National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for horizontal solar radiation

  1. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  2. Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Pacific Northwest Solar Radiation Data UO SOLAR MONITORING LAB Physics Department -- Solar Energy Center 1274 University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403-1274 April 1, 1999 #12;Hourly solar radiation data can be obtained from the University of Oregon Solar Moni- toring Laboratory after obtaining permission

  3. Solar radiation intensity calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01

    , radiation per unit area per unit time, on a flat-plate collector is given by: I = I cos B (2. 1a) where I is the solar constant. insolation received at one astro- nomical unit from the sun. Since clear sky conditions are assumed I o w i 1 1 b e a.... INSOLATION EQUATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page III. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDIX VITA 25 47 48 52 Vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. Optimal Inclination for Ap=O, No Checks for Ip &0 and a Time Independent Solar Constant. II. Optimal...

  4. Transient horizontal magnetic fields in solar plage regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ishikawa; S. Tsuneta; K. Ichimoto; H. Isobe; Y. Katsukawa; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-02-13

    We report the discovery of isolated, small-scale emerging magnetic fields in a plage region with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out with a cadence of 34 seconds for the plage region located near disc center. The vector magnetic fields are inferred by Milne-Eddington inversion. The observations reveal widespread occurrence of transient, spatially isolated horizontal magnetic fields. The lateral extent of the horizontal magnetic fields is comparable to the size of photospheric granules. These horizontal magnetic fields seem to be tossed about by upflows and downflows of the granular convection. We also report an event that appears to be driven by the magnetic buoyancy instability. We refer to buoyancy-driven emergence as type1 and convection-driven emergence as type2. Although both events have magnetic field strengths of about 600 G, the filling factor of type1 is a factor of two larger than that of type2. Our finding suggests that the granular convection in the plage regions is characterized by a high rate of occurrence of granular-sized transient horizontal fields.

  5. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  6. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Igari, and W. Warta, “Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version56326 High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells Finalprototype high efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use

  7. Solar Radiation and Asteroidal Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Klacka

    2000-09-07

    Effects of solar wind and solar electromagnetic radiation on motion of asteroids are discussed. The results complete the statements presented in Vokrouhlick\\'{y} and Milani (2000). As for the effect of electromagnetic radiation, the complete equation of motion is presented to the first order in $v/c$ -- the shape of asteroid (spherical body is explicitly presented) and surface distribution of albedo should be taken into account. Optical quantities must be calculated in proper frame of reference.

  8. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  9. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal an electrical current when illuminated by light­ also called a solar cell Photovoltaic Module A group

  10. Spectrum of Magnetic Dissipation and Horizontal Electric Currents in the Solar Photosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentyna Abramenko

    2008-06-09

    A proxy for horizontal electric currents in the solar photosphere was suggested. For a set of evolving active regions (ARs) observed with {\\it Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)} Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) in the high resolution mode, the dissipation spectrum, $k^2E(k)$, and the spatial structure of dissipation, i.e., the Stokes dissipation function $\\epsilon(x,y)$, were calculated from the observed $B_z$ component of the magnetic field. These functions allowed us to calculate (a part of) the horizontal electric current density in the photosphere. It was shown that as an active region emerges, large-scale horizontal electric currents are gradually generated and determine a bulk of dissipation. When an active region decays, the large-scale horizontal currents decay faster than the small-scale ones. The density of horizontal currents in active regions is in the range of $ \\sim (0.008 - 0.028)$ A/m$^2$, that is compatible with the density of vertical currents in active regions. We suggest two possible mechanisms for generation of such horizontal currents in the photosphere. One of them is the drift motions of charged particles in the medium of varying plasma pressure gradient in a horizontal plane at the periphery of a sunspot. Such a drift can produce quasi-circular closed horizontal currents around sunspots. Another possibility could be an existence of horizontal axial current inside a highly twisted horizontal magnetic structure laying in the photosphere along the magnetic neutral line. The horizontal currents may contribute significantly to the dynamics of the photosphere/corona coupling, as well as the estimation of non-potentiality of ARs.

  11. VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    18 VII. SOLAR RADIATION DATA COMPARISONS In this section some of the solar radiation data gathered by the UO Solar Monitoring Network is presented in tabular and pictorial form and related to similar information from other Western U.S. sites. A comparison of the amount of incident solar radiation is made us

  12. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    of solar radiation based on satellite data. Proc. ISESsolar radiation: a statistical approach using satellite data.

  13. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.

  14. Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation and Evapotranspiration In Puerto Ricoand Evapotranspiration In Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Estimating GroundEstimating Ground--Level Solar RadiationLevel Solar Radiation radiation, therefore, solar radiation measurements throughout the island are essential. #12;Currently, including solar radiation ·In PR, solar radiation is only available at selected locations. · The majority

  15. Modeling and Analysis of Solar Radiation Potentials on Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Kodysh, Jeffrey B [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The active application of photovoltaic for electricity generation could effectively transform neighborhoods and commercial districts into small, localized power plants. This application, however, relies heavily on an accurate estimation of the amount of solar radiation that is available on individual building rooftops. While many solar energy maps exist at higher spatial resolution for concentrated solar energy applications, the data from these maps are not suitable for roof-mounted photovoltaic for several reasons, including lack of data at the appropriate spatial resolution and lack of integration of building-specific characteristics into the models used to generate the maps. To address this problem, we have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic systems. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called solar panel sweet spots on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  16. Solar Radiation and Meteorological Data Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    -9 2011March 8 9, 2011 #12;LISF Solar Radiation and Meteorological Sensor Network ·· Technology Needs:TechnologyCharacterize the solar resource potential for feasibility assessment of centralized PV solarfeasibility assessment of centralized PV solar gene ating facilities in the No theastgene ating facilities in the No theastgenerating

  17. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  18. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    of existing solar radiation data and recommendations for thesolar radiation from measured horizontal solar data. I.A.2 (Solar Rad·iation Ana·lysis of exi nc :;:; ;;;- radiation data

  19. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  20. Absorption of solar radiation by solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Duplancic; P. Minkowski; J. Trampetic

    2004-03-22

    We calculate the absorption probability of photons radiated from the surface of the Sun by a left-handed neutrino with definite mass and a typical momentum for which we choose |p_1|=0.2 MeV, producing a heavier right-handed antineutrino. Considering two transitions the \

  1. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  2. The European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : solar water heaters, passive solar buildings, photovoltaic cells and biomass production. In each caseThe European Solar Radiation Atlas 1 Page J., M. Albuisson, L. Wald, 2001. The European solar radiation atlas: a valuable digital tool. Solar Energy, 71, 81-83, 2001.1 The European Solar Radiation Atlas

  3. Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  4. Part 1. Energy and Mass Solar Radiation and the Seasons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Youmin

    Part 1. Energy and Mass Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and the Seasons #12;Introduction Solar Radiation radiation = 10 m peak #12;#12;The Solar Constant Energy intensity decreases in proportion to the distance of the Earth's Seasons Orbital alignment to the Sun = seasonal variations in solar energy Revolution

  5. Radiative cooling of solar cells LINXIAO ZHU,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Radiative cooling of solar cells LINXIAO ZHU,1 AASWATH RAMAN,2 KEN XINGZE WANG,1 MARC ABOU ANOMA,3. We introduce a general approach to radiatively lower the operating temperature of a solar cell for the radiative cooling of solar cells. For an example case of a bare crystalline silicon solar cell, we show

  6. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  7. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    2011-09-01

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  8. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  9. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument of Energy (DoE). Objectives · Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations · Develop a Solar Energy Resources · Offer Unique Training Methods for Solar Monitoring Network Design, Operation

  11. Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Spencer

    LETTER Solar radiation decreases parasitism in Daphnia Erin P. Overholt,1 * Spencer R. Hall,2 Craig spores but did not affect host susceptibility to infection. The parasiteÕs sensitivity to solar radiation may underlie patterns in a lake survey: higher penetration of solar radiation into lakes correlated

  12. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    22] NREL , National Solar Radiation Data Base, http://data not be available, Table 1 contains direct solar beam radiation

  13. III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    indicator of the amount of useful energy that a solar energy system can collect. The variations of monthly5 III. VALUE OF LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Long-term solar radiation data sets are scarce due to the considerable effort and expense of data gathering. Long-term (30-year) solar ra- diation data sets

  14. A STARMA MODEL FOR SOLAR RADIATION Chris Glasbey & Dave Allcroft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasbey, Chris

    Scotland #12;QUESTION: If the Pentland Hills were covered with solar panels how would energy output varyA STARMA MODEL FOR SOLAR RADIATION Chris Glasbey & Dave Allcroft Biomathematics & Statistics? Solar radiation was measured at 10 sites every 10 minutes for a month 2 #12;3 #12;PLAN 1. Transformation

  15. A new correlation between solar energy radiation and some atmospheric parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Antonio; Bonnici, Maurizio; Madonia, Mauro; Trancossi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The energy balance for an atmospheric layer near the soil is evaluated. By integrating it over the whole day period a linear relationship between the global daily solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface and the product of the sunshine hours at clear sky with the maximum temperature variation in the day is achieved. The results show a comparable accuracy with some well recognized solar energy models such as the \\ang-Prescott one, at least for Mediterranean climatic area. Validation of the result has been performed using old dataset which are almost contemporary and relative to the same sites with the ones used for comparison.

  16. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY)have used measured solar radiation data instead of clear-skySolar Radiation Database, 1991-2005 Update. solar/old_data/

  17. The equation of radiative transfer in the solar interior (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsytovich, V N; De Angelis, U; Forlani, A

    1995-01-01

    The equation of radiative transfer in the solar interior (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

  18. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-10-22

    The direct gap of the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N alloy system extends continuously from InN (0.7 eV, in the near IR) to GaN (3.4 eV, in the mid-ultraviolet). This opens the intriguing possibility of using this single ternary alloy system in single or multi-junction (MJ) solar cells of the type used for space-based surveillance satellites. To evaluate the suitability of In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N as a material for space applications, high quality thin films were grown with molecular beam epitaxy and extensive damage testing with electron, proton, and alpha particle radiation was performed. Using the room temperature photoluminescence intensity as a indirect measure of minority carrier lifetime, it is shown that In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N retains its optoelectronic properties at radiation damage doses at least 2 orders of magnitude higher than the damage thresholds of the materials (GaAs and GaInP) currently used in high efficiency MJ cells. This indicates that the In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N is well-suited for the future development of ultra radiation-hard optoelectronics. Critical issues affecting development of solar cells using this material system were addressed. The presence of an electron-rich surface layer in InN and In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}N (0 < x < 0.63) was investigated; it was shown that this is a less significant effect at large x. Evidence of p-type activity below the surface in Mg-doped InN was obtained; this is a significant step toward achieving photovoltaic action and, ultimately, a solar cell using this material.

  19. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    efficiency multijunction (MJ) solar cells use componentsin current multijunction (MJ) solar cells (GaAs and GaInP)

  20. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  1. Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation belt electrons respond to multiple solar wind inputs E. J. Rigler,1 M. Wiltberger,1 and D is clearly valuable from a practical standpoint, but the latter helps build confidence in any physical on the fractional or percent variance of radiation belt electron flux that can be attributed to each different solar

  2. Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar radiation management impacts on agriculture in China: A case study in the Geoengineering-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan Abstract Geoengineering via solar radiation management could affect agricultural productivity due to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

  3. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dunlop, PV-GIS: a web-based solar radiation database for the2010. 10. NREL, National Solar Radiation Database, 1991-200514. S. Wilcox, National solar radiation database 1991-2005

  4. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Parsons K. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-K. The effects of solar radiation on thermal comfort.exposed to the solar radiation - a generalised algorithm.

  5. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  6. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  7. High efficiency, radiation-hard solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager III, J.W.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2004-01-01

    M. , “III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present andand fabricating multi-junction solar cells using a singleanalysis of multi-junction space solar cells,” Nuc. Instrum.

  8. Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    *In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

  9. Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

  10. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and PWV, temperature, and pressure data are also combined with the MMAC model to simulate solar radiation under clear-sky conditions. The current NSRDB update is based on a 4-km x 4-km resolution at a 30-minute time interval, which has a higher temporal and spatial resolution. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the data set using ground-measured data and detailed evaluation statistics. The result of the comparison shows a good correlation to the NSRDB data set. Further, an outline of the new version of the NSRDB and future plans for enhancement and improvement are provided.

  11. Denoising solar radiation data using coiflet wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul Janier, Josefina B. Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Hasan, Mohammad Khatim; Sulaiman, Jumat; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-10-24

    Signal denoising and smoothing plays an important role in processing the given signal either from experiment or data collection through observations. Data collection usually was mixed between true data and some error or noise. This noise might be coming from the apparatus to measure or collect the data or human error in handling the data. Normally before the data is use for further processing purposes, the unwanted noise need to be filtered out. One of the efficient methods that can be used to filter the data is wavelet transform. Due to the fact that the received solar radiation data fluctuates according to time, there exist few unwanted oscillation namely noise and it must be filtered out before the data is used for developing mathematical model. In order to apply denoising using wavelet transform (WT), the thresholding values need to be calculated. In this paper the new thresholding approach is proposed. The coiflet2 wavelet with variation diminishing 4 is utilized for our purpose. From numerical results it can be seen clearly that, the new thresholding approach give better results as compare with existing approach namely global thresholding value.

  12. Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of solar radiation management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Kelly E

    Solar radiation management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to alleviate the climate impacts of ongoing anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, its efficacy depends on its indefinite maintenance, without ...

  13. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2010 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    This user's manual provides information on the updated 1991-2010 National Solar Radiation Database. Included are data format descriptions, data sources, production processes, and information about data uncertainty.

  14. National Solar Radiation Database 1991-2005 Update: User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.

    2007-04-01

    This manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data products from the updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This is an update of the original 1961-1990 NSRDB released in 1992.

  15. Frank Vignola Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    (independent power producer) electric generating facility (e.g., gas turbines, etc.). In the mid-1980s, solar prompted utilities to either build their own solar generating facilities or, more often, enter into firm there was a hiatus in building large solar thermal electric facilities. Ten years ago, photovoltaic (PV) systems

  16. The optimization of solar radiation upon a rectangular building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, James Allen

    1973-01-01

    THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN INGLF. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19... 3 Major Subjeoti Meteorology THE OPTIMIZATION OF SOLAR RADIATION UPON A RECTANGULAR BUILDING A Thesis by JAILS ALLEN INGLE Approved as to style and content bye Cha an of ittee Mr, ' ohn F, Griffiths Member Dro Robert CD Runnels Head...

  17. Solar and Photovoltaic Data from the University of Oregon Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory (UO SRML)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The UO SRML is a regional solar radiation data center whose goal is to provide sound solar resource data for planning, design, deployment, and operation of solar electric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. The laboratory has been in operation since 1975. Solar data includes solar resource maps, cumulative summary data, daily totals, monthly averages, single element profile data, parsed TMY2 data, and select multifilter radiometer data. A data plotting program and other software tools are also provided. Shade analysis information and contour plots showing the effect of tilt and orientation on annual solar electric system perfomance make up a large part of the photovoltaics data.(Specialized Interface)

  18. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    2004. [3] Blum HF. Solar heat load, its relationship to theS, Parsons K. The effects of solar radiation on thermalParsons K. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-

  19. Solar neutrinos radiative corrections in neutrino-electron scattering experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, J N; Sirlin, A; Bahcall, John N; Kamionkowski, Marc; Sirlin, Alberto

    1995-01-01

    Radiative corrections to the electron recoil-energy spectra and to total cross sections are computed for neutrino-electron scattering by solar neutrinos. Radiative corrections change monotonically the electron recoil spectrum for incident \\b8 neutrinos, with the relative probability of observing recoil electrons being reduced by about 4 \\% at the highest electron energies. For p-p and \\be7 neutrinos, the recoil spectra are not affected significantly. Total cross sections for solar neutrino-electron scattering are reduced by about 2 \\% compared to previously computed values. We also calculate the recoil spectra from ^{13}N and ^{15}O neutrinos including radiative corrections.

  20. 12th North America Bangla Literature and Culture Convention 2010 (NABLCC10) EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    scatters and burns part of the incoming particles. However, the visible and near-infrared solar radiation penetrate through the earth's atmosphere. Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere and Grrenhouse Effect The solar a fine energy balance for thousands of years. It radiates back in to space the same amount of solar

  1. VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    VARIABILITY OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA OVER SHORT TIME INTERVALS Frank Vignola Department of Physics ra- diation. This article examines at the variability of beam and global solar radiation over short solar radiation values with ground-based data. 1. INTRODUCTION It is difficult to evaluate solar

  2. Solar Radiation Pressure and Deviations from Keplerian Orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Justin F. Vazquez-Poritz

    2009-04-15

    Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.

  3. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Information Technology, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  4. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    at high photon energies. · Water vapor, CO2, absorb in infra-red. ­ Clouds, other local variation its spectral irradiance ­ Calculate properties of black body radiation: Max temperature, total power · Outline ­ Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts ­ Solar Spectrum ­ Terrestrial

  5. Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

  6. SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    SOLAR RADIATION DURABILITY OF MATERIALS, COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS Myles P. Murray 1 exposed photovoltaic materials, is defined as the rate of photodarkening or photobleaching of a material testing. The potential to predict power losses in a photovoltaic system over time caused

  7. FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    a limited evaluation of its performance against ground-measured and satellite-derived irradiances in AlbanyFORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION -- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH BASED UPON THE NATIONAL NREL, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80841 stephen_wilcox@nrel.gov Antoine Zelenka Meteosuisse

  8. Simple radiative neutrino mass matrix for solar and atmospheric oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, E

    1995-01-01

    A simple 3 X 3 neutrino Majorana mass matrix is proposed to accommodate both the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits. This scenario can be realized naturally by a radiative mechanism for the generation of neutrino masses. It also goes together naturally with electroweak baryogenesis and cold dark matter in a specific model.

  9. Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    S1 Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties..................................................................................................7 Figure S3. A typical solar and spectral flux density of radiation, D0(), from the irradiation

  10. Progress on an Updated National Solar Radiation Data Base: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Anderberg, M.; George, R.; Marion, W.; Myers, D.; Renne, D.; Beckman, W.; DeGaetano, A.; Gueymard, C.; Perez, R.; Plantico, M.; Stackhouse, P.; Vignola, F.

    2004-03-01

    In 1992, The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the 1961-1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB), a 30-year set of hourly solar radiation data. In April 2003, NREL convened a meeting of experts to investigate issues concerning a proposed update of the NSRDB. The panel determined that an important difficulty posed by the update was the shift from manual to automated cloud observations at National Weather Service stations in the United States. The solar model used in the original NSRDB relied heavily on the methodology and resolution of the manual cloud observations. The meeting participants recommended that NREL produce a plan for creating an update using currently available meteorological observations and satellite imagery. This paper describes current progress toward a plan for an updated NSRDB.

  11. A path to practical Solar Pumped Lasers via Radiative Energy Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reusswig, Philip D.

    The optical conversion of incoherent solar radiation into a bright, coherent laser beam enables the application of nonlinear optics to solar energy conversion and storage. Here, we present an architecture for solar pumped ...

  12. Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, JP; Guenther, AB; Turnipseed, A

    2009-01-01

    ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City duringand solar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico

  13. EXPLOITATION OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES THROUGH A SMART NETWORK: THE PROJECT SODA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ) Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Germany) Abstract ­ The project SoDa answers the needs of raw data. 1. INTRODUCTION Information on solar radiation is a critical issue for the use of solar energy. Solar radiation is measured by ground networks of measuring stations, but well- controlled

  14. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data, J. A. (2012) Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study Access Solar ultraviolet-B radiation and vitamin D: a cross-sectional population-based study using data

  15. ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE between the methods. A comparison between estimated and observed solar radiation is also presented for the period April 1 through June 21, 2009, which indicates a need for calibration of the solar radiation

  16. Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value ($0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit, J. Geophys. Res

  17. On the incident solar radiation in CMIP5 models Linjiong Zhou1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minghua

    On the incident solar radiation in CMIP5 models Linjiong Zhou1,2,3 , Minghua Zhang3,4 , Qing Bao1 of Sciences, Beijing, China Abstract Annual incident solar radiation at the top of atmosphere should solar radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is the most important forcing of the climate system

  18. IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    8 IV. STATION CONFIGURATION AND SENSOR COMPARISONS Comparison of solar radiation data gathered of the instruments used to monitor the incident solar radiation. Five types of so- lar sensors and several different data loggers have been used to gather the solar radiation data presented in this data book

  19. 794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    794 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Mycology Effect of Solar Radiation on Severity of Soybean Rust Heather M. Young., and Marois, J. J. 2012. Effect of solar radiation on disease severity of soybean rust. Phytopathology 102). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how

  20. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasbey, Chris

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  1. Search for possible solar neutrino radiative decays during total solar eclipses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cecchini, S; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Popa, V

    2006-01-01

    Total solar eclipses (TSEs) offer a good opportunity to look for photons produced in possible radiative decays of solar neutrinos. In this paper we briefly review the physics bases of such searches as well as the existing limits on the neutrino proper lifetimes obtained by such experiments. We the report on the observations performed in occasion of the 29 March 2006 TSE, from Waw an Namos, Libya.

  2. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Solar Data a. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide aAppendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. Convers

  3. Non-radiative synthesis of Be7 in solar plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Shevchenko; S. A. Rakityansky; S. A. Sofianos; V. B. Belyaev

    1998-04-09

    The nuclear reaction e + He3 + He4 ---> e + Be7 is considered at thermonuclear energies. The motion of the electron is treated within the adiabatic approximation and the He3-He4 scattering state is calculated using an effective He3-He4 potential constructed via the Marchenko inverse scattering method. The reaction rate thus obtained for solar interior conditions is approximately 10^{-4} of the corresponding rate for the radiative capture He3 + He4 ----> Be7 + gamma. However, at the conditions corresponding to the early stages of the primordial nucleosynthesis, the non-radiative fusion is five times faster than the radiative one. The importance of the non-radiative processes for the energy balance in the sun, which for electrons is totally opaque, is discussed.

  4. ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ENERGY-SPECIFIC SOLAR RADIATION DATA FROM MSG: CURRENT STATUS OF THE HELIOSAT-3 PROJECT Marion Solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, passive solar heating and operating of solar energy systems and as basis data set for electricity load forecasting. Both long term

  5. Evolution of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S

    2013-01-01

    -11-01 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Evaluation of Meteorological Base Models for Estimating Hourly Global Solar Radiation in Texas Kee Han..., U.S.A. Abstract Building thermal performance and potential solar applications depend on the quality of the solar resource data available. Unfortunately, most of the locations do not account for measured solar radiation data and, as a result, rely...

  6. Prediction of Solar Radiation on Building Rooftops: A Data-Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Kodysh, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. The accurate measurement of solar radiation data is essential for optimum site selection of future distributed solar power plants as well as sizing photovoltaic systems. However, solar radiation data are not readily available because measured sequences of radiation values are obtained for a few locations in a country. When the data are available, they are usually at different time periods and spatial scale. The availability of solar radiation data at hourly or daily time scale will enhance the integration of solar energy into electricity generation and promote a sustainable energy future. The ability to generate approximate solar radiation values is often the only practical way to obtain radiation data at hourly or daily time scale. As a result, several models have been developed for estimating solar radiation values based on analytical, numerical simulation, and statistical approaches. However, these models have inherent challenges. We will discuss some of those challenges in this paper. To enhance the prediction of solar radiation values, a novel approach is presented for estimating solar radiation values using support vector machine technique. The approach accounts for unique characteristics that influence solar radiation values. The preliminary results obtained offer useful insights for model enhancements.

  7. Are energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    . Mewaldt6 Abstract. Using data from WIND, SAMPEX (Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer the outer radiation belt electrons. Al- though lower energy electrons in the solar wind could be a seedAre energetic electrons in the solar wind the source of the outer radiation belt? Xinlin Li,1 D. N

  8. Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data A Review of Current European

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    . In addition, the potential of satellite data for short-term forecasting of solar irradiance is briefly for surface solar irradiance estiumation is not new Largely applied for climate research, global radiativeSatellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data ­ A Review of Current European

  9. Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Radiative Heating and the Buoyant Rise of Magnetic Flux Tubes in the Solar Interior Y. Fan National the e ect of radiative heating on the evolution of thin magnetic ux tubes in the solar interior Solar Observatoryy, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719. G. H. Fisher Space Sciences Laboratory, Univ

  10. Some Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature and energySolving the Unsovlable:Results of

  11. Solar surface emerging flux regions: a comparative study of radiative MHD modeling and Hinode SOT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. M. Cheung; M. Schuessler; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-10-31

    We present results from numerical modeling of emerging flux regions on the solar surface. The modeling was carried out by means of 3D radiative MHD simulations of the rise of buoyant magnetic flux tubes through the convection zone and into the photosphere. Due to the strong stratification of the convection zone, the rise results in a lateral expansion of the tube into a magnetic sheet, which acts as a reservoir for small-scale flux emergence events at the scale of granulation. The interaction of the convective downflows and the rising magnetic flux undulates it to form serpentine field lines emerging into the photosphere. Observational characteristics including the pattern of emerging flux regions, the cancellation of surface flux and associated high speed downflows, the convective collapse of photospheric flux tubes, the appearance of anomalous darkenings, the formation of bright points and the possible existence of transient kilogauss horizontal fields are discussed in the context of new observations from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. Implications for the local helioseismology of emerging flux regions are also discussed.

  12. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  13. Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar updated. Index Terms- CRATERRE project, Radiation belts activity, Space environment I. INTRODUCTION

  14. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux, and A. J. Klimas (2005), Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important

  15. Spatial Evidence for Transition Radiation in a Solar Radio Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelu M. Nita; Dale E. Gary; Gregory D. Fleishman

    2005-07-10

    Microturbulence, i.e. enhanced fluctuations of plasma density, electric and magnetic fields, is of great interest in astrophysical plasmas, but occurs on spatial scales far too small to resolve by remote sensing, e.g., at ~ 1-100 cm in the solar corona. This paper reports spatially resolved observations that offer strong support for the presence in solar flares of a suspected radio emission mechanism, resonant transition radiation, which is tightly coupled to the level of microturbulence and provides direct diagnostics of the existence and level of fluctuations on decimeter spatial scales. Although the level of the microturbulence derived from the radio data is not particularly high, /n^2 ~ 10^{-5}$, it is large enough to affect the charged particle diffusion and give rise to effective stochastic acceleration. This finding has exceptionally broad astrophysical implications since modern sophisticated numerical models predict generation of much stronger turbulence in relativistic objects, e.g., in gamma-ray burst sources.

  16. Improving the reliability and accuracy of a multipyranometer array measuring solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Peter Miloslaw

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of solar radiation is crucial for the use of solar energy in fields including power generation, agriculture and meteorology. In the building sciences, It is essential for daylighting studies, energy use calculations, and thermal...

  17. Detection of Atmospheric Cherenkov Radiation Using Solar Heliostat Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rene A. Ong; the STACEE Collaboration

    1996-05-06

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  18. Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, R A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  19. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  20. National Solar Radiation Data Bases (NSRDB): 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2005

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Solar Radiation Data Base 1961-1990 (NSRDB) contains 30 years of solar radiation and supplementary meteorological data from 237 NWS sites in the U.S., plus sites in Guam and Puerto Rico. The updated 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Database holds solar and meteorological data for 1,454 locations in the United States and its territories. See also the interactive data maps for the 1961 to 1990 data at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1961-1990/redbook/atlas/.

  1. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR increases significantly after exposure of CDOM to solar radiation.4,9,10,11­13 This increase in bacterial

  2. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  3. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  4. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1996-01-01

    Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1051--1059 (1996) EGS -- Springer-Verlag 1996 Diffuse solar radiation: 15 May 1996/Accepted: 27 May 1996 Abstract. Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis

  5. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  6. Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Modeling the radiation belt electrons with radial diffusion driven by the solar wind A. B. Barker1 October 2005. [1] On the basis of the correlation between the solar wind and radiation belt electron fluxes, we develop a model to simulate the MeV electron phase space density variations from L = 3 to L

  7. Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Zhongping

    Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters (2005), Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: A numerical model for oceanic and coastal; Siegel et al., 1995] have demonstrated that the penetration of EVIS in the upper layer of the ocean plays

  8. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  9. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  10. Tethered balloon-based soundings of ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City during MIRAGE-MEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, JP; Guenther, AB; Turnipseed, A

    2009-01-01

    ozone, aerosols, and solar radiation near Mexico City duringsolar radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer on the northern edge of Mexico

  11. SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    for this systems. Depending on the application, prediction of solar irradiance is beneficial on different timeSHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS Annette Solar World Congress. This portion of the paper is the abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250

  12. GEOGRAPHY 104 BOUNDARY LAYER CLIMATES Assignment #4: Solar Radiation on Angled Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : You are designing a solar collector for your own residence in Los Angeles: a). Draw 2 diagrams one radiation absorption in all seasons. Where would be the best place to put a solar collector and to what drawn for Part a, indicate how you would adjust your solar collector for obstruction due to the presence

  13. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    data for proposed or actual concentrating solar energyconcentrating solar energy systems. In this paper data from

  14. Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsytovich, V N; De Angelis, U; Forlani, A

    1995-01-01

    Collective plasma effects in scattering of radiation in astrophysical plasmas (Collective plasma processes and the solar neutrino problem)

  15. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  16. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01

    ls determined by a four parameter system including the two parameters which characterize the transmission of the direct solar radiation. The four parameter model ls )ustified in terms of actual measurements for clear sky conditions. The system... Sketch Illustrating Coordinate System, . 39 4, 2 The Coordinate System Used to Describe the Multiple Scattering Radiation Field 41 4, 3 Optical Thickness Coordinate Schematic of the Zv + 2 Radiant Fluxes of the Diffuse Radiation Field Model 47 4. 5...

  17. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    forecasts in the US. Solar Energy 84, 2161–2172. Velden,a total sky imager at the UCSan Diego solar energy testbed.Solar Energy 85, 2881–2893. Durre, I. , Vose, R.S. , Wuertz,

  18. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft of 0.33 0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated more solar radiation than is predicted by theory [e.g., Stephens and Tsay 1990]. Recently, and nearly

  19. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 43.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4­3.5 billion years ago 2007. [1] Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1­320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels

  20. PERSPECTIVE www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Effects of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    species and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., lakes, rivers, marshes, oceans). Solar UV radiation penetrates and high to mid latitudes have aroused concern about the effects of increased solar UV-B radiation of low temperatures.7 Exposure to solar UV radiation can reduce productivity, affect reproduction

  1. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    evaluating short-term predictions of solar irradiance at theSolar and photovoltaic forecasting through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numer- ical weather prediction

  2. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ABSTRACT: Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system...

  3. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  4. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    of the International Solar Energy Society, Philadelphia, PA,of the International Solar Energy Society, Atlanta, Ga. ,of the International Solar Energy Society, Phoenix, Ariz. ,

  5. Solar2014: The 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council 1 Open cavity receiver geometry influence on radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems, the receiver, placed at the focus of the light-concentrator, absorbs concentrated solar radiation at high temperatures. Using ray-tracing and a stochastic optimisation method with comparable radiative performances. 1 - Open cavity receivers losses in concentrated solar applications

  6. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    Perfor- mance of Focusing Collectors," Solar Energy ResearchCollectors," Proceedings of the 1979 International Congress of the International Solar

  7. Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yuh-Ing

    Statistical investigation of the saturation effect in the ionospheric foF2 versus sunspot, solar radio noise, and solar EUV radiation J. Y. Liu Institute of Space Science and Center for Space in the ionospheric foF2 due to sunspot number R, solar radio noise (10.7 cm) flux F10.7, and solar EUV fluxes

  8. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  9. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  10. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  11. An improved multipyranometer array for the measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, Bryce Kirtley

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an improved multipyranometer array (NDA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diff-use solar radiation. The NWA described in this thesis is an improvement over ...

  12. An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an improved multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous remote measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over previously published MPA ...

  13. ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM SOLAR RADIATION DATA Gayathri Vijayakumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    . Beckman University of Wisconsin-Solar Energy Laboratory 1500 Engineering Drive Madison, WI, 53706 USA. Simulation studies of solar energy systems have generally used these hourly values to estimate long- term performance of solar energy systems. The inaccuracies are determined by examination of the frequency

  14. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 109, NO. 10, 25 NOVEMBER 2015 1765 Indian Solar Radiation Atlas is launched

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shiv K.

    energy sector in the country. NIWE is a research institute under the Ministry of New and Renewable EnergyMap Project facilitated set- ting up the Solar Radiation Measuring Network and later the development, planners of the state solar parks, investors, and financial institutions involved in renew- able energy

  15. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  16. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the cloud index,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 280 –Cover Indices,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (inHorizontal Irradiance,” submitted to Solar Energy, 2012.

  17. Forecasting of preprocessed daily solar radiation time series using neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paoli, Christophe; Muselli, Marc; Nivet, Marie-Laure [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Voyant, Cyril [University of Corsica, CNRS UMR SPE, Corte (France); Hospital of Castelluccio, Radiotherapy Unit, Ajaccio (France)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the renewable energy domain. We particularly look at the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network which has been the most used of ANNs architectures both in the renewable energy domain and in the time series forecasting. We have used a MLP and an ad hoc time series pre-processing to develop a methodology for the daily prediction of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface. First results are promising with nRMSE {proportional_to} 21% and RMSE {proportional_to} 3.59 MJ/m{sup 2}. The optimized MLP presents predictions similar to or even better than conventional and reference methods such as ARIMA techniques, Bayesian inference, Markov chains and k-Nearest-Neighbors. Moreover we found that the data pre-processing approach proposed can reduce significantly forecasting errors of about 6% compared to conventional prediction methods such as Markov chains or Bayesian inference. The simulator proposed has been obtained using 19 years of available data from the meteorological station of Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France, 41 55'N, 8 44'E, 4 m above mean sea level). The predicted whole methodology has been validated on a 1.175 kWc mono-Si PV power grid. Six prediction methods (ANN, clear sky model, combination..) allow to predict the best daily DC PV power production at horizon d + 1. The cumulated DC PV energy on a 6-months period shows a great agreement between simulated and measured data (R{sup 2} > 0.99 and nRMSE < 2%). (author)

  18. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar 19 November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles ( o trajectories and is used to drive an offline microphysical model that includes the influence of radiation

  19. Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Sun, Y.; Haberl, J.

    2013-01-01

    -11-02 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Energy Procedia 00 (2013) 000–000 www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Improved Methodology to Measure Normal Incident Solar Radiation with a Multi-Pyranometer Array Juan...-Carlos Baltazar*, Yifu Sun, Jeff Haberl Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M Engineering Experiment Station, The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX 77845, U.S.A. Abstract An improved methodology to estimate the normal incident solar radiation...

  20. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus

    . Ionization chambers and neutron monitors have directly monitored the intensity of cosmic radiation since be considered as a kind of a "natural neutron monitor," can be used as a proxy for cosmic radiation (2 system during supernova explo- sions. Mainly two magnetic shields, the solar magnetic field

  1. Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliadis, Dimitrios

    Solar, interplanetary, and magnetospheric parameters for the radiation belt energetic electron flux 2005. [1] In developing models of the radiation belt energetic electron flux, it is important identify its peaks in reference to the radial regions P0 (L = 3.1­4.0, inner edge of the outer belt), P1 (4

  2. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings ofa. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure ofMonthly Solar Data Latitude: Jan SOLAR RADIATION (kWhJm2 per

  3. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd indicated that the penetration of the blue-green radiation for most oceanic waters is $30­40% deeper than

  4. Transition radiation in turbulent astrophysical medium. Application to solar radio bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory D. Fleishman; Dale E. Gary; Gelu M. Nita

    2007-10-01

    Modern observations and models of various astrophysical objects suggest that many of their physical parameters fluctuate substantially at different spatial scales. The rich variety of the emission processes, including Transition Radiation but not limited to it, arising in such turbulent media constitutes the scope of Stochastic Theory of Radiation. We review general approaches applied in the stochastic theory of radiation and specific methods used to calculate the transition radiation produced by fast particles in the magnetized randomly inhomogeneous plasma. The importance of the theory of transition radiation for astrophysics is illustrated by one example of its detailed application to a solar radio burst, including specially designed algorithms of the spectral forward fitting.

  5. Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    have a significant influence on electric power generation by solar energy systems. An efficient use. Examples are the management of electricity grids with high penetration rates from solar sources are a high quality source for irradiance information because of excellent temporal and spatial resolution

  6. Forecasting of Solar Radiation Detlev Heinemann, Elke Lorenz, Marco Girodo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , Germany E-mail: detlev.heinemann@uni-oldenburg.de URL: www.energy-meteorology.de Abstract Solar energy. Any efficient implementation of wind and solar energy conversion processes has to account application. Examples are the storage management in stand-alone photo- voltaic or wind energy systems, control

  7. Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand hours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand curve and make the energy accessible during peak hours can be accomplished through pairing solar PV

  8. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)synthetic hourly radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 49, pp. 67–for supplementing solar radiation network data,” Final

  9. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  10. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryH:PVKitComponents© TableH.1:ContentsofPVKitandpartsrequiredforcomponents Quantity Item Quantity Item 1 Solar panel 1

  11. By Stanley Micklavzina for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page A.1 6/20/2011 Appendix A information about selected solar technologies. #12;Name: ________________________ Kit

  12. Extraterrestrial Materials: The Role of Synchrotron Radiation Analyses in the Study of Our Solar System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sutton, Stephen R. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States

    2010-01-08

    Sample-return missions and natural collection processes have provided us with a surprisingly extensive collection of matter from Solar System bodies other than the Earth. These collections include samples from the Moon, Mars, asteroids, interplanetary dust, and, recently, from the Sun (solar wind) and a comet. This presentation will describe some of these materials, how they were collected, and what we have learned from them. Synchrotron radiation analyses of these materials are playing an increasingly valuable role in unraveling the histories and properities of the parent Solar System bodies.

  13. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  14. 2D radiative modelling of He I spectral lines formed in solar prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Leger; F. Paletou

    2008-07-11

    We present preliminary results of 2D radiative modelling of He I lines in solar prominences, using a new numerical code developed by us (Leger, Chevallier and Paletou 2007). It treats self-consistently the radiation transfer and the non-LTE statistical equilibrium of H and, in a second stage, the one of He using a detailed atomic model. Preliminary comparisons with new visible plus near-infrared observations made at high spectral resolution with THeMIS are very satisfactory.

  15. Analysis of solar radiation data for Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuye, A. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)); Jagtap, S.S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-08-01

    The data on global irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Port Harcourt during the 13-year period 1977-1989 are analyzed and shown to vary with the climatic changes of the year. The range of variation is found to be greatest in August. Based on the calculated average monthly clearness index values only five seasonal patterns are identified for Port Harcourt. The percentage of days with duration of sunshine less than 1.5 h is 28.3% while that greater than 9 h is 4.3%. The Angstrom type of regression model relating total global irradiation to sunshine duration has been found to be reasonably adequate only if long-term average monthly values are used.

  16. A comparison of the radiation tolerance characteristics of multijunction solar cells with series and voltage-matched configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M; Curtis, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of series and voltage-matched configurations on the performance of multijunction solar cells in a radiation environment was investigated. It was found that the configuration of the multijunction solar cell can have a significant impact on its radiation tolerence characteristics.

  17. THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.

    2012-01-01

    circumsolar region. Let e be one solar radius (=1/4°), and esolar spectrum into eight intervals of roughly equal energy content, and one

  18. Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind pressure enhancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    PSD radial gradient at and beyond GEO prior to a sudden solar wind pressure impact based on the fact by a sudden solar wind pressure enhancement, dayside trapped electrons are transported radially inwards), Radial gradients of phase space density of the outer radiation belt electrons prior to sudden solar wind

  19. Radiation damage of GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itoh, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishioka, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    1987-01-15

    1-MeV electron irradiation damages in GaAs thin-film solar cells on Si substrates are examined for the first time. Damage constant for minority-carrier diffusion length in GaAs heteroepitaxial films on Si substrates is found to be the same as that in GaAs homoepitaxial films on GaAs substrates. This agreement suggests that GaAs/Si has the same defect introduction rate with radiation as GaAs/GaAs. The degradation of GaAs solar cells on Si with electron irradiation is less than that of GaAs solar cells on GaAs, because in the present, GaAs films on Si substrates have lower minority-carrier diffusion length compared to GaAs films on GaAs and these films are insensitive to radiation. The p/sup +/-p/sup +/-n AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cell with junction depth of about 0.3 ..mu..m is concluded to be useful for a high-efficiency and radiation-resistant solar cell fabricated on a Si substrate.

  20. Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D. Department of light that surrounds the plant. Light ­ Radiant Energy All light is made up of energy. Light to plants (Villee, 1977). Plant Uses Of Radiant Energy And Plant "Vision" Plants utilize specialized pigments

  1. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory circuit voltage as the distance between the lamp and the solar cell changes. A discussion between solar cell and light bulb filament. #12;Name: _____________________________ Kit

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, V.P.; Barron, M.H.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1985-04-30

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring solar radiation in a vegetative canopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutschick, Vincent P. (Los Alamos, NM); Barron, Michael H. (Los Alamos, NM); Waechter, David A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring solar radiation received in a vegetative canopy. A multiplicity of sensors selectively generates electrical signals in response to impinging photosynthetically active radiation in sunlight. Each sensor is attached to a plant within the canopy and is electrically connected to a separate port in a junction box having a multiplicity of ports. Each port is connected to an operational amplifier. Each amplifier amplifies the signals generated by the sensors. Each amplifier is connected to an analog-to-digital convertor which digitizes each signal. A computer is connected to the convertors and accumulates and stores solar radiation data. A data output device such as a printer is connected to the computer and displays the data.

  4. PROCEEDINGS O F THE IEEE, VOL.56, NO. 1, JANUARY196837 [`I J. J. Wysocki,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    ,"Lithium-doped radiation-resistant silicon solar cells," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science. vol.NS-13, pp. 168-173, December 1966. X-713-6548, November1965. 161 ~ , "Thermalannealing of radiation damagein solar cells," ['I R. L. Tech. J.,vol. 41, pp.1573-1588,September 1962. ["I R. L. Statler, "Radiation damage insilicon solar

  5. By Stanley Micklavzina, James Utterback and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory significantly change the incident solar radiation and this will affect the experimental results. The idea, obtains a reading of current from the diffuse solar radiation, light from the sky, ground, surrounding

  6. P.A. Nelson S.M. Kajiura G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiura, Stephen

    P.A. Nelson Æ S.M. Kajiura Æ G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV levels of solar radiation than they had previously experienced in the source habitat in the turbid waters spectrum, but sharks exposed to greater solar radiation showed increased UV blocking in their corneal

  7. Using Satellite Ocean Color Data to Derive an Empirical Model for the Penetration Depth of Solar Radiation (Hp) in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, .Dake

    the climate through the penetration depth of solar radiation in the upper ocean (Hp), a primary parameter on penetrative solar radiation in the tropical Pacific, demonstrating the dynamical implication of remotely in which incident solar radiation is absorbed in the mixed layer and the verti- cal penetration down

  8. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation is not available. (author)

  9. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured radiation was associated with the concurrent changes measured in specific humidity; the remaining quarter was associated with increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic radiatively active

  10. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties were observed to photobleach (i.e., lose their ability to absorb visible radiation) with an effective

  11. Non LTE radiation processes: application to the solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzy Collin

    2001-01-12

    These lectures are intended to present a simple but relatively complete description of the theory needed to understand the formation of lines in non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE), without appealing to any previous knowledge except a few basics of physics and spectroscopy. After recalling elementary notions of radiation transfer, the chapter is focussed on the computation of the level populations, the source function, the ionization state, and finally the line intensity. An application is made to forbidden coronal lines which were observed during eclipses since decades.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    OF DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR RADIATION AND TOTAL SOLAR RADIA- TIONSUMMARY OF USERS' NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY ANDCALIFORNIA SOURCES OF SOLAR RADIATION DATA CALI FORN IA

  13. High-sensitivity observations of solar flare decimeter radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold O. Benz; Peter Messmer; Christian Monstein

    2000-12-05

    A new acousto-optic radio spectrometer has observed the 1 - 2 GHz radio emission of solar flares with unprecedented sensitivity. The number of detected decimeter type III bursts is greatly enhanced compared to observations by conventional spectrometers observing only one frequency at the time. The observations indicate a large number of electron beams propagating in dense plasmas. For the first time, we report weak, reversed drifting type III bursts at frequencies above simultaneous narrowband decimeter spikes. The type III bursts are reliable signatures of electron beams propagating downward in the corona, apparently away from the source of the spikes. The observations contradict the most popular spike model that places the spike sources at the footpoints of loops. Conspicuous also was an apparent bidirectional type U burst forming a fish-like pattern. It occurs simultaneously with an intense U-burst at 600-370 MHz observed in Tremsdorf. We suggest that it intermodulated with strong terrestrial interference (cellular phones) causing a spurious symmetric pattern in the spectrogram at 1.4 GHz. Symmetric features in the 1 - 2 GHz range, some already reported in the literature, therefore must be considered with utmost caution.

  14. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and M. Cony, “Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand C. K. Chan, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation usingand K. C. Chee, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation using

  15. Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of simplified procedures for a multipyranometer array (MPA) for the continuous measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The MPA described in this paper is an improvement over ...

  16. The influence of stratus, stratocumulus, and altocumulus clouds on the spectral distribution of solar radiation over Antarctic waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettett, James Eugene

    1973-01-01

    ON TEE I I ! 1 INFLUENCE OF STRATUS& STRATOCUMULUS, AND ALTOCUMULUS CLOUDS SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION OVER ANTARCTIC WATERS A Thesis by JAMES EUGENE PETTETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MASTER OF SCIENCE degree of August 1973 Major Subjett: Meteorology THE INFLUENCE OF STRATUS, STRATOCUMULUS, AND ALTOCUMULUS CLOUDS ON THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR RADIATION OVER ANTARCTIC WATERS...

  17. The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Dezful Branch (Iran); Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    The main objective of present study is to predict daily global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on daily GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and relative humidity as inputs and daily GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and daily GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and daily GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, daily mean air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and daily GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for daily GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)

  18. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  19. Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used to drive heterogeneous electrochemical reactions at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used and an efficient means for solar radiation delivery and trapping, poses a major challenge to the commercialization, resulting in the production of solar fuels, including hydrogen via water reduction or hydrocarbons (methane

  20. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology.and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors, Energy Sources.

  1. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors, Energy Sources.Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology.

  2. Solar Flare Chromospheric Line Emission: Comparison Between IBIS High-resolution Observations and Radiative Hydrodynamic Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahé; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Liu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation in a broad spectral and at a wide height range. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere (lower atmosphere) can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results can be extremely valuable, but has not been attempted so far. We present in this paper such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope's (DST) Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 that we have modeled with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN (Carlsson & Stein 1992, 1997; Abbett & Hawley 1999; Allred et al. 2005). We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in H$\\alpha$ 6563 \\AA\\ and Ca II 8542 \\AA, and with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in X-rays. The latter was used to infer the non-thermal elect...

  3. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory as the distance between the solar cell and the lamp changes. The power generated by the solar cell is calculated Circuit Current and PV Cell Power Output 1. Connect one Solar Cell in the PV Module to an ammeter

  4. By Raghu Parthasarathy for the Meyer for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 7.1 6 of the solar cell as temperature increases. Describe your findings: #12;Name

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01

    existing standard solar spectral irradiance One option is tohazy-sky air mass one horizontal solar spectral irradiances,air mass one global horizontal (“AM1GH”) solar re?ectance R

  6. Numerical Study on In-Situ Prominence Formation by Radiative Condensation in the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaneko, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    We propose an in-situ formation model for inverse-polarity solar prominence and demonstrate it using self-consistent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, including thermal conduction along magnetic fields and optically thin radiative cooling. The model enables us to form cool dense plasma clouds inside a flux rope by radiative condensation, which is regarded as an inverse-polarity prominence. Radiative condensation is triggered by changes in the magnetic topology, i.e., formation of the flux rope from the sheared arcade field, and by thermal imbalance due to the dense plasma trapped inside the flux rope. The flux rope is created by imposing converging and shearing motion on the arcade field. Either when the footpoint motion is in the anti-shearing direction or when heating is proportional to local density, the thermal state inside the flux rope becomes cooling-dominant, leading to radiative condensation. By controlling the temperature of condensation, we investigate the relationship between the t...

  7. Gschwind Benot, Lionel Mnard, Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald, Paul Stackhouse, 2007. A proposal for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski and M. Romaniuk (Eds), Shaker Verlag,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for a thesaurus for web services in solar radiation. In Proceedings EnviroInfo 2007, O. Hryniewicz, J. Studzinski in Solar Radiation Benoît Gschwind1 , Lionel Ménard1 , Thierry Ranchin1 , Lucien Wald1 and Paul Stackhouse2 energies. This communication focuses on solar energy and more specifically on aspects in solar radiation

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA SOLAR RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY OF USERS' NEEDS FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA SUMMARY ANDDETERMINED NEED FOR SOLAR RADIATION DATA - Made directinter- polation of solar radiation data (Section 4.3)

  9. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  10. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” JournalA Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” JournalA Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques. ” Journal

  11. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    of SPE occurrence from one solar cycle to the next. Forlong duration missions (one or more solar cycle), it is anat solar minimum. In one year near solar maximum, doses from

  12. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-04-21

    We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Lyman-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere and assess importance of this effect for interpretation of heliospheric in situ measurements. Based on available data, construct a model of evolution of the solar Lyman-alpha line profile with solar activity. Modify an existing test-particle code calculating distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere to take into account the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear at ~ 5 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates density everywhere except a ~ 60 deg cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of discrepancies depends appreciably on the phase of solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~ 1 AU, as those planned for IBEX, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degree, which, when unaccounted for, would bring an error of a few degrees and a few km/s in determination of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock. The Doppler correction is appreciable for in situ observations of neutral H populations and their derivatives performed a few AU from the Sun.

  13. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops   

  14. The long term dynamics of the solar radiative zone associated to new results from SoHO and young solar analogs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvaine Turck-Chieze; Sebastien Couvidat; Antonio Eff-Darwich; Vincent Duez; Rafael A. Garcia; Stephane Mathis; Savita Mathur; Laurent Piau; David Salabert

    2011-09-19

    The Standard Solar Model (SSM) is no more sufficient to interpret all the observations of the radiative zone obtained with the SoHO satellite. We recall our present knowledge of this internal region and compare the recent results to models beyond the SSM assumptions. Then we discuss the missing processes and quantify some of them in using young analog observations to build a more realistic view of our star. This progress will be useful for solar-like stars observed by COROT and KEPLER.

  15. Evaluation of two Vaisala RS92 radiosonde solar radiative dry bias correction algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dzambo, A. M.; Turner, D. D.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2015-10-20

    Solar heating of the relative humidity (RH) probe on Vaisala RS92 radiosondes results in a large dry bias in the upper troposphere. Two different algorithms (Miloshevich et al., 2009, MILO hereafter; and Wang et al., 2013, WANG hereafter) have been designed to account for this solar radiative dry bias (SRDB). These corrections are markedly different with MILO adding up to 40 % more moisture to the original radiosonde profile than WANG; however, the impact of the two algorithms varies with height. The accuracy of these two algorithms is evaluated using three different approaches: a comparison of precipitable water vapor (PWV),more »downwelling radiative closure with a surface-based microwave radiometer at a high-altitude site (5.3 km MSL), and upwelling radiative closure with the space-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The PWV computed from the uncorrected and corrected RH data is compared against PWV retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometers at tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic sites. Although MILO generally adds more moisture to the original radiosonde profile in the upper troposphere compared to WANG, both corrections yield similar changes to the PWV, and the corrected data agree well with the ground-based retrievals. The two closure activities – done for clear-sky scenes – use the radiative transfer models MonoRTM and LBLRTM to compute radiance from the radiosonde profiles to compare against spectral observations. Both WANG- and MILO-corrected RH are statistically better than original RH in all cases except for the driest 30 % of cases in the downwelling experiment, where both algorithms add too much water vapor to the original profile. In the upwelling experiment, the RH correction applied by the WANG vs. MILO algorithm is statistically different above 10 km for the driest 30 % of cases and above 8 km for the moistest 30 % of cases, suggesting that the MILO correction performs better than the WANG in clear-sky scenes. The cause of this statistical significance is likely explained by the fact the WANG correction also accounts for cloud cover – a condition not accounted for in the radiance closure experiments.« less

  16. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ://www.californiasolarcenter.org/history_pv.html http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/solar.html http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/ http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/education/index.htm http://www.nrel.gov/data/pix/searchpix.html http://www.ases.org/ http://www.seia.org/cs/about_solar_energy and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

  17. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory of solar cells when they are connected in series or in parallel. To help answer the question of how solar cells behave like batteries. Current meter measuring short circuit current for two cells

  18. By Stanley Micklavzina and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page 2.1 6 when ½ of solar cell is covered MATERIALS PV Cell Module Electrical Leads DC ammeter DC circuit current is measured when the solar cells are connected in parallel and series. An experiment

  19. Horizontal Plate Plate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    owResolutionCollectorDataFiles.zip> Description: Abstract: Monthly and annual average solar resource potential for the lower 48 states Purpose: Provide information on the solar...

  20. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    dropped from near zero to -7°C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlledA transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo

  1. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  2. Radiative hydrodynamic modelling and observations of the X-class solar flare on 2011 March 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Michael B; Allred, Joel C; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the solar atmosphere to non-thermal electron beam heating using the radiative transfer and hydrodynamics modelling code RADYN. The temporal evolution of the parameters that describe the non-thermal electron energy distribution were derived from hard X-ray observations of a particular flare, and we compared the modelled and observed parameters. The evolution of the non-thermal electron beam parameters during the X1.5 solar flare on 2011 March 9 were obtained from analysis of RHESSI X-ray spectra. The RADYN flare model was allowed to evolve for 110 seconds, after which the electron beam heating was ended, and was then allowed to continue evolving for a further 300s. The modelled flare parameters were compared to the observed parameters determined from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy. The model produced a hotter and denser flare loop than that observed and also cooled more rapidly, suggesting that additional energy input in the decay phase of the flare is required. In the explosi...

  3. Improved photovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2009-11-15

    This work describes measurements of the solar irradiance made during cloudy periods in order to improve the amount of solar energy captured during such periods. It is well-known that 2-axis tracking, in which solar modules are pointed at the sun, improves the overall capture of solar energy by a given area of modules by 30-50% versus modules with a fixed tilt. On sunny days the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy, with the other 10% from diffuse (scattered) solar energy. However, during overcast conditions nearly all of the solar irradiance is diffuse radiation that is isotropically-distributed over the whole sky. An analysis of our data shows that during overcast conditions, tilting a solar module or sensor away from the zenith reduces the irradiance relative to a horizontal configuration, in which the sensor or module is pointed toward the zenith (horizontal module tilt), and thus receives the highest amount of this isotropically-distributed sky radiation. This observation led to an improved tracking algorithm in which a solar array would track the sun during cloud-free periods using 2-axis tracking, when the solar disk is visible, but go to a horizontal configuration when the sky becomes overcast. During cloudy periods we show that a horizontal module orientation increases the solar energy capture by nearly 50% compared to 2-axis solar tracking during the same period. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days is important to using solar energy on a daily basis for fueling fuel-cell electric vehicles or charging extended-range electric vehicles because it improves the energy capture on the days with the lowest hydrogen generation, which in turn reduces the system size and cost. (author)

  4. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    of Radiation Interaction and Matter and Detection. Worldof Radiation Interaction and Matter and Detection. WorldDetection Efficiency of Charged Particles and Electromagnetic radiation

  5. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    Rancoita. Principles of Radiation Interaction and Matter andRancoita. Principles of Radiation Interaction and Matter andThe basic measurement of radiation interaction in matter for

  6. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined withand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for a

  7. The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorguinpour, Camron Saul

    2010-01-01

    Electrons and Ions in Solar Flares”. Astrophysical Journal,Electrons and Ions in Solar Flares”. Astrophysical Journal,can also originate from solar flares and the so-called Co-

  8. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    a two-axis tracking solar panel. Figure 5b: Map of theand azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for aannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined with

  9. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    giving reasonable predictions of solar effects on MRT, andsolar gain produced an increase of roughly one PMV scale unit. The SolarCal PMV prediction

  10. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, in: T. Markvart, L.1. Introduction Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are quicklyphotovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system’,

  11. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

  12. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Ly?. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (?) has increased slightly from ? = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to ? = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  13. Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

    2011-12-23

    Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression�¢����based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

  14. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    No.9. Goodridge, J. , 1974. Solar Radiation Measurements invs. temperature and solar radiation vs. cloudiness. Hourlyenergy in the form of solar radiation and pro- duces output

  15. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  16. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    TECHNIQUES FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION DATA ABSTRACT Dailya corrected solar radiation data base for 19 locations inTechniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data Appendix A

  17. Solar variability of four sites across the state of Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2010-01-01

    geographical wealth of solar radiation data is availableSolar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL), South Park Mountain Data (Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL), the South Park Mountain Data (

  18. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  19. Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    by radiative transfer models founded on the classical electromagnetic and quantum mechanics theories. While the fundamentals of radiative transfer theories are well-established, radiative transfer models used to describe

  20. Modeling the comfort effects of short-wave solar radiation indoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Hoyt, Tyler; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Li; Zhang, Hui; Schiavon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    7]); h r is the radiation heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2Unit °C W/m 2 h r Radiation heat transfer coefficient W/m

  1. Optimum fixed orientations and benefits of tracking for capturing solar radiation in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mexico, and along the Pacific Coastline. A due south azimuth would suggest that equal amounts of solar

  2. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01

    for one, two, and three glazings. Next, a performance correlation was obtained from experimentally determined upper heat losses. Utilizing energy balances along with temperature data, the follow- ing regression equation for the upper heat losses..., commonly called "Tedlar, " was used for glazing material. The Tedlar was attached to wooden frames such that the frames could be secured to a polystyrofoam cell. This cell not only provided a means of thermally insulating the polyethylene bags...

  3. Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    Inward shift of outer radiation belt electrons as a function of Dst index and the influence of the solar wind on electron injections into the slot region H. Zhao1 and X. Li1 Received 30 July 2012 electrons as a function of the Dst index and the controlling solar wind parameters for deep penetration

  4. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp.16 independent data banks,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 4,data,” Final Report of International Energy Agency Solar

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation in Canada. Solar Energy ~, p.153. Threlkeld, J.L.pool. As the use of solar energy becomes more widespread,a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-heated swimming

  6. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  7. Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 , A.E. Pantoja 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar Radiative Heating in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness 1 , K.A. Landman 2 , H.J. Trodahl 3 ice show daily oscillations consistent with heating by solar radiation. We present and solve a heat for solar power absorption based on Monte Carlo scatter­ ing simulations of penetrating photons. We observe

  8. Sri M., Huld T., Dunlop E.D., Albuisson M., Lefvre M., Wald L., 2007. Uncertainties in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in photovoltaic electricity yield prediction from fluctuation of solar radiation. Proceedings of the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milano, Italy 3-7.9.2007 (preprint). UNCERTAINTIES IN PHOTOVOLTAIC ELECTRICITY YIELD PREDICTION FROM FLUCTUATION OF SOLAR RADIATION Marcel Súri1 , Thomas Huld1 , Ewan D. Dunlop1

  9. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  10. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  11. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of minute solar radiation data, Solar Energy,geographical wealth of solar radiation data is available0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY)

  12. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory of wavelength (color) of light on the output of a solar cell. Using an incandescent light bulb, the current output of the solar cell is measured as a series of filters are placed over the solar cell. Next

  13. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rylatt, John A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  14. Combined Modeling of Acceleration, Transport, and Hydrodynamic Response in Solar Flares. II. Inclusion of Radiative Transfer with RADYN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares involve complex processes that are coupled together and span a wide range of temporal, spatial, and energy scales. Modeling such processes self-consistently has been a challenge in the past. Here we present such a model to simulate the coupling of high-energy particle kinetics with hydrodynamics of the atmospheric plasma. We combine the Stanford unified Fokker-Planck code that models particle acceleration, transport, and bremsstrahlung radiation with the RADYN hydrodynamic code that models the atmospheric response to collisional heating by non-thermal electrons through detailed radiative transfer calculations. We perform simulations using different injection electron spectra, including an {\\it ad hoc} power law and more realistic spectra predicted by the stochastic acceleration model due to turbulence or plasma waves. Surprisingly, stochastically accelerated electrons, even with energy flux $\\ll 10^{10}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$, cause "explosive" chromospheric evaporation and drive stronger up- an...

  15. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    at scattering incoming solar radiation and results in lessabsorbs both incoming solar radiation and reflected SW ra-m absorb incoming solar radiation as well as SW radiation

  16. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  17. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    M. Filippi, B.W. Olesen, Solar radiation and cooling loadY. Chen, The effect of solar radiation on dynamic thermaldependant upon solar radiation, ASHRAE Transactions, (2006)

  18. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    to  predict daily solar radiation.   Agriculture and Forest and Chuo, S.   2008.  Solar radiation forecasting using Short?term forecasting of solar radiation:   A statistical 

  19. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    and operation of a solar radiation data collection networkimplementation of a solar radiation data collection networka high quality solar radiation data base for well-located

  20. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL TEST FACILITY FOR SELECTIVE RADIATIVE COOLING SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakkal, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    heating purposes in solar collectors. For such applicationsthe inverse of the solar collector case. Visible radiation

  2. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  3. A preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude in the north of Buenos Aires provence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cionco, R; Rodriguez, R

    2012-01-01

    Using irradiance and temperature measurements obtained at the Facultad Regional San Nicol\\'as of UTN, we performed a preliminary study of the linear relationship between monthly averaged daily solar radiation and daily thermal amplitude. The results show a very satisfactory adjustment (R = 0.848, RMS = 0.066, RMS% = 9.690 %), even taking into account the limited number of months (36). Thus, we have a formula of predictive nature, capable of estimating mean monthly solar radiation for various applications. We expect to have new data sets to expand and improve the statistical significance of these results.

  4. Neutral interstellar hydrogen in the inner heliosphere under the influence of wavelength-dependent solar radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Tarnopolski; M. Bzowski

    2008-12-04

    With the plethora of detailed results from heliospheric missions and at the advent of the first mission dedicated IBEX, we have entered the era of precision heliospheric studies. Interpretation of these data require precision modeling, with second-order effects quantitatively taken into account. We study the influence of the non-flat shape of the solar Ly-alpha line on the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere. Based on available data, we (i) construct a model of evolution for the solar Ly-alpha line profile with solar activity, (ii) modify an existing test-particle code used to calculate the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the inner heliosphere so that it takes the dependence of radiation pressure on radial velocity into account, and (iii) compare the results of the old and new version. Discrepancies between the classical and Doppler models appear between ~5 and ~3 AU and increase towards the Sun from a few percent to a factor of 1.5 at 1 AU. The classical model overestimates the density everywhere except for a ~60-degr cone around the downwind direction, where a density deficit appears. The magnitude of the discrepancies appreciably depends on the phase of the solar cycle, but only weakly on the parameters of the gas at the termination shock. For in situ measurements of neutral atoms performed at ~1 AU, the Doppler correction will need to be taken into account, because the modifications include both the magnitude and direction of the local flux by a few km/s and degrees, respectively, which, when unaccounted for, would introduce an error of a few km/s and degrees in determination of the magnitude and direction of the bulk velocity vector at the termination shock.

  5. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    1995). In National Solar Radiation Data Base—Final Technicalobtained from the Solar Radiation Data Service (WR7). 4.3.3global solar radiation from meteorological satellite data.

  6. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  7. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a photovoltaic system is small. These results are consistent with the solar tracking algorithm optimized for cloudy conditions that we proposed in an earlier report and that was based on a much smaller data set. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days deserves wider attention due to increasing efforts to utilize renewable solar energy. In particular, increasing the output of distributed solar power systems on cloudy days is important to developing solar-powered home fueling and charging systems for hydrogen-powered fuel-cell electric and battery-powered vehicles, respectively, because it reduces the system size and cost for solar power systems that are designed to have sufficient energy output on the worst (cloudy) days. (author)

  8. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air-cooled and suitable for use with flat plate or higher-temperature collectors. Operation of the controls test facility and computer modeling of collector loop and building load dynamics are yielding quantitative evaluations of the performance of different control strategies for active solar-heating systems. Research is continuing on ''passive'' approaches to solar heating and cooling, where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs which are in the public domain. The resulting passive analysis capabilities are used in systems studies leading to design tools and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat-storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, and would then provide ''coolness'' to the building. Laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Active Heating and Cooling Division and the Passive and Hybrid Division of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low-grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the ''shape-memory'' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources, such as solar-heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central

  10. Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    of green LAI and solar radiation, provides the highestin temperature and solar radiation, but may be inappropriatecontrast, the incoming solar radiation (S ? ) and incoming

  11. BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Brazil, one and Carnival. Belo Horizonte is the 1st planned city in Brazil and is the capital of Minas Gerais. It has transportation, and spending money. These fees are paid in Brazil and are estimated at R$1,800 Real per month

  12. PSW1-C0.2-D0.1-E2.4-F0.1-PSRB2-0021-02 SOLAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRON RADIATION BELT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSW1-C0.2-D0.1-E2.4-F0.1-PSRB2-0021-02 SOLAR WIND-DRIVEN ELECTRON RADIATION BELT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS linear filters, to remove unwanted "col- ored noise" from solar wind and radiation belt electron data prediction filters to represent the driven portion of the linear dynamics that describe the coupling between

  13. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 7, NO. 5, MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , MAY 2014 1745 The HelioClim-1 Database of Daily Solar Radiation at Earth Surface: An Example Abstract--The HelioClim-1 database contains daily values of the solar radiation reaching the ground-CORE) covers Europe, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean, from 1985 to 2005. It is freely accessible at no cost

  14. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in this experiment is investigate the power output of the cell and how output current and voltage change when solar? What is the maximum Power one can attain with a solar cell? How does load affects the Power produced

  15. An evaluation of the effect of volcanic eruption on the solar radiation at Australian and Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatko, B.R.; Garrison, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    Peak (most probable) and average values of {angstrom}`s turbidity coefficient {beta} and peak (most probable) and average values of the diffuse index k{sub d} are obtained from the solar radiation data from 21 stations in Australia and 5 stations in Canada. These data exhibit clear increases in their values when the volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere increase following volcanic eruptions of sufficient magnitude. The effect of the eruptions of Fuego (1974), El Chichon (1982) and Pinatubo (1991) are seen most clearly in the data. The effect of lesser eruptions is also seen. The store of volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere shifts with the season so that scattering by volcanic aerosols in the spring half of the year is stronger than in the fall.

  16. By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    By Asher Tubman for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page F.1 6/20/2011 Appendix F: Review of PV Panels Labs These kits were used for the first year of a two IB physics class

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    8-12. Würfel P. Physics of solar cells : from principles toPhotocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electricalgeneration photovoltaics: solar cells for 2020 and beyond.

  18. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, A.

    2014-01-01

    2007a, “Evaluating the Limits of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) infor Short-Term Variability of Solar Power. Lawrence Berkeleyand Medium Term Operational Solar Radiation Forecasts in the

  19. Magnetic field confinement by meridional flow and the solar tachocline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. L. Kitchatinov; G. Ruediger

    2006-03-16

    We show that the MHD theory that explains the solar tachocline by an effect of the magnetic field can work with the decay modes of a fossil field in the solar interior if the meridional flow of the convection zone penetrates slightly the radiative zone beneath. An equatorward flow of about 10 m/s penetrating to a maximum depth of 1000 km below the convection zone is able to generate almost horizontal field lines in the tachocline region so that the internal field is almost totally confined to the radiative zone. The theory of differential solar rotation indeed provides meridional flows of about 10 m/s and a penetration depth of < 1000 km for viscosity values that are characteristic of a stable tachocline.

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    demands are high and solar radiation is low. A betterof Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the ContinentalTime Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field, Journal of

  1. Radiative transfer modeling of the enigmatic scattering polarization in the solar NaI D1 line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belluzzi, Luca; Degl'Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of the peculiar scattering polarization signals observed in some diagnostically important solar resonance lines requires the consideration of the detailed spectral structure of the incident radiation field as well as the possibility of ground level polarization, along with the atom's hyperfine structure and quantum interference between hyperfine F-levels pertaining either to the same fine structure J-level, or to different J-levels of the same term. Here we present a theoretical and numerical approach suitable for solving this complex non-LTE radiative transfer problem. This approach is based on the density-matrix metalevel theory (where each level is viewed as a continuous distribution of sublevels) and on accurate formal solvers of the transfer equations and efficient iterative methods. We show an application to the D-lines of NaI, with emphasis on the enigmatic D1 line, pointing out the observable signatures of the various physical mechanisms considered. We demonstrate that the linear polariza...

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News PublicationsClimate in theEffects of Solar

  3. NREL: MIDC/University of Texas Panamerican Solar Radiation Lab (26.49 N,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatial Toolkit The GeospatialSolar Energy The(35.93 N, 84.3198.17

  4. Modelling solar low-lying cool loops with optically thick radiative losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasso, C; Spadaro, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the increase of the DEM (differential emission measure) towards the chromosphere due to small and cool magnetic loops (height $\\lesssim8$~Mm, $T\\lesssim10^5$~K). In a previous paper we analysed the conditions of existence and stability of these loops through hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on their dependence on the details of the optically thin radiative loss function used. In this paper, we extend those hydrodynamic simulations to verify if this class of loops exists and it is stable when using an optically thick radiative loss function. We study two cases: constant background heating and a heating depending on the density. The contribution to the transition region EUV output of these loops is also calculated and presented. We find that stable, quasi-static cool loops can be obtained by using an optically thick radiative loss function and a background heating depending on the density. The DEMs of these loops, however, fail to reproduce the observed DEM for temperatures between $4.6<\\log...

  5. RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Radiative and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin andof the Second Nation- al Passive Solar Conference (owned rights. ,I I RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING* LAIVRENCE

  6. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A. E. Ruano, “Prediction of the solar radiation evolutionin ground- level solar irradiance prediction on similar

  7. Radiation Characteristics of Botryococcus braunii, Chlorococcum littorale, and Chlorella sp. Used For CO2 Fixation and Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Gomez, Pedro; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    for absorbing solar radiation and generating electrons thatMicroorganisms Suspensions Solar radiation transfer withinocean optics [50, 54], solar radiation conversion to algae [

  8. Arctic and Antarctic diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo from multiyear Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    With constant SZA and solar radiation and extreme low airof long?term solar radiation measurements from two BSRNand direct and diffuse solar radiation used here. We thank

  9. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    reductions of surface solar radiation at sites in the Unitedtrends in surface solar radiation? , Science, 308, 850 –changes in surface solar radiation, Science, 308, 847 – 850,

  10. Prenatal Risk and Protective Factors for Childhood Cancer: Investigating the Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation, Pesticide Exposure, and Maternal Diet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, Christina

    2013-01-01

    study based on solar radiation data from NASA relying onwith data from the National Solar Radiation Database. Ourusing data from the National Solar Radiation Database from

  11. Radiation Dry Bias in the TWP-ICE Radiosonde Soundings Solar Zenith Angle Correction Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel Ruggirello RachelRadiation Dry Bias in the

  12. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  13. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Donald

    2013-01-01

    data acquisition system. Support facilities at LBL include the Solar Energydata to the atmos- pheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terres- trial solar energy

  14. Habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Cnossen; J. Sanz-Forcada; F. Favata; O. Witasse; T. Zegers; N. F. Arnold

    2007-02-20

    Solar X-ray and UV radiation (0.1-320 nm) received at Earth's surface is an important aspect of the circumstances under which life formed on Earth. The quantity that is received depends on two main variables: the emission of radiation by the young Sun and its extinction through absorption and scattering by the Earth's early atmosphere. The spectrum emitted by the Sun when life formed, between 4 and 3.5 Ga, was modeled here, including the effects of flares and activity cycles, using a solar-like star that has the same age now as the Sun had 4-3.5 Ga. Atmospheric extinction was calculated using the Beer-Lambert law, assuming several density profiles for the atmosphere of the Archean Earth. We found that almost all radiation with a wavelength shorter than 200 nm is attenuated effectively, even by very tenuous atmospheres. Longer-wavelength radiation is progressively less well attenuated, and its extinction is more sensitive to atmospheric composition. Minor atmospheric components, such as methane, ozone, water vapor, etc., have only negligible effects, but changes in CO2 concentration can cause large differences in surface flux. Differences due to variability in solar emission are small compared to this. In all cases surface radiation levels on the Archean Earth were several orders of magnitude higher in the 200-300 nm wavelength range than current levels in this range. That means that any form of life that might have been present at Earth's surface 4-3.5 Ga must have been exposed to much higher quantities of damaging radiation than at present.

  15. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  16. Parameterization of solar flare dose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamarche, Anne Helene

    1995-01-01

    A critical aspect of missions to the Moon or Mars is the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare ...

  17. Solar-Powered Smart Wireless Camera Network for Outdoor Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abas, Kevin Mathys

    2015-01-01

    Figure 1: Average solar radiation data for the United StatesUsing the data from our solar radiation research we founddata, 2014. http: //www.nrel.gov/solar_radiation/. [40] K.

  18. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01

    TMY or actual solar radiation data, and thus serves theTMY or actual solar radiation data, and thus serves theyear (TMY) solar radiation data. The goal here is to

  19. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. Int. J.beam and global solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. International

  20. Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations of Total Ozone and Associated Variations of UV-B Solar Radiation for Subarctic Regions Based of Dendrochronologic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.V.; Bondarenko, S.L.

    2005-03-18

    Variations of dendrochronologic parameters, especially annual ring density, significantly reflect the physiological tree response to systematic variations of solar UV-B radiation, taking place on monthly and longer timescales during growing season. Such variations of UV-B radiation are totally governed by variations of total ozone (TO). Thus, in any dendrochronologic signal, especially for coniferous trees, there is also a recorded response to TO variations, characterizing variations of UV-B radiation. Because a monitoring of global TO distribution is regularly performed since 1979 using TOMS satellite instrumentation, there appears a possibility to reconstruct TO behavior in the past practically at any point of dendrochronologic monitoring network. The reconstruction is performed by the method of linear regression, based on significant correlation of annual ring density of coniferous trees and TO for coordinates of denrochronologic signal. The present report considers the Subarctic latitudes, which are characterized by considerable TO variations in the second half of twentieth century.

  1. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  2. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  3. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    2008-05-30

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  4. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    model performance,” Solar Energy, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 125–global solar radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 78, no. 6, pp.solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, pp.

  5. Bhutan Solar Resources - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bhutan Solar Resources GIS data for Bhutan's direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradianc, and latitude tilt. Data and Resources Bhutan Direct normal irradianceZIP...

  6. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Denhan, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Watkins, D. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  7. EFFECT OF HORIZONTALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEATING ON FLOW AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, P.; Vasyli?nas, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The solar chromosphere is heated by damped Alfvén waves propagating upward from the photosphere at a rate that depends on magnetic field strength, producing enhanced heating at low altitudes in the extended weak-field regions (where the additional heating accounts for the radiative losses) between the boundaries of the chromospheric network as well as enhanced heating per particle at higher altitudes in strong magnetic field regions of the network. The resulting inhomogeneous radiation and temperature distribution produces bulk flows, which in turn affect the configuration of the magnetic field. The basic flow pattern is circulation on the spatial scale of a supergranule, with upward flow in the strong-field region; this is a mirror image in the upper chromosphere of photospheric/subphotospheric convection widely associated with the formation of the strong network field. There are significant differences between the neutral and the ionized components of the weakly ionized medium: neutral flow streamlines can form closed cells, whereas plasma is largely constrained to flow along the magnetic field. Stresses associated with this differential flow may explain why the canopy/funnel structures of the network magnetic field have a greater horizontal extent and are relatively more homogeneous at high altitudes than is expected from simple current-free models.

  8. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  9. Hydrogen H$?$ line polarization in solar flares. Theoretical investigation of atomic polarization by proton beams considering self-consistent NLTE polarized radiative transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiri Stepan; Petr Heinzel; Sylvie Sahal-Brechot

    2007-01-22

    Context. We present a theoretical review of the effect of impact polarization of a hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line due to an expected proton beam bombardment in solar flares. Aims. Several observations indicate the presence of the linear polarization of the hydrogen H$\\alpha$ line observed near the solar limb above 5% and preferentially in the radial direction. We theoretically review the problem of deceleration of the beam originating in the coronal reconnection site due to its interaction with the chromospheric plasma, and describe the formalism of the density matrix used in our description of the atomic processes and the treatment of collisional rates. Methods. We solve the self-consistent NLTE radiation transfer problem for the particular semiempirical chromosphere models for both intensity and linear polarization components of the radiation field. Results. In contrast to recent calculations, our results show that the energy distribution of the proton beam at H$\\alpha$ formation levels and depolarizing collisions by background electrons and protons cause a significant reduction of the effect below 0.1%. The radiation transfer solution shows that tangential resonance-scattering polarization dominates over the impact polarization effect in all considered models. Conclusions. In the models studied, proton beams are unlikely to be a satisfying explanation for the observed linear polarization of the H$\\alpha$ line.

  10. INCREMENTAL HORIZONTAL FRAGMENTATION OF DATABASE CLASS OBJECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezeife, Christie

    INCREMENTAL HORIZONTAL FRAGMENTATION OF DATABASE CLASS OBJECTS C.I. Ezeife School of Computer-orientd databases, Incremental horizontal fragmentation, Distribution Abstract: Horizontal fragments of a class in an object-oriented database system contain subsets of the class extent or instance objects. These fragments

  11. Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle ACTIVE REGIONS Large scale (up to 100 Mm) anomalies in the structure and radiation of the solar atmosphere. Photosphere : AR = cluster of strong magnetic flux tubes of facular points. Filamentary structure due to supergranulation. #12;Petrovay: Solar physics The solar cycle

  12. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  13. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

    2010-03-14

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

  14. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  15. Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    Petrovay: Solar physics Solar wind and heliosphere THE SOLAR WIND AND THE HELIOSPHERE 1951: First proposal of solar corpuscular radiation by Biermann, to explain slight deviation of comets' ion tails from radial (aberration effect). 1958: Parker's supersonic wind model 1962: Mariner-2 detects solar wind. v

  16. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  17. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867008] I. INTRODUCTION A central focus of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell research important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structures

  18. Horizontal well applications in complex carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Al-Awami, H.

    1995-10-01

    Over the past four years, Saudi Aramco has drilled over eighty horizontal wells, onshore and offshore. It has successfully applied this technology to develop new reservoirs as well as enhance recovery from its mature fields. This paper presents the reservoir engineering aspects of `horizontal` and `high angle` wells drilled in a major offshore field in Saudi Arabia. It shows how horizontal wells have (a) increased the recovery of bypassed oil, (b) improved well productivity in tight reservoirs, (c) increased production from thin oil zones underlain by water, and (d) improved peripheral injection. The paper discusses the actual performance of the horizontal wells and compares them with offset conventional wells. It presents the results of logging and testing of these wells, and highlights actual field data on (a) relationship between productivity gain and horizontal length, (b) pressure loss along the horizontal wellbore, and (c) effect of heterogeneity on coning an inflow performance.

  19. Hydraulic fracturing slurry transport in horizontal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.N.; Lord, D.L. (Halliburton Services (US))

    1990-09-01

    Horizontal-well activity has increased throughout the industry in the past few years. To design a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment for horizontal wells, accurate information on the transport properties of slurry in horizontal pipe is required. Limited information exists that can be used to estimate critical deposition and resuspension velocities when proppants are transported in horizontal wells with non-Newtonian fracturing gels. This paper presents a study of transport properties of various hydraulic fracturing slurries in horizontal pipes. Flow data are gathered in three transparent horizontal pipes with different diameters. Linear and crosslinked fracturing gels were studied, and the effects of variables--e.g., pipe size; polymer-gelling-agent concentration; fluid rheological properties; crosslinking effects; proppant size, density, and concentrations; fluid density; and slurry pump rate--on critical deposition and resuspension velocities were investigated. Also, equations to estimate the critical deposition and resuspension velocities of fracturing gels are provided.

  20. A Science Service Sfeature-HORIZONTAL RAINBOV~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?rayed a i t h a A secondary horizontal bov is sometimes seen, i n afidition t o the ( A l l richts reserved

  1. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  2. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  3. Space radiation environment impacts on high power amplifiers and solar cells on-board geostationary communications satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohmeyer, Whitney Quinne

    2015-01-01

    Communications satellite operators maintain archives of component telemetry to monitor system function. Operators generally do not typically use the telemetry data for scientific analysis of the space radiation environment ...

  4. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Models of diffuse solar radiation, Renew Energ, 33 (2008) [solar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energsolar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energ

  5. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    and operation of a solar radiation data collection net- workdata will be collected on weather conditions, solar radiation,solar radiation are available that the colored filter pyrheliometer data

  6. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  7. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  8. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    junction tandem solar cells, one wide-bandgap material withare being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, theTo utilize solar radiation more effectively, one possible

  9. U.S. Solar Resource Maps and Tools from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. [Copied from http://www.nrel.gov/gis/solar.html] Several types of solar maps are made available. The U.S. Solar resource maps show the resource potential for energy from photovoltaics and from concentrating solar power (CSP). Both sets of maps are available in low or high resolution. A dynamic map based on version 2 of PVWATTS calculates electrical energy performance estimates for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The map of U.S. Solar Measurement Station Locations is also dynamic, showing the spatial distribution of measurement stations across the U.S. that are monitored by programs and agencies such as DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program or NREL's Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM). Clicking on a station location will take the user to the website of that station. Finally, static map images providing solar resource information averaged by month are also available.

  10. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  11. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Downward surface solar radiation  data released at 12 UTC solar radiation:   A statistical approach using satellite data.   

  12. Post-fire changes in net shortwave radiation along a latitudinal gradient in boreal North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y, Jin; Randerson, J T; Goulden, M L; Goetz, S J

    2012-01-01

    winter incoming solar radiation and summer albedo changeDa) and incoming solar radiation (S in ), both of which varymean all-sky incoming solar radiation at the surface (S in )

  13. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  14. Performance analysis of medium temperature non-tracking solar thermal concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balkoski, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy 1.1.1. Physics of Solar Thermal Energy Blackbody Radiation3]. SunTherm Energy, Inc. Solar Thermal Market Research.

  15. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    From the k(t + 1) predictions, solar irradiance forecastsand M. Cony. Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand A. E. Ruano. Prediction of the solar radiation evolution

  16. Impact of Solar Heat Gain on Radiant Floor Cooling System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    load and capacity; solar heat gain; Radiant design standardssignificance of solar radiation in the design process andthe magnitude of solar impacts under various design/control

  17. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    global solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6,solar energy, to achieve economically viability and competitiveness [12, 13, 14]. 2.1 Irradiance Data

  18. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  19. Particle Impact Damping in the Horizontal Plane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Bryan

    2012-07-16

    Particle impact damping is measured for a cantilevered beam vibrating freely in the horizontal plane. Several particle configurations are investigated beginning with a single particle and progressing to multiple layers of particles. The effects...

  20. Can Planets Influence the Horizontal Branch Morphology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noam Soker

    1998-03-19

    As stars which have planetary systems evolve along the red giant branch and expand, they interact with the close planets. The planets deposit angular momentum and energy into the red giant stars' envelopes, both of which are likely to enhance mass loss on the red giant branch. The enhanced mass loss causes the star to become bluer as it turns to the horizontal branch. I propose that the presence of planetary systems, through this mechanism, can explain some anomalies in horizontal branch morphologies. In particular, planetary systems may be related to the ``second parameter'', which determines the distribution of horizontal branch stars on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. The proposed scenario predicts that surviving massive planets or brown dwarfs orbit many of the extreme blue horizontal branch stars, at orbital periods of tens days.

  1. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalpenetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV) into an electricSolar Radiation Climatology in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics:

  2. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave...

  3. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    i UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni- toring Laboratory has been measuring incident solar radiation since 1975. Current support for this work comes from the Regional Solar Radiation Monitoring Project (RSRMP), a utility consortium project including the Bon

  4. Subject Title: UV Radiation Safety Program at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    programs. The current UV radiation safety program does not cover exposure to solar UV light. Exposure to solar UV radiation is the predominant cause of skin cancer, particularly when the sun is highest exposure in both occupational and recreational activities. Solar UV radiation also affects the eyes

  5. Tracking granules on the Sun's surface and reconstructing horizontal velocity fields: I. the CST algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rieutord; T. Roudier; S. Roques; C. Ducottet

    2007-07-13

    Determination of horizontal velocity fields on the solar surface is crucial for understanding the dynamics of structures like mesogranulation or supergranulation or simply the distribution of magnetic fields. We pursue here the development of a method called CST for coherent structure tracking, which determines the horizontal motion of granules in the field of view. We first devise a generalization of Strous method for the segmentation of images and show that when segmentation follows the shape of granules more closely, granule tracking is less effective for large granules because of increased sensitivity to granule fragmentation. We then introduce the multi-resolution analysis on the velocity field, based on Daubechies wavelets, which provides a view of this field on different scales. An algorithm for computing the field derivatives, like the horizontal divergence and the vertical vorticity, is also devised. The effects from the lack of data or from terrestrial atmospheric distortion of the images are also briefly discussed.

  6. Apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildenrotter, K.

    1981-08-18

    Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-energy collector surface. The collector is mounted on a support and is pivotable between an exposed position in which the collector surface faces the sun and a substantially horizontal sheltered position in which the collector surface faces the earth, thereby protecting the collector surface from the elements and facilitating access thereto for maintenance.

  7. The Impact of Horizontal Resolution on the Tropical Heat Budget in an Atlantic Ocean Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    ) removes these problems. Provided with observed wind velocity, SST, and incoming solar radiation the ABLM be limited by our ability to predict SST. To date, a rather impressive op- erational prediction

  8. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  9. SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar thermal applications. As contact thermometry is often not appropriate in the presence of high;Introduction In high temperature solar thermal applications, where key components are driven near reflections1,2 . The distinction between the emitted thermal and the reflected solar radiation becomes

  10. Stimulated Radiative Molecular Association in the Early Solar System: Orbital Radii of Satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation relates the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model is developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among the photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In this model thermal energy is extracted from each disk due to a resonance at radii where there is a match between the temperature in the disk and a photon energy. Matter accumulates at these radii, and satellites and rings are ultimately formed. Orbital radii of satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, and Neptune are related to photon energies ($E_{PM}$ values) in the spectrum of molecular hydrogen. Orbital radii of satellites of Saturn are related to photon energies ($E_{PA}$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. The first hint that such relationships exist is found in the linearity of the graphs of orbital radii of uranian satellites vs. or...

  11. Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations'" [J. Appl. Phys. 117,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non.1063/1.4905182 Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non

  12. Ness horizontal-well case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koonsman, T.L. (Mobil Exploration Norway Inc. (Norway)); Purpich, A.J. (Mobil North Sea Ltd. (United Kingdom))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews the reservoir management work that led to the recommendation to drill the Ness field horizontal well. It also discusses the poor well performance seen almost immediately after production began and the reasons for that well performance revealed by a postdrill reservoir simulation. Finally, the atypical logging responses observed in the well are discussed.

  13. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  14. Analysis of the California Solar Resource--Volume 3: Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    erdahl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Date September 24. 1976 11:00 a.m. Description of Solar RadiationDate November 11. 1976 11:45 a.m. Description of Solar Radiation

  15. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  16. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Report SERI/TR-642-761, Solar Energy Research Institute,radiation Direct reflected solar energy from smooth surfaceshighest in the sky. The solar energy incident on a receiving

  17. The horizontal desalination unit described herein utilizes the humidification-dehumidification process to purify water using air as a carrier gas. The temperature required to drive the process is low enough that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The horizontal desalination unit described herein utilizes the humidification enough that waste heat from a fuel combustion or solar collectors can be used. A unit in which air horizontal units, determine the efficiency of operation, and isolate ways of improving future units

  18. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    from satellite data. Solar Energy, 76:475–484, 2004. [59] CM16 independent data banks. Solar Energy, 80:468–478, 2006. [solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–772, 2007. [80

  19. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  20. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  1. The Solar Activity in the Miocene Period In this Subthesis we study the solar activity in the Miocene (or Triassic)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rays, short­wave radiations, the solar constant). One of the longest series of data is the records of UV and X­ray radi­ ation also show a strong correlation between the radiative energy flux and solarThe Solar Activity in the Miocene Period In this Subthesis we study the solar activity

  2. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  3. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  4. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  5. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    Horizontal wells are gaining popularity throughout the petroleum industry as a means to increase well productivity and enhance incremental economics. Horizontal wells provide greater reservoir exposure and are useful in ...

  6. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  7. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  8. Horizontal well hydraulics in leaky aquifers Hongbin Zhan*, Eungyu Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Horizontal well hydraulics in leaky aquifers Hongbin Zhan*, Eungyu Park Department of Geology presents a general study of horizontal well hydraulics for three aquifer types: a leaky confined aquifer- standing of horizontal well hydraulics under various aquifer conditions. 2. Mathematical model I

  9. Photochemistry Radiation and Photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    energy is done (i.e. energy per unit time) #12;Sample Problem: A microwave oven puts out radiation at 50? How does a microwave oven heat food anyway? First note that 50 GHz is a frequency (Hz = s-1) E = hn, as a function of l · Amount of solar radiation, as a function of

  10. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    solar radiation data, Solar Energy, 55 (1995) 21-27. [4] K.Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, and analysis tools - solarSolar Energy, 36 (1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation Data

  11. Solar 2014: The 52 Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .zapata@anu.edu.au Keywords: Concentrating Solar Power, Direct steam generation, Parabolic dishes, Continuous thermal power plants aims to achieve the stable operation of the plant under variable solar radiationSolar 2014: The 52 nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council A Modified Extended Kalman

  12. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB), which is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation, remediates soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISB involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove .VOCs from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of VOCs. The innovation is in the combination of 3 emerging technologies, air stripping, horizontal wells, and bioremediation via gaseous nutrient injection with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  13. Decline curve analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Min-Yu

    1994-01-01

    Subject; Petroleum Engineering DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS A Thesis by MIN- YU SHIH Submitted to Texas A8tM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degtee of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content... curves are given as log-log plots of MttdaLLattaad: Fetkovich Type Curve Radial Flow, Circular Reservoir Solutions 12 Transient "Stems" tTransient Flow) 8 001 160 000 x10 Depletion "Stems" (Boundary-Dominated Flow) r)04Arps Equations b 0 0...

  14. Testing a model of IR radiative losses Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    losses associated with the pyranometers. High quality data from the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Energy Laboratory (NREL) operates a very high quality solar monitoring station at the Solar Radiation Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global

  15. MEASUREMENT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION - STATUS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, D.F.

    2011-01-01

    data on the instantaneous values of circum- solar radiationradiation on specific solar collector designs. Requests for datasolar and circtmsolar radiation over the course of a day, month or year; and 3) detailed data

  16. Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2007-09-14

    Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

  17. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, andsolar maps. , 2010. [10] NREL, National Solar Radiation1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation

  18. Surface temperatures at the nearside of the Moon as a record of the radiation budget of Earth's climate system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shaopeng

    for a focus on the solar radiation during its daytime, and on terrestrial radiation during its nighttime terrestrial radiation in nighttime than the strong solar radiation in daytime. Indeed, the long-term lunar, governed respectively by solar and terrestrial radiation. Ó 2007 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  20. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  1. Horizontal wind rotor. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guard, E.J.

    1983-06-30

    A vertical axis wind machine called, ''Horizontal Wind Rotor'' conceived in 1979 by the Grantee E.J. Guard was an effort to marry a new high tech carousel type wind rotor to a basic building design for the purpose of generating practical amounts of electricty. This was directed especially towards high performance power generation, relative to low average wind velocity fields, typically found in Florida. From January 1980 to April 1983 two 1/30 scale wind tunnel type test models of buildings, one round and one square were built. An eight Hartzell shrouded wind tunnel fan machine was designed and built to supply uniform wind velocities for testing. All components of the Horizontal Wind Rotor (HWR) were fabricated, instrumented, mounted on the building models, and tested and modified repeatedly for performance optimization. Aerodynamic consultants, model makers, mechanical and computer engineers and technicians under the direction of E. Guard all teamed up to evolve the size, shape, and placement of the system components. It was recognized early that the machine had to be large in order to extract energy from low wind velocities. It was also noted that there were so many variables in the system, so as to elude analytical computation, that only testing could provide the answers. Consequently, this grant program has provided major contributions to the sparse available data in this little studied field, and set up valuable bench marks in design and power output parameters. This data will be the foundation for incorporating the newly discovered design improvements into the full scale prototype to follow. (Phase II) It is believed that this Rotor design is the only one in the world today that will produce as much power in the lower wind velocity ranges and it is also believed that every objective of the original grant proposal has been met or exceeded.

  2. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States Government or any agency thereof." Abstract Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas...

  3. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  4. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    cost reductions in the manufacturing of solar mod- ules.1 Moreover, it is essential to identify newSemiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers Linyou Cao, Pengyu Fan, Alok P. Vasudev the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250

  5. Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares STFC Advanced Summer School in Solar Physics H. S. Hudson Space Sciences Laboratory · A solar flare is, strictly speaking, the electromagnetic radiation from a coronal magnetic energy release and CME require a magnetic storage to supply the energy: #12;Glasgow Summerschool 2011 Why is flare

  6. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Golden, CO); Landry, Marc D. (Lafayette, CO); Pitts, John R. (Lakewood, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystallline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation.

  7. Method for processing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Landry, M.D.; Pitts, J.R.

    1997-05-06

    The instant invention teaches a novel method for fabricating silicon solar cells utilizing concentrated solar radiation. The solar radiation is concentrated by use of a solar furnace which is used to form a front surface junction and back-surface field in one processing step. The present invention also provides a method of making multicrystalline silicon from amorphous silicon. The invention also teaches a method of texturing the surface of a wafer by forming a porous silicon layer on the surface of a silicon substrate and a method of gettering impurities. Also contemplated by the invention are methods of surface passivation, forming novel solar cell structures, and hydrogen passivation. 2 figs.

  8. II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    2 II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Since 1977 the University of Oregon Solar Monitoring Laboratory has operated a solar radiation monitoring network in the Pacific Northwest. The number of stations participat of utilities headed by the Eugene Water and Electric Board initiated the Re- gional Solar Radiation Monitoring

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Solar activity during gestation does not affect human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helle, Samuli

    is increased mutagenic ultraviolet (UVB) radiation during high solar activity that damages DNA. Here, the aim born during the years of high solar activity, measured as the sunspot numbers. We used data on annual). Such solar radiation-induced reduction of lifespan may be mediated by the increased mortality from cancer

  10. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  11. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  12. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. ); Huang, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  13. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B.; Huang, J.

    1996-12-31

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T & N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  14. Noninvasive emittance and energy spread monitor using optical synchrotron radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorito, R.

    We propose a design for a minimally perturbing diagnostic minichicane, which utilizes optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) generated from magnetic bends in the chicane, to measure the rms horizontal and vertical beam sizes, ...

  15. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Energy Study: Sun Light Energy Study: Solar RadiationS, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll , N77L. Berger, "The Sun, a New Source of Energy", AD B 026689,

  16. SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Title, A. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Schuessler, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, 37191 (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    We present a radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the formation of an active region (AR) on the solar surface. The simulation models the rise of a buoyant magnetic flux bundle from a depth of 7.5 Mm in the convection zone up into the solar photosphere. The rise of the magnetic plasma in the convection zone is accompanied by predominantly horizontal expansion. Such an expansion leads to a scaling relation between the plasma density and the magnetic field strength such that B {proportional_to} rhov{sup 1/2}. The emergence of magnetic flux into the photosphere appears as a complex magnetic pattern, which results from the interaction of the rising magnetic field with the turbulent convective flows. Small-scale magnetic elements at the surface first appear, followed by their gradual coalescence into larger magnetic concentrations, which eventually results in the formation of a pair of opposite polarity spots. Although the mean flow pattern in the vicinity of the developing spots is directed radially outward, correlations between the magnetic field and velocity field fluctuations allow the spots to accumulate flux. Such correlations result from the Lorentz-force-driven, counterstreaming motion of opposite polarity fragments. The formation of the simulated AR is accompanied by transient light bridges between umbrae and umbral dots. Together with recent sunspot modeling, this work highlights the common magnetoconvective origin of umbral dots, light bridges, and penumbral filaments.

  17. Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kram, Rodger

    . Using a wind tunnel to apply horizontal impeding forces, Pugh (19) showed that the metabolic cost forces. Davies (5) compared the metabolic cost of running with wind resistance vs. wind assistanceMetabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running YOUNG-HUI CHANG AND RODGER KRAM

  18. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  19. Modeling the solar thermal receiver for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer A. (Jennifer Anne)

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to create an accurate steady state thermal model of a molten salt receiver prototype with a horizontal divider plate in the molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD). The purpose of the ...

  20. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  1. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. A. Croze; E. E. Ashraf; M. A. Bees

    2010-10-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow, and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  2. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  3. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  4. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  5. SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE Wei Wu1 , Yangang Liu1 of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere by the Solar Radiation and Climate the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere (TOA) varies little (only about 0

  6. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  7. Gain Scheduled Control of a Solar Power Plant Tor A. Johansen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    to a pilot-scale solar power plant is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto, is described. A eld of parabolic collectors focus the solar radiation onto a tube where oil is pumped through. Figures 1-2 shows photographs of the Acurex plant. The eld is composed of 480 distributed solar collectors

  8. PHASE-SENSITIVE HOLOGRAPHY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY D. C. BRAUN, and C. LINDSEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Douglas C.

    acoustic radiation coming out of a particular point on the solar photosphere with acoustic radiation going applied techniques in phase- sensitive seismic holography to data from the Solar Oscillations, that sunspots and solar active regions are strong absorbers of incident acoustic (p-mode) radiation (Braun

  9. Solar parameters for modeling interplanetary background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bzowski, M; Tokumaru, M; Fujiki, K; Quemerais, E; Lallement, R; Ferron, S; Bochsler, P; McComas, D J

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the Fully Online Datacenter of Ultraviolet Emissions (FONDUE) Working Team of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, Switzerland, was to establish a common calibration of various UV and EUV heliospheric observations, both spectroscopic and photometric. Realization of this goal required an up-to-date model of spatial distribution of neutral interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere, and to that end, a credible model of the radiation pressure and ionization processes was needed. This chapter describes the solar factors shaping the distribution of neutral interstellar H in the heliosphere. Presented are the solar Lyman-alpha flux and the solar Lyman-alpha resonant radiation pressure force acting on neutral H atoms in the heliosphere, solar EUV radiation and the photoionization of heliospheric hydrogen, and their evolution in time and the still hypothetical variation with heliolatitude. Further, solar wind and its evolution with solar activity is presented in the context of the charge excha...

  10. Space-Based Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    radiation is then wirelessly beamed to Earth in a safe and controlled way as either a microwave or laser beam. Microwave Transmitting Solar Satellite Sunlight reflects off...

  11. University of Colorado-Boulder Researches Solar-Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    temperature quenching or in an electrolysis step. The conversion of solar radiation into chemical fuel, such as hydrogen, is an engineering challenge; however, unlike...

  12. Center-to-Limb Variation of Solar 3-D Hydrodynamical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Koesterke; C. Allende Prieto; D. L. Lambert

    2008-02-15

    We examine closely the solar Center-to-Limb variation of continua and lines and compare observations with predictions from both a 3-D hydrodynamic simulation of the solar surface (provided by M. Asplund and collaborators) and 1-D model atmospheres. Intensities from the 3-D time series are derived by means of the new synthesis code ASSET, which overcomes limitations of previously available codes by including a consistent treatment of scattering and allowing for arbitrarily complex line and continuum opacities. In the continuum, we find very similar discrepancies between synthesis and observation for both types of model atmospheres. This is in contrast to previous studies that used a ``horizontally'' and time averaged representation of the 3-D model and found a significantly larger disagreement with observations. The presence of temperature and velocity fields in the 3-D simulation provides a significant advantage when it comes to reproduce solar spectral line shapes. Nonetheless, a comparison of observed and synthetic equivalent widths reveals that the 3-D model also predicts more uniform abundances as a function of position angle on the disk. We conclude that the 3-D simulation provides not only a more realistic description of the gas dynamics, but, despite its simplified treatment of the radiation transport, it also predicts reasonably well the observed Center-to-Limb variation, which is indicative of a thermal structure free from significant systematic errors.

  13. Radiation Modeling In Fluid Flow Iain D. Boyd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Collector #12;4 Fundamentals of Radiation (1) · All matter with non-zero temperature emits thermal radiation with energy flux given by the Stefan-Boltzmann Law: e.g., Sun: T=5800 K, total radiated power = 4 distribution (Planck spectrum) !q =T 4 W/m2 #12;5 Planck Radiation Spectrum #12;6 Solar Radiation Spectrum

  14. A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid Flow In Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

  15. The time to reach pseudosteady-state in horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Kahtani, Abdulghafour

    1998-01-01

    Engineers need to estimate the expected productivity of horizontal wells. We need to know how long it takes to reach pseudosteady-state to accept that estimation. When all boundaries influence the pressure distribution in the drainage area...

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Michael Broughton

    1981-10-20

    An experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines is undertaken. The theoretical analyses cover the four major areas of aerodynamics, turbulence. aeroelasticity and blade optimisation. EXisting aerodynamic theories based...

  17. Pressure transient testing and productivity analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yueming

    2004-11-15

    This work studied the productivity evaluation and well test analysis of horizontal wells. The major components of this work consist of a 3D coupled reservoir/wellbore model, a productivity evaluation, a deconvolution ...

  18. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1968-01-01

    Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

  19. Simulation studies of waterflood performance with horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Horacio

    1995-01-01

    Two-and three-dimensional simulation studies have been carried out to evaluate waterflood oil recovery in a 40-acre 5-spot pattern using horizontal and vertical well systems. The three-dimensional simulation results indicate that the parameters...

  20. Application of horizontal wells in steeply dipping reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez Navarro, Jose David

    1995-01-01

    and the anisotropy of permeability (kv/kh ratio) are the dominant parameters affecting the oil recovery. For thin reservoirs, the location of the horizontal injector will not significantly affect the oil recovery. Simultaneous gas and water injection through...

  1. The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiajing

    2012-02-14

    Horizontal wells have been used to increase reservoir recovery, especially in unconventional reservoirs, and hydraulic fracturing has been applied to further extend the contact with the reservoir to increase the efficiency of development...

  2. Optimization of fractured well performance of horizontal gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magalhaes, Fellipe Vieira

    2009-06-02

    In low-permeability gas reservoirs, horizontal wells have been used to increase the reservoir contact area, and hydraulic fracturing has been further extending the contact between wellbores and reservoirs. This thesis presents an approach...

  3. Horizontal non-contact slumping of flat glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Edward, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues the work of M. Akilian and A. Husseini on developing a noncontact glass slumping/shaping process. The shift from vertical slumping to horizontal slumping is implemented and various technologies required ...

  4. Horizontal Code Transfer via Program Fracture and Recombination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidiroglou-Douskos, Stelios

    2015-04-14

    We present a new horizontal code transfer technique, program fracture and recombination, for automatically replacing, deleting, and/or combining code from multiple applications. Benefits include automatic generation of new ...

  5. Modeling performance of horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamkom, Rungtip

    2009-05-15

    Horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells are relatively new alternatives in field development because they can increase the productivity per well and reduce the cost of field development. Because the feasibility of these wells may not be valid...

  6. RADIATION AND CLOUD MONITORING STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    how they affect the energy balance between incoming solar radiation and heat re-radiated from Earth's surface back into space -- is crucial to improving the general circulation models used for climate students. #12;A MONTHLY PUBLICATION OF THE PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY LOS

  7. Water coning calculations for vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Weiping

    1990-01-01

    recovery of several wells coning water. Since their type curves are specific for the data they investigated, it can not serve as a general method of coning evaluation. Addington'2 developed a set of gas coning correlations for 3-D coarse grid... for predicting (1) critical coning rate, (2) breakthrough time, and (3) WOR after breakthrough in both vertical and horizontal wells. Two hand calculation methods had been developed in this study. Either of them applies to both vertical and horizontal wells...

  8. Local microwave background radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domingos Soares

    2014-11-13

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  9. Central solar energy receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  10. Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Wintering forest birds roost in areas of higher sun radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    temperatures, and higher solar radiation in order to minimize thermoregulation costs during resting time situations). We employ GIS methods to quantify solar radiation at each location surrounding the nest boxes with higher solar radiation, where the period of light available for foraging is extended and thermoregulation

  12. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-18 PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION TRANSMITTANCE THROUGH ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to obtain the ratios shown in Figure 9. 9. Ratio of under-ice to above-ice radiation (T) versus true solar. 12. Ratio of below- to above-ice radiation (T) as a function of true solar time (TST) during a period of melting snow for 7 March 1977. 13. Radiation transmittance (T) as a function of true solar time (TST

  13. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  14. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  15. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  16. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.; Hansen, L.J.; Evans, D.B.

    1982-09-29

    A receiver is described for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700 to 900/sup 0/C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  17. Solar heat receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA); Hansen, Leif J. (Berkeley, CA); Evans, David B. (Orinda, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A receiver for converting solar energy to heat a gas to temperatures from 700.degree.-900.degree. C. The receiver is formed to minimize impingement of radiation on the walls and to provide maximum heating at and near the entry of the gas exit. Also, the receiver is formed to provide controlled movement of the gas to be heated to minimize wall temperatures. The receiver is designed for use with gas containing fine heat absorbing particles, such as carbon particles.

  18. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  19. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  20. Stimulated Radiative Molecular Association in the Early Solar System. II. Orbital Radii of the Planets and Other Satellites of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    In a previous investigation, the orbital radii of regular satellites of Uranus, Jupiter, Neptune, and Saturn are shown to be directly related to photon energies in the spectra of atomic and molecular hydrogen. To explain these observations a model was developed involving stimulated radiative molecular association (SRMA) reactions among photons and atoms in the protosatellite disks of the planets. In the present investigation, the previously developed model is applied to the planets and important satellites of the Sun. A key component of the model involves resonance associated with SRMA. Through this resonance, thermal energy is extracted from the protosun's protoplanetary disk at specific distances from the protosun wherever there is a match between the local thermal energy of the disk and the energy of photons impinging on the disk. Orbital radii of the planets and satellites are related to photon energies ($E_P$ values) in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. An expression determined previously is used to relat...

  1. Calculation of the Solar Load onto Occupants in a Room using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions and a View Factor Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jedek, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    calculation of the solar load of one specific Bin, it willfor the amount of solar load on one polygon of the manikina given day time. The solar radiation on the one hand can be

  2. A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Heinemann, C. Hoyer & R. Kuhlemann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Piernavieja Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias, Spain Keywords: radiative transfer, solar irradiance, MSG irradiance calculation scheme, including the functional treatment of the diurnal variation of the solar

  3. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    investigated in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima expe- rienced in the past 100 years1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-013-0335-3 Changes in Quasi-periodic Variations of Solar Photospheric Fields: Precursor to the Deep Solar Minimum

  4. Apparatus and method for the horizontal, crucible-free growth of silicon sheet crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-09-12

    Apparatus is provided for continuously forming a silicon crystal sheet from a silicon rod in a non-crucible environment. The rod is rotated and fed toward an RF coil in an inert atmosphere so that the upper end of the rod becomes molten and the silicon sheet crystal is pulled therefrom substantially horizontally in a continuous strip. A shorting ring may be provided around the rod to limit the heating to the upper end only. Argon gas can be used to create the inert atmosphere within a suitable closed chamber. By use of this apparatus and method, a substantially defect-free silicon crystal sheet is formed which can be used for micro-circuitry chips or solar cells.

  5. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    airport (e.g. , solar radiation data for the whole year),and TMY3 data Diffuse Horizontal Solar Radiation Globaldata from an on-site weather station, including solar radiation

  6. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  7. Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 1 cCopernicus Gesellschaft 2001 The Evolution of Galactic Cosmic Ray Element Spectra from Solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Andrew J.

    behind 5 gcm ¾ of shielding at solar minimum (data from Wilson et al., 1997). mission lasting a year of solar modulation. Depending on the applicable radiation limits, these uncertainties in the radiation Cosmic Ray Element Spectra from Solar Minimum to Solar Maximum: ACE Measurements A. J. Davis1 , R. A

  8. Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansey, Eli

    Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis Eli a horizontally-oriented multi-junction solar cell by creating an array of cavities tuned with targeted CMs of New York, New York, NY, USA 10031 August 26, 2010 ABSTRACT We have developed a method to design multi-junction

  9. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a...

  10. Deep-level defects introduced by 1 MeV electron radiation in AlInGaP for multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H.S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.; Khan, A.; Takamoto, T.; Agui, T.; Kamimura, K.; Kaneiwa, M.; Imaizumi, M.; Ohshima, T.; Itoh, H.

    2005-11-01

    Presented in this paper are 1 MeV electron irradiation effects on wide-band-gap (1.97 eV) (Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}){sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P diodes and solar cells. The carrier removal rate estimated in p-AlInGaP with electron fluence is about 1 cm{sup -1}, which is lower than that in InP and GaAs. From high-temperature deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, a deep-level defect center such as majority-carrier (hole) trap H2 (E{sub {nu}}+0.90{+-}0.05 eV) was observed. The changes in carrier concentrations ({delta}p) and trap densities as a function of electron fluence were compared, and as a result the total introduction rate, 0.39 cm{sup -1}, of majority-carrier trap centers (H1 and H2) is different from the carrier removal rate, 1 cm{sup -1}, in p-AlInGaP. From the minority-carrier injection annealing (100 mA/cm{sup 2}), the annealing activation energy of H2 defect is {delta}E=0.60 eV, which is likely to be associated with a vacancy-phosphorus Frenkel pair (V{sub p}-P{sub i}). The recovery of defect concentration and carrier concentration in the irradiated p-AlInGaP by injection relates that a deep-level defect H2 acts as a recombination center as well as compensator center.

  11. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    network approach of solar potential in Turkey,” Renewabledue to the high solar resource potential. However, the solar

  12. Horizontal displacements contribution to tsunami wave energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutykh, Denys; Chubarov, Leonid; Shokin, Yuriy

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the generation of tsunamis is the deformation of the bottom of the ocean caused by an underwater earthquake. Usually, only the vertical bottom motion is taken into accound while the horizontal displacements are neglected. In the present paper we study both the vertical and the horizontal bottom motion while we propose a novel methodology for reconstructing the bottom coseismic displacements field which is transmitted to the free surface using a new three-dimensional Weakly Nonlinear (WN) approach. We pay a special attention to the evolution of kinetic and potential energies of the resulting wave while the contribution of horizontal displacements into wave energy balance is also quantified. Approaches proposed in this study are illustrated on the July 17, 2006 Java tsunami.

  13. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    data records. 1, Solar Data Solar energy is a general termin obtaining reliable data for solar energy applications,data and analyzed the consequences of designing solar energy

  14. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    a characteristic solar potential is expected to prevail, Theso many sites of potential solar energy applications will besun creates a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-

  15. Coiled tubing buckling implication in drilling and completing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses coiled tubing buckling and load transmission when drilling and completing horizontal wells. Comprehensive analyses and new equations are presented to predict buckling of coiled tubing, slack-off weight transmission, actual bit weight or packer load, and maximum horizontal length. Coiled tubing lock-up and yield due to buckling are also discussed. These equations can also be used for other coiled tubing operations, such as coiled tubing workover, coiled tubing well stimulation, and even for conventional joint-connected drill strings. Calculations based on the equations presented are also compared with the previous literature.

  16. Predicting horizontal well performance in solution-gas drive reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plahn, Sheldon Von

    1986-01-01

    University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard A. Star tzman Drilling horizontal wells to accelerate the recovery of oil is an old idea, but the practice was not widespread. Due to r ecent improvements in drilling technology, interest in drilling... permeability on hoi izontal 33 well pe formance INTRODUCTION Ba~cc~rLiiI The idea of dr illing horizontal wells to accelei ate the recovery of oil dates back to the 1940's. But, due to a lack of reliable directional drilling techniques and a relatively...

  17. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  18. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values ...

  19. MODIFIED SOLAR INSOLATION AS AN AGRONOMIC FACTOR IN TERRACED ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    of altitude, latitude, slope aspect, slope angle, and season. The net solar bene®t or cost from slope levelingMODIFIED SOLAR INSOLATION AS AN AGRONOMIC FACTOR IN TERRACED ENVIRONMENTS T. P. EVANS*1 AND B; Accepted 16 August 1999 ABSTRACT We present a model that calculates incident solar radiation falling

  20. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;Solar Phys

  1. Proceedings of the 5th ISES Europe Solar Conf., Freiburg (2004), vol. 2 591 Solar utilisation in low-energy buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    2004-01-01

    @physik.uni-siegen.de Abstract For low-energy buildings, passive solar gains can contribute significantly to the heat bal- ance solar radiation and the geometry of the building. However, the relevant part of the solar gains, which temperature inside the buildings, which, in turn, is influenced by the amount of solar and internal gains

  2. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  3. XI. DIFFUSEGLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    39 XI. DIFFUSE­GLOBAL CORRELATIONS: SEASONAL VARIATIONS Estimating the performance of a solar system requires an accurate assessment of incident solar radiation. Ordinarily, solar radiation-9]. In the previous section we presented a one- parameter correlation study using direct and global data from our

  4. Predicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1061/ ASCE 0733-9437 2003 129:4 256 CE Database subject headings: Radiation; Solar radiationPredicting Daily Net Radiation Using Minimum Climatological Data1 S. Irmak, M.ASCE2 ; A. Irmak3 ; J Abstract: Net radiation (Rn) is a key variable for computing reference evapotranspiration and is a driving

  5. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  6. IX. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS FROM THE ERUPTION OF EL CHICHN ON BEAM RADIATION IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    in clear day transmission values of beam and global solar radiation from several different sites measured on clear days the effects of normal climatic differences are avoided. Solar radiation data taken. Clear Day Global Radiation The effect of El Chichón upon the solar radia- tion is best studied

  7. Proceedings of Eurotherm78 Computational Thermal Radiation in Participating Media II 5-7 April 2006, Poitiers, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006, Poitiers, France A diffusion-based approximate model for radiation heat transfer in a solar An approximate method for fast calculations of the radiation heat transfer in a solar thermochemical reactor cavity is proposed. The two-step method with separate calculations for solar and thermal radiation

  8. Horizontal Aggregations for Building Tabular Data Sets Carlos Ordonez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Carlos

    Horizontal Aggregations for Building Tabular Data Sets Carlos Ordonez Teradata, NCR San Diego, CA, USA ABSTRACT In a data mining project, a significant portion of time is devoted to building a data set suitable for analysis. In a re- lational database environment, building such data set usu- ally requires

  9. A Simplified Morphing Blade for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Simplified Morphing Blade for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Weijun WANG , St´ephane CARO, Fouad salinas@hotmail.com The aim of designing wind turbine blades is to improve the power capture ability by adjusting the twist of the blade's root and tip. To evaluate the performance of wind turbine blades

  10. TECHNICAL NOTES Determination of Length of a Horizontal Drain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    (Sherard et al. 1967; Sharma 1991) suggested limits for the upstream and the downstream slopes. Chahar1 Abstract: An earth dam can be prevented from a seepage failure due to softening of the downstream the downstream slope cover and the length of the downstream horizontal drain in homogeneous isotropic

  11. Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hae-Jin

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

  12. Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications Stelios CSAIL, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract We present Code Phage (CP), a system for automatically transferring. To the best of our knowledge, CP is the first system to automatically transfer code across multiple

  13. Improved oil recovery using horizontal wells at Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangle, F.J.; Schultz, K.L.; McJannet, G.S.; Ezekwe, N.

    1995-03-01

    Eight horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in a steeply dipping Stevens sand reservoir in the Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The subject reservoir, called the Stevens 26R, is a turbidite channel sand deposit one mile wide, three miles long, and one mile deep. Formation beds have a gross thickness up to 1,500 feet and dips as high as 60 degrees on the flanks. The original oil column of 1,810 feet has been pulled down to 200 feet by continual production since 1976. The reservoir management operating strategy has been full pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection since 1976. The steep dip of the formation makes gravity drainage the dominant drive mechanism. Additionally, improved recovery is coming from cycling dry gas through the large secondary gas cap region. The prudent placement of the horizontal wells above the oil/water contact promises to improve oil recovery and extend the operating life of the reservoir. Field results are given to compare the performance of the horizontal wells with the conventional wells. The horizontal wells produce at higher rates, lower draw downs, and lower gas/oil ratio which will extend the life of the project and result in higher recovery.

  14. Horizontal wells improve recovery at the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rintoul, B.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988 the US Department of Energy and Bechtel implemented a program to slow production declines in the Elk Hills 26R pool sand of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1. It was also hoped horizontal wells would increase the production rate, decrease gas production and extend economic life of the reservoir. The Stevens sand pool targeted for the project is a high-quality, sand-rich turbidite channel system encapsulated within Miocene Monterey siliceous shales, mudstones and associated sediments. The pool is about 3-miles long by 3/4-mile wide. The paper describes the specifications and drilling of the first four out of the 14 horizontal wells drilled at this facility. Horizontal drilling technology has completely altered the future of the 26R pool. In 1980 estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) from the sand was 211 million bbl. With the latest horizontal well drilling campaign, the pool is expected to pass that estimate in 1997 when oil production is forecasted to be at least 13,000 b/d. EUR form the 26R sand now is more than 250 million bbl, and even that estimate is being revised upward.

  15. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  16. Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    where = T(P0/P) ad (potential temperature) #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology Group velocity Helioseismology Global helioseismology: Determine set of nlm's infer global mean solar structure. LocalPetrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION Small departures from

  17. Accelerators for Testing Radiation Tolerances of Electronics...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    benefit to spin-off field: Qualify components used in space radiation environments. Solar Flares, cosmic rays, and the Earth's Van Allen Belts serve as natural sources of space...

  18. Solar | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar SHARE Solar ORNL's Solar Technologies program supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office - SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy...

  19. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  20. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  1. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  2. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  3. Detection of solar events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  4. Solar mechanics thermal response capabilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, Dean D.

    2009-07-01

    In many applications, the thermal response of structures exposed to solar heat loads is of interest. Solar mechanics governing equations were developed and integrated with the Calore thermal response code via user subroutines to provide this computational simulation capability. Solar heat loads are estimated based on the latitude and day of the year. Vector algebra is used to determine the solar loading on each face of a finite element model based on its orientation relative to the sun as the earth rotates. Atmospheric attenuation is accounted for as the optical path length varies from sunrise to sunset. Both direct and diffuse components of solar flux are calculated. In addition, shadowing of structures by other structures can be accounted for. User subroutines were also developed to provide convective and radiative boundary conditions for the diurnal variations in air temperature and effective sky temperature. These temperature boundary conditions are based on available local weather data and depend on latitude and day of the year, consistent with the solar mechanics formulation. These user subroutines, coupled with the Calore three-dimensional thermal response code, provide a complete package for addressing complex thermal problems involving solar heating. The governing equations are documented in sufficient detail to facilitate implementation into other heat transfer codes. Suggestions for improvements to the approach are offered.

  5. Modeling IR Radiative Loss from Eppley PSP Pyranometers Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT A method has been developed to estimate IR radiative losses using solar, irradiance, IR, modeling, global, diffuse, PSP 1. INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s, solar radiation data has been Energy Laboratory (NREL) data page3 along with the original global data. Corrections to the PSP

  6. Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farres, AJ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Invariant Manifolds for the Station Keeping of Solar Sails Ariadna Farr´es, AJ Universitat de 2 / 45 inria-00585612,version1-14Apr2011 #12;Background What is a Solar Sail ? Solar Sails are a new concept of spacecraft propulsion that takes ad- vantage of the Solar radiation pressure to propel

  7. Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar Flares and the Chromosphere A white paper for the Decadal Survey* L. Fletcher, R. Turkmani, H acceleration (De Pontieu et al. 2007). The need for chromospheric observations of flares: The solar flare of radiation in a solar flare (Canfield et al 1986, Neidig 1989, Woods et al. 2004). In other words, solar

  8. Phase-change materials to improve solar panel's performance Pascal Biwole1,2,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail:phbiwole@unice.fr Abstract: High operating temperatures induce a loss of efficiency in solar photovoltaic and thermal panels. Introduction The efficiency of solar panels depends on three factors: the intensity of the solar radiation flux-change materials to improve solar panel's performance Pascal Biwole1,2,* , Pierre Eclache3 , Frederic Kuznik3 1

  9. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    agency thereof. Available electronically at http:www.osti.govbridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S....

  10. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation FederatedInformation What's nextInformationSciTech Revised

  11. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  12. Comparison of transient horizontal magnetic fields in a plage region and in the quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryohko Ishikawa; Saku Tsuneta

    2008-12-09

    Properties of transient horizontal magnetic fields (THMFs) in both plage and quiet Sun regions are obtained and compared. Spectro-polarimetric observations with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode satellite were carried out with a cadence of about 30 seconds for both plage and quiet regions located near disk center. We select THMFs that have net linear polarization (LP) higher than 0.22%, and an area larger than or equal to 3 pixels, and compare their occurrence rates and distribution of magnetic field azimuth. We obtain probability density functions (PDFs) of magnetic field strength and inclination for both regions.The occurrence rate in the plage region is the same as for the quiet Sun. The vertical magnetic flux in the plage region is ~8 times larger than in the quiet Sun. There is essentially no preferred orientation for the THMFs in either region. However, THMFs in the plage region with higher LP have a preferred direction consistent with that of the plage-region's large-scale vertical field pattern. PDFs show that there is no difference in the distribution of field strength of horizontal fields between the quiet Sun and the plage regions when we avoid the persistent large vertical flux concentrations for the plage region. The similarity of the PDFs and of the occurrence rates in plage and quiet regions suggests that a local dynamo process due to the granular motion may generate THMFs all over the sun. The preferred orientation for higher LP in the plage indicates that the THMFs are somewhat influenced by the larger-scale magnetic field pattern of the plage.

  13. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  14. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  15. Engineering the optical properties of luminescent solar concentrators at the molecular scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulder, Carlijn Lucinde

    2012-01-01

    Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) concentrate solar radiation onto photovoltaic (PV) cells using an inexpensive collector plate to absorb incoming photons and waveguide fluorescently re-emitted photons to PVs at the ...

  16. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  17. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  18. Horizontal Integration, an AS – Telecom Network Operations Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kekovole, Stephen Andaye

    2011-12-16

    the employees to make decisions pertaining to their day to day work activity. This did improve service delivery but it limited the employee to function within his/her silo. Thus the issue of cross team barriers still existed resulting in conflicts between... department to a 12 process. With expertise from each of the departments, these process teams are equipped with the multi-disciplinary expertise to make daily operational decisions. A final component of the horizontal organization is an appraisal...

  19. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  20. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  1. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Downers Grove, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  2. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  3. A mathematical simulation of horizontal drain-hole performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Thomas Ru-Kang

    1984-01-01

    Science and Technology, Kee-Lung, Taiwan, Republic of China Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Ching H. Wu The application of horizontal drain-hole in petroleum industry represents one of the new developments in oil recovery techniques. Many... production condition was simulated. The validity of the computational algorithm employed in the simulator was ascertained using the results obtained from a general purpose black oil simulator, BOSS-AIM. The verification runs were made under a semi...

  4. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  5. Small diameter horizontal hole drilling - state of technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the existing state of the art for small diameter, horizontal pilot hole drilling. The data were collected by contacting worldwide owners of raise or slant hole drill equipment, manufacturers of drills and bits, and manufacturers of survey tools. The study was limited to existing equipment and completed trials. Most attempts at directional pilot hole drilling, and most survey tools are designed for near vertical, downward drilling. Several types of controllable bits are available which depend upon in-hole motors and bent or wedged assemblies to bias the direction of drilling. Accurate horizontal drilling can be achieved in this way by alternately drilling and surveying at frequent intervals. This procedure is impractical, however, from both a production and a cost standpoint. A few attempts at directional drilling have been made using ordinary drilling tools, a rotary drill string and a tricone bit. Good equipment and a well trained drill crew appeared to be the most significant factor in practical, accurate drilling, whether horizontal or vertical. Because of the cost, no one uses steerable bit drilling except for correction, and then only for short portions of an overall drill program. No satisfactory continuous readout surveying tool, coupled with a remotely controlled bit capable of direction correction, exists. An industry need exists for a high speed, directional drill bit, coupled with a continuously monitored survey tool. 2 tables.

  6. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  7. Solar spectral measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A newly developed spectroradiometer for routine measurement of the solar spectra is described. This instrument measures the solar spectrum between 300 and 2500 nm in less than 2.5 min, with 0.7-nm resolution in the visible and 10-nm resolution in the infrared. Many examples of global, direct, and diffuse spectra are illustrated for Bedford, Mass. and Golden, Colo. The effects of air mass, turbidity, and sun tracking on the spectrum are presented, and radiative transfer modeling capabilities and comparisons between models and between models and experiment are discussed.

  8. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cousins, Peter John

    2014-11-04

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  9. Front contact solar cell with formed emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA)

    2012-07-17

    A bipolar solar cell includes a backside junction formed by an N-type silicon substrate and a P-type polysilicon emitter formed on the backside of the solar cell. An antireflection layer may be formed on a textured front surface of the silicon substrate. A negative polarity metal contact on the front side of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the substrate, while a positive polarity metal contact on the backside of the solar cell makes an electrical connection to the polysilicon emitter. An external electrical circuit may be connected to the negative and positive metal contacts to be powered by the solar cell. The positive polarity metal contact may form an infrared reflecting layer with an underlying dielectric layer for increased solar radiation collection.

  10. National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures Ltd Jump to: navigation,Naples,DevelopmentLeaseProject

  11. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool...

  12. Horizontal structures in granulite terrains: A record of mountain building or mountain collapse?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    Horizontal structures in granulite terrains: A record of mountain building or mountain collapse horizontal structures occurred during the metamorphic culmination and was followed by isobaric cooling that no significant erosional denudation fol- lowed the development of the horizontal structures and thus precludes

  13. Hydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    of Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) through 90 to lie horizontally across a tidal flow · Stretch power (2) · Vertical axis turbines ­ Blue Energy ­ Polo ­ ... 4 other vertical axis devices · HorizontalHydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine Prof. Guy

  14. Fine Magnetic Structure and Origin of Counter-Streaming Mass Flows in a Quiescent Solar Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Ying D; Chen, P F; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence which was consisted of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine, and counter-streaming mass flows were ubiquitous in the prominence. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connecting to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed and then reformed at a similar height, finally, it started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapsing and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and a vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot was consisted of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and with the both ends connecting to the solar surface, while the v...

  15. CROSS VALIDATION OF SATELLITE RADIATION TRANSFER MODELS DURING SWERA PROJECT IN BRAZIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    between two different core radiation transfer models that will be applied during the SWERA (Solar and Wind ­ 048°31'42"W / 10m) 2. BASIC DESCRIPTION OF SOLAR RADIATION SITES The two sites were chosen because they provide high quality radiation data and represent different climatic/environmental regions and different

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  18. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalthe limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric powertechnologies is that of solar photovoltaics due to the high

  19. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  20. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them