductors (TERAHERTZ Range)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Tomchuk; V. M. Bondar

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The angular dependences of the spontaneous emission by hot electrons in multivalley semiconductors are studied theoretically and experimentally using $n$-Ge as an example. We demonstrate that the change in the scattering mechanism caused by the growth of electron temperature can affect the angular scattering dependence. In the case when the heating field is applied along the symmetry axis of the crystal [for $n$-Ge it is the axis (1,0,0,)], the angular dependence of the emission was observed experimentally for the first time, and the corresponding theory is proposed. When electrons have identical concentration and temperature in every valley, the angular dependence of emission is shown to be related to the violation of symmetry of the energy distribution of electrons (from the theoretical viewpoint, this effect means going beyond the scope of the traditional diffusion approximation).

  4. Direct determination of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 147}Pm in Chernobyl hot particles collected in Kiev using beta absorption method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papp, Z.; Bolyos, A.; Dezso, Z.; Daroczy, S. [Kossuth Univ., Debrecen (Hungary)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    59 hot particles were collected in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1987. All but one were prepared from a moss carpet of 360 cm{sup 2} area. Radionuclide composition of the hot particles was investigated by gamma-spectrometry and beta absorption method. Pure beta emitters {sup 90}Sr and {sup 147}Pm were determined in 25 hot particles measuring the beta absorption curves of the hot particles with an end-window Geiger-Mueller counter and decomposing the curves in order to obtain the contributions of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 147}Pm to the total beta counting rate. All but one of the hot particles were found to be the debris of the fuel. The activity ratio {sup 90}Sr:{sup 144}Ce was 0.078 which is half of the theoretical result. Although {sup 147}Pm is considered to be a refractory nuclide, it seems that significant part of {sup 147}Pm went to the homogeneous fraction of the general fallout. The surface density of hot particles (of higher than about 50 Bq activity) was about 1,600 m{sup -2} and that of the activities of the nuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce and {sup 147}Pm as components of hot particles was 12.2, 54.3, 5.9, 9.7, 234 and 18.3 kBq m{sup -2} (activity values counted for 26 April 1986), respectively, in downtown Kiev city in 1987.

  5. Model for corrosion of carbon steel in lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderko, A.; Young, R.D.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive model has been developed for the computation of corrosion rates of carbon steels in the presence of lithium bromide (LiBr)-based brines that are used as working fluids for absorption refrigeration cycles. The model combines a thermophysical module that provides realistic speciation of aqueous systems with an electrochemical module for partial cathodic and anodic processes on the metal surface. The electrochemical module includes the absorption of halides, which strongly influences the corrosion process. Also, the model takes into account the formation of passive films and their interactions with solution species. The model has been verified by comparing calculated corrosion rates with laboratory data for carbon steels in LiBr solutions. Good agreement between calculated and experimental corrosion rates has been obtained. In particular, the model is capable of reproducing effects of pH-adjusting components and selected inhibitors on the rates of general corrosion. The model has been incorporated into a program that makes it possible to analyze effects of various conditions such as temperature, pressure, solution composition, or flow velocity on corrosion rates.

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yongqi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Ruhter, David; Khodayari, Arezoo; Rood, Mark

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was aimed at obtaining process engineering and scale-up data at a laboratory scale to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a patented post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture process?the Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP). Unique features of the IVCAP include its ability to be fully-integrated with the power plant?s steam cycle and potential for combined sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal and CO{sub 2} capture. Theoretical and experimental studies of this project were aimed at answering three major technical questions: 1) What additives can effectively reduce the water vapor saturation pressure and energy requirement for water vaporization in the vacuum stripper of the IVCAP? 2) What catalysts can promote CO{sub 2} absorption into the potassium carbonate (PC) solution to achieve an overall absorption rate comparable to monoethanolamine (MEA) and are the catalysts stable at the IVCAP conditions and in the flue gas environment? 3) Are any process modifications needed to combine SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} removal in the IVCAP? Lab-scale experiments and thermodynamic and process simulation studies performed to obtain detailed information pertinent to the above three technical questions produced the following results: 1) Two additives were identified that lower the saturation pressure of water vapor over the PC solution by about 20%. 2) The carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme was identified as the most effective catalyst for promoting CO{sub 2} absorption. The absorption rate into the CO{sub 2}-lean PC solution promoted with 300 mg/L CA was several times slower than the corresponding 5 M MEA solution, but absorption into the CO{sub 2}-rich PC solution was comparable to the CO{sub 2}-rich MEA solution. The tested CA enzymes demonstrated excellent resistance to major flue gas impurities. A technical-grade CA enzyme was stable at 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F) over a six-month test period, while its half-life was about two months at 50{degrees}C (122{degrees}F). Enzyme immobilization improved the CA enzyme?s thermal stability by up to three times compared to its free counterpart. 3) Two process modifications were proposed to improve the technical performance of the IVCAP for combined SO{sub 2} removal and CO{sub 2} capture. The results from a techno-economic study of a 528 MWe (gross) pulverized coal-fired, subcritical steam power plant revealed that the cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance with the IVCAP was about 30% lower than conventional MEA-based processes. The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of the IVCAP ranged from $40 to 46/MWh, an increase of 60 to 70% compared to a reference power plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The overall conclusion of this study is that the IVCAP is a technically feasible and economically more attractive process than available MEA-based processes. A scale-up study using the slipstream of an actual coal-derived flue gas and development of a more stable CA enzyme are recommended for future studies.

  7. Low temperature charge transport and microwave absorption of carbon coated iron nanoparticlesľpolymer composite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, V., E-mail: vishnu@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Carbon coated Fe nanoparticleľPVC composite films were prepared by solution casting method. ? A low electrical percolation threshold of 2.2 was achieved. ? The low temperature electrical conductivity follows variable range hopping type conduction. ? An EMI shielding of 18 dB was achieved in 200 micron thick film. -- Abstract: In this paper, the low temperature electrical conductivity and microwave absorption properties of carbon coated iron nanoparticlesľpolyvinyl chloride composite films are investigated for different filler fractions. The filler particles are prepared by the pyrolysis of ferrocene at 980 ░C and embedded in polyvinyl chloride matrix. The high resolution transmission electron micrographs of the filler material have shown a 5 nm thin layer graphitic carbon covering over iron particles. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the composite film changes by 10 orders of magnitude with the increase of filler concentration. A percolation threshold of 2.2 and an electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency (EMI SE) of ?18.6 dB in 26.5ľ40 GHz range are observed for 50 wt% loading. The charge transport follows three dimensional variable range hopping conduction.

  8. Detection of surface carbon and hydrocarbons in hot spot regions of niobium superconducting rf cavities by Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, C.; Ford, D.; Bishnoi, S.; Proslier, T.; Albee, B.; Hommerding, E.; Korczakowski, A.; Cooley, L.; Ciovati, G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman microscopy/spectroscopy measurements are presented on high purity niobium (Nb) samples, including pieces from hot spot regions of a tested superconducting rf cavity that exhibit a high density of etch pits. Measured spectra are compared with density functional theory calculations of Raman-active, vibrational modes of possible surface Nb-O and Nb-H complexes. The Raman spectra inside particularly rough pits in all Nb samples show clear differences from surrounding areas, exhibiting enhanced intensity and sharp peaks. While some of the sharp peaks are consistent with calculated NbH and NbH2 modes, there is better overall agreement with C-H modes in chain-type hydrocarbons. Other spectra reveal two broader peaks attributed to amorphous carbon. Niobium foils annealed to >2000░C in high vacuum develop identical Raman peaks when subjected to cold working. Regions with enhanced C and O have also been found by SEM/EDX spectroscopy in the hot spot samples and cold-worked foils, corroborating the Raman results. Such regions with high concentrations of impurities are expected to suppress the local superconductivity and this may explain the correlation between hot spots in superconducting rf (SRF) cavities and the observation of a high density of surface pits. The origin of localized high carbon and hydrocarbon regions is unclear at present but it is suggested that particular processing steps in SRF cavity fabrication may be responsible.

  9. A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, Adam D., E-mail: adc87@cornell.edu; Hoyt, Cad L.; Pikuz, Sergei A.; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David A. [Cornell University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.

  10. Hot wire production of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillon, Anne C. (Boulder, CO); Mahan, Archie H. (Golden, CO); Alleman, Jeffrey L. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus (210) for producing a multi-wall carbon nanotube (213) may comprise a process chamber (216), a furnace (217) operatively associated with the process chamber (216), and at least one filament (218) positioned within the process chamber (216). At least one power supply (220) operatively associated with the at least one filament (218) heats the at least one filament (218) to a process temperature. A gaseous carbon precursor material (214) operatively associated with the process chamber (216) provides carbon for forming the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213). A metal catalyst material (224) operatively associated with the process (216) catalyzes the formation of the multi-wall carbon nanotube (213).

  11. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  12. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikat, I. A., E-mail: ihsanas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jerash University, Jerash-26150 (Jordan); Hamad, B. A. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75?ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between IrľC and IrľIr interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  13. The effect of phosphoric acid on the absorption of carbon dioxide into solutions of methyldiethanolamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordi, Eric Marshall

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of time (Dankwerts, 1951). The rate of gas absorption is the average of the rates of absorption for each individual element. Unlike the two-film theory, the reaction plane is not fixed in space and varies with time. In addition, the surface renewal... and inner assemblies rotate in synchronization. Power for the rotation of the shaft was provided by a Reliance model 716097-SB electric motor connected to a 1/2-inch rubber drive belt. The motor was rated at 1/4 horsepower and 2500 rpm for 25 continuous...

  14. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Yang, Timothy M [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Peizhi, Liu [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Biao, Huang [University of Tennessee and Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University; Siqun, Wang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149 static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 oC (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Carbon aerogel s ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  15. Applications of Lagrangian Dispersion Modeling to the Analysis of Changes in the Specific Absorption of Elemental Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, J. C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Laskin, Alexander; Desyaterik, Yury; Gilles, Marry K.; Hopkins, Rebecca J.

    2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a Lagrangian dispersion model driven by a mesoscale model with four-dimensional data assimilation to simulate the dispersion of elemental carbon (EC) over a region encompassing Mexico City and its surroundings, the study domain for the 2006 MAX-MEX experiment, which was a component of the MILAGRO campaign. The results are used to identify periods when biomass burning was likely to have had a significant impact on the concentrations of elemental carbon at two sites, T1 and T2, downwind of the city, and when emissions from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) were likely to have been more important. They are also used to estimate the median ages of EC affecting the specific absorption of light, aABS, at 870 nm as well as to identify periods when the urban plume from the MCMA was likely to have been advected over T1 and T2. Values of aABS at T1, the nearer of the two sites to Mexico City, were smaller at night and increased rapidly after mid-morning, peaking in the mid-afternoon. The behavior is attributed to the coating of aerosols with substances such as sulfate or organic carbon during daylight hours, but such coating appears to be limited or absent at night. Evidence for this is provided by scanning electron microscope images of aerosols collected at three sampling sites. During daylight hours the values of aABS did not increase with aerosol age for median ages in the range of 1-4 hours. There is some evidence for absorption increasing as aerosols were advected from T1 to T2 but the statistical significance of that result is not strong.

  16. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  17. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 Ám spectral regioná

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  18. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  19. The High Albedo of the Hot Jupiter Kepler-7 B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demory, Brice-Olivier

    Hot Jupiters are expected to be dark from both observations (albedo upper limits) and theory (alkali metals and/or TiO and VO absorption). However, only a handful of hot Jupiters have been observed with high enough photometric ...

  20. Optical absorption parameters of amorphous carbon films from Forouhi-Bloomer and Tauc-Lorentz models: a comparative study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    for incorporation of nanocrystalline metals. These nanocomposites, with carbon-based matrices instead of transparent-based nanocomposites exhibit interesting properties like surface plasmon resonance and field emission properties to a structure formed by atoms with different degrees of electron hybridization and affected by different kinds

  1. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. Absorption Refrigeration Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News...

  2. Luminous carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacco Th. van Loon; Albert A. Zijlstra; M. A. T. Groenewegen

    1999-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ground-based 3 micron spectra of obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We identify the carbon stars on the basis of the 3.1 micron absorption by HCN and C2H2 molecules. We show evidence for the existence of carbon stars up to the highest AGB luminosities (Mbol=-7 mag, for a distance modulus to the LMC of 18.7 mag). This proves that Hot Bottom Burning (HBB) cannot, in itself, prevent massive AGB stars from becoming carbon star before leaving the AGB. It also sets an upper limit to the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud of 18.8 mag. The equivalent width of the absorption band decreases with redder (K-L) colour when the dust continuum emission becomes stronger than the photospheric emission. Carbon stars with similar (K-L) appear to have equally strong 3 micron absorption in the MCs and the Milky Way. We discuss the implications for the carbon and nitrogen enrichment of the stellar photosphere of carbon stars.

  3. Relating Aerosol Absorption due to Soot, Organic Carbon, and Dust to Emission Sources Determined from In-situ Chemical Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazorla, Alberto; Bahadur, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cahill, John F.; Chand, Duli; Schmid, Beat; Ramanathan, V.; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating the aerosol contribution to the global or regional radiative forcing can take advantage of the relationship between the spectral aerosol optical properties and the size and chemical composition of aerosol. Long term global optical measurements from observational networks or satellites can be used in such studies, and using in-situ chemical mixing state measurements can help us to constrain the limitations of such an estimation. In this study, the Absorption ┼ngstr÷m Exponent (AAE) and the Scattering ┼ngstr÷m Exponent (SAE) are used to develop a new methodology for deducing chemical speciation based on wavelength dependence of the optical properties. In addition, in-situ optical properties and single particle chemical composition measured during three aircraft field campaigns are combined in order to validate the methodology for the estimation of aerosol composition using spectral optical properties. Results indicate a dominance of mixed types in the classification leading to an underestimation of the primary sources, however secondary sources are better classified. The distinction between carbonaceous aerosols from fossil fuel and biomass burning origins is not clear. On the other hand, the knowledge of the aerosol sources in California from chemical studies help to identify other misclassification such as the dust contribution.

  4. autonomous solar absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N; Teng, M; Cryan, M J 2012-01-01 4 WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION OF SOLAR ENERGY Geosciences Websites Summary: WEATHER MODIFICATION BY CARBON DUST ABSORPTION...

  5. 7, 71717233, 2007 Aerosol absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations radiative properties re- sults in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W m-2 and a positive

  6. www.planetearth.nerc.ac.uk Autumn 2014 Trout in hot water Biodiversity and big data Bioenergy's carbon footprint Sustainable drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    's carbon footprint ┬Ě Sustainable drainage Intothe #12;Front cover image courtesy Ben Langford About us NERC to account ┬ş bioenergy's carbon footprint What's the true cost of growing our fuel? 22 The science

  7. Hot Canyon

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon."

  8. The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  9. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  10. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tax increases, larger solar collector/absorption chillerphotovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energy storagecapacity of solar thermal collectors carbon emissions

  11. Geothermal: Hot Documents Search

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Documents Search Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links...

  12. SUR L'ABSORPTION DES MSONS 03C0+ D'NERGIE VOISINE DE 50 MeV PAR LES NOYAUX DE CARBONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    . 2014 ╔tude, Ó l'aide d'une chambre Ó bulles Ó propane, des Útoiles dues Ó l'absorption des mÚsons 03C0 are studied by means of a propane bubble chamber. The cross section is found to be 145 ▒ 36 mb. The distribution of these stars as a function of the number of prongs indicates a mean number of prongs 2.6 ▒ 0

  13. Effects of {pi}-stacking interactions on the near carbon K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure: A theoretical study of the ethylene pentamer and the phthalocyanine dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linares, Mathieu; Stafstroem, Sven; Norman, Patrick [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption spectra have been determined for ethylene and free base phthalocyanine at the carbon K-edge with use of the complex polarization propagator method combined with Kohn-Sham density functional theory and the Coulomb attenuated method B3LYP exchange-correlation functional. Apart from isolated molecules, the study includes {pi}-stacked systems of the phthalocyanine dimer and the ethylene dimer, trimer, tetramer, and pentamer. For ethylene, {pi}-stacking involves a reduction in transition energy of the valence {pi}*-band by some 70 meV and large spectral changes (regarding also shape and intensity) of the Rydberg bands. For phthalocyanine, there are large spectral changes in the entire valence {pi}*-part of the spectrum.

  14. Method for hot pressing beryllium oxide articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, Ambrose H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Godfrey, Jr., Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mowery, Erb H. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hot pressing of beryllium oxide powder into high density compacts with little or no density gradients is achieved by employing a homogeneous blend of beryllium oxide powder with a lithium oxide sintering agent. The lithium oxide sintering agent is uniformly dispersed throughout the beryllium oxide powder by mixing lithium hydroxide in an aqueous solution with beryllium oxide powder. The lithium hydroxide is converted in situ to lithium carbonate by contacting or flooding the beryllium oxide-lithium hydroxide blend with a stream of carbon dioxide. The lithium carbonate is converted to lithium oxide while remaining fixed to the beryllium oxide particles during the hot pressing step to assure uniform density throughout the compact.

  15. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  16. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called ôShockley-Queisserö limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates ôhotö charge carriers that quickly ôcoolö to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a ôphonon bottleneckö wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  17. Oral Drug Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamashita, Shinji

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

  18. Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    and absorption. Consequently, the more luminous a star is, the stronger the wind it can support. This wind-driving1 Spectral Modeling of X-rays from Hot Star Winds Emma E. Wollman, Swarthmore College `09 Prof x-ray spectra from Chandra's archive. Models of x-ray production in hot star winds predict broad

  19. Hot Summer | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football Highdefault Sign InData inmaxHorizontalHot PlateHotHot

  20. Hot and dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Eramo, Francesco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we build new Effective Field Theory tools to describe the propagation of energetic partons in hot and dense media, and we propose two new reactions for dark matter in the early universe. In the first part, ...

  1. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  2. Polyacrylonitrile-based electrospun carbon paper for electrode applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ying

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon paper with fiber diameters of 200ľ300 nm was developed through hot-pressing, pre-oxidation, and carbonization of electrospun fiber mats. Changes in morphology, crystallinity, and surface ...

  3. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhii, V., E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Satou, A.; Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  4. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  5. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  6. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  7. Variations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    with calcium absorption. The absorbed calcium is deposited as carbonate in the ź chalky╗ and endolymphatic sacs as phosphates and carbonate. In the present paper we studied the intestinal calcium permeability with or withoutVariations of intestinal calcium absorption in adult frogs (Rana esculenta). Effect of lysine

  8. Green Systems Solar Hot Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar panels not enough Generates heat energy Captures heat from generator and transfers it to water Stores Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1

  9. Working in Hot Weather or Hot Workplace Environments Subject: Procedures and Guidelines for Working in Hot Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    Working in Hot Weather or Hot Workplace Environments Subject: Procedures and Guidelines for Working is intended to prevent potential heat induced illness as a result of hot weather or hot workplace environments in hot weather or hot workplace environments. The following parameters will serve as triggers

  10. Absorption features of high redshift galactic winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. M. Fangano; A. Ferrara; P. Richter

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The environment of high-redshift galaxies is characterized by both wind-driven outflowing gas and gravitationally infalling streams. To investigate such galaxy-IGM interplay we have generated synthetic optical absorption line spectra piercing the volume surrounding a starbursting analog of a Lyman Break Galaxy selected in a $z \\approx 3$ output from a SPH simulation, including a detailed treatment of mechanical feedback from winds. Distributions for several observable species (HI, CIII, CIV, SiII, SiIII, SiIV, OVI, OVII, and OVIII) have been derived by post-processing the simulation outputs. The hot wind material is characterized by the presence of high-ionization species such as OVI, OVII, and OVIII (the latter two observable only in X-ray bands); the colder ($Tgas clumps. However, both line profile and Pixel Optical Depth analysis of the synthetic spectra show that the intergalactic filament in which the wind-blowing galaxy is embedded produces absorption signatures that closely mimic those of the wind environment. We conclude that may be difficult to clearly identify wind-blowing galaxies and their complex gaseous environment at high redshift in optical QSO absorption-line spectra based solely on the observed ion absorption patterns.

  11. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite ┬Ě C-C supplied in two forms ┬Ě T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  12. Lithium in LMC carbon stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Hatzidimitriou; D. H. Morgan; R. D. Cannon; B. F. W. Croke

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of the Li-rich carbon stars range between -3.3 and -5.7. Existing models of Li-enrichment via the hot bottom burning process fail to account for all of the observed properties of the Li-enriched stars studied here.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  15. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  16. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  19. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA); Morton, Richard G. (San Diego, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Bissinger, Horst D. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  20. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  1. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  2. Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell StructureUranium MillPilgrim Hot

  3. Hot Plate Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football Highdefault Sign InData inmaxHorizontalHot Plate

  4. Idaho_HotSprings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs Site #0104 Latitude: N. 43 deg.

  5. Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D., E-mail: dlott@illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub 2} laser operating in the 28-30?THz range. Hot spot generation was studied using relatively low intensity (?100?W cm{sup ?2}), long-duration (450 ms) LWIR pulses. The hot spots could be produced repeatedly in individual RDX crystals, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of hot spot generation by LWIR, since the peak hot-spot temperatures were kept to ?30?K above ambient. Hot spots were generated preferentially beneath RDX crystal planes making oblique angles with the LWIR beam. Surprisingly, hot spots were more prominent when the LWIR wavelength was tuned to be weakly absorbed (absorption depth ?30??m) than when the LWIR wavelength was strongly absorbed (absorption depth ?5??m). This unexpected effect was explained using a model that accounts for LWIR refraction and RDX thermal conduction. The weakly absorbed LWIR is slightly focused underneath the oblique crystal planes, and it penetrates the RDX crystals more deeply, increasing the likelihood of irradiating RDX defect inclusions that are able to strongly absorb or internally focus the LWIR beam.

  6. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  7. Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Amir

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    is endothermic with activation energy of 80kJ mol-1 [16], which means that the coke cools down during the reaction therefore energy is constantly supplied during the reaction to keep the coal hot. It is thought that the amounts of the carbon monoxide... ??? (1) In industry, water is blown through hot coke and the resulting gas is called water gas, which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2, 50%), carbon monoxide (CO, 40%), carbon dioxide (CO2, 5%), nitrogen and methane (N2 + CH4, 5%). This reaction...

  8. Peculiarities of the Light Absorption and Emission by Free Electrons in Multivalley Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Tomchuk

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    General expressions are obtained for the coefficient of light absorption by free carriers as well as the intensity of the spontaneous light emission by hot electrons in multivalley semiconductors. These expressions depend on the electron concentration and electron temperature in the individual valleys. An anisotropy of the dispersion law and electron scattering mechanisms is taken into account. Impurity-related and acoustic scattering mechanisms are analyzed. Polarization dependence of the spontaneous emission by hot electrons is found out. At unidirectional pressure applied or high irradiation intensities, the polarization dependence also appears in the coefficient of light absorption by free electrons.

  9. Survival of charmonia in a hot environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Z. Kopeliovich; I. K. Potashnikova; Ivan Schmidt; M. Siddikov

    2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A colorless c-cbar dipole emerging from a heavy ion collision and developing the charmonium wave function can be broken-up by final state interactions (FSI) propagating through the hot medium created in the collision. We single out two mechanisms of charmonium attenuation: (i) Debye color screening, called melting; and (ii) color-exchange interaction with the medium, called absorption. The former problem has been treated so far only for charmonia at rest embedded in the medium, while in practice their transverse momenta at the LHC are quite high, =7-10 GeV^2. We demonstrate that a c-cbar dipole may have a large survival probability even at infinitely high temperature. We develop a procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schroedinger equation to a moving reference frame and perform the first realistic calculations of the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. These effects are found to have comparable magnitudes. We also calculated the FSI suppression factor for the radial excitation psi(2S) and found it to be stronger than for J/psi, except large p_T, where psi(2S) is relatively enhanced. The azimuthal asymmetry parameter v_2 is also calculated.

  10. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  11. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 Ám spectral region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    for operation in harsh combustion environments but much improvement in the sensor design and operation was required. Experiments in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air CO 2 -doped flames were performed featuring two-line thermometry in the 4.8 ?m spectral region... performed in the 0.32 m room temperature gas cell filled with 1010 ppm CO in N 2 at pressures: a) 6.66 kPa and b) 13.33 kPa. GF CO , X CO , and rms noise of the fit are shown for both measured data sets Absorption 1 and 2...

  12. Absorption heat pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Gershon (Oak Ridge, TN); Perez-Blanco, Horacio (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  13. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

  14. Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

  15. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C. (Arvada, CO); Blandon, Antonio E. (Thornton, CO); Hepworth, Malcolm T. (Edina, MN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  16. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  17. Intrinsic AGN Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred Hamann

    2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong absorption lines are common in rest-frame UV spectra of AGNs due to a variety of resonant transitions, for example the HI Lyman series lines (most notably Ly-alpha 1216) and high-ionization doublets like CIV 1549,1551. The lines are called ``intrinsic'' if the absorbing gas is physically related to the AGN, e.g. if the absorber resides broadly within the radius of the AGN's surrounding ``host'' galaxy. Intrinsic absorption lines are thus valuable probes of the kinematics, physical conditions and elemental abundances in the gas near AGNs. Studies of intrinsic absorbers have historically emphasized the broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasars. Today we recognize a wider variety of intrinsic lines in a wider range of objects. For example, we now know that Seyfert 1 galaxies (the less luminous cousins of quasars) have intrinsic absorption. We also realize that intrinsic lines can form in a range of AGN environments --- from the dynamic inner regions like the BALs, to the more quiescent outer host galaxies >10 kpc away. This article provides a brief introduction to current observational and theoretical work on intrinsic AGN absorbers.

  18. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  19. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  20. Multi-stage quantum absorption heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa

    2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized $N$-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging $N-2$ elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths, and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of $N$. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  1. Hot carrier diffusion in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Shuai; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Weintrub, Ben; Loh, Kian Ping; Zhao, Hui

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal...

  2. The decay of hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs.

  3. Coping with Hot Work Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David

    2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    exposed to these conditions. A hot work environment can impair safety and health. Both workers and their employers are responsi- ble for taking steps to prevent heat stress in the work- place. How Your Body Handles Heat Humans are warm-blooded, which... evaporation. Wiping sweat from the skin with a cloth also prevents cooling from evaporation. In hot, humid conditions, hard work becomes harder. The sweat glands release moisture and essential David W. Smith, Extension Safety Program The Texas A...

  4. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  5. Hot Pot Detail - Evidence of Quaternary Faulting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Compilation of published data, field observations and photo interpretation relevant to Quaternary faulting at Hot Pot.

  6. DEPOSITIONAL FACIES AND AQUEOUS-SOLID GEOCHEMISTRY OF TRAVERTINE-DEPOSITING HOT SPRINGS (ANGEL TERRACE, MAMMOTH HOT SPRINGS, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, U.S.A.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Jack D.

    include hot spring travertine (precipitates from high-temperature springs, also called carbonate sinters spring water in the higher-temperature (-50-73┬░C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine from waters in low- to high- * Present Address: Department of Geology, Arizona State University, Box

  7. CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

  8. ccsd00003923, Combination of carbon nanotubes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of composite optical limiters, in which two complementary nonlinear optical materials are mixed togetherccsd┬ş00003923, version 1 ┬ş 18 Jan 2005 Combination of carbon nanotubes and two-photon absorbers-linear scattering from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multiphoton absorption (MPA) from organic

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 39, NO. 3, MAY 2003 1827 Optimization of Electromagnetic Absorption in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matous, Karel

    dimensions and sheet resistances offering the best signal absorption over a specified frequency range and a spacer foam interleaved with carbon sheets. Elements of the electro- magnetic scattering theory needed distribution of both carbon sheet resistivities and foam spacer thicknesses deposited on a glass/epoxy laminate

  10. Antiproton Absorption in Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. T. Kiselev; E. Ya. Paryev

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of experimental data on forward antiproton production on nuclei. The calculations are done in the framework of a folding model which takes properly into account both incoherent direct proton-nucleon and cascade pion-nucleon antiproton production processes as well as internal nucleon momentum distribution. The effective antiproton-nucleon cross section in nuclear matter and the imaginary part of the antiproton nuclear optical potential are estimated to be 25-45 mb and -(38-56) MeV at normal nuclear matter density, respectively. The results of the performed analysis evidence for the decreasing of antiproton absorption in the nuclear medium.

  11. Modern hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

  12. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  13. METC hot gas desulfurization program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, D.C.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This overview provides a frame of reference for the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`S) on-going hot gas desulfurization research. Although there are several methods to separate contaminant gases from fuel gases, that method receiving primary development is absorption through the use of metal oxides. Research into high-temperature and high-pressure control of sulfur species includes primarily those sorbents made of mixed-metal oxides, which offer the advantages of regenerability. These are predominantly composed of zinc and are made into media that can be utilized in reactors of either fixed-bed, moving-bed, fluidized-bed, or transport configurations. Zinc Ferrite (ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), Zinc Titanate (ZnO-TiO{sub 2}), Z-SORP{reg_sign}, and METC-2/METC-6 are the current mixed-metal sorbents being investigated. The METC desulfurization program is composed of three major components: bench-scale research, pilot-plant operation, and demonstration that is a portion of the Clean Coal Demonstration projects.

  14. The Hottest Horizontal-Branch Stars in omega Centauri - Late Hot Flasher vs. Helium Enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Moehler; S. Dreizler; T. Lanz; G. Bono; A. V. Sweigart; A. Calamida; M. Monelli; M. Nonino

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    UV observations of some massive globular clusters uncovered a significant population of very hot stars below the hot end of the horizontal branch (HB), the so-called blue hook stars. This feature might be explained either as results of the late hot flasher scenario where stars experience the helium flash while on the white dwarf cooling curve or by the progeny of the helium-enriched sub-population recently postulated to exist in some clusters. Moderately high resolution spectra of stars at the hot end of the blue HB in omega Cen were analysed for atmospheric parameters and abundances using LTE and Non-LTE model atmospheres. In the temperature range 30,000K to 50,000K we find that 35% of our stars are helium-poor (log(n_He/n_H) -0.4). We also find carbon enrichment in step with helium enrichment, with a maximum carbon enrichment of 3% by mass. At least 14% of the hottest HB stars in omega Cen show helium abundances well above the highest predictions from the helium enrichment scenario (Y = 0.42 corresponding to log(n_He/n_H) ~ -0.74). In addition, the most helium-rich stars show strong carbon enrichment as predicted by the late hot flasher scenario. We conclude that the helium-rich HB stars in omega Cen cannot be explained solely by the helium-enrichment scenario invoked to explain the blue main sequence. (Abridged)

  15. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S. [Carnegie Observatories (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories (United States)

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study how the hot gas content in early-type galaxies varies with environment. We find that the L{sub X}-L{sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. This suggests that internal processes such as supernovae driven winds or AGN feedback may expel hot gas from low mass field galaxies. Such mechanisms are less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium may confine outflowing material.

  16. Hot Spot | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to:Pennsylvania: EnergyHopkinsville,WindEnergyOpenHotPot,Hot

  17. DO HOT HALOS AROUND GALAXIES CONTAIN THE MISSING BARYONS?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: michevan@umich.ed, E-mail: jbregman@umich.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxies are missing most of their baryons, and many models predict these baryons lie in a hot halo around galaxies. We establish observationally motivated constraints on the mass and radii of these halos using a variety of independent arguments. First, the observed dispersion measure of pulsars in the Large Magellanic Cloud allows us to constrain the hot halo around the Milky Way: if it obeys the standard Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) profile, it must contain less than 4%-5% of the missing baryons from the Galaxy. This is similar to other upper limits on the Galactic hot halo, such as the soft X-ray background and the pressure around high-velocity clouds. Second, we note that the X-ray surface brightness of hot halos with NFW profiles around large isolated galaxies is high enough that such emission should be observed, unless their halos contain less than 10%-25% of their missing baryons. Third, we place constraints on the column density of hot halos using nondetections of O VII absorption along active galactic nucleus (AGN) sightlines: in general they must contain less than 70% of the missing baryons or extend to no more than 40 kpc. Flattening the density profile of galactic hot halos weakens the surface brightness constraint so that a typical L{sub *} galaxy may hold half its missing baryons in its halo, but the O VII constraint remains unchanged, and around the Milky Way a flattened profile may only hold 6%-13% of the missing baryons from the Galaxy ((2-4) x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}). We also show that AGN and supernovae at low to moderate redshift-the theoretical sources of winds responsible for driving out the missing baryons-do not produce the expected correlations with the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship and, therefore, are insufficient to explain the missing baryons from galaxies. We conclude that most of missing baryons from galaxies do not lie in hot halos around the galaxies, and that the missing baryons never fell into the potential wells of protogalaxies in the first place. They may have been expelled from the galaxies as part of the process of galaxy formation.

  18. SIMULTANEOUS MECHANICAL AND HEAT ACTIVATION: A NEW ROUTE TO ENHANCE SERPENTINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY AND LOWER CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. McKelvy; J. Diefenbacher; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter; A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal can support a large fraction of global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other candidate technologies, which propose long-term storage (e.g., ocean and geological sequestration), mineral sequestration permanently disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable mineral carbonates. Only benign, naturally occurring materials are formed, eliminating long-term storage and liability issues. Serpentine carbonation is a leading mineral sequestration process candidate, which offers large scale, permanent sequestration. Deposits exceed those needed to carbonate all the CO{sub 2} that could be generated from global coal reserves, and mining and milling costs are reasonable ({approx}$4 to $5/ton). Carbonation is exothermic, providing exciting low-cost process potential. The remaining goal is to develop an economically viable process. An essential step in this development is increasing the carbonation reaction rate and degree of completion, without substantially impacting other process costs. Recently, the Albany Research Center (ARC) has accelerated serpentine carbonation, which occurs naturally over geological time, to near completion in less than an hour. While reaction rates for natural serpentine have been found to be too slow for practical application, both heat and mechanical (attrition grinding) pretreatment were found to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity. Unfortunately, these processes are too energy intensive to be cost-effective in their present form. In this project we explored the potential that utilizing power plant waste heat (e.g., available up to {approx}200-250 C) during mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) offers to enhance serpentine mineral carbonation, while reducing pretreatment energy consumption and process cost. This project was carried out in collaboration with the Albany Research Center (ARC) to maximize the insight into the potential thermomechanical activation offers. Lizardite was selected as the model serpentine material for investigation, due to the relative structural simplicity of its lamellar structure when compared with the corrugated and spiral structures of antigorite and chrysotile, respectively. Hot-ground materials were prepared as a function of grinding temperature, time, and intensity. Carbonation reactivity was explored using the standard ARC serpentine carbonation test (155 C, 150 atm CO{sub 2}, and 1 hr). The product feedstock and carbonation materials were investigated via a battery of techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal, BET, elemental, and infrared analysis. The incorporation of low-level heat with moderate mechanical activation (i.e., thermomechanical activation) was found to be able to substantially enhance serpentine carbonation reactivity in comparison with moderate mechanical activation alone. Increases in the extent of carbonation of over 70% have been observed in this feasibility study, indicating thermomechanical activation offers substantial potential to lower process cost. Investigations of the thermomechanically activated materials that formed indicate adding low-level heat during moderately intense lizardite mechanical activation promotes (1) energy absorption during activation, (2) structural disorder, and (3) dehydroxylation, as well as carbonation reactivity, with the level of energy absorption, structural disorder and dehydroxylation generally increasing with increasing activation temperature. Increasing activation temperatures were also associated with decreasing surface areas and water absorptive capacities for the activated product materials. The above decreases in surface area and water absorption capacity can be directly correlated with enhanced particle sintering during thermomechanical activation, as evidenced by electron microscopy observation. The level of induced structural disorder appears to be a key parameter in enhancing carbonation reactivity. However, p

  19. Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya Department not be ruled out. If outgassing does occur somewhere on Mars, water, carbon dioxide, sulfur species, methane, and to a lesser extent, halogens would be the likely molecules of outgassing, based on terrestrial analogs

  20. Stratification in hot water tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stratification in a domestic hot water tank, used to increase system performance by enabling the solar collectors to operate under marginal conditions, is discussed. Data taken in a 120 gallon tank indicate that stratification can be achieved without any special baffling in the tank. (MJF)

  1. Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Black carbon in Arctic snow and its effect on surface albedo Stephen Warren, University wavelengths: ice is nearly transparent. Absorptive impurities: Black carbon (soot) Brown carbon (organics broadband albedo: 83% 71% (2) by addition of black carbon (BC) (20 ppb): 0.5% for r = 100 ┬Ám 1.6% for r

  2. Statistical mechanics of hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    More, R.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on properties of hot dense matter produced with high intensity laser radiation is described in a brief informal review.

  3. Solar Works in Seattle: Domestic Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle's residential solar hot water workshop. Content also covers general solar resource assessment, siting, and financial incentives.

  4. Systems having optical absorption layer for mid and long wave infrared and methods for making the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system according to one embodiment includes a substrate; and an optical absorption layer coupled to the substrate, wherein the optical absorption layer comprises a layer of diamond-like carbon, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). A method for applying an optical absorption layer to an optical system according to another embodiment includes depositing a layer of diamond-like carbon of an optical absorption layer above a substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, wherein the optical absorption layer absorbs at least 50% of mid wave infrared light (3-5 .mu.m wavelength) and at least 50% of long wave infrared light (8-13 .mu.m wavelength). Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  5. Wind information derived from hot air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Wind information derived from hot air balloon flights for use in short term wind forecasts E Introduction/Motivation Hot air balloons as wind measuring device Setup of nested HIRLAM models Results Ě Three, The Nertherlands #12;Hot air balloon ĚDisplacement/time unit = wind speed ĚVertical resolution 30m ĚInertia (500 kg

  6. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  7. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

  9. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [Institut d'Electronique et de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologies, IEMN (CNRS, UMR 8520), Groupe de Physique, Cite scientifique, avenue Poincare, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  10. ESSAI D'INTERPRTATION DES SPECTRES D'ABSORPTION DANS LE PROCHE INFRAROUGE. I. HYDROCARBURES SATURS ALIPHATIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    19. ESSAI D'INTERPR╔TATION DES SPECTRES D'ABSORPTION DANS LE PROCHE INFRAROUGE. I. HYDROCARBURES spectres d'absorption, Ó l'Útat liquide, de dix hydrocarbures aliphatiques saturÚs. La liaison carbone tous les spectres des hydrocarbures ÚtudiÚs ici Ó l'Útat liquide, nous trouvons une succession de

  11. Eta absorption by mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Liu; C. M. Ko; L. W. Chen

    2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the $[SU(3)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times SU(3)_{\\mathrm{R}}]_{\\mathrm{global}% }\\times [SU(3)_V]_{\\mathrm{local}}$ chiral Lagrangian with hidden local symmetry, we evaluate the cross sections for the absorption of eta meson ($% \\eta$) by pion ($\\pi$), rho ($\\rho$), omega ($\\omega$), kaon ($K$), and kaon star ($K^*$) in the tree-level approximation. With empirical masses and coupling constants as well as reasonable values for the cutoff parameter in the form factors at interaction vertices, we find that most cross sections are less than 1 mb, except the reactions $\\rho\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $\\omega\\eta\\to K\\bar K^*(\\bar KK^*)$, $K^*\\eta\\to\\rho K$, and $K^*\\eta\\to\\omega K$, which are a few mb, and the reactions $\\pi\\eta\\to K\\bar K$ and $K\\eta\\to\\pi K$, which are more than 10 mb. Including these reactions in a kinetic model based on a schematic hydrodynamic description of relativistic heavy ion collisions, we find that the abundance of eta mesons likely reaches chemical equilibrium with other hadrons in nuclear collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  14. absorptivity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confondre Absorption Adsorption Mathematics Websites Summary: Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption et Quand des molcules sont amenes en contact avec un'attachent...

  15. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  16. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  17. Carbon dioxide capture by chemical absorption : a solvent comparison study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothandaraman, Anusha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light of increasing fears about climate change, greenhouse gas mitigation technologies have assumed growing importance. In the United States, energy related CO? emissions accounted for 98% of the total emissions in ...

  18. Hybrid absorption-adsorption carbon capture | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNotSeventy years ofHonorsAbout

  19. A hybrid absorption-adsorption method to efficiently capture carbon |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are70 Years ofA BriefT 2 A NCenter for

  20. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  1. Axion hot dark matter bounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Raffelt; S. Hannestad; A. Mirizzi; Y. Y. Y. Wong

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive cosmological limits on two-component hot dark matter consisting of neutrinos and axions. We restrict the large-scale structure data to the safely linear regime, excluding the Lyman-alpha forest. We derive Bayesian credible regions in the two-parameter space consisting of m_a and sum(m_nu). Marginalizing over sum(m_nu) provides m_aaxions the same data and methods give sum(m_nu)< 0.63 eV (95% CL).

  2. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew R. June; John L. Hurley; Mark W. Johnson

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron aluminide hot gas filters have been developed using powder metallurgy techniques to form seamless cylinders. Three alloys were short-term corrosion tested in simulated IGCC atmospheres with temperatures between 925 F and 1200 F with hydrogen sulfide concentrations ranging from 783 ppm{sub v} to 78,300 ppm{sub v}. Long-term testing was conducted for 1500 hours at 925 F with 78,300 ppm{sub v}. The FAS and FAL alloys were found to be corrosion resistant in the simulated environments. The FAS alloy has been commercialized.

  3. Hot Springs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:Project Jump to: navigation, searchHotPage Edit

  4. Idaho_LavaHotSprings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot Springs Site #0104 Latitude: N. Lava

  5. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  6. Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of solar hot water (SHW) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SHW within the Federal sector.

  7. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  8. Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV Conducting a 3D Converted Shear Wave Project to Reduce Exploration Risk at Wister, CA Crump Geyser: High Precision...

  9. Monitoring SERC Technologies Ś Solar Hot Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A webinar by National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyst Eliza Hotchkiss on Solar Hot Water systems and how to properly monitor their installation.

  10. The spectroscopic signature of hot Jupiters in FU Orionis objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cathie J. Clarke; Philip J. Armitage

    2003-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that if FU Orionis objects harbour hot Jupiters embedded in their discs, the resulting non-axisymmetric dissipation profile in the disc would be manifest as time-dependent distortions in the absorption line profiles of these objects. In order to affect the infrared line profiles, planets must lie within approximately 0.5 au of the central star, whereas only planets within 0.1 au would influence the optical line profiles. The timescale for modulation of the line profiles is relatively short (months) in each case, so that the effect could not have been discovered from published spectra (which combine data taken in different observing seasons). The detection of hot Jupiters in FU Orionis objects would be in line with the expectations of tidal migration theories (which predict a high incidence of close planets around young stars) and would also lend support to models which link the triggering of rapid rise FU Orionis events to the existence of a close massive planet.

  11. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dang, Nhan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolome, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, D S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  12. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, M.H.; Estabrook, K.; Hammel, B. [and others

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 10(to the 20th power) Wcm{sup -2} and the heating produced at depth by hot electrons have been measured. Efficient generation of hot electrons but less than the anticipated heating have been observed.

  13. A Detection of Water in the Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b and Implications for its Atmospheric Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Stevenson, Kevin B; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan J; Barstow, Joanna K; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael; Showman, Adam P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed characterization of exoplanets has begun to yield measurements of their atmospheric properties that constrain the planets' origins and evolution. For example, past observations of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b indicated that its atmosphere has a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O $>$ 1), suggesting it had a different formation pathway than is commonly assumed for giant planets. Here we report a precise near-infrared transmission spectrum for WASP-12b based on six transit observations with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3. We bin the data in 13 spectrophotometric light curves from 0.84 - 1.67 $\\mu$m and measure the transit depths to a median precision of 51 ppm. We retrieve the atmospheric properties using the transmission spectrum and find strong evidence for water absorption (7$\\sigma$ confidence). This detection marks the first high-confidence, spectroscopic identification of a molecule in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. The retrieved 1$\\sigma$ water volume mixin...

  14. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests being conducted by Westinghouse at Foster-Wheeler's Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Task 5 was designed to demonstrate the improvements implemented in Task 4 by fabricating fifty 1.5-meter hot gas filters. These filters were to be made available for DOE-sponsored field trials at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), operated by Southern Company Services in Wilsonville, Alabama.

  15. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jane C. Charlton; Christopher W. Churchill

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  17. Saturable absorption and 'slow light'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian C Selden

    2006-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

  18. KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 was examined in this report. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 130 mm particles are reacted with 18000-ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-525 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.069-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-180 s.

  19. Are we putting in hot water?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    Are we putting our fish in hot water? Global warming and the world's fisheries Ě Hot, hungry, and gasping for air Ě Shrinking fish and fewer babies? Ě Global warming puts fish on the run Ě Warm water Ě Howmucharefishworth? Ě Which fish are feeling the heat? Ě How will fisheries change? Ě 2░C is too much! Ě What needs

  20. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    storage water heaters (rated input of greater than 75,000 Btu/hr), list Recovery Efficiency (RE), Thermal; and Pipe insulation for steam hydronic heating systems or hot water systems >15 psi, meets the requirements with Multiple Dwelling Units (required for prescriptive) TO COMPLY - ALL BOXES MUST BE CHECKED All hot water

  1. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  2. Ceramic hot-gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, E.S.; Forsythe, G.D.; Domanski, D.M.; Chambers, J.A.; Rajendran, G.P.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter is described having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during back pulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  3. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic engineering procedures at depth may still be attained if high temperature sites with extensive fracturing are developed or exploited. [DJE -2005

  4. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  5. Absorptivity modulation on wavy molten steel surfaces: The influence of laser wavelength and angle of incidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, A. F. H. [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The modulation of the angle-dependent Fresnel absorptivity across wavy molten steel surfaces during laser materials processing, like drilling, cutting, or welding, has been calculated. The absorptivity is strongly altered by the grazing angle of incidence of the laser beam on the processing front. Owing to its specific Brewster-peak characteristics, the 10.64 {mu}m wavelength CO{sub 2}-laser shows an opposite trend with respect to roughness and angle-of-incidence compared to lasers in the wavelength range of 532-1070 nm. Plateaus or rings of Brewster-peak absorptivity can lead to hot spots on a wavy surface, often in close proximity to cold spots caused by shadow domains.

  6. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venot, Olivia; BÚnilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; HÚbrard, Eric; Larcher, Gwenaelle; Schwell, Martin; Dobrijevic, Michel; Selsis, Franck

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm....

  7. Mode conversion and absorption of fast waves at high ion cyclotron harmonics in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Suwon, E-mail: swcho@kgu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jong-Gu [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation and absorption of high harmonic fast waves is of interest for non-inductive current drives in fusion experiments. The fast wave can be coupled with the ion Bernstein wave that propagates in the high magnetic field side of an ion cyclotron harmonic resonance layer. This coupling and the absorption are analyzed using the hot plasma dispersion relation and a wave equation that was converted from an approximate dispersion relation for the case where ?{sub i}=k{sub ?}{sup 2}?{sub i}{sup 2}/2?1 (where k{sub ?} is the perpendicular wave number and ?{sub i} is the ion Larmor radius). It is found that both reflection and conversion may occur near the harmonic resonance layer but that they decrease rapidly, giving rise to a sharp increase in the absorption as the parallel wave number increases.

  8. Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    More, R.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIFAN 1761 EMISSION OF VISIBLE LIGHT BY HOT DENSE METALS ByDE-AC52-07NA27344. HI FAN Emission of Visible Light by HotABSTRACT We consider the emission of visible light by hot

  9. Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Water Resources and Technologies Solar Hot Water Resources and Technologies Photo of a standalone solar hot water system standing in front of a clothesline with a backdrop of...

  10. Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LiŔge, UniversitÚ de

    Ne pas confondre Absorption Adsorption et Quand des molÚcules sont amenÚes en contact avec un'attachent simplement Ó la surface du solide on parle d'adsorption. L'adsorption est donc le ź collage ╗ de molÚcules Ó la surface d'un solide. Quand le charbon nettoie Principes physiques de l'adsorption CÚdric Gommes

  11. Ultrasonic absorption in liquid mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, James Madison

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    snd water and of methanol and water, Since Storey's work on ethanol and water at 0 C showed that for the three different frequencies at, which his investigation wms carried outx the ratio of ths absorption to the frequency squared increased...

  12. Interferometric tunability of the absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittorio Giovannetti; Seth Lloyd; Lorenzo Maccone

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an interferometric setup that permits to tune the quantity of radiation absorbed by an object illuminated by a fixed light source. The method can be used to selectively irradiate portions of an object based on their transmissivities or to accurately estimate the transmissivities from rough absorption measurements.

  13. Carbon nanotubes and carbon onions for modification of styrene-acrylate copolymer based nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merijs-Meri, Remo; Zicans, Janis; Ivanova, Tatjana; Bitenieks, Juris [Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Azenes street 14/24, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia); Kuzhir, Polina; Maksimenko, Sergey [Institute of Nuclear Problems, Belarus State University, Bobruiskaya str. 11, 220030, Minsk (Belarus); Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Moseenkov, Sergey [Boreskov Institute of Catalyst Siberian branch of RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Styrene acrylate polymer (SAC) nanocomposites with various carbon nanofillers (multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs and onion like carbon OLC) are manufactured by means of latex based routes. Concentration of the carbon nanofillers is changed in a broad interval starting from 0.01 up to 10 wt. %. Elastic, dielectric and electromagnetic properties of SAC nanocomposites are investigated. Elastic modulus, electrical conductivity and electromagnetic radiation absorption of the investigated SAC nanocomposites increase along with rising nanofiller content. The effect of the addition of anisometric MWCNTs on the elastic properties of the composite is higher than in the case of the addition of OLC. Higher electrical conductivity of the OLC containing nanocomposites is explained with the fact that reasonable agglomeration of the nanofiller can promote the development of electrically conductive network. Efficiency of the absorption of electromagnetic radiation depends on the development of conductive network within the SAC matrix.

  14. Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    .al. The focus of this study is the stripping column. Table 1 gives some typical design results for the strippingDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Gˇrak (Editors) All rights reserved by authors as per DA2010 copyright notice ENERGY EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS AND DESIGN FOR CARBON CAPTURE Angelo

  15. Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal Fluid Coproduced from Oil andor Gas Wells Chena Hot Springs Resort - Electric Power Generation Using Geothermal...

  16. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area (1990) Exploration Activity Details Location Indian Valley Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

  17. Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steamboat Villa Hot Springs Spa Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  18. Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Broadwater Athletic Club & Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Salida Hot Springs (Poncha Spring) Space Heating Low...

  20. Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  1. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America...

  2. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Image of a pipe...

  3. Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot Stamping of High-Strength Automotive Steel Quenching and Partitioning Process Development to Replace Hot Stamping of...

  4. Novel oxide-oxide fiber reinforced hot gas filter development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to fabricate and test oxide fiber reinforced composite hot gas filter elements for advanced power generation systems. The level of mechanical durability exhibited by the currently available filters in field tests indicates that more rugged filters are required to meet the demands of large power generation systems. Furthermore, long term corrosion resistance of currently available filters has yet to be demonstrated in PFBC systems. The essential requirements of a composite material designed to meet the program objective for a toughened hot gas filter include the following: Stable continuous fiber; rigid porous matrix; engineered fiber-matrix interface; and cost effectiveness. Based on properties, availability, and cost, Mitsui`s ALMAX alumina fiber and 3M`s NEXTEL 610 alumina fiber were selected as the oxide reinforcement fibers. In order to meet the economic goals of the program it is essential that the cost and amount of continuous fiber be minimized. A four axis filament winder will be used to fabricate filter Preforms in a variety of fiber architectures. Carbon was used as the initial fiber coating because it was known to be resistant to the Processing chemicals. The coating was produced by pyrolysis of the resin based sizings on the continuous fibers. The matrix of the composite filter is comprised of chopped ceramic fiber. Saffil fiber was used for all compositions in this program.

  5. On the Thermodynamic Geometry of Hot QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Bellucci; Vinod Chandra; Bhupendra Nath Tiwari

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the nature of the covariant thermodynamic geometry arising from the free energy of hot QCD. We systematically analyze the underlying equilibrium thermodynamic configurations of the free energy of 2- and 3-flavor hot QCD with or without including thermal fluctuations in the neighborhood of the QCD transition temperature. We show that there exists a well-defined thermodynamic geometric notion for QCD thermodynamics. The geometry thus obtained has no singularity as an intrinsic Riemannian manifold. We further show that there is a close connection of this geometric approach with the existing studies of correlations and quark number susceptibilities in hot QCD.

  6. On the Thermodynamic Geometry of Hot QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the nature of the covariant thermodynamic geometry arising from the free energy of hot QCD. We systematically analyze the underlying equilibrium thermodynamic configurations of the free energy of 2- and 3-flavor hot QCD with or without including thermal fluctuations in the neighborhood of the QCD transition temperature. We show that there exists a well-defined thermodynamic geometric notion for QCD thermodynamics. The geometry thus obtained has no singularity as an intrinsic Riemannian manifold. We further show that there is a close connection of this geometric approach with the existing studies of correlations and quark number susceptibilities in hot QCD.

  7. Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

  8. Entrainment in Trouble: Cool Cloud Acceleration and Destruction in Hot Supernova-Driven Galactic Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dong; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient thermalization of overlapping supernovae within star-forming galaxies may produce a supernova-heated fluid that drives galactic winds. For fiducial assumptions about the timescale for Kelvin-Helmholz (KH) instabilities from high-resolution simulations (which neglect magnetic fields) we show that cool clouds with temperature from T_c ~ 10^2-10^4 K seen in emission and absorption in galactic winds cannot be accelerated to observed velocities by the ram pressure of a hot wind. Taking into account both the radial structure of the hot flow and gravity, we show that this conclusion holds over a wide range of galaxy, cloud, and hot wind properties. This finding calls into question the prevailing picture whereby the cool atomic gas seen in galactic winds is entrained and accelerated by the hot flow. Given these difficulties with ram pressure acceleration, we discuss alternative models for the origin of high velocity cool gas outflows. Another possibility is that magnetic fields in cool clouds are sufficient...

  9. Absorption properties of identical atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Sancho

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission rates and other optical properties of multiparticle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas.

  10. Thermochemical Analysis of Hydrogen Absorption in Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    '' .' j I ~l Thermochemical Analysis of Hydrogen Absorption in Welding A new model that addresses the shortcomings of Sievert's law for predicting hydrogen absorption is proposed ABSTRACT. A systematic review of diatomic hydrogen) to calcu┬Ě late the hydrogen absorption reaction temperature in the weld pool is invalid

  11. Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

  12. Light Duty Utility Arm System hot test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.; Conrad, R.B.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Task Plan describes the scope of work and cost for implementing a hot test of the Light Duty Utility Arm System in Tank T-106 in September 1996.

  13. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang [Columbia University Department of Chemistry

    2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    During this funding period, we made a significant breakthrough and established for the first time that hot electron transfer from photoexcited NCs to an electron acceptor was indeed possible.

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  15. Charm and Beauty in a Hot Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmut Satz

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the spectral analysis of quarkonium states in a hot medium of deconfined quarks and gluons, and we show that such an analysis provides a way to determine the thermal properties of the quark-gluon plasma.

  16. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climatesá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moisture and subsequent mold problems in buildings are a serious and increasing concern for the building industry. Moisture intrusion in buildings is especially pertinent in hot and humid climates because the climate conditions provide only limited...

  17. Proposal to Lead the Virtual Center on Carbon Materials, and support the Chemical Hydrides Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanoscale carbons, SWNTs, MWNTs by laser vaporization, chemical vapor deposition, hot wire CVD, and arc-discharge methods. Experience with dopant and/or catalyst incorporation NREL Capabilities in Carbon Materials laser by transition metal hydride complexes (funded by DOE BES) Lead DOE lab for new SiH4 production process ş pilot

  18. World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universit├Ąt

    Info HeiDAS UH World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat #12;"If you intend to view the land, if you plan Verne: "Fife weeks on a balloon". HeiDAS stands for Hei├?DampfAeroStat (Hot-Steam AeroStat) and it refers to the first operable balloon ever that became buoyant by means of superheated steam. The performance of Hei

  19. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  20. CC Retrofits and Optimal Controls for Hot Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, L.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous Commissioning (CC) technologies, three old boilers (13.39 MMBH each) were replaced by three new boilers (1.675 MMBH each) and hot water pumps. Optimal controls for the hot water systems included optimal hot water temperature reset, hot water pump...

  1. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  2. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  3. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  4. Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Degassing of metamorphic carbon dioxide from the Nepal Himalaya Matthew J. Evans Chemistry at the foot of the Higher Himalaya near the Main Central Thrust (MCT), Nepal Himalaya. We have sampled hot the Nepal Himalaya, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q04021, doi:10.1029/2007GC001796. 1. Introduction [2

  5. Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.

  6. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.

  7. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dao, Kim (14 Nace Ave., Piedmont, CA 94611)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  8. Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

  9. Identification of carbon sensitization for the visible-light photocatalytic titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. J.; Jhan, G. Y.; Cai, G. L.; Lin, C. S.; Wong, M. S.; Ke, S.-C.; Lo, H. H.; Cheng, C. L.; Shyue, J.-J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronics Engineering, Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors successfully synthesized titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanopowder with visible-light photocatalytic ability by low-pressure flat-flame metal organic chemical vapor condensation method. In order to confirm that carbon doping is a viable mechanism for the visible-light absorption of the powder prepared by this method, they modify the process by total exclusion of nitrogen usage to eliminate the nitrogen doping possibility. Since nitrogen is avoided in the process, the visible-light absorption cannot be due to nitrogen doping. They also found that the nanopowder formed has a single phase of anatase. Thus the nanopowder does not have anatase/rutile interface, and the authors can eliminate the possibility of visible-light absorption by the anatase/rutile interface. The visible-light absorption should thus be resort to the carbon doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies show the presence of several carbon related bonds except Ti-C bond. This suggests that the carbon does not incorporate into the TiO{sub 2} crystal and should locate on the surface of the nanopowder. Thus the carbon species act as a visible-light sensitizer for the TiO{sub 2} as a photocatalyst. Among all carbon bonds the C-C bond is believed to be responsible for the light absorption, since all other carbon related bonds are not chromophores. The visible-light TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis induced by carbon doping is confirmed and explained.

  10. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RICHARD A. WAGNER

    1998-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the fabrication and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The fabrication approach utilized a modified filament winding method that combined both continuous and chopped fibers into a novel microstructure. The work was divided into five primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of this task were used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale filter element fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to asses the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. Four candidate compositions were fabricated into sub-scale filter elements with integral flange and a closed end. Following the 250 hour exposure test in a circulating fluid bed combustor, the retained strength ranged from 70 t 145 percent of the as-fabricated strength. The post-test samples exhibited non-catastrophic failure behavior in contrast to the brittle failure exhibited by monolithic materials. Filter fabrication development continued in a filter improvement and cost reduction task that resulted in an improved fiber architecture, the production of a net shape flange, and an improved low cost bond. These modifications were incorporated into the process and used to fabricate 50 full-sized filter elements for testing in demonstration facilities in Karhula, Finland and at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. After 581 hours of testing in the Karhula facility, the elements retained approximately 87 percent of their as-fabricated strength. In addition, mechanical response testing at Virginia Tech provided a further demonstration of the high level of strain tolerance of the vacuum wound filter elements. Additional testing in the M. W. Kellogg unit at the PSDF has accumulated over 1800 hours of coal firing at temperatures of 760 ░C including a severe thermal upset that resulted in the failure of several monolithic oxide elements. No failures of any kind have been reported for the MTI CFCC elements in either of these test campaigns. Additional testing is planned at the M. W. Kellogg unit and Foster Wheeler unit at the PSDF over the next year in order to qualify for consideration for the Lakeland PCFB. Process scale-up issues have been identified and manufacturing plans are being evaluated to meet the needs of future demand.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M.ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K. DAO, M.

  12. Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    Hot Water DJ: Saving Energy by Pre-mixing Hot Water Md Anindya Prodhan Department of Computer University of Virginia whitehouse@virginia.edu Abstract After space heating and cooling, water heating consumption. Current water heating systems waste up to 20% of their energy due to poor insulation in pipes

  13. Can the third dredge-up extinguish hot-bottom burning in massive AGB stars?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paola Marigo

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Marigo (2002) has highlighted the crucial importance of molecular opacities in modelling the evolution of AGB stars at varying surface C/O ratio. In particular, it has been shown the large inadequacy of solar-scaled opacities when applied to models of carbon stars, and hence the need for correctly coupling the molecular opacities to the current surface chemical composition of AGB stars. The aim of the present follow-up study is to investigate the effects of variable molecular opacities on the evolutionary properties of luminous AGB stars with massive envelopes, i.e. with initial masses from ~3.5 Msun up to 5-8 Msun, which are predicted to experience both the third dredge-up and hot-bottom burning. It is found that if the dredge-up of carbon is efficient enough to lead to an early transition from C/O1, then hot-bottom burning may be weakened, extinguished, or even prevented. The physical conditions for this occurrence are analysed and a few theoretical and observational implications are discussed. Importantly, it is found that the inclusion of variable molecular opacities could significantly change the current predictions for the chemical yields contributed by intermediate-mass AGB stars, with M~3.5 - 4.0 Msun that make as much as ~ 30-50 % of all stars expected to undergo hot-bottom burning.

  14. "Hot" for Warm Water Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

    2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

  15. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  16. Capturing carbon | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon Released: October 02, 2011 New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

  17. Silicate absorption in heavily obscured galaxy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Roche; C. Packham; D. K. Aitken; R. E. Mason

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopy at 8-13 microns with T-ReCS on Gemini-S is presented for 3 galaxies with substantial silicate absorption features, NGC 3094, NGC 7172 and NGC 5506. In the galaxies with the deepest absorption bands, the silicate profile towards the nuclei is well represented by the emissivity function derived from the circumstellar emission from the red supergiant, mu Cephei which is also representative of the mid-infrared absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium in the Galaxy. There is spectral structure near 11.2 microns in NGC 3094 which may be due to a component of crystalline silicates. In NGC 5506, the depth of the silicate absorption increases from north to south across the nucleus, suggestive of a dusty structure on scales of 10s of parsecs. We discuss the profile of the silicate absorption band towards galaxy nuclei and the relationship between the 9.7 micron silicate and 3.4 micron hydrocarbon absorption bands.

  18. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Ragozzine, Darin; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Astron. Astrophys.; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Holman, Matthew J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames; Welsh, William F.; /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Boss, Alan P.; /Carnegie Inst., Wash., D.C., DTM; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  19. Hot gas filter and system assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lippert, T.E.; Palmer, K.M.; Bruck, G.J.; Alvin, M.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter element is described for separating fine dirty particles from a hot gas. The filter element comprises a first porous wall and a second porous wall. Each porous wall has an outer surface and an inner surface. The first and second porous walls being coupled together thereby forming a substantially closed figure and open at one end. The open end is formed to be coupled to a hot gas clean up system support structure. The first and second porous walls define a channel beginning at the open end and terminate at the closed end through which a filtered clean gas can flow through and out into the clean gas side of a hot gas clean up system. 8 figs.

  20. Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive hot cell access hole decontamination machine. A mobile housing has an opening large enough to encircle the access hole and has a shielding door, with a door opening and closing mechanism, for uncovering and covering the opening. The housing contains a shaft which has an apparatus for rotating the shaft and a device for independently translating the shaft from the housing through the opening and access hole into the hot cell chamber. A properly sized cylindrical pig containing wire brushes and cloth or other disks, with an arrangement for releasably attaching it to the end of the shaft, circumferentially cleans the access hole wall of radioactive contamination and thereafter detaches from the shaft to fall into the hot cell chamber.

  1. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  2. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  3. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  4. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the Multi-phase Interstellar Medium: Oxygen and Neon Abundances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangsen Yao; Q. Daniel Wang

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides a potentially powerful tool in determining the metal abundances in various phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). We present a case study of the sight line toward 4U 1820-303 (Galactic coordinates l, b=2.79, -7.91 and distance = 7.6 kpc), based on Chandra Grating observations. The detection of OI, OII, OIII, OVII, OVIII, and NeIX Kalpha absorption lines allows us to measure the atomic column densities of the neutral, warm ionized, and hot phases of the ISM through much of the Galactic disk. By comparing these measurements with the 21 cm hydrogen emission and with the pulsar dispersion measure along the same sight line, we estimate the mean oxygen abundances in the neutral and total ionized phases as 0.3(0.2, 0.6) and 2.2(1.1, 3.5) in units of Anders & Grevesse (1989) solar value. This significant oxygen abundance difference is apparently a result of molecule/dust grain destruction and recent metal enrichment in the warm ionized and hot phases. We also measure the column density of neon from its absorption edge and obtain the Ne/O ratio of the neutral plus warm ionized gas as 2.1(1.3, 3.5) solar. Accounting for the expected oxygen contained in molecules and dust grains would reduce the Ne/O ratio by a factor of ~1.5. From a joint-analysis of the OVII, OVIII, and NeIX lines, we obtain the Ne/O abundance ratio of the hot phase as 1.4(0.9, 2.1) solar, which is not sensitive to the exact temperature distribution assumed in the absorption line modeling. These comparable ISM Ne/O ratios for the hot and cooler gas are thus considerably less than the value (2.85+-0.07; 1sigma) recently inferred from corona emission of solar-like stars (Drake & Testa 2005). (abridged)

  5. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Combining Feedback Absorption Spectroscopy, Amplified Resonance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds in Automotive Emissions Discusses a novel combination of multi-component scanning direct absorption spectroscopy, resonant cavity and low-pressure sampling to...

  7. Direct and quantitative absorptive spectroscopy of nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic nanostructures exhibit unique optical properties that are attractive in many different applications. However, measuring the optical properties of individual nanostructures, in particular the absorptive properties, ...

  8. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low...

  9. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  10. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

  11. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  12. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle plants, possibly with carbon capture and storage (CCS)natural gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology

  13. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology werewith carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, to replace

  14. An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B., E-mail: m.johnston@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

  15. Method and apparatus of measuring unburned carbon in fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are shown to measure unburned carbon particles in the exhaust of a combustor. Photoacoustic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure the presence of the unburned carbon. Especially helpful in these measurements is a vertically elongated photoacoustic cell in which high flow velocities are maintained to prevent particles from settling. These measurements are useful in determining the efficiency of coal-fired combustors.

  16. Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

  17. Dutch experience with hot windbox repowering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploumen, P.J. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnhem (Netherlands); Veenema, J.J. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives an overview of the options available for repowering existing fossil fuel power plants. It includes an examination of the hot windbox repowering program in the Netherlands. The topics of the paper include efficiency improvement, NO{sub x} emission decrease, power increase, flexibility, and an economic evaluation of repowering.

  18. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  19. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  20. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  1. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  2. Transfer of hot dry rock technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program has focused worldwide attention on the facts that natural heat in the upper part of the earth's crust is an essentially inexhaustible energy resource which is accessible almost everywhere, and that practical means now exist to extract useful heat from the hot rock and bring it to the earth's surface for beneficial use. The Hot Dry Rock Program has successfully constructed and operated a prototype hot, dry rock energy system that produced heat at the temperatures and rates required for large-scale space heating and many other direct uses of heat. The Program is now in the final stages of constructing a larger, hotter system potentially capable of satisfying the energy requirements of a small, commercial, electrical-generating power plant. To create and understand the behavior of such system, it has been necessary to develop or support the development of a wide variety of equipment, instruments, techniques, and analyses. Much of this innovative technology has already been transferred to the private sector and to other research and development programs, and more is continuously being made available as its usefulness is demonstrated. This report describes some of these developments and indicates where this new technology is being used or can be useful to industry, engineering, and science.

  3. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  4. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes the work completed during the first quarter, April 1 through June 30, 1995. The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasificafion and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel continued at a good pace during the quarter.

  5. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  6. INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INCREASED LEAD ABSORPTION AND LEAD POISONING IN YOUNG CHILDREN A STATDIE:"IT BY THE CEJde slnt:t! the Surgeon GenerJi's Statement. "~edicJI Aspects of Childhood Lead POisoning," was issued:ld absorption Jnd lead poisoning. Such JCtivities for children will continue to be necessary until sources

  7. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Province, 230009, P. R. China. Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have greatBroadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes Michael M. Adachi demonstrate a bottom- illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption

  8. Lyman-alpha Absorption from Heliosheath Neutrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian E. Wood; Vladislav V. Izmodenov; Jeffrey L. Linsky; Yury G. Malama

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We assess what information HST observations of stellar Ly-alpha lines can provide on the heliosheath, the region of the heliosphere between the termination shock and heliopause. To search for evidence of heliosheath absorption, we conduct a systematic inspection of stellar Ly-alpha lines reconstructed after correcting for ISM absorption (and heliospheric/astrospheric absorption, if present). Most of the stellar lines are well centered on the stellar radial velocity, as expected, but the three lines of sight with the most downwind orientations relative to the ISM flow (Chi1 Ori, HD 28205, and HD 28568) have significantly blueshifted Ly-alpha lines. Since it is in downwind directions where heliosheath absorption should be strongest, the blueshifts are almost certainly caused by previously undetected heliosheath absorption. We make an initial comparison between the heliosheath absorption and the predictions of a pair of heliospheric models. A model with a complex multi-component treatment of plasma within the heliosphere predicts less absorption than a model with a simple single-fluid treatment, which leads to better agreement with the data. Finally, we find that nonplanetary energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes measured by the ASPERA-3 instrument on board Mars Express, which have been interpreted as being from the heliosheath, are probably too high to be consistent with the relative lack of heliosheath absorption seen by HST. This would argue for a local interplanetary source for these ENAs instead of a heliosheath source.

  9. absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Planning of Axiom Absorptions CiteSeer...

  10. Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters Solar Hot Water Creates Savings for Homeless Shelters July 15, 2010 - 12:10pm Addthis Kevin Craft What are the key facts?...

  11. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  12. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  13. Cuttings Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity...

  14. Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources- Pearl Hot Spring, NV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Detachment Faulting & Geothermal Resources - Pearl Hot Spring, NV presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  15. home power 114 / august & september 2006 in Solar Hot Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    : Heliotrope Thermal DTT-84 Solar Collectors: Two Heliodyne Gobi 410, 4 x 10 ft. Cold Supply In Hot to House

  16. Pressure Temperature Log At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Pressure Temperature Log At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder, 1991) Exploration Activity...

  17. Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon cloth patches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Assessment of dermal exposure to benzene and toluene in shoe manufacturing by activated carbon activated carbon cloth (ACC) patches to study the probability and extent of dermal exposure to benzene for the contribution from the air through passive absorption of benzene and toluene on the ACC patches. Systemic

  18. THE HOT R CORONAE BOREALIS STAR DY CENTAURI IS A BINARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kameswara Rao, N. [543, 17th Main, IV Sector, HSR Layout, Bangalore 560102 (India); Lambert, David L.; McArthur, Barbara [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1083 (United States); Garcia-Hernandez, D. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Simon Jeffery, C. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Woolf, Vincent M., E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: agarcia@iac.es [Physics Department, University of Nebraska at Omaha, NE 68182-0266 (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The remarkable hot R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star DY Cen is revealed to be the first and only binary system to be found among the RCB stars and their likely relatives, including the extreme helium stars and the hydrogen-deficient carbon stars. Radial velocity determinations from 1982 to 2010 have shown that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in an eccentric orbit with a period of 39.67 days. It is also one of the hottest and most H-rich member of the class of RCB stars. The system may have evolved from a common envelope to its current form.

  19. A fast model for spreading of neutral particles injected locally into hot plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokar, M. Z. [Institut fŘr Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum JŘlich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 JŘlich (Germany)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast model for calculation of non-stationary 3-D profiles of the density for neutral particles locally released into a hot plasma is elaborated. The approach reduces non-stationary three-dimensional transport equations to a set of one-dimensional ones describing the time evolution of the radial profiles for several parameters characterizing adequately the three-dimensional structure. The method is applied to model the spreading process of carbon atoms released by laser desorption in an experimental device and the local injection of working gas into a fusion reactor. The associated heat loads onto the first wall are assessed.

  20. [Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion]. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Second Quarter of the Second Budget Period, October 1 through December 31, 1993, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scaleup of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: (1) Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; (2) hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; (3) combustion gas turbine; (4) fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  1. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  2. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  3. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  4. Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (characterize these carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

  5. Total absorption by degenerate critical coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Jessica R., E-mail: jrylan@stanford.edu; Liu, Victor; Fan, Shanhui, E-mail: shanhui@stanford.edu [Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a mirror-symmetric resonator with two ports. We show that, when excited from a single port, complete absorption can be achieved through critical coupling to degenerate resonances with opposite symmetry. Moreover, any time two resonances with opposite symmetry are degenerate in frequency and absorption is always significantly enhanced. In contrast, when two resonances with the same symmetry are nearly degenerate, there is no absorption enhancement. We numerically demonstrate these effects using a graphene monolayer on top of a photonic crystal slab, illuminated from a single side in the near-infrared.

  6. Baroclinic Instability on Hot Extrasolar Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polichtchouk, Inna

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate baroclinic instability in flow conditions relevant to hot extrasolar planets. The instability is important for transporting and mixing heat, as well as for influencing large-scale variability on the planets. Both linear normal mode analysis and non-linear initial value calculations are carried out -- focusing on the freely-evolving, adiabatic situation. Using a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) which solves the traditional primitive equations, we show that large-scale jets similar to those observed in current GCM simulations of hot extrasolar giant planets are likely to be baroclinically unstable on a timescale of few to few tens of planetary rotations, generating cyclones and anticyclones that drive weather systems. The growth rate and scale of the most unstable mode obtained in the linear analysis are in qualitative, good agreement with the full non-linear calculations. In general, unstable jets evolve differently depending on their signs (eastward or westward), due to the chang...

  7. Turbodrilling in the hot-hole environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, P.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, geothermal and other types of hot-hole drilling have presented what seemed to be insurmountable barriers to efficient and extended use of downhole drilling motors, particularly those containing elastomeric bearing or motor components. Typical temperatures of 350 to 700/sup 0/F (177 to 371/sup 0/C) damage the elastomers and create other operating problems, reducing the life of the motors and their ability to drill efficiently. Recent innovations in turbodrill design have opened heretofore unrealized potentials and have allowed, for the first time, extended downhole drilling time in hot-hole conditions. The unique feature of this turbodrill is the lack of any elastomers or other temperature-sensitive materials. Its capabilities are matched closely to the requirements of drilling in elevated-temperature environments. The bearing assembly can withstand conditions encountered in typical geothermal formations and provides the performance necessary to stay in the hole. The result is increased rate of penetration (ROP) and more economical drilling.

  8. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section components for gas turbine engines. Significant technical progress has been made towards maturation of the EBC and CMC technologies for incorporation into gas turbine engine hot-section. Promising EBC candidates for longer life and/or higher temperature applications relative to current state of the art BSAS-based EBCs have been identified. These next generation coating systems have been scaled-up from coupons to components and are currently being field tested in Solar Centaur 50S engine. CMC combustor liners were designed, fabricated and tested in a FT8 sector rig to demonstrate the benefits of a high temperature material system. Pretest predictions made through the use of perfectly stirred reactor models showed a 2-3x benefit in CO emissions for CMC versus metallic liners. The sector-rig test validated the pretest predictions with >2x benefit in CO at the same NOx levels at various load conditions. The CMC liners also survived several trip shut downs thereby validating the CMC design methodology. Significant technical progress has been made towards incorporation of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and environmental barrier coatings (EBC) technologies into gas turbine engine hot-section. The second phase of the program focused on the demonstration of a reverse flow annular CMC combustor. This has included overcoming the challenges of design and fabrication of CMCs into 'complex' shapes; developing processing to apply EBCs to 'engine hardware'; testing of an advanced combustor enabled by CMCs in a PW206 rig; and the validation of performance benefits against a metal baseline. The rig test validated many of the pretest predictions with a 40-50% reduction in pattern factor compared to the baseline and reductions in NOx levels at maximum power conditions. The next steps are to develop an understanding of the life limiting mechanisms in EBC and CMC materials, developing a design system for EBC coated CMCs and durability testing in an engine environment.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K.Driven Absorption Air-Conditioner", K. Dao, M. Simmons, R.SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS* K.

  10. Wall Drying in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, K.; Weston, T.; Pascual, X.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WALL DRYING IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES Kimdolyn Boone Theresa Weston, PhD Xuaco Pascual Product Development Engineer Building Scientist Field Services Engineer E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Richmond, VA ABSTRACT... time based on the varying weather conditions. Constant interior conditions of 70?F and 55% RH were chosen. This corresponds to typical interior temperatures and a high level of moisture production within the house. This was chosen as a worse...

  11. Hot One-Temperature Accretion Flows Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng Yuan; Ronald E. Taam; Yongquan Xue; Wei Cui

    2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of the thermal coupling of ions and electrons in the context of optically thin, hot accretion flows is investigated. In the limit of complete coupling, we focus on the one-temperature accretion flows. Based on a global analysis, the results are compared with two-temperature accretion flow models and with the observations of black hole sources. Many features are quite similar. That is, hot one-temperature solutions are found to exist for mass flow rates less than a critical value; i.e., $\\dot{M}\\la 10\\alpha^2\\dot{M}_{\\rm Edd}$, where $\\dot{M}_{\\rm Edd}= L_{\\rm Edd}/c^2$ is the Eddington accretion rate. At low mass flow rates, $\\dot{M}\\la 10^{-3}\\alpha^2 \\dot{M}_{\\rm Edd}$, the solution is in the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) regime. But at higher rates, radiative cooling is effective and is mainly balanced by advective {\\em heating}, placing the solution in the regime of luminous hot accretion flow (LHAF). To test the viability of the one-temperature models, we have fitted the spectra of the two black hole sources, Sgr A* and XTE J1118+480, which have been examined successfully with two-temperature models. It is found that the one-temperature models do not provide acceptable fits to the multi-wavelength spectra of Sgr A* nor to XTE J1118+480 as a result of the higher temperatures characteristic of the one-temperature models. It is concluded that the thermal coupling of ions and electrons cannot be fully effective and that a two-temperature description is required in hot accretion flow solutions.

  12. Hot filament CVD of boron nitride films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a hot filament (.apprxeq.1400.degree. C.) to activate borazine (B.sub.3 N.sub.3 H.sub.6) molecules for subsequent reaction with a direct line-of-sight substrate, transparent boron ntiride films as thick as 25,000 angstroms are grown for a substrate temperature as low as 100.degree. C. The minimum temperature is determined by radiative heating from the adjacent hot filament. The low temperature BN films show no indication of crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) show the films to have a B:N ratio of 0.97:1 with no other XPS detectable impurities above the 0.5% level. Both Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are characteristic of h-BN with small amounts of hydrogen detected as N-H and B-H bands in the IR spectrum. An important feature of this method is the separation and localization of the thermal activation step at the hot filament from the surface reaction and film growth steps at the substrate surface. This allows both higher temperature thermal activation and lower temperature film growth.

  13. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Sol Duc Hot Springs feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol Duc Springs is located in the Olympic National Park in western Washington state. Since the turn of the century, the area has served as a resort, offering hot mineral baths, lodge and overnight cabin accommodations. The Park Service, in conjunction with the concessionaire, is in the process of renovating the existing facilities, most of which are approximately 50 years old. The present renovation work consists of removing all of the existing cabins and replacing them with 36 new units. In addition, a new hot pool is planned to replace the existing one. This report explores the possibility of a more efficient use of the geothermal resource to accompany other planned improvements. It is important to note that the system outlined is based upon the resource development as it exists currently. That is, the geothermal source is considered to be: the two existing wells and the hot springs currently in use. In addition, every effort has been made to accommodate the priorities for utilization as set forth by the Park Service.

  15. High temperature hot water distribution system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  16. On the nature of the z=0 X-ray absorbers: II. The contrast between local and AGN host galaxy absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rik J. Williams; Smita Mathur; Fabrizio Nicastro

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for highly-ionized gas near three AGN host galaxies using the Chandra low-energy transmission grating spectrograph. Strong absorption lines from such gas are seen at z=0, most likely from one or more of the following components: (1) a Galactic corona, (2) the Local Group medium, and (3) an extended warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filament passing through our local overdensity. Since AGNs reside within host galaxies that are also expected to sit within cosmically overdense regions, similar absorption resulting from these three components should appear at the AGN redshifts as well. However, no such absorption is seen. The lack of strong absorption lines is likely a result of the gas in these host galaxies and surrounding galaxy clusters being much hotter, and hence more highly ionized, than the gas in the Local Group+Galaxy system. We conclude that WHIM filaments produce no measurable absorption lines at the AGN redshifts, and therefore contribute at most a small fraction of the observed z=0 warm-hot gas.

  17. Sustainable Energy without the hot air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    ://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/mackay/ #12;ii CONTENTS Contents Preface to notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I Carbon, and mythconceptions . . . 30 3 Sequestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4 Bio-nano-solar sequestration technology (Trees) . . . 36 5 Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6

  18. Computer modeling of corrosion in absorption cooling cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderko, A.; Young, R.D. [OLI Systems Inc., Morris Plains, NJ (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive model has been developed for the computation of corrosion rates of carbon steels in the presence of lithium bromide-based brines that are used as working fluids for absorption refrigeration cycles. The model combines a thermodynamic model that provides realistic speciation of aqueous systems with an electrochemical model for partial cathodic and anodic processes on the metal surface. The electrochemical model includes the adsorption of halides, which strongly influences the corrosion process. Also, the model takes into account the formation of passive films, which become important at high temperatures, at which the refrigeration equipment operates. The model has been verified by comparing calculated corrosion rates with laboratory data for carbon steels in LiBr solutions. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental corrosion rates has been obtained. In particular, the model is capable of reproducing the effects of changes in alkalinity and molybdate concentration on the rates of general corrosion. The model has been incorporated into a program that makes it possible to analyze the effects of various conditions such as temperature, pressure, solution composition or flow velocity on corrosion rates.

  19. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It?á

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  20. Variable effect desorber-resorber absorption cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorption refrigeration system has an intermediate temperature desorber-resorber pair. A valve between the desorber-resorber pair is modulated to control the capacity for load matching.

  1. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  2. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Occhionero, A.J. (American Gas Cooling Center, Arlington, VA (United States)); Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Reid, E.A. (Columbia Gas Distribution Co., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Absorption Heat Pumping- Have You Tried It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    The concept of a thermal powered absorption heat pump is not a new or revolutionary idea. It has been successfully demonstrated in the lab and prototypes have been installed in the field. Units have been successfully applied in a number...

  4. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  5. absorption heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat... Erickson, D. C. 1983-01-01 26...

  6. acoustic power absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The distribution of acoustic power over sunspots shows an enhanced absorption near the umbra--penumbra boundary. Earlier studies revealed that the region of enhanced absorption...

  7. The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Future of Absorption Technology in America: A Critical Look at the Impact of Building, Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP) and Innovation, June 2000 The Future of Absorption...

  8. Absorption cross section of RN black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

    2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

  9. ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

  10. Resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption in short, intense laser irradiated plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Z. Y.; Zhuo, H. B.; Ma, Y. Y.; Yang, X. H.; Yu, T. P.; Zou, D. B.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W.; Luan, S. X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, C. T. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Peng, X. J. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)] [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical model for laser-plasma interaction during the oblique incidence by an ultrashort ultraintense p-polarized laser on a solid-density plasma is proposed. Both the resonant absorption and not-so-resonant absorption are self-consistently included. Different from the previous theoretical works, the physics of resonant absorption is found to be valid in more general conditions as the steepening of the electron density profile is considered. Even for a relativistic intensity laser, resonant absorption can still exist under certain plasma scale length. For shorter plasma scale length or higher laser intensity, the not-so-resonant absorption tends to be dominant, since the electron density is steepened to a critical level by the ponderomotive force. The laser energy absorption rates for both mechanisms are discussed in detail, and the difference and transition between these two mechanisms are presented.

  11. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  12. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

  13. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  15. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  16. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects « Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

  17. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  18. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  19. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion Project. Quarterly report, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived as streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed Include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning, techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing, Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: 1 . Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating, Fluidized Bed Gas Source; 2. Hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; 3. Combustion Gas Turbine; 4. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during, this reporting period was continuing, the detailed design of the FW portion of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDS) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of the process structural steel is complete and the construction of steel for the coal preparation structure is complete.

  20. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  2. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  3. Hot Plasma Waves in Schwarzschild Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Asma Rafique

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we examine the wave properties of hot plasma living in Schwarzschild magnetosphere. The 3+1 GRMHD perturbation equations are formulated for this scenario. These equations are Fourier analyzed and then solved numerically to obtain the dispersion relations for non-rotating, rotating non-magnetized and rotating magnetized plasma. The wave vector is evaluated which is used to calculate refractive index. These quantities are shown in graphs which are helpful to discuss the dispersive properties of the medium near the event horizon.

  4. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID); Manhart, Larry K. (Pingree, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  5. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  6. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  7. Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility/South (HFEF/S). The proposed action, to modify the existing HFEF/S at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, would allow important aspects of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept, offering potential advantages in nuclear safety and economics, to be demonstrated. It would support fuel cycle experiments and would supply fresh fuel to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at the INEL. 35 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Ronald J. (Burnsville, MN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes.

  9. Automated inspection of hot steel slabs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, R.J.

    1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a real time digital image enhancement system for performing the image enhancement segmentation processing required for a real time automated system for detecting and classifying surface imperfections in hot steel slabs. The system provides for simultaneous execution of edge detection processing and intensity threshold processing in parallel on the same image data produced by a sensor device such as a scanning camera. The results of each process are utilized to validate the results of the other process and a resulting image is generated that contains only corresponding segmentation that is produced by both processes. 5 figs.

  10. [PFBC Hot Gas Cleanup Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four hundred and fifty four clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filters were purchased for installation in the Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) plant in Brilliant, Ohio. A surveillance effort has been identified which will monitor candle filter performance and life during hot gas cleaning in AEP's pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. A description of the candle surveillance program, strategy for candle filter location selection, as well as candle filter post-test characterization is provided in this memo. The period of effort for candle filter surveillance monitoring is planned through March 1994.

  11. Control apparatus for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mean pressure power control system for a hot gas (Stirling) engine utilizing a plurality of supply tanks for storing a working gas at different pressures. During pump down operations gas is bled from the engine by a compressor having a plurality of independent pumping volumes. In one embodiment of the invention, a bypass control valve system allows one or more of the compressor volumes to be connected to the storage tanks. By selectively sequencing the bypass valves, a capacity range can be developed over the compressor that allows for lower engine idle pressures and more rapid pump down rates.

  12. Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

  13. Hot Plasma Partial to Bootstrap Current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSol├ę(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergy 2010 A FileHosting foreignforHot

  14. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of Energy Ready,SmartEnergyEnergy ResourceSolar Hot

  15. Just Hot Resources Consulting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa: Energy Resources JumpJudson,International LtdJust Hot

  16. Hot Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California: EnergyHoloceneHonestHoosacHorseHorstReport:Hot

  17. Hot Springs Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:Project Jump to: navigation, searchHot

  18. Hot Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to:Pennsylvania: EnergyHopkinsville,WindEnergyOpenHot Lake

  19. Hot Pot Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel Jump to:Pennsylvania: EnergyHopkinsville,WindEnergyOpenHot

  20. Hot Topic Workshop | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football Highdefault Sign InData inmaxHorizontalHot

  1. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  2. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas (Morgantown, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy of V854 Cen in decline - Absorption and emission lines of C_2 molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kameswara Rao; David L. Lambert

    2000-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RBC) star V854 Centauri in the early stages of a decline show, in addition to the features reported for other RCBs in decline, narrow absorption lines from the C_2 Phillips system. The low rotational temperature, T_rot = 1150K, of the C_2 ground electronic state suggests the cold gas is associated with the developing shroud of carbon dust. These absorption lines were not seen at a fainter magnitude on the rise from minimum light nor at maximum light. This is the first detection of cold gas around a RCB star.

  4. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  5. Simulating a 4-effect absorption chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zaltash, A.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption chillers are heat-operated refrigeration machines that operate on one of the earliest known principles of refrigeration. Current absorption chillers typically use either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source. All current gas-fired absorption cooling systems are based on the well known single-effect or double-effect cycles. To further improve utilization of the high temperature heat available from natural gas, a variety of triple-effect cycles have been proposed and are being developed that are capable of substantial performance improvement over equivalent double-effect cycles. This article describes a study that investigated the possibility of even further improving utilization of the high temperature heat available from natural gas combustion. During the study, performance simulation was conducted for a 4-effect lithium bromide/water cycle. From an environmental perspective, absorption chillers provide several benefits. They use absorption pairs (such as lithium bromide/water) as the working fluids, rather than chlorofluorocarbons or hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which contribute to ozone depletion and global warming.

  6. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  7. DECOMMISSIONING OF HOT CELL FACILITIES AT THE BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Patrick; Henderson, Glenn; Erickson, Peter; Garber, David

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL), located in Columbus, Ohio, must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities for nuclear research buildings and grounds at its West Jefferson Facilities by 2006, as mandated by Congress. This effort includes decommissioning several hot cells located in the Hot Cell Laboratory (Building JN-1). JN-1 was originally constructed in 1955, and a hot cell/high bay addition was built in the mid 1970s. For over 30 years, BCL used these hot cell facilities to conduct research for the nuclear power industry and several government agencies, including the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Department of Energy. As a result of this research, the JN-1 hot cells became highly contaminated with mixed fission and activation products, as well as fuel residues. In 1998, the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) began efforts to decommission JN-1 with the goal of remediating the site to levels of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. This goal requires that each hot cell be decommissioned to a state where it can be safely demolished and transported to an off-site disposal facility. To achieve this, the BCLDP uses a four-step process for decommissioning each hot cell: (1) Source Term Removal; (2) Initial (i.e., remote) Decontamination; (3) Utility Removal; and (4) Final (i.e., manual) Decontamination/Stabilization. To date, this process has been successfully utilized on 13 hot cells within JN-1, with one hot cell remaining to be decommissioned. This paper will provide a case study of the hot cell decommissioning being conducted by the BCLDP. Discussed will be the methods used to achieve the goals of each of the hot cell decommissioning stages and the lessons learned that could be applied at other sites where hot cells need to be decommissioned.

  8. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report summarizes work completed during the Sixth Quarter of the First Budget Period, January 1 through March 31, 1992, under the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC25140 entitled ``Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for Gasification and Pressurized Combustion.`` The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. The major emphasis during this reporting period was expanding the test facility to address system integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced power generation systems. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include additional modules for the expansion of the test facility, which is referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSOF). A letter agreement was negotiated between Southern Company Services (SCS) and Foster Wheeler (FW) for the conceptual design of the Advanced Pressurized Fluid-Bed Combustion (APFBC)/Topping Combustor/Gas Turbine System to be added to the facility. The expanded conceptual design also included modifications to the existing conceptual design for the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility (HGCTF), facility layout and balance of plant design for the PSOF. Southern Research Institute (SRI) began investigating the sampling requirements for the expanded facility and assisted SCS in contacting Particulate Control Device (PCD) vendors for additional information. SCS also contacted the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and two molten carbonate fuel cell vendors for input on the fuel cell module for the PSDF.

  9. Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zacharakis, 1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zacharakis,...

  10. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capuano. 1980. Trace Element Geochemical Zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah. In: Transactions. GRC Annual Meeting; 09091980; Salt Lake City, UT. Salt...

  11. Static Temperature Survey At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benoit Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lake City Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding...

  12. Geothermal Literature Review At Lake City Hot Springs Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Lake City Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Geothermal Literature Review Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding...

  13. Blue Mountain Hot Spring Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Blue Mountain Hot Spring Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  14. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colorado School of Mines and Imperial College London, 2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal...

  15. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climates Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates School districts around the country are finding that the smart energy choices can help them...

  16. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1981 - 1981 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration...

  17. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002)...

  18. Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Walley's Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Walley's...

  19. Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Hot Springs National Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. Fairmont Hot Springs Resort Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center1 Fairmont Hot Springs Resort is a Space Heating low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Fairmont, Montana. This article is...

  1. Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Waunita Hot Springs Ranch Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Hot Springs Lodge Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  3. Chena Hot Springs GRED III Project: Final Report Geology, Petrology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration, and Fluid Analyses Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Chena Hot Springs GRED III Project: Final Report Geology, Petrology,...

  4. Geologic Setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sustainable Energy Production Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Thesis: Geologic Setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications for...

  5. Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico- Tracer Test Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir Investigations on the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System,...

  6. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Economics of Developing Hot...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search...

  7. Soil Sampling At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ringrose...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Soil Sampling At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ringrose & Pearl, 1981) Exploration...

  8. Idaho Public Utilities Commission Approves Neal Hot Springs Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commission Approves Neal Hot Springs Power Purchase Agreement Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Idaho Public Utilities Commission Approves...

  9. Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions - Kick off 4 3...

  10. An inequality for potentials and the ôhotľspotsö conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    inequality, by the conformal invariance of Brownian motion, implies a result of Pascu [13] on ôhotľspotsö for certain symmetric convex domains. ?Supported iná...

  11. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint Presented at SimBuild 2010; New York, New York; August 1519, 2010 47685.pdf More Documents & Publications Model Simulating...

  12. analytical hot cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Antenna 10-year Battery Kemner, Ken 4 Linear Power Spectra in Cold+Hot Dark Matter Models: Analytical Approximations and Applications Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: This...

  13. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Paper NRELCP-550-47685 August 2010 Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules Preprint Bob Hendron and Jay Burch National Renewable Energy...

  14. Hydrogeologic investigation of Coso Hot Springs, Inyo County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for chemical analysis; determination of the local Coso Hot Springs and regional groundwater hydrology, including consideration of recharge, discharge, movement, and water...

  15. Interpretation of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    R. H. Carpenter (Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy). 1981. Interpretation of Water Sample Analysis, Waunita Hot Spring Project,...

  16. Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Olson & Dellechaie, 1976)...

  17. Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho...

  18. Paleomagnetic Measurements At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    London, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Paleomagnetic Measurements At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (London, 2011)...

  19. Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monwhea Jeng

    2005-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes are also described.

  20. HOT DEBRIS DUST AROUND HD 106797

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Hideaki; Onaka, Takashi [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamashita, Takuya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Hirao, Takanori; Enya, Keigo [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043, Osaka (Japan); Marshall, Jonathan P.; White, Glenn J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fujiwara@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2009-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Photometry of the A0 V main-sequence star HD 106797 with AKARI and Gemini/T-ReCS is used to detect excess emission over the expected stellar photospheric emission between 10 and 20 {mu}m, which is best attributed to hot circumstellar debris dust surrounding the star. The temperature of the debris dust is derived as T {sub d} {approx} 190 K by assuming that the excess emission is approximated by a single temperature blackbody. The derived temperature suggests that the inner radius of the debris disk is {approx}14 AU. The fractional luminosity of the debris disk is 1000 times brighter than that of our own zodiacal cloud. The existence of such a large amount of hot dust around HD 106797 cannot be accounted for by a simple model of the steady state evolution of a debris disk due to collisions, and it is likely that transient events play a significant role. Our data also show a narrow spectral feature between 11 and 12 {mu}m attributable to crystalline silicates, suggesting that dust heating has occurred during the formation and evolution of the debris disk of HD 106797.

  1. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  2. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  3. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  4. Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

  5. Research Summary Carbon Additionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of muchResearch Summary Carbon Additionality Additionality is widely considered to be a core aspect controversy in national carbon accounting, international regulatory frameworks and carbon markets. A review

  6. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  8. The Woodland Carbon Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

  9. Hot Spring Monitoring at Lassen Volcanic National Park, California 1983-1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, Michael L.

    1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Data collected on several occasions between 1983 and 1985 as part of a hydrologic monitoring program by the U.S. Geological Survey permit preliminary estimation of the natural variability in the discharge characteristics of hydrothermal features in Lassen Volcanic National Park and the Lassen KGRA in northern California. The total rate of discharge of high-chloride hot springs along Mill Creek and Canyon Creek in the Lassen KGRA has averaged 20.9 {+-} 1.7 L/s, based on seven measurements of the flux of chloride in these streams. Measured chloride flux does not appear to increase with streamflow during the spring-summer snowmelt period, as observed at Yellowstone and Long Valley Caldera. The corresponding fluxes of arsenic in Mill Creek and Canyon Creek decrease within distances of about 2 km downstream from the hot springs by approximately 30%, most likely due to chemical absorption on streambed sediments. Within Lassen Volcanic National Park, measurements of sulfate flux in streams draining steam-heated thermal features at Sulphur Works and Bumpass Hell have averaged 7.5 {+-} 1.0 and 4.0 {+-} 1.5 g/s, respectively. Calculated rates of steam upflow containing, dissolved H{sub 2}S to supply these sulfate fluxes are 1.8 kg/s at Sulphur Works and 1.0 kg/s at Bumpass Hell.

  10. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬? of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?center├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  11. Potassium emission absorption system. Topical report 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, L.E.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potassium Emission Absorption System is one of the advanced optical diagnostics developed at Mississippi State University to provide support for the demonstration of prototype-scale coal-fired combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generation. Intended for application in the upstream of an MHD flow, the system directly measures gas temperature and neutral potassium atom number density through spectroscopic emission absorption techniques. From these measurements the electron density can be inferred from a statistical equilibrium calculation and the electron conductivity in the MHD channel found by use of an electron mobility model. The instrument has been utilized for field test measurements on MHD facilities for almost a decade and has been proven to provide useful measurements as designed for MHD nozzle, channel, and diffuser test sections. The theory of the measurements, a system description, its capabilities, and field test measurement results are reported here. During the development and application of the instrument several technical issues arose which when addressed advanced the state of the art in emission absorption measurement. Studies of these issues are also reported here and include: two-wavelength measurements for particle-laden flows, potassium D-line far wing absorption coefficient, bias in emission absorption measurements arising from dirty windows and misalignments, non-coincident multiwavelength emission absorption sampling errors, and lineshape fitting for boundary layer flow profile information. Although developed for NLHD application, the instrument could be applied to any high temperature flow with a resonance line in the 300 to 800 nm range, for instance other types of flames, rocket plumes or low temperature plasmas.

  12. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  13. Light Absorption by Secondary Organic Aerosol from ?-Pinene: Effects of Oxidants, Seed Aerosol Acidity, and Relative Humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shilling, John E.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that light absorption from dust and black carbon aerosols has a warming effect on climate while light scattering from sulfate, nitrate, and sea salt aerosols has a cooling effect. However, there are large uncertainties associated with light absorption and scattering by different types of organic aerosols, especially in the near-UV and UV spectral regions. In this paper, we present the results from a systematic laboratory study focused on measuring light absorption by secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from ozonolysis or NO3 oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of neutral and acidic sulfate seed aerosols. Light absorption was monitored using photoacoustic spectrometers at four different wavelengths: 355, 405, 532 and 870 nm. Light absorption at 355 and 405 nm was observed by SOA generated from oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of acidic sulfate seed aerosols, under dry conditions. No absorption was observed when the relative humidity was elevated to greater than 27%, or in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols. The light-absorbing compounds are speculated to be aldol condensation oligomers with organosulfate and organic nitrate groups. The results of this study also indicate that organic nitrates from ?-pinene SOA formed in the presence of neutral sulfate seed aerosols do not appear to absorb near-UV and UV radiation.

  14. The 4000 A absorption system of formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, James Ralph

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE $000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE JAMES RALPH HENDERSON A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May i 1957 Ma]or Subject: Physics THE 4000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE A Thesis JAMES RALPH HENDERSON Approved as to style and content bye rlllan 0 OIllK e e ea o epar men May, l957 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. Introduction...

  15. Multi-plasmon absorption in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinko Jablan; Darrick E. Chang

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that graphene possesses a strong nonlinear optical response in the form of multi-plasmon absorption, with exciting implications in classical and quantum nonlinear optics. Specifically, we predict that graphene nano-ribbons can be used as saturable absorbers with low saturation intensity in the far-infrared and terahertz spectrum. Moreover, we predict that two-plasmon absorption and extreme localization of plasmon fields in graphene nano-disks can lead to a plasmon blockade effect, in which a single quantized plasmon strongly suppresses the possibility of exciting a second plasmon.

  16. Modified discrete random walk with absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theo van Uem

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain expected number of arrivals, probability of arrival, absorption probabilities and expected time before absorption for a modified discrete random walk on the (sub)set of integers. In a [pqrs] random walk the particle can move one step forward or backward, stay for a moment in the same state or it can be absorbed immediately in the current state. M[pqrs] is a modified version, where probabilities on both sides of a multiple function barrier M are of different [pqrs] type.

  17. Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael I. Tribelsky

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

  18. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lyman, John L. (Los Alamos, NM); Aldridge, III, Jack P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO.sub.2 laser light may be used to highly enrich .sup.34 S in natural SF.sub.6 and .sup.11 B in natural BCl.sub.3.

  19. Laser isotope separation by multiple photon absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Rockwood, S.D.; Jensen, R.J.; Lyman, J.L.; Aldridge, J.P. III.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple photon absorption from an intense beam of infrared laser light may be used to induce selective chemical reactions in molecular species which result in isotope separation or enrichment. The molecular species must have a sufficient density of vibrational states in its vibrational manifold that, is the presence of sufficiently intense infrared laser light tuned to selectively excite only those molecules containing a particular isotope, multiple photon absorption can occur. By this technique, for example, intense CO[sub 2] laser light may be used to highly enrich [sup 34]S in natural SF[sub 6] and [sup 11]B in natural BCl[sub 3]. 8 figs.

  20. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    experimentally using a transient hot wire technique at room temperature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs] Maruyama.S, Kojima.R, Miyauchi.Y, Chiashi.S, Kohno.M, Low temperature synthesis of high purity singleEnhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single

  1. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  2. A Search for H-alpha Absorption in the Exosphere of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua N. Winn; Yasushi Suto; Edwin L. Turner; Norio Narita; Brenda L. Frye; Wako Aoki; Bunei Sato; Toru Yamada

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There is evidence that the transiting planet HD 209458b has a large exosphere of neutral hydrogen, based on a 15% decrement in Lyman-alpha flux that was observed by Vidal-Madjar et al. during transits. Here we report upper limits on H-alpha absorption by the exosphere. The results are based on optical spectra of the parent star obtained with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. Comparison of the spectra taken inside and outside of transit reveals no exospheric H-alpha signal greater than 0.1% within a 5.1A band (chosen to have the same Delta_lambda/lambda as the 15% Ly-alpha absorption). The corresponding limit on the column density of n=2 neutral hydrogen is N_2 <~ 10^9 cm^{-2}. This limit constrains proposed models involving a hot (~10^4 K) and hydrodynamically escaping exosphere.

  3. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  4. Some new progress on the light absorption properties of linear alkyl benzene solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Guang-You; Huang, Ai-Zhong; Yu, Lei; Loh, Chang-Wei; Wang, Wen-Wen; Qian, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Hai-Bo; Huang, Huang; Xu, Zong-Qiang; Zhu, Xue-Yuan; Xu, Bin; Qi, Ming

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) will be used as the solvent of a liquid scintillator mixture for the JUNO antineutrino experiment in the near future. Its light absorption property should therefore be understood prior to its effective use in the experiment. Attenuation length measurements at a light wavelength of 430 nm have been performed on samples of LAB prepared for the purpose of the JUNO experiment. Inorganic impurities in LAB have also been studied for their possibilities of light absorption in our wavelength of interest. In view of a tentative plan by the JUNO collaboration to utilize neutron capture with hydrogen in the detector, we have also presented in this work, a study on the carbon-hydrogen ratio and the relationship thereof with the attenuation length of the samples.

  5. Some new progress on the light absorption properties of linear alkyl benzene solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang-You Yu; De-Wen Cao; Ai-Zhong Huang; Lei Yu; Chang-Wei Loh; Wen-Wen Wang; Zhi-Qiang Qian; Hai-Bo Yang; Huang Huang; Zong-Qiang Xu; Xue-Yuan Zhu; Bin Xu; Ming Qi

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) will be used as the solvent of a liquid scintillator mixture for the JUNO antineutrino experiment in the near future. Its light absorption property should therefore be understood prior to its effective use in the experiment. Attenuation length measurements at a light wavelength of 430 nm have been performed on samples of LAB prepared for the purpose of the JUNO experiment. Inorganic impurities in LAB have also been studied for their possibilities of light absorption in our wavelength of interest. In view of a tentative plan by the JUNO collaboration to utilize neutron capture with hydrogen in the detector, we have also presented in this work, a study on the carbon-hydrogen ratio and the relationship thereof with the attenuation length of the samples.

  6. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Oyenekan, Babatunde A. (Katy, TX)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  7. Where are the hot ion lines in classical T Tauri stars formed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GŘnther, H M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical T Tauri stars show a plethora of in- and outflow signatures in a variety of wavelengths bands. In order to constrain gas velocities and temperatures we analyse the emission in the hot ion lines. We use all available archival FUSE spectra of CTTS to measure the line widths, fluxes and shifts and complement this sample with HST/GHRS and HST/STIS data. We present theoretical estimates for temperatures reached in possible emission models like jets, winds, disks and accretion funnels and look for correlations with X-ray lines and absorption properties. We find line shifts in the range from -170 km/s and +100 km/s. Most linewidths exceed the stellar rotational broadening. Those CTTS with blue-shifted lines also show excess absorption in X-rays. CTTS single out from MS stars by their large ratio of the O VII to O VI luminosities. No single emission mechanism can be found for all objects. The properties of those stars with blue-shifted lines are compatible with an origin in a shock-heated dust-depleted outf...

  8. Infrared absorption of gaseous CH{sub 2}BrOO detected with a step-scan Fourier-transform absorption spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yuan-Pern, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    CH{sub 2}BrOO radicals were produced upon irradiation, with an excimer laser at 248 nm, of a flowing mixture of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. A step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell was employed to record temporally resolved infrared (IR) absorption spectra of reaction intermediates. Transient absorption with origins at 1276.1, 1088.3, 961.0, and 884.9 cm{sup ?1} are assigned to ?{sub 4} (CH{sub 2}-wagging), ?{sub 6} (OľO stretching), ?{sub 7} (CH{sub 2}-rocking mixed with CľO stretching), and ?{sub 8} (CľO stretching mixed with CH{sub 2}-rocking) modes of syn-CH{sub 2}BrOO, respectively. The assignments were made according to the expected photochemistry and a comparison of observed vibrational wavenumbers, relative IR intensities, and rotational contours with those predicted with the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ method. The rotational contours of ?{sub 7} and ?{sub 8} indicate that hot bands involving the torsional (?{sub 12}) mode are also present, with transitions 7{sub 0}{sup 1}12{sub v}{sup v} and 8{sub 0}{sup 1}12{sub v}{sup v}, v = 1ľ10. The most intense band (?{sub 4}) of anti-CH{sub 2}BrOO near 1277 cm{sup ?1} might have a small contribution to the observed spectra. Our work provides information for directly probing gaseous CH{sub 2}BrOO with IR spectroscopy, in either the atmosphere or laboratory experiments.

  9. SUPPLY-SIDE OPTIMIZATION : MAXIMIZING ABSORPTIVE RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumars, Pete

    and Piglet walked home thoughtfully together in the golden evening, and for a long time they were silent The World of Pooh INTRODUCTION The complexities of feeding behavior extend far beyond the simple priorities source of the material and energy for this escalation in heterotrophs with digestive tracts is absorption

  10. Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarkisian, Paul H. (Watertown, MA); Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.

  11. Absorption machine with desorber-resorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An absorption refrigeration system utilizing a low temperature desorber and intermediate temperature resorber. The system operates at three temperatures and three pressures to increase the efficiency of the system and is capable of utilizing a lower generator temperature than previously used.

  12. Absorption of solar radiation by solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Duplancic; P. Minkowski; J. Trampetic

    2004-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the absorption probability of photons radiated from the surface of the Sun by a left-handed neutrino with definite mass and a typical momentum for which we choose |p_1|=0.2 MeV, producing a heavier right-handed antineutrino. Considering two transitions the \

  13. Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun polymer cantilevers. Atomic force microscopy has been used to characterize the mechanical properties orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk polymer.6 If correct

  14. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  15. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  16. High Beta Observations of the Hot Electron Interchange Instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Beta Observations of the Hot Electron Interchange Instability E.E. Ortiz, M.E. Mauel, D observed in high-beta plasma created in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). We have previously of anisotropic high beta equilibrium ┬Ě Measuring Electrostatic Fluctuations ┬Ě Hot Electron Interchange (HEI

  17. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  18. ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HOT JUPITER KEPLER-13Ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shporer, Avi

    Kepler-13Ab (= KOI-13.01) is a unique transiting hot Jupiter. It is one of very few known short-period planets orbiting a hot A-type star, making it one of the hottest planets currently known. The availability of Kepler ...

  19. CANADIAN METALLURGICAL QUARTERLY HOT WORKABILITY OF 2304 AND 2205 DUPLEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewczas, Marek

    339 CANADIAN METALLURGICAL QUARTERLY HOT WORKABILITY OF 2304 AND 2205 DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS E, 2002; in revised form December, 2003) Abstract -- The duplex stainless steels 2304 and 2205 were that the hot workability of 2304 and 2205 duplex stainless steels can be improved modestly by multistage

  20. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  1. Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III-13 the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants

  2. THE DECREASE OF SPECIFIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND THE HOT TOROID FORMATION: THE MASSIVE CLUMP G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wu Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: hlu@cfa.havard.ed, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: keto@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: Jingwen.Wu@jpl.nasa.go, E-mail: li@mpia.d [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first paper of our series of high-resolution (1'') studies of the massive star-forming region G10.6-0.4. We present the emission line observations of the hot core type tracers (O{sup 13}CS, OCS, SO{sub 2}) with {approx}0.''5 resolution. By comparing the results to the high-resolution NH{sub 3} absorption line observation, we confirm for the first time the rotationally flattened hot toroid in the central <0.1 pc region, which has a rotational axis perpendicular to its geometrical major axis. In addition, we present the observations of NH{sub 3}, {sup 13}CS, and CH{sub 3}CN with {approx}1'' resolution, and follow the dynamics of the molecular accretion flow from the 0.3 pc radius to the inner 0.03 pc radius. With reference to the rotational axis of the hot toroid, we measure the rotational velocity from the molecular emission in the region. The results are consistent with an envelope with a rapid decrease of the specific angular momentum from the outer to the inner region. These new results improve the current understanding of the molecular accretion flow in an ultracompact H II region created by the embedded O-type cluster.

  3. Ceramic oxide composite hot gas filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.A.; Weitzel, P. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The work was divided into three primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of the first task were then used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to assess the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. The results of this testing were used to down-select the filter composition for full-scale filter fabrication and testing in the third phase of the program.

  4. Discovery of magnetic fields in hot subdwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. O'Toole; S. Jordan; S. Friedrich; U. Heber

    2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present initial results of a project to measure mean longitudinal magnetic fields in a group of sdB/OB/O stars. The project was inspired by the discovery of three super-metal-rich sdOB stars, each having metals (e.g. Ti, V) enhanced by factors of 10^3 to 10^5. Similar behaviour is observed in chemically peculiar A stars, where strong magnetic fields are responsible for the enrichment. With this in mind, we obtained circularly polarised spectra of two of the super-metal-rich sdOBs, two "normal" sdBs and two sdOs using FORS1 on the ESO/VLT. By examining circular polarisation in the hydrogen Balmer lines and in helium lines, we have detected magnetic fields with strengths of 1-2 kG in most of our targets. This suggests that such fields are relatively common in hot subdwarfs.

  5. Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

  6. Thermodynamics of pairing transition in hot nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang Liu; Zhen-Hua Zhang; Peng-Wei Zhao

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The pairing correlations in hot nuclei $^{162}$Dy are investigated in terms of the thermodynamical properties by covariant density functional theory. The heat capacities $C_V$ are evaluated in the canonical ensemble theory and the paring correlations are treated by a shell-model-like approach, in which the particle number is conserved exactly. A S-shaped heat capacity curve, which agrees qualitatively with the experimental data, has been obtained and analyzed in details. It is found that the one-pair-broken states play crucial roles in the appearance of the S shape of the heat capacity curve. Moreover, due to the effect of the particle-number conservation, the pairing gap varies smoothly with the temperature, which indicates a gradual transition from the superfluid to the normal state.

  7. Magnetic island evolution in hot ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of finite ion temperature on magnetic island evolution are studied by means of numerical simulations of a reduced set of two-fluid equations which include ion as well as electron diamagnetism in slab geometry. The polarization current is found to be almost an order of magnitude larger in hot than in cold ion plasmas, due to the strong shear of ion velocity around the separatrix of the magnetic islands. As a function of the island width, the propagation speed decreases from the electron drift velocity (for islands thinner than the Larmor radius) to values close to the guiding-center velocity (for islands of order 10 times the Larmor radius). In the latter regime, the polarization current is destabilizing (i.e., it drives magnetic island growth). This is in contrast to cold ion plasmas, where the polarization current is generally found to have a healing effect on freely propagating magnetic island.

  8. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A. [Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York 10031 (United States)] [Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York 10031 (United States); Sergeev, A. [SUNY Research Foundation, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14226 (United States)] [SUNY Research Foundation, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14226 (United States)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La{sub 2?x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, ?V??I{sup 3}, with a coefficient ?(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity d?/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g{sub e?ph}?1 W/K cm{sup 2} at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  9. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  10. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  11. Process for making ceramic hot gas filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Connolly, Elizabeth Sokolinski (Wilmington, DE); Forsythe, George Daniel (Landenberg, PA); Domanski, Daniel Matthew (New Castle, DE); Chambers, Jeffrey Allen (Hockessin, DE); Rajendran, Govindasamy Paramasivam (Boothwyn, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic hot-gas candle filter having a porous support of filament-wound oxide ceramic yarn at least partially surrounded by a porous refractory oxide ceramic matrix, and a membrane layer on at least one surface thereof. The membrane layer may be on the outer surface, the inner surface, or both the outer and inner surface of the porous support. The membrane layer may be formed of an ordered arrangement of circularly wound, continuous filament oxide ceramic yarn, a ceramic filler material which is less permeable than the filament-wound support structure, or some combination of continuous filament and filler material. A particularly effective membrane layer features circularly wound filament with gaps intentionally placed between adjacent windings, and a filler material of ceramic particulates uniformly distributed throughout the gap region. The filter can withstand thermal cycling during backpulse cleaning and is resistant to chemical degradation at high temperatures.

  12. Telescopic nanotube device for hot nanolithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popescu, Adrian; Woods, Lilia M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for maintaining a constant tip-surface distance for producing nanolithography patterns on a surface using a telescopic nanotube for hot nanolithography. An outer nanotube is attached to an AFM cantilever opposite a support end. An inner nanotube is telescopically disposed within the outer nanotube. The tip of the inner nanotube is heated to a sufficiently high temperature and brought in the vicinity of the surface. Heat is transmitted to the surface for thermal imprinting. Because the inner tube moves telescopically along the outer nanotube axis, a tip-surface distance is maintained constant due to the vdW force interaction, which in turn eliminates the need of an active feedback loop.

  13. Redshift of photons penetrating a hot plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Brynjolfsson

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new interaction, plasma redshift, is derived, which is important only when photons penetrate a hot, sparse electron plasma. The derivation of plasma redshift is based entirely on conventional axioms of physics. When photons penetrate a cold and dense plasma, they lose energy through ionization and excitation, Compton scattering on the individual electrons, and Raman scattering on the plasma frequency. But in sparse hot plasma, such as in the solar corona, the photons lose energy also in plasma redshift. The energy loss per electron in the plasma redshift is about equal to the product of the photon's energy and one half of the Compton cross-section per electron. In quiescent solar corona, this heating starts in the transition zone to the corona and is a major fraction of the coronal heating. Plasma redshift contributes also to the heating of the interstellar plasma, the galactic corona, and the intergalactic plasma. Plasma redshift explains the solar redshifts, the redshifts of the galactic corona, the cosmological redshifts, the cosmic microwave background, and the X-ray background. The plasma redshift explains the observed magnitude-redshift relation for supernovae SNe Ia without the big bang, dark matter, or dark energy. There is no cosmic time dilation. The universe is not expanding. The plasma redshift, when compared with experiments, shows that the photons' classical gravitational redshifts are reversed as the photons move from the Sun to the Earth. This is a quantum mechanical effect. As seen from the Earth, a repulsion force acts on the photons. This means that there is no need for Einstein's Lambda term. The universe is quasi-static, infinite, and everlasting.

  14. Development of Updated ABsorption SIMulation Software (ABSIM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhiyao [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Tang, Xin [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABsorption SIMulation, ABSIM, was developed for the simulation of absorption systems by The Oak Ridge National Laboratory during 1980s and 1990s. ABSIM provides a platform for users to investigate various cycle configurations and working fluids, to calculate their operating parameters, to predict their performance, and to compare them with each other on a uniform basis. ABSIM is indeed a very useful and accurate tool for researchers to investigate various absorption systems. However, it has not been well maintained: it is incompatible with recent operating systems; the interface needs improved user-friendliness, and the system needs better parameter setting and debugging tools to help achieve convergence. Therefore, it is highly needed to update and improve ABSIM. The paper presents recent efforts to improve ABSIM s compatibility with current operating systems, user interface, and analysis capabilities. The paper details the features and functions of the newly updated ABSIM software. The new ABSIM still uses the previously validated calculation engine of the old ABSIM. The new graphic user interfaces (GUI) were developed in Qt, which is an open source license GUI software based on C++. XML was used as the database for data storage in the new ABSIM. The new ABSIM has been designed to be easily learned and used. It has enhanced editing and construction functions, plus enhanced analysis features including parametric tables, plotting, property plots, and master panels for debugging. A single effect water/LiBr absorption system is used as a case study in this paper to illustrate the features, capabilities, and functions of the new ABSIM. This case study was actually an example system available in the old ABSIM. The new version of ABSIM will be continuously developed to include additional subroutines for the components in liquid desiccant systems. The new ABSIM will be available to public for free. The ultimate goal of the new ABSIM is to allow it to become a simulation platform for both absorption heat pump and liquid desiccant systems.

  15. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon...

  16. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  17. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  18. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian terrestrial carbon budget Open Access 3 , G. P.The Australian terrestrial carbon budget Luo, C. , Mahowald,terrestrial carbon budget Richards, G. P. , Borough, C. ,

  19. Insights into Energy Absorption Mechanisms in HierarchicalInsights into Energy Absorption Mechanisms in Hierarchical CarbonCarbon NanotubeNanotube ForestsForests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.1 VACNT foams Al foams Ceramic foams C foam Graphite foam FOAM MATERIALS Glass foam Aerated-002 0.1 VACNT foams Al foams Ceramic foams C foam Graphite foam FOAM MATERIALS Glass foam Aerated Concrete Phenolic foams Rigid Polymer foams Polyurethane foams Open Cell Closed Cell Microcellular

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. THERMODYNAMICS OF LOW-TEMPERATURE (700-850oC) HOT CORROSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, A.K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    funded low power hot corrosion studies. NRL MemorandumLOW-TEMPERATURE {700-850░C) HOT CORROSION A.K. Misra, D.P.TEMPERATURE (700-850" C) HOT CORROSION A.K. Misra and D.P.

  2. Nonlinear optical propagation in a tandem structure comprising nonlinear absorption and scattering materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kangpeng; Ju, Yongfeng; He, Jin; Zhang, Long, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Jun, E-mail: jwang@siom.ac.cn, E-mail: lzhang@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Chen, Yu [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Blau, Werner J. [Key Laboratory of Materials for High-Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); School of Physics and the Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser propagation in a tandem structure comprising carbon nanotubes and phthalocyanines is studied by Z-scan method. Due to the different mechanisms of the two materials, the laser beam can be attenuated with different absorptivities, by changing the sequence of light passing through each material. Numerical simulations considering the effect of path length and the change of nonlinear coefficient within each material are conducted for understanding the distribution of laser intensity in the tandem system and hence, fitting of the asymmetric Z-scan curves. The results are helpful for the design of nonlinear optical devices comprising multiple nonlinear materials and mechanisms.

  3. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220░C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400░C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  4. Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter.á

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ling

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of the instrument is only several centimeters. The long effective total path length ensures a high sensitivity that enables the ICAM to measure liquid mediums with low absorption. Compared to the conventional transmission type of instruments that were used...

  5. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  6. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle Containment in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Barbara J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modular, Scalable Cooling Systems with Hot Aisle ContainmentMODULAR, SCALABLE COOLING SYSTEMS WITH HOT AISLE CONTAINMENTINFORMATION ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING SYSTEMS AND

  7. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  8. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also in actively flying vertebrates. digestion gut morphometrics nutrient absorption paracellular uptake Birds have

  9. absorption cycle heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drive compressor heat pump; (3) absorption heat pump; (4) high temperature heat powered compressor heat pump; (5) reverse absorption heat... Erickson, D. C. 1983-01-01 First Page...

  10. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  11. absorption integrals measured: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The development of an integrating cavity absorption meter to measure optical absorption of pure waters and suspended particulates Texas...

  12. atomic absorption spectrophotometric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atomic absorption spectrophotometric First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Absorption...

  13. SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates Ě Project Objectives ş Build and demonstrate a pilot facility#12;SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES Quarterly Report to the Department of Energy, May 19 #12;DOE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates Ě Phase I ş Technology Development

  14. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh: Homework (1 for each week @10%): 40% Personal carbon account (report): 30% Final exam: 30% Course schedule Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major

  15. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    , scanning probes, nanoscale electronic devices, hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite., 1995). These properties make CNTs good candidates for many applications such as field emission devices on a nanostructured transition metal catalyst such as Co, Ni, or Fe. The growth mechanisms of CNTs are divided

  16. Thermodynamics of atmospheric circulation on hot Jupiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Goodman

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric circulation on tidally-locked exoplanets is driven by the absorption and reradiation of heat from the host star. They are natural heat engines, converting heat into mechanical energy. A steady state is possible only if there is a mechanism to dissipate mechanical energy, or if the redistribution of heat is so effective that the Carnot efficiency is driven to zero. Simulations based on primitive, equivalent-barotropic, or shallow-water equations without explicit provision for dissipation of kinetic energy and for recovery of that energy as heat, violate energy conservation. More seriously perhaps, neglect of physical sources of drag may overestimate wind speeds and rates of advection of heat from the day to the night side.

  17. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  18. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  19. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulchaey, John S. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E., E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.ed, E-mail: tesla@ucolick.or [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L {sub X}-L {sub K} relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L {sub K} {approx_lt} L {sub *} galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ROAD BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA OBJECTIVE AND APPROACH The objective of this project is the development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar

  1. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSORPTIVE RECYCLE OF DISTILLATION WASTE HEAT Donald C. Erickson and Edward J. Lutz Jr. Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature... which conserve 60 to 70%. Also, there are ver sions which incorporate separate low tem perature waste heat streams and thereby conserve over 90% of the required dis tillation energy. The main limitations of the R/AHP are the need for sufficient...

  2. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  3. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  4. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  5. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F. (Allentown, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs.

  6. Split-flow regeneration in absorptive air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, R.F.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical absorptive separation of air in multiple stage of absorption and desorption is performed with partial recycle of absorbent between stages of desorption necessary to match equilibrium conditions in the various stages of absorption. This allows reduced absorbent flow, reduced energy demand and reduced capital costs. 4 figs.

  7. On the Absorption and Emission Properties of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aigen Li

    2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Our current understanding of the absorption and emission properties of interstellar grains are reviewed. The constraints placed by the Kramers-Kronig relation on the wavelength-dependence and the maximum allowable quantity of the dust absorption are discussed. Comparisons of the opacities (mass absorption coefficients) derived from interstellar dust models with those directly estimated from observations are presented.

  8. Application of Quantitative Fluorescence and Absorption-Edge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Application of Quantitative Fluorescence and Absorption-Edge Computed Microtomography to Image, Chicago, Illinois 60637 This paper shows that synchrotron-based fluorescence and absorption-edge computed, which had a well-correlated metal coating. Absorption-edge CMT showed the three-dimensional distribution

  9. The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The role of solar absorption in climate and climate change William Collins UC Berkeley Research Boulder, Colorado, USA #12;2 Prior Research on Absorption and Climate Field Experiments: ┬Ě Central ┬Ě Climate with enhanced cloud absorption Synthesis of models and aerosol observations: ┬Ě Development

  10. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  11. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  12. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  13. Statistical Hot Channel Analysis for the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuadra A.; Baek J.

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical analysis of thermal limits has been carried out for the research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The objective of this analysis was to update the uncertainties of the hot channel factors with respect to previous analysis for both high-enriched uranium (HEU) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. Although uncertainties in key parameters which enter into the analysis are not yet known for the LEU core, the current analysis uses reasonable approximations instead of conservative estimates based on HEU values. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) were obtained for critical heat flux ratio (CHFR), and onset of flow instability ratio (OFIR). As was done previously, the Sudo-Kaminaga correlation was used for CHF and the Saha-Zuber correlation was used for OFI. Results were obtained for probability levels of 90%, 95%, and 99.9%. As an example of the analysis, the results for both the existing reactor with HEU fuel and the LEU core show that CHFR would have to be above 1.39 to assure with 95% probability that there is no CHF. For the OFIR, the results show that the ratio should be above 1.40 to assure with a 95% probability that OFI is not reached.

  14. Westinghouse hot gas particle filter system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Debski, V.L.; Morehead, H.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Cycles (PCFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation applications. Hot gas particulate filters (HGPF) are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PCFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical HGPF system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PCFB and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the status of Westinghouse`s HGPF commercialization programs including: A quick summary of past gasification based HGPF test programs; A summary of the integrated HGPF operation at the American Electric Power, Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Project with approximately 6000 hours of HGPF testing completed; A summary of approximately 3200 hours of HGPF testing at the Foster Wheeler (FW) 10 MW{sub e} facility located in Karhula, Finland; A summary of over 700 hours of HGPF operation at the FW 2 MW{sub e} topping PCFB facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; A summary of the design of the HGPFs for the DOE/Southern Company Services, Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; A summary of the design of the commercial-scale HGPF system for the Sierra Pacific, Pinon Pine IGCC Project; A review of completed testing and a summary of planned testing of Westinghouse HGPFs in Biomass IGCC applications; and A brief summary of the HGPF systems for the City of Lakeland, McIntosh Unit 4 PCFB Demonstration Project.

  15. Hot gas particle filter systems: Commercialization status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morehead, H.T.; Adams, V.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Yang, W.C.; Lippert, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCCs) and Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Cycles (PCFBs) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation applications. Hot gas particulate filters (HGPFs) are key components for the successful implementation of advanced IGCC and PCFB power generation cycles. The objective is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical HGPF system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PCFB and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the status of Westinghouse`s HGPF commercialization programs including: A quick summary of past gasification based HGPF test programs; A summary of the integrated HGPF operation at the American Electric Power, Tidd Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Demonstration Project with approximately 6,000 hours of HGPF testing completed; A summary of approximately 3,200 hours of HGPF testing at the Foster Wheeler (FW) 10 MWe PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; A summary of over 700 hours of HGPF operation at the FW 2 MWe topping PCFB facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; A summary of the design of the HGPFs for the DOE/Southern Company Services, Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; A summary of the design of the commercial-scale HGPF system for the Sierra Pacific, Pinon Pine IGCC Project; A review of completed testing and a summary of planned testing of Westinghouse HGPFs in Biomass IGCC applications; and A brief summary of the HGPF systems for the City of Lakeland, McIntosh Unit 4 PCFB Demonstration Project.

  16. The US Hot Dry Rock project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy project began in the early 1970's with the objective of developing a technology to make economically available the large ubiquitous thermal energy of the upper earth crust. The program has been funded by the Department of Energy (and its predecessors) and for a few years with participation by West Germany and Japan. An energy reservoir was accessed by drilling and hydraulically fracturing in the precambrian basement rock outside the Valles Caldera of north-central New Mexico. Water was circulated through the reservoir (Phase I, 1978-1980) producing up to 5 MWt at 132/sup 0/C. A second (Phase II) reservoir has been established with a deeper pair of holes and an initial flow test completed producing about 10 MWt at 190/sup 0/C. These accomplishments have been supported and paralleled by developments in drilling, well completion and instrumentation hardware. Acoustic or microseismic fracture mapping and geochemistry studies in addition to hydraulic and thermal data contribute to reservoir analyses. Studies of some of the estimated 430,000 quads of HDR resources in the United States have been made with special attention focused on sites most advantageous for early development.

  17. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  18. Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut fŘr Theoretische Physik, Universitńt Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut fŘr Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) F÷hringer Ring 6, D-80805 MŘnchen (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

  19. Gaseous Emissions From Steamboat Springs, Brady'S Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of concealed geologic structures. Ion chromatography, gas chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry have been used to...

  20. Atomic Carbon in the Envelopes of Carbon-Rich Post-AGB Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Knapp; M. Crosas; K. Young; Z. Ivezic

    1999-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic carbon has been detected in the envelopes of three carbon-rich evolved stars: HD 44179 (=AFGL 915, the `Red Rectangle'); HD 56126; and, tentatively, the carbon star V Hya. This brings to seven the number of evolved star envelopes in which CI has been detected. Upper limits were found for several other stars, including R CrB. CI was not detected in several oxygen rich post asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (OH231.8+4.2, for example), although it is detected in their carbon-rich analogues. Two trends are evident in the data. First, circumstellar envelopes with detectable CI are overwhelmingly carbon rich, suggesting that much of the CI is produced by the dissociation of molecules other than CO. Second, the more evolved the envelope away from the AGB, the higher is the CI/CO ratio. The oxygen-rich supergiant star Alpha Ori remains the only oxygen rich star with a wind containing detectable CI. These data suggest an evolutionary sequence for the CI/CO ratio in cool circumstellar envelopes. This ratio is small (a few %) while the star is on the AGB, and the CI is located in the outer envelope and produced by photodissociation. The ratio increases to about 0.5 as the star evolves away from the AGB because of the dissociation of CO and other carbon-bearing molecules by shocks caused by the fast winds which appear at the end of evolution on the AGB. Finally, the ratio becomes >> 1 as the central star becomes hot enough to photodissociate CO.

  1. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  4. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. The Hydrotreatment Facility is being prepared for trials with coal liquids. Raw coal tar distillate trials have been carried out by heating coal tar in the holding tank in the Hydrotreatment Facility. The liquids are centrifuged to warm the system up in preparation for the coal liquids. The coal tar distillate is then recycled to keep the centrifuge hot. In this way, the product has been distilled such that a softening point of approximately 110 C is reached. Then an ash test is conducted.

  6. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

  7. DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    II: How to Get it Right DOE ZERH Webinar: Efficient Hot Water Distribution II: How to Get it Right Watch the video or view the presentation slides below Zero Energy Ready Homes...

  8. A Preliminary Study Of Older Hot Spring Alteration In Sevenmile...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal activity has been ongoing since at least that time. A northwest-trending linear array of extinct and active hot spring centers in the Sevenmile Hole area implies a...

  9. Ground Gravity Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Springs. Data from these surveys will be integrated with older data from Chevron Minerals 1979 drill hole. Notes The gravity survey covered an area of approximately 34 km2...

  10. CUTTING -WELDING -HOT WORKS REQUIRED NOTIFICATION TO CUFD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    CUTTING - WELDING - HOT WORKS REQUIRED NOTIFICATION TO CUFD Instructions: Fill out this form in its Time for work: Description of Work: Brazing Roofing Sweating WeldingSolderingCutting Other

  11. Tool for Generating Realistic Residential Hot Water Event Schedules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, B.; Burch, J.; Barker, G.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installed energy savings for advanced residential hot water systems can depend greatly on detailed occupant use patterns. Quantifying these patterns is essential for analyzing measures such as tankless water heaters, solar hot water systems with demand-side heat exchangers, distribution system improvements, and recirculation loops. This paper describes the development of an advanced spreadsheet tool that can generate a series of year-long hot water event schedules consistent with realistic probability distributions of start time, duration and flow rate variability, clustering, fixture assignment, vacation periods, and seasonality. This paper also presents the application of the hot water event schedules in the context of an integral-collector-storage solar water heating system in a moderate climate.

  12. Suppression of Dilepton Production in Hot Hadronic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, C.; Lee, S. H.; Ko, Che Ming.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -meson resonance is suppressed as a result of the modification of the pion electromagnetic form factor at finite temperature. The relevance of this phenomenon to the partial restoration of chiral symmetry in hot hadronic matter is discussed....

  13. Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the campus loops and the building loops. Some optimization of the plant chiller 1 boiler operation is also necessary and beneficial. In general, through Continuous Commissioning, chilled water and hot water loop temperature differences will be improved...

  14. A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beamish, Anne, 1954-

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

  15. Geology and Geothermal Potential of the Roosevelt Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area, Beaver County, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Thesis: Geology and Geothermal Potential of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Beaver...

  16. Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin and Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brophy br Model br Moeck br Beardsmore br Type br Volume br Geothermal br Region Mean br Reservoir br Temp br Mean br Capacity Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin...

  17. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Hot and Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Y.; Erwine, B.; Leonard, P.; Pease, B.; Dole, A.; Lee, A.

    Hot and humid climates present some of the most complex challenges for sustainable building designs. High temperatures coupled with high humidity create extreme comfort problems and exacerbate the potential for condensation, mold and mildew...

  18. Drilling Complete on Australian Hot Dry Rock Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first commercial attempt to create a commercial geothermal power plant using hot dry rock technology reached a crucial milestone on January 22, when a production well successfully reached its target depth.

  19. alamos hot cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our results indicate that the radiative eff... Xie, Fu-Guo 2012-01-01 270 Thursday 21 October 1999 physics : Bubbling hot Chemistry Websites Summary: is the consequence of waves...

  20. Process characterization of a PMMA hot embossing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luginbuhl, Katharine

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidics devices are important both for research use and medical application. To create these microfluidics devices, the hot embossing process is commonly used. In order to characterize this process to enable cycle ...