National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for horizontal solar irradiance

  1. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  2. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); McInnes, Ian D. (San Jose, CA); Massey, John V. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  3. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  4. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Heliosat procedure for irradiance Estimates from Satellitethe pro duction of solar irradiance and daylight illuminancesatellite based solar irradiance modelling - The SOLIS clear

  5. SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    SIPS: Solar Irradiance Prediction System Stefan Achleitner Computer Science and Engineering the variability and dynamics are the largest. We propose SIPS, Solar Irradiance Prediction System, a novel sensing infrastructure using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to enable sensing of solar irradiance for solar power

  6. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Solar irradiance data . . . . . . . . . . . . .Irradiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Forecasting Solar Irradiance With GOES-West Satellite

  7. SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    SOLAR IRRADIANCE FORECASTING FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS Detlev Heinemann Oldenburg in irradiance forecasting have been presented more than twenty years ago (Jensenius and Cotton, 1981), when or progress with respect to the development of solar irradiance forecasting methods. Heck and Takle (1987

  8. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    from meteorological satellite data. Solar Energy 37, 31–39.specific irradiance data. Solar Energy 60, 89–96. Perez R. ,16 independent data banks. Solar Energy 80, 468–478 Kasten

  9. Advanced Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques for Solar Irradiance Forecasting : : Statistical, Data-Assimilation, and Ensemble Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick James

    2013-01-01

    of numerical weather prediction solar irradiance forecastsof numerical weather prediction solar irradiance forecastsnumerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the cloud index,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 280 –Cover Indices,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (inHorizontal Irradiance,” submitted to Solar Energy, 2012.

  11. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10°, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5° of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earth’s surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  12. Transient horizontal magnetic fields in solar plage regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ishikawa; S. Tsuneta; K. Ichimoto; H. Isobe; Y. Katsukawa; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title

    2008-02-13

    We report the discovery of isolated, small-scale emerging magnetic fields in a plage region with the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode. Spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out with a cadence of 34 seconds for the plage region located near disc center. The vector magnetic fields are inferred by Milne-Eddington inversion. The observations reveal widespread occurrence of transient, spatially isolated horizontal magnetic fields. The lateral extent of the horizontal magnetic fields is comparable to the size of photospheric granules. These horizontal magnetic fields seem to be tossed about by upflows and downflows of the granular convection. We also report an event that appears to be driven by the magnetic buoyancy instability. We refer to buoyancy-driven emergence as type1 and convection-driven emergence as type2. Although both events have magnetic field strengths of about 600 G, the filling factor of type1 is a factor of two larger than that of type2. Our finding suggests that the granular convection in the plage regions is characterized by a high rate of occurrence of granular-sized transient horizontal fields.

  13. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01

    existing standard solar spectral irradiance One option is tohazy-sky air mass one horizontal solar spectral irradiances,air mass one global horizontal (“AM1GH”) solar re?ectance R

  14. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Models of diffuse solar radiation, Renew Energ, 33 (2008) [solar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energsolar irradiance for analyzing areally- totalized PV systems, Sol Energ

  15. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Solar irradiance data . . . . . . . . . . . . .Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar Resourcev Uncertainty In Solar Resource: Forecasting

  16. Modeling Total Solar Irradiance Variations Using Automated Classification Software on Mount Wilson Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich, R. K.; Parker, D.; Bertello, L.; Boyden, J.

    2010-01-01

    Star: Solar and Stellar Irradiance Variations, IAU Colloq.4 Modeling Total Solar Irradiance Variations Using Automatedcorrelated with total solar irradiance (TSI) to yield a set

  17. SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE Wei Wu1 , Yangang Liu1 of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere by the Solar Radiation and Climate the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere (TOA) varies little (only about 0

  18. Total Solar Irradiance Variability and the Solar Activity Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-05-06

    It is suggested that the solar variability is due to the perturbed nature of the solar core and this variability is provided by the variability of the solar neutrino flux from the solar neutrino detectors i.e., Homestake, Superkamiokande, SAGE and GALLEX-GNO. The solar neutrino flux in the standard solar model (SSM) was calculated on the assumption of L_nu (neutrino luminosity) = L_gamma (optical luminosity) which implies that if there is a change in optical luminosity then solar neutrino flux data will also be changed. An internal dynamo due to the cyclic variation of nuclear energy generation inside the core of the sun is responsible for the solar activity cycle was suggested and thus the internal magnetic field is also variable. Again the changes in the nuclear energy generation induce structural changes that result in variations of the global solar parameters i.e., luminosity, radius and temperatures etc. From the analysis of total solar irradiance (TSI) data during the year from 1970 to 2003 we have found five phases within the solar activity cycle. The first phase (I) starts before two years from the sunspot minimum. The second phase (II) starts at the time of sunspot minimum and phase (III) starts before 2/3 years from sunspot maximum whereas phase (IV) starts at sunspot maximum and fifth phase (V) starts at after 2-3 years from sunspot maximum.

  19. Advanced Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques for Solar Irradiance Forecasting : : Statistical, Data-Assimilation, and Ensemble Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick James

    2013-01-01

    weather prediction solar irradiance forecasts in the US.2013: Review of solar irradiance forecasting methods and asatellite-derived irradiances: Description and validation.

  20. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A. E. Ruano, “Prediction of the solar radiation evolutionin ground- level solar irradiance prediction on similar

  1. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    From the k(t + 1) predictions, solar irradiance forecastsand M. Cony. Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand A. E. Ruano. Prediction of the solar radiation evolution

  2. A high-resolution, cloud-assimilating numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Collier, Craig; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    of numerical weather prediction solar irradiance forecasts numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance weather prediction for intra?day solar  forecasting in the 

  3. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-07-10

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by ?0.6% ± 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% ± 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar 'continuum'. Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar 'continuum', the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at ? ? 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  4. A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries PrintA New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

  5. RETHINKING SATELLITE BASED SOLAR IRRADIANCE MODELLING R. W. Mueller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    into the electricity grid, accurate solar irradiance data in a high spatial and temporal resolution are necessary. Solar irra- diance schemes provide these data using weather satellites such as METEOSAT and MSG

  6. 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Review of satellite-based surface solar irradiation databases for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    2013 ISES Solar World Congress Review of satellite-based surface solar irradiation databases explores the possibilities provided by satellite-based surface solar irradiation databases of solar dataset or time-series is addressed with the example of the French national meteorological network

  7. Bhutan Solar Resources - Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bhutan Solar Resources GIS data for Bhutan's direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradianc, and latitude tilt. Data and Resources Bhutan Direct normal irradianceZIP...

  8. Spectrum of Magnetic Dissipation and Horizontal Electric Currents in the Solar Photosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentyna Abramenko

    2008-06-09

    A proxy for horizontal electric currents in the solar photosphere was suggested. For a set of evolving active regions (ARs) observed with {\\it Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)} Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) in the high resolution mode, the dissipation spectrum, $k^2E(k)$, and the spatial structure of dissipation, i.e., the Stokes dissipation function $\\epsilon(x,y)$, were calculated from the observed $B_z$ component of the magnetic field. These functions allowed us to calculate (a part of) the horizontal electric current density in the photosphere. It was shown that as an active region emerges, large-scale horizontal electric currents are gradually generated and determine a bulk of dissipation. When an active region decays, the large-scale horizontal currents decay faster than the small-scale ones. The density of horizontal currents in active regions is in the range of $ \\sim (0.008 - 0.028)$ A/m$^2$, that is compatible with the density of vertical currents in active regions. We suggest two possible mechanisms for generation of such horizontal currents in the photosphere. One of them is the drift motions of charged particles in the medium of varying plasma pressure gradient in a horizontal plane at the periphery of a sunspot. Such a drift can produce quasi-circular closed horizontal currents around sunspots. Another possibility could be an existence of horizontal axial current inside a highly twisted horizontal magnetic structure laying in the photosphere along the magnetic neutral line. The horizontal currents may contribute significantly to the dynamics of the photosphere/corona coupling, as well as the estimation of non-potentiality of ARs.

  9. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  10. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    2011-09-01

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  11. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  12. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  13. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    114 Solar Irradiance And Power Output Variabilityand L. Bangyin. Online 24-h solar power forecasting based onNielsen. Online short-term solar power forecasting. Solar

  14. Reconstruction of solar irradiance using the Group sunspot number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Balmaceda; N. A. Krivova; S. K. Solanki

    2007-03-07

    We present a reconstruction of total solar irradiance since 1610 to the present based on variations of the surface distribution of the solar magnetic field. The latter is calculated from the historical record of the Group sunspot number using a simple but consistent physical model. Our model successfully reproduces three independent data sets: total solar irradiance measurements available since 1978, total photospheric magnetic flux from 1974 and the open magnetic flux since 1868 (as empirically reconstructed from the geomagnetic aa-index). The model predicts an increase in the total solar irradiance since the Maunder Minimum of about 1.3 \\rm{Wm$^{-2}$}.

  15. A high-resolution, cloud-assimilating numerical weather prediction model for solar irradiance forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Collier, Craig; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    of the WRF model solar irradiance forecasts in Andalusia (Beyer, H. , 2009.    Irradiance forecasting for the power dependent probabilistic irradiance  forecasts for coastal 

  16. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    global solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6,solar energy, to achieve economically viability and competitiveness [12, 13, 14]. 2.1 Irradiance Data

  17. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    2009. Global Concentrated Solar Power Industry Report 2010–Table 1.1 Incoming solar power at the top of the atmosphererate of 32% (WWEA, 2010). Solar power capacity was 16GW at

  18. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    1995). In National Solar Radiation Data Base—Final Technicalobtained from the Solar Radiation Data Service (WR7). 4.3.3global solar radiation from meteorological satellite data.

  19. Total solar irradiance variation during rapid sunspot H. Jabran Zahid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    solar irradiance (TSI), a phenomenon associated with the local suppression of convective energy of convective energy transport near the solar sur- face involves such efficient transport of energy to gravitational potential energy, and the conversion of some of this energy to heat via flows would cause local

  20. Computation of glint, glare, and solar irradiance distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Khalsa, Siri Sahib Singh

    2015-08-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. At least one camera captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed.

  1. Climate sensitivity of the Earth to solar irradiance David H. Douglass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglass, David H.

    Climate sensitivity of the Earth to solar irradiance David H. Douglass Department of Physics. A weaker effect, which must exist, is solar irradiance. We have determined the solar effect on the temperature from satellites measurements (available since 1979) of the solar irradiance and the temperature

  2. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    connected pv plant at Trieste, Italy. Solar Energy, 84(5):solar energy system (the UC Merced 1-MW photovoltaic plant).solar irradiance based on time series analysis: application to solar thermal power plants energy

  3. A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Heinemann, C. Hoyer & R. Kuhlemann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    A new generation of satellite based solar irradiance calculation schemes R. W. Mueller, D. Piernavieja Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias, Spain Keywords: radiative transfer, solar irradiance, MSG irradiance calculation scheme, including the functional treatment of the diurnal variation of the solar

  4. UV solar irradiance in observations and the NRLSSI and SATIRE-S models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeo, K L; Krivova, N A; Solanki, S K; Unruh, Y C; Morrill, J

    2015-01-01

    Total solar irradiance and UV spectral solar irradiance have been monitored since 1978 through a succession of space missions. This is accompanied by the development of models aimed at replicating solar irradiance by relating the variability to solar magnetic activity. The NRLSSI and SATIRE-S models provide the most comprehensive reconstructions of total and spectral solar irradiance over the period of satellite observation currently available. There is persistent controversy between the various measurements and models in terms of the wavelength dependence of the variation over the solar cycle, with repercussions on our understanding of the influence of UV solar irradiance variability on the stratosphere. We review the measurement and modelling of UV solar irradiance variability over the period of satellite observation. The SATIRE-S reconstruction is consistent with spectral solar irradiance observations where they are reliable. It is also supported by an independent, empirical reconstruction of UV spectral s...

  5. COMBINING SOLAR IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS AND VARIOUS SATELLITE-DERIVED PRODUCTS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    COMBINING SOLAR IRRADIANCE MEASUREMENTS AND VARIOUS SATELLITE-DERIVED PRODUCTS TO A SITE power plants depend strongly on the availability of beam irradiance. Direct solar irradiance is highly-series. In this paper, a satellite- retrieval for beam irradiance from the new generation is introduced and inter

  6. Spectral solar irradiance before and during a Harmattan dust spell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeyefa, Z.D. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria)] [Federal Univ. of Technology, Akure (Nigeria); Holmgren, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of the ground-level spectral distributions of the direct, diffuse and global solar irradiance between 300 and 1100 nm were made at Akure (7.15{degree}N, 5.5{degree}E), Nigeria, in December 1991 before and during a Harmattan dust spell employing a spectroradiometer (LICOR LI-1800) with 6 nm resolution. The direct spectral solar irradiance which was initially reduced before the dust storm was further attenuated by about 50% after the spell. Estimated values of the Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} indicated an increase of about 146% of this parameter while the Angstrom wavelength-exponent {alpha} decreased by about 65% within the 2-day study period. The spectral diffuse-to-direct and diffuse-to-global ratios suggest that the main cause of the significant reduction in solar irradiance at the surface was the scattering by the aerosol which led to an increase in the diffuse component. The global irradiance though reduced, was less sensitive to changing Harmattan conditions. It is recommended that solar energy devices that use radiation from Sun and sky be used under fluctuating Harmattan conditions. There are some deviations from the Angstrom formula under very turbid Harmattan conditions which could be explained by the relative increase of the particle sizes. 31 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. SURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    be related to a bad performance of numerous PV systems: the overall energy production 1 #12;(and thus. Regarding the increasing pay-back rates for PV energy (0.99 DM/kWh in Germany from spring 2000 onwardsSURVEILLANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS USING METEOSAT DERIVED IRRADIANCES Annette Hammer

  8. Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Ecological Modelling 143 (2001) 227­243 A globally applicable model of daily solar irradiance at many ground stations, the total daily solar irradiance (Rs) received at the earth's surface to measured solar irradiance. In a global comparison for the year 1987, VP-RAD-estimated and satellite

  9. Fast and accurate estimation of solar irradiance on Martian slopes Aymeric Spiga1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    Fast and accurate estimation of solar irradiance on Martian slopes Aymeric Spiga1 and Franc parameterization is proposed in this study to calculate, in a Mars-like dusty atmosphere, the solar irradiance better than 5 W.mÀ2 . Such a fast and accurate method to calculate solar irradiance on Martian slopes

  10. Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment/TIM Frequently Asked Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    TCTE Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment/TIM Frequently Asked Questions What is the purpose of the TCTE mission? The Total Solar Irradiance Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE to monitor changes in solar irradiance at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. TCTE will launch as one of five

  11. THE USE OF MSG DATA WITHIN A NEW TYPE OF SOLAR IRRADIANCE CALCULATION SCHEME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    THE USE OF MSG DATA WITHIN A NEW TYPE OF SOLAR IRRADIANCE CALCULATION SCHEME R. W. Mueller , H). Within this paper, the new type of the solar irradiance calculation scheme, including the functional treatment of the diurnal variation of the solar irradiance, is described. 1 INTRODUCTION Remote Sensing from

  12. Earth'sFuture Stratospheric ozone response to a solar irradiance reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Earth'sFuture Stratospheric ozone response to a solar irradiance reduction in a quadrupled CO2) solar irradiance is imposed to help counteract a quadrupled CO2 atmo- sphere. This study is similar) a perturbed future atmosphere with 1140 ppmv CO2 and a 4% reduction in the TOA total solar irradiance (G1). We

  13. Solar Forecasting System and Irradiance Variability Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solar forecasting system based on numerical weather prediction plus satellite and ground-based data.1 Photovoltaic Systems: Report 3 Development of data base allowing managed access to statewide PV and insolation Based Data 13 Summary 14 References 14 #12;List of Figures Figure Number and Title Page # 1. Topography

  14. Microquasar Jet Irradiation of the Proto-Solar Nebula?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousaf Butt; Nikos Prantzos

    2006-04-19

    We explore the possibility that a now-extinct microquasar may have irradiated the proto-solar neighborhood, causing the 'anomalously' high local 11B/10B isotopic ratio. Given the population and typical lifetimes of radio-emitting X-ray binaries, we find the probability of such an event having occurred is not unreasonable. We comment on some tests of the scenario that could be carried out by observing the elemental abundances in the vicinity of microquasars, in particular SS433.

  15. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  16. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  17. Measurements and Modeling of Total Solar Irradiance in X-Class Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Hock, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) can detect changes in the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-Class solar ares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar ares presented in Woods et al. (2006), as well as an additional are measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five ares are then compared to the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-Class ares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar ares analyzed in the Emslie et al. (2012) study.

  18. P5.60B DERIVATION OF DAYLIGHT AND SOLAR IRRADIANCE DATA FROM SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    P5.60B DERIVATION OF DAYLIGHT AND SOLAR IRRADIANCE DATA FROM SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS A. Hammer, D of the downward surface shortwave irradiance from satellite observations has been subject to numerous project SATELLIGHT an attempt is made to use satellite methods to derive daylight and solar irradiance

  19. Which solar EUV indices are best for reconstructing the solar EUV irradiance ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dudok de Wit; M. Kretzschmar; J. Aboudarham; P. -O. Amblard; F. Auchere; J. Lilensten

    2007-02-02

    The solar EUV irradiance is of key importance for space weather. Most of the time, however, surrogate quantities such as EUV indices have to be used by lack of continuous and spectrally resolved measurements of the irradiance. The ability of such proxies to reproduce the irradiance from different solar atmospheric layers is usually investigated by comparing patterns of temporal correlations. We consider instead a statistical approach. The TIMED/SEE experiment, which has been continuously operating since Feb. 2002, allows for the first time to compare in a statistical manner the EUV spectral irradiance to five EUV proxies: the sunspot number, the f10.7, Ca K, and Mg II indices, and the He I equivalent width. Using multivariate statistical methods such as multidimensional scaling, we represent in a single graph the measure of relatedness between these indices and various strong spectral lines. The ability of each index to reproduce the EUV irradiance is discussed; it is shown why so few lines can be effectively reconstructed from them. All indices exhibit comparable performance, apart from the sunspot number, which is the least appropriate. No single index can satisfactorily describe both the level of variability on time scales beyond 27 days, and relative changes of irradiance on shorter time scales.

  20. Analysis of clear hour solar irradiation for seven Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Hourly global and diffuse irradiation and corresponding surface meteorological data have been analyzed for the seven Canadian stations at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto, and Winnipeg. The variation of the most probable clear hour values of clearness index k{sub t}, diffuse index k{sub d}, direct beam index k{sub b}, and Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} with solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth are obtained. Values of these quantities are presented which are consistent with the attenuation and scattering of solar radiation by the atmosphere which is expected. The most probable values of {beta} tend to be lower than the average values of {beta} recently reported by Gueymard. The data indicate a drift in the calibration of the instruments used for measurements of the irradiation data for the stations at Goose Bay and Resolute. The data for the other five stations indicate that the instrument calibration is maintained over the years of the data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    TRENDS IN DIRECT NORMAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE IN OREGON FROM 1979-2003 Laura Riihimaki Frank Vignola of trends in direct normal irradiance from three sites around Oregon over a period of 25 years. An overall. This article studies the trends in direct normal beam irradiance at three locations in Oregon. These sites have

  2. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  3. Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks this with the response to a 4% increase in solar irradiance. Our simulations show that significant climate effects occur

  4. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  5. SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE FOR CLEAR AND CLOUDY PERIODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFUSE AND GLOBAL IRRADIANCE FOR CLEAR AND CLOUDY PERIODS Gina@uoregon.edu ABSTRACT An LI1800 Portable Spectroradiometer is used to measure solar spectral irradiance for solar showing global horizontal and diffuse irradiance for clear and cloudy days, and then used

  6. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 15 AUGUST 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1741 The effect of flares on total solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    from relatively moderate solar flares in total solar irradiance data. We find that the total energy, 4Solar Influences Data Analysis Centre / Royal Observatory of Belgium, Circular Avenue 3, B-1180 solar irradiance Matthieu Kretzschmar1 *, Thierry Dudok de Wit1 , Werner Schmutz2 , Sabri Mekaoui3

  7. Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, James Patrick

    2010-01-01

    To allow residential solar power to continue its growth andalone (2). To allow solar power to continue its growth and

  8. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Hemker, T. Hoff, Short-term irradiance variability: StationLorenzo, D. Alvira, E. Izco, From irradiance to output power46 High Frequency Irradiance Fluctuations and Geographic

  9. Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, James Patrick

    2010-01-01

    the production of solar power at different frequencies.Chair In recent decades, solar power has become increasinglyTo allow residential solar power to continue its growth and

  10. Interpretation of solar irradiance monitor measurements through analysis of 3D MHD simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criscuoli, S.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2014-06-20

    Measurements from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on board the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment mission indicate that solar spectral irradiance at visible and IR wavelengths varies in counter phase with the solar activity cycle. The sign of these variations is not reproduced by most of the irradiance reconstruction techniques based on variations of surface magnetism employed so far, and it is not yet clear whether SIM calibration procedures need to be improved or if instead new physical mechanisms must be invoked to explain such variations. We employ three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere to investigate the dependence of solar radiance in SIM visible and IR spectral ranges on variations of the filling factor of surface magnetic fields. We find that the contribution of magnetic features to solar radiance is strongly dependent on the location on the disk of the features, which are negative close to disk center and positive toward the limb. If features are homogeneously distributed over a region around the equator (activity belt), then their contribution to irradiance is positive with respect to the contribution of HD snapshots, but decreases with the increase of their magnetic flux for average magnetic flux larger than 50 G in at least two of the visible and IR spectral bands monitored by SIM. Under the assumption that the 50 G snapshots are representative of quiet-Sun regions, we thus find that the Spectral Irradiance can be in counter-phase with the solar magnetic activity cycle.

  11. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimum tilt of a solar collector, Solar & Wind Technology,and orientation for solar collector in Brunei Darussalam,Optimum tilt angle for solar collectors. , Energy Sources,

  12. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  13. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    2008-05-30

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  14. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  15. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  16. Combined analysis of solar neutrino and solar irradiance data: further evidence for variability of the solar neutrino flux and its implications concerning the solar core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Sturrock

    2008-05-23

    A search for any particular feature in any single solar neutrino dataset is unlikely to establish variability of the solar neutrino flux since the count rates are very low. It helps to combine datasets, and in this article we examine data from both the Homestake and GALLEX experiments. These show evidence of modulation with a frequency of 11.85 yr-1, which could be indicative of rotational modulation originating in the solar core. We find that precisely the same frequency is prominent in power spectrum analyses of the ACRIM irradiance data for both the Homestake and GALLEX time intervals. These results suggest that the solar core is inhomogeneous and rotates with sidereal frequency 12.85 yr-1. We find, by Monte Carlo calculations, that the probability that the neutrino data would by chance match the irradiance data in this way is only 2 parts in 10,000. This rotation rate is significantly lower than that of the inner radiative zone (13.97 yr-1) as recently inferred from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data, suggesting that there may be a second, inner tachocline separating the core from the radiative zone. This opens up the possibility that there may be an inner dynamo that could produce a strong internal magnetic field and a second solar cycle.

  17. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    annual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined withtracking solar panel. 44and azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for a

  18. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    tracking solar panel. 44and azimuth angles for solar panels were calculated for aannual azimuth for a solar panel, and can be combined with

  19. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society, Denver, CO,of distance, Submitted to Solar Energy, (2011). [8] T. Hoff,Variability, Submitted to Solar Energy, (2011). [9] J.

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricitySolar Variabiltiy and Interconnection Locations, World Renewableharnessing renewable energy sources such as wind and solar

  1. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  2. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society, Denver, CO,turbidity coefficient, Solar Energy, 73 (2002) 151-157. [17]at the UC San Diego solar energy testbed, Solar Energy, [19

  3. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of minute solar radiation data, Solar Energy,geographical wealth of solar radiation data is available0.1? by 0.1? National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB-SUNY)

  4. SDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar Irradiance Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L. Erickson1, Carlos F. M. Coimbra2 and Alberto E. Cerpa1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    SDI: Solar Dome Instrument for Solar Irradiance Monitoring Tao Liu1, Ankur U. Kamthe1, Varick L data for ground solar irradiance (direct normal and global irradiance) is a major obstacle for the de- velopment of adequate policies to promote and take advan- tage of existing solar technologies. Although

  5. Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, James Patrick

    2010-01-01

    builds upon previous research in this field by analyzing 1-second solarrelated to solar PV power output. This paper will build upon

  6. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    We appreciate funding from the DOE High Solar PV PenetrationWe appreciate funding from the DOE High Solar PV PenetrationWe appreciate funding from the DOE High Solar PV Penetration

  7. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalpenetrations of solar photovoltaics (PV) into an electricSolar Radiation Climatology in the Design of Photovoltaic Systems, Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics:

  8. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Term Variability of Solar Power. , 2010. [20] A. Mills, M.Term Variability of Solar Power, LBNL Report No. 3884E, (Term Variability of Solar Power. , 2010. [7] R. Perez, S.

  9. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    System Impacts of Solar Variabiltiy and InterconnectionDistributed PV, American Solar Energy Society, Denver, CO,http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/vision_study.html,

  10. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the dimensions of a solar power plant or by using energyachieved over a solar power plant due to decorrelationModel (WVM) for Solar PV Power Plants, Sustainable Energy,

  11. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    demands are high and solar radiation is low. A betterof Tracking for Capturing Solar Radiation in the ContinentalTime Scales of the Surface Solar Radiation Field, Journal of

  12. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    solar radiation data, Solar Energy, 55 (1995) 21-27. [4] K.Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, and analysis tools - solarSolar Energy, 36 (1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation Data

  13. Are non-magnetic mechanisms such as temporal solar diameter variations conceivable for an irradiance variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Rozelot; S. Lefebvre; S. Pireaux; A. Ajabshirizadeh

    2006-01-05

    Irradiance variability has been monitored from space for more than two decades. Even if data are coming from different sources, it is well established that a temporal variability exists which can be set to as approximately 0.1%, in phase with the solar cycle. Today, one of the best explanation for such an irradiance variability is provided by the evolution of the solar surface magnetic fields. But if some 90 to 95% can be reproduced, what would be the origin of the 10 to 5% left? Non magnetic effects are conceivable. In this paper we will consider temporal variations of the diameter of the Sun as a possible contributor for the remaining part. Such an approach imposes strong constraints on the solar radius variability. We will show that over a solar cycle, variations of no more than 20 mas of amplitude can be considered. Such a variability (far from what is reported by observers conducting measurements by means of ground-based solar astrolabes) may explain a little part of the irradiance changes not explained by magnetic features. Further requirements are needed that may help to reach a conclusion. Dedicated space missions are necessary (for example PICARD, GOLF-NG or SDO, scheduled for a launch around 2008); it is also proposed to reactivate SDS flights for such a purpose.

  14. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  15. STATUS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SOLAR IRRADIANCE MAPPING FROM SATELLITE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Semi arid 39.75 -105.18 1706 5 years Natl. Renewable Energy Lab Caico, RG do Norte, Brazil CAIC Vignola Solar Energy Laboratory University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403 fev@darkwing.uoregon.edu Pierre Tropical -6.6 -36.85 175 5 months INPE, Brazil Florianopolis, SC, Brazil FLOR Sub-tropical -27.35 -48.63 12

  16. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  17. The Influence of High-Energy Lithium Ion Irradiation on Electrical Characteristics of Silicon and GaAs Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; Anil Agrawal; Saif Ahmad Khan; A. Meulenberg

    2006-10-22

    Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 & 40 MeV Li ions. Illuminated (AM0 condition) and unilluminated I-V curves reveal that the effect of high-energy Li ion irradiation has produced similar effects to that of proton irradiation. However, an additional, and different, defect mechanism is suggested to dominate in the heavier-ion results. Comparison is made with proton-irradiated solar-cell work and with non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) radiation-damage models.

  18. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    WVM) for Solar PV Power Plants, Sustainable Energy, IEEEof a solar power plant or by using energy storage. Fromsolar energy variability at a site, especially for 2D tracking power plants (

  19. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    over the area of Germany, Solar Energy, 70 (2001) 513-518. [over the area of Germany, Solar Energy, 70 (2001) 513-518. [over the area of Germany, Sol Energy, 70 (2001) 513-518. [5

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Mexico, and along the Pacific Coastline. A due south azimuth would suggest that equal amounts of solar

  1. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    output of distant wind turbines, Wind Energy, 7 (2004) 75-dispersed wind turbine systems, Solar energy. , 50 (1993)

  2. 2013 ISES Solar World Congress Review of satellite-based surface solar irradiation databases for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    technology such as concentrating solar power (CSP). PV project developers first need to identify photovoltaic (PV) or thermal solar. This paper focuses on PV but can surely be extended to thermal solar) for concentrated PV (CPV) technology. Once a site has been identified, the same developers along with engineering

  3. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society,Simulating the Reduction in PV Powerplant Variability due to8] T. Hoff, R. Perez, Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,

  4. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    in spatially dispersed wind turbine systems, Solar energy. ,Smoothing effects of distributed wind turbines. Part 2.power output of distant wind turbines, Wind Energy, 7 (2004)

  5. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Energy, 24 (2005) 55- [9] NREL, Dynamic maps, GIS data, andsolar maps. , 2010. [10] NREL, National Solar Radiation1986) 481-498. [18] NREL, Measurement and Instrumentation

  6. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  7. I-V analysis of high-energy lithium-ion-irradiated Si and GaAs solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Meulenberg Jr; B. Jayashree; Ramani; M. C. Radhakrishna; A. K. Saif

    2007-09-07

    Space-grade Si and GaAs solar cells were irradiated with 15 and 40 MeV lithium ions. Dark-IV analysis (with and without illumination) reveals differences in the effects of such irradiation on the different cell types

  8. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    inexhaustible sources of energy – sun, wind and tide. in harnessing the sun's energy. If sunbeams were weapons ofput my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of

  9. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    reliability and energy cost. Wind power has thus far beenwith about 121 GW of wind power installed across the worldIn comparison to wind power, installed solar photovoltaic (

  10. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    in harnessing the sun's energy. If sunbeams were weapons ofput my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source ofinexhaustible sources of energy – sun, wind and tide.

  11. Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (LCPV), where solar irradiance is concentrated by a factor of 1-10, present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    1 Abstract-- Low Concentration Photovoltaic Systems (LCPV), where solar irradiance is concentrated--concentrating photovoltaic, solar radiation durability, lifetime and degradation science, reliability. NOMENCLATURE LCPV: low modern society. As a direct method for harnessing the sun's energy, photovoltaic systems have a large

  12. Spectral irradiance variations: Comparison between observations and the SATIRE model on solar rotation time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yvonne C. Unruh; Natalie A. Krivova; Sami K. Solanki; Jerald W. Harder; Greg Kopp

    2008-02-28

    Aims: We test the reliability of the observed and calculated spectral irradiance variations between 200 and 1600 nm over a time span of three solar rotations in 2004. Methods: We compare our model calculations to spectral irradiance observations taken with SORCE/SIM, SoHO/VIRGO and UARS/SUSIM. The calculations assume LTE and are based on the SATIRE (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction) model. We analyse the variability as a function of wavelength and present time series in a number of selected wavelength regions covering the UV to the NIR. We also show the facular and spot contributions to the total calculated variability. Results: In most wavelength regions, the variability agrees well between all sets of observations and the model calculations. The model does particularly well between 400 and 1300 nm, but fails below 220 nm as well as for some of the strong NUV lines. Our calculations clearly show the shift from faculae-dominated variability in the NUV to spot-dominated variability above approximately 400 nm. We also discuss some of the remaining problems, such as the low sensitivity of SUSIM and SORCE for wavelengths between approximately 310 and 350 nm, where currently the model calculations still provide the best estimates of solar variability.

  13. NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Baur; M. Gervasi; P. Nieminen; S. Pensotti; P. G. Rancoita; M. Tacconi

    2014-02-10

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL dose. The latter expression allows one to predict the performance of those solar cells in space radiation environment.

  14. NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baur, C; Nieminen, P; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL d...

  15. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    4 2.1 Irradiance Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Figure 4.3: Irradiance Instruments Figure 4.4: Training8 Figure 4.1: Irradiance Input Graph . . . . . . . . .

  16. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com; Rao, Asha, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, Moodabidri, Mangalore-574225 (India); Krishnan, Sheeja [Department of Physics, Sri Devi Institute of Technology, Kenjar, Mangalore-574142 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India); Suresh, E. P. [Solar Panel Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  17. Enhanced efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by excimer laser irradiated carbon nanotube network counter electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chien, Yun-San, E-mail: u930347@oz.nthu.edu.tw; Fu, Wei-En [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yang, Po-Yu [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Che; Chu, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-03

    The carbon nanotube network decorated with Pt nanoparticles (PtCNT) irradiated by excimer laser as counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been systematically demonstrated. The conversion efficiency would be improved from 7.12% to 9.28% with respect to conventional Pt-film one. It was attributed to the enhanced catalytic surface from Pt nanoparticles and the improved conductivity due to the adjoining phenomenon of PtCNTs irradiated by laser. Moreover, the laser annealing could also promote the interface contact between CE and conductive glass. Therefore, such a simple laser-irradiated PtCNT network is promising for the future flexible DSSCs applications.

  18. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal an electrical current when illuminated by light­ also called a solar cell Photovoltaic Module A group

  19. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    model performance,” Solar Energy, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 125–global solar radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 78, no. 6, pp.solar radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, pp.

  20. Intra-hour Direct Normal Irradiance solar forecasting using genetic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queener, Benjamin Daniel

    2012-01-01

    guideline for Solar Power Forecasting Performance . . 46 viof forecasting techniques for solar power production with noand A. Pavlovski, “Solar power forecasting performance

  1. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    from satellite data. Solar Energy, 76:475–484, 2004. [59] CM16 independent data banks. Solar Energy, 80:468–478, 2006. [solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–772, 2007. [80

  2. Advanced Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques for Solar Irradiance Forecasting : : Statistical, Data-Assimilation, and Ensemble Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick James

    2013-01-01

    of Solar 2011, American Solar Energy Society, Raleigh, NC.Description and validation. Solar Energy, 73 (5), 307-317.forecast database. Solar Energy, Perez, R. , S. Kivalov, J.

  3. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. Int. J.beam and global solar radiation data. Solar Energy , 81:768–forecasting of solar radiation data: a review. International

  4. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    application to solar thermal power plants energy productionThe thermal radiance of clear skies. Solar Energy, 29:299–

  5. Response of atmospheric ground level temperatures to changes in the total solar irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlykin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature to TSI in time. It is found that the mean global sensitivity (alpha)measured in K(Wm-2)-1 varies from about 0.003 for 1 day, via 0.05 for 11-years to about 0.2 for decades to centuries. We conclude that mean global temperature changes related to TSI are not significant from 1975 onwards. Before 1975, when anthropogenic gases were less important, many of the temperature changes can be attributed to TSI variations. Over much longer periods of time, from Kyear to Myear, the TSI changes are more efficient still, the sensitivity alpha increasing...

  6. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  7. Modeling Total Solar Irradiance Variations Using Automated Classification Software on Mount Wilson Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich, R. K.; Parker, D.; Bertello, L.; Boyden, J.

    2010-01-01

    S. , Joukoff, A. : 2004, Solar Phys. 224, 209. Djafer, D. ,a, S. , Egidi, A. : 2008, Solar Phys. 247, 225. Fazel, Z. ,Bernasconi, P.N. : 2008, Solar Phys. 248, 1. Foukal, P. ,

  8. Solar irradiance forecasting at multiple time horizons and novel methods to evaluate uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    at Trieste, Italy. Solar Energy, 84(5):807–821, May 2010. [intelligence techniques. Solar Energy, 68(2):169–178, Febcover indices. ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering,, in

  9. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  10. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 668 @ 2001 Materials Research Society Influence of proton irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    investigations on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (called CIGS) solar cells have proven that their stability against high energy cells on polymer films can yield more than 2- kW/kg specific power. CIGS solar cells of about 10 to 12 irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide A. Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A

  11. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  12. Improved photovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2009-11-15

    This work describes measurements of the solar irradiance made during cloudy periods in order to improve the amount of solar energy captured during such periods. It is well-known that 2-axis tracking, in which solar modules are pointed at the sun, improves the overall capture of solar energy by a given area of modules by 30-50% versus modules with a fixed tilt. On sunny days the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy, with the other 10% from diffuse (scattered) solar energy. However, during overcast conditions nearly all of the solar irradiance is diffuse radiation that is isotropically-distributed over the whole sky. An analysis of our data shows that during overcast conditions, tilting a solar module or sensor away from the zenith reduces the irradiance relative to a horizontal configuration, in which the sensor or module is pointed toward the zenith (horizontal module tilt), and thus receives the highest amount of this isotropically-distributed sky radiation. This observation led to an improved tracking algorithm in which a solar array would track the sun during cloud-free periods using 2-axis tracking, when the solar disk is visible, but go to a horizontal configuration when the sky becomes overcast. During cloudy periods we show that a horizontal module orientation increases the solar energy capture by nearly 50% compared to 2-axis solar tracking during the same period. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days is important to using solar energy on a daily basis for fueling fuel-cell electric vehicles or charging extended-range electric vehicles because it improves the energy capture on the days with the lowest hydrogen generation, which in turn reduces the system size and cost. (author)

  13. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Yampolskiy, Vladislav (Moscow, RU); Alekseev, Valerie (Moscow, RU); Son, Valentin (Moscow, RU)

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  14. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and M. Cony, “Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand C. K. Chan, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation usingand K. C. Chee, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation using

  15. Advanced Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques for Solar Irradiance Forecasting : : Statistical, Data-Assimilation, and Ensemble Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick James

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of numerical weather prediction solar irradiancecycle: The RUC. Monthly Weather Review, 132 (2), 495-518.representations. Monthly Weather Review, 139 (6), 1972-1995.

  16. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellit, Adel; Pavan, Alessandro Massi

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  17. On the potential value of Ca II K spectroheliogram time-series for solar activity and irradiance studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Ermolli; S. K. Solanki; A. G. Tlatov; N. A. Krivova; R. K. Ulrich; J. Singh

    2008-02-26

    Various observatories around the globe started regular full-disk imaging of the solar atmosphere in the Ca II K line since the early decades of the 20th century. The archives made by these observations have the potential of providing far more detailed information on solar magnetism than just the sunspot number and area records to which most studies of solar activity and irradiance changes are restricted. We evaluate the image contents of three Ca II K spectroheliogram time-series, specifically those obtained by the digitization of the Arcetri, Kodaikanal, and Mt Wilson photographic archives. We describe the main problems afflicting these data and analyze their quality by expressing the image contents through several quantities. We compare the results obtained with those for similar present-day observations taken with the Meudon spectroheliograph and with the Rome-PSPT. We show that historic data suffer from stronger geometrical distortions and photometric uncertainties than similar present-day observations. The latter uncertainties mostly originate from the photographic calibration of the original data and from stray-light effects. We also show that the image contents of the three analyzed series vary in time. These variations are probably due to instrument changes and aging of the spectrographs used, as well as changes of the observing programs. Our results imply that the main challenge for the analysis of historic data is their accurate photometric calibration. This problem must be solved before they can provide reliable information about solar magnetism and activity over the last century. Moreover, inter-calibration of results obtained from independent time-series is required to reliably trace changes of solar properties with time from the analysis of such data.

  18. Multi-scale comparative spectral analysis of satellite total solar irradiance measurements from 2003 to 2013 reveals a planetary modulation of solar activity and its non-linear dependence on the 11-year solar cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicola Scafetta; Richard C. Willson

    2013-11-26

    Herein we adopt a multi-scale dynamical spectral analysis technique to compare and study the dynamical evolution of the harmonic components of the overlapping ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3, SOHO/VIRGO and SORCE/TIM total solar irradiance (TSI) records during 2003.15 to 2013.16 in solar cycles 23 and 24. The three TSI time series present highly correlated patterns. Significant power spectral peaks are common to these records and are observed at the following periods: 0.070 year, 0.097 year, 0.20 year, 0.25 year, 0.30-0.34 year, 0.39 year. Less certain spectral peaks occur at about 0.55 year, 0.60-0.65 year and 0.7-0.9 year. Four main frequency periods at 24.8 days (0.068 year), 27.3 days (0.075 year), at 34-35 days (0.093-0.096 year) and 36-38 days (0.099-0.104 year) characterize the solar rotation cycle. The amplitude of these oscillations, in particular of those with periods larger than 0.5 year, appears to be modulated by the 11-year solar cycle. Similar harmonics have been found in other solar indices. The observed periodicities are found highly coherent with the spring, orbital and synodic periods of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Jupiter. We conclude that solar activity is likely modulated by planetary gravitational and electromagnetic forces acting on the sun. The strength of the sun's response to planetary forcing depends non-linearly on the state of internal solar dynamics: planetary-sun coupling effects are enhanced during solar activity maxima and attenuated during minima.

  19. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  20. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  1. High-energy irradiation and mass loss rates of hot Jupiters in the solar neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Giant gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience strong irradiation. In extreme cases photoevaporation causes a transonic, planetary wind and the persistent mass loss can possibly affect the planetary evolution. We have identified nine hot Jupiter systems in the vicinity of the Sun, in which expanded planetary atmospheres should be detectable through Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy according to predictions. We use X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton of seven of these targets to derive the high-energy irradiation level of the planetary atmospheres and the resulting mass loss rates. We further derive improved Lyman alpha luminosity estimates for the host stars including interstellar absorption. According to our estimates WASP-80 b, WASP-77 b, and WASP-43 b experience the strongest mass loss rates, exceeding the mass loss rate of HD 209458 b, where an expanded atmosphere has been confirmed. Furthermore, seven out of nine targets might be amenable to Lyman alpha transit spectroscopy...

  2. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  3. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  4. High-frequency irradiance fluctuations and geographic smoothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan; Arias-Castro, Ery

    2012-01-01

    of the variability of irradiance and PV power time series1997. Study of areal solar irradiance for analyzing areally-High-frequency irradiance fluctuations and geographic

  5. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  6. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  7. Blanc, Ph., Gschwind, B., Lefvre, M., Wald, F., Wald, L., 2011. Validating Meteosat-derived surface solar irradiance in Mozambi-que. In Proceedings of the 30th Symposium of the European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, Ed. Halounova L., held in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -derived surface solar irradiance in Mozambi- que. In Proceedings of the 30th Symposium of the European Association Sensing', pp. 1-8. Validating Meteosat-derived Surface Solar Irradiance In Mozambique Philippe Blanc and Processes, Sophia Antipolis, France; e-mail: lucien.wald@mines-paristech.fr Abstract. The solar radiation

  8. Horizontal Plate Plate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    owResolutionCollectorDataFiles.zip> Description: Abstract: Monthly and annual average solar resource potential for the lower 48 states Purpose: Provide information on the solar...

  9. Satellite-Based Solar Resource Data Sets for India 2002-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Perez, R.; Gueymard, C.; Anderberg, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2014-02-01

    A new 10-km hourly solar resource product was created for India. This product was created using satellite radiances from the Meteosat series of satellites. The product contains global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI) for the period from 2002 to 2011. An additional solar resource data set covering the period from January 2012 to June 2012 was created solely for validation because this period overlaps ground measurements that were made available from the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's (MNRE's) National Institute for Solar Energy for five stations that are part of MNRE's solar resource network. These measurements were quality checked using the SERI QC software and used to validate the satellite product. A comparison of the satellite product to the ground measurements for the five stations shows good agreement. This report also presents a comparison of the new version of solar resource data to the previous version, which covered the period from 2002 to 2008.

  10. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  11. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  12. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  13. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  14. A performance correlation of horizontal solar heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopffarth, Wilford Hugo

    1964-01-01

    for one, two, and three glazings. Next, a performance correlation was obtained from experimentally determined upper heat losses. Utilizing energy balances along with temperature data, the follow- ing regression equation for the upper heat losses..., commonly called "Tedlar, " was used for glazing material. The Tedlar was attached to wooden frames such that the frames could be secured to a polystyrofoam cell. This cell not only provided a means of thermally insulating the polyethylene bags...

  15. Intra-hour forecasting with a total sky imager at the UC San Diego solar energy testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    solar irradiation in Brazil, Solar Energy, 68, 91- 107, ISSNmaps for Brazil under SWERA project, Solar Energy, 81, 517-

  16. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rylatt, John A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  17. Optimized Designs and Materials for Nanostructure Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qinghui

    2009-01-01

    is equivalent to irradiance of one solar constant. All thedesigns of QDS solar cells including one, which combined thesunlight into electricity. One is solar thermal electricity

  18. BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    BRAZIL, Belo Horizonte Exchange Program Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) Brazil, one and Carnival. Belo Horizonte is the 1st planned city in Brazil and is the capital of Minas Gerais. It has transportation, and spending money. These fees are paid in Brazil and are estimated at R$1,800 Real per month

  19. Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rise due to reverse power flow Voltage fluctuations associated with solar irradiation variation Interaction of voltage regulation devices Protection coordination...

  20. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  1. Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles J. Ronald V. Zaneveld-parallel assumption. We show that the Gershun equation is valid if the irradiance is averaged over a sufficiently in which horizontal gradients of irradiance in the presence of waves are much larger than vertical

  2. A Century of Solar Ca ii Measurements and Their Implication for Solar UV Driving of Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    solar activity indices such as sunspot number and the 10.7-cm microwave ?solar irradiance extending earlier than the beginning of the 10.7-cm microwave ?

  3. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23{sup o}], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45{sup o}]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R*{sub g,0}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R*{sub g,0} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R*{sub g,0} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R*{sub g,0} to within about 0.01.

  4. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), Solar Forecasting  1.   to more accurate prediction of solar  irradiance, given a to create daily solar electricity predictions accurate to 

  5. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,

  6. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a photovoltaic system is small. These results are consistent with the solar tracking algorithm optimized for cloudy conditions that we proposed in an earlier report and that was based on a much smaller data set. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days deserves wider attention due to increasing efforts to utilize renewable solar energy. In particular, increasing the output of distributed solar power systems on cloudy days is important to developing solar-powered home fueling and charging systems for hydrogen-powered fuel-cell electric and battery-powered vehicles, respectively, because it reduces the system size and cost for solar power systems that are designed to have sufficient energy output on the worst (cloudy) days. (author)

  7. Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codes on ResourcestheRestrospectiveResults

  8. IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS & FACILITIES AT BNL: BLIP & NSLS II Peter Wanderer Superconducting MagnetV). Simultaneous irradiation and isotope production by increasing beam energy, placing irradiation target ahead of isotope production target · 117 Mev 140, 160, 180, 202 MeV · Irradiation at room temperature Alternative

  9. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  10. Master thesis Solar Energy Meteorology Comparison of different methods to estimate cloud height for solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Master thesis ­ Solar Energy Meteorology Comparison of different methods to estimate cloud height: · Interest in meteorology and solar energy · Experiences with data handling and analysis · Good programming for solar irradiance calculations In order to derive incoming solar irradiance at the earths surface

  11. Solar Variability and Forecasting Using Remote Sensing Shahrouz Alimohammadi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    subjects for the Department Of Energy (DOE). One of the primary obstacles to overcome in solar power% #12;Solar Irradiance Data For Solar Variability Modeling Solar Irradiance Data Satellite Data L. Nonnenmacher et al. 2014 SUNY model R. Perez 2010 Ground Station Data NREL Hawaii #12;State of California Solar

  12. Deriving cloud velocity from an array of solar radiation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosch, J.L.; Zheng, Y.; Kleissl, J.

    2013-01-01

    evaluating short-term predictions of solar irradiance at theSolar and photovoltaic forecasting through post-processing of the Global Environmental Multiscale numer- ical weather prediction

  13. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    sun. Figure 2 shows peak modeled global solar irradiance on a vertical, solar tracking,tracking surface in Golden, CO. Figure 3. Apparent position of sun

  14. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of 50% at afor the total solar irradiation Efficiency is calculated by:of the solar collector thermal efficiency. 6.2 Chiller

  15. Measurement and Modeling of Shortwave Irradiance Components in Cloud-Free Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement and Modeling of Shortwave Irradiance Components in Cloud-Free Atmospheres Rangasayi to classify the earth-atmospheric solar radiation into several components - direct solar surface irradiance (Edirect), diffuse-sky downward surface irradiance (Ediffuse), total surface irradiance, and upwelling flux

  16. EUV Spectra of the Full Solar Disk: Analysis and Results of the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirk, M. M.; Hurwitz, M.; Marchant, W.

    2010-01-01

    density measurements in the solar corona. I. Analysis2009, New, higher resolution solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV)irradiance results for solar cycle minimum conditions on

  17. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Denhan, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Watkins, D. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  18. INCREMENTAL HORIZONTAL FRAGMENTATION OF DATABASE CLASS OBJECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezeife, Christie

    INCREMENTAL HORIZONTAL FRAGMENTATION OF DATABASE CLASS OBJECTS C.I. Ezeife School of Computer-orientd databases, Incremental horizontal fragmentation, Distribution Abstract: Horizontal fragments of a class in an object-oriented database system contain subsets of the class extent or instance objects. These fragments

  19. Solar Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. H. Robertson

    2006-02-05

    Experimental work with solar neutrinos has illuminated the properties of neutrinos and tested models of how the sun produces its energy. Three experiments continue to take data, and at least seven are in various stages of planning or construction. In this review, the current experimental status is summarized, and future directions explored with a focus on the effects of a non-zero theta-13 and the interesting possibility of directly testing the luminosity constraint. Such a confrontation at the few-percent level would provide a prediction of the solar irradiance tens of thousands of years in the future for comparison with the present-day irradiance. A model-independent analysis of existing low-energy data shows good agreement between the neutrino and electromagnetic luminosities at the +/- 20 % level.

  20. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  1. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    of existing solar radiation data and recommendations for thesolar radiation from measured horizontal solar data. I.A.2 (Solar Rad·iation Ana·lysis of exi nc :;:; ;;;- radiation data

  2. Irradiance or luminosity changes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatino Sofia; Linghuai H. Li

    2000-10-20

    Whereas a variation of the solar luminosity, L, will inevitably cause a similar change of the total solar irradiance, S, the opposite is not true. In fact, the bulk of the days to months variations of S can be explained entirely in terms of the passage of active regions across the solar disk. In this case, L remains essentially unchanged. For the total irradiance variation observed over the solar cycle, the issue is more uncertain. One view explains this modulation primarily as a combined action of active regions and magnetic network. These components would be superposed to an otherwise unchanging photosphere. the other view suggests that the activity cycle modulation of S is primarily produced by a variation of L (both in terms of R and T_{eff}) caused by structural reajustments of the interior of the Sun induced by a changing magnetic field. We will present evidence in support of this second interpretation, and a model for it. We will also present the S variations over the last 5 centuries implied by our model.

  3. Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

    2012-12-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

  4. Horizontal well applications in complex carbonate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, M.; Al-Awami, H.

    1995-10-01

    Over the past four years, Saudi Aramco has drilled over eighty horizontal wells, onshore and offshore. It has successfully applied this technology to develop new reservoirs as well as enhance recovery from its mature fields. This paper presents the reservoir engineering aspects of `horizontal` and `high angle` wells drilled in a major offshore field in Saudi Arabia. It shows how horizontal wells have (a) increased the recovery of bypassed oil, (b) improved well productivity in tight reservoirs, (c) increased production from thin oil zones underlain by water, and (d) improved peripheral injection. The paper discusses the actual performance of the horizontal wells and compares them with offset conventional wells. It presents the results of logging and testing of these wells, and highlights actual field data on (a) relationship between productivity gain and horizontal length, (b) pressure loss along the horizontal wellbore, and (c) effect of heterogeneity on coning an inflow performance.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing slurry transport in horizontal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.N.; Lord, D.L. (Halliburton Services (US))

    1990-09-01

    Horizontal-well activity has increased throughout the industry in the past few years. To design a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment for horizontal wells, accurate information on the transport properties of slurry in horizontal pipe is required. Limited information exists that can be used to estimate critical deposition and resuspension velocities when proppants are transported in horizontal wells with non-Newtonian fracturing gels. This paper presents a study of transport properties of various hydraulic fracturing slurries in horizontal pipes. Flow data are gathered in three transparent horizontal pipes with different diameters. Linear and crosslinked fracturing gels were studied, and the effects of variables--e.g., pipe size; polymer-gelling-agent concentration; fluid rheological properties; crosslinking effects; proppant size, density, and concentrations; fluid density; and slurry pump rate--on critical deposition and resuspension velocities were investigated. Also, equations to estimate the critical deposition and resuspension velocities of fracturing gels are provided.

  6. A Science Service Sfeature-HORIZONTAL RAINBOV~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?rayed a i t h a A secondary horizontal bov is sometimes seen, i n afidition t o the ( A l l richts reserved

  7. Solar Physics DOI: 10.1007/----

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Douglas C.

    magnetic indices are used to model the solar irradiance and ultimately to forecast it. However activity. Keywords: Helioseismology, Magnetic fields, Irradiance forecast 1. Introduction Photospheric and far-side maps. The Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) instrument, onboard SOHO, has been producing maps

  8. Particle Impact Damping in the Horizontal Plane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Bryan

    2012-07-16

    Particle impact damping is measured for a cantilevered beam vibrating freely in the horizontal plane. Several particle configurations are investigated beginning with a single particle and progressing to multiple layers of particles. The effects...

  9. Can Planets Influence the Horizontal Branch Morphology?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noam Soker

    1998-03-19

    As stars which have planetary systems evolve along the red giant branch and expand, they interact with the close planets. The planets deposit angular momentum and energy into the red giant stars' envelopes, both of which are likely to enhance mass loss on the red giant branch. The enhanced mass loss causes the star to become bluer as it turns to the horizontal branch. I propose that the presence of planetary systems, through this mechanism, can explain some anomalies in horizontal branch morphologies. In particular, planetary systems may be related to the ``second parameter'', which determines the distribution of horizontal branch stars on the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. The proposed scenario predicts that surviving massive planets or brown dwarfs orbit many of the extreme blue horizontal branch stars, at orbital periods of tens days.

  10. Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave microsensor for Class A viral and bacterial detection. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shear horizontal surface acoustic wave...

  11. Tracking granules on the Sun's surface and reconstructing horizontal velocity fields: I. the CST algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rieutord; T. Roudier; S. Roques; C. Ducottet

    2007-07-13

    Determination of horizontal velocity fields on the solar surface is crucial for understanding the dynamics of structures like mesogranulation or supergranulation or simply the distribution of magnetic fields. We pursue here the development of a method called CST for coherent structure tracking, which determines the horizontal motion of granules in the field of view. We first devise a generalization of Strous method for the segmentation of images and show that when segmentation follows the shape of granules more closely, granule tracking is less effective for large granules because of increased sensitivity to granule fragmentation. We then introduce the multi-resolution analysis on the velocity field, based on Daubechies wavelets, which provides a view of this field on different scales. An algorithm for computing the field derivatives, like the horizontal divergence and the vertical vorticity, is also devised. The effects from the lack of data or from terrestrial atmospheric distortion of the images are also briefly discussed.

  12. The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    The effect of surface irradiance on the absorption spectrum of chromophoric dissolved organic 2012 Keywords: Marine CDOM Solar irradiation Surface Photobleaching Photoproduction a b s t r a c Oceans were irradiated over several days with full-spectrum light under a solar simulator at in situ

  13. Evaluation of numerical weather prediction for intra-day solar forecasting in the continental United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiesen, Patrick; Kleissl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    and validation.   Solar Energy.   73:5, 307? Perez, R. , irradiance forecasts for solar energy applications based on using satellite data.   Solar Energy 67:1?3, 139?150.  

  14. Apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildenrotter, K.

    1981-08-18

    Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-energy collector surface. The collector is mounted on a support and is pivotable between an exposed position in which the collector surface faces the sun and a substantially horizontal sheltered position in which the collector surface faces the earth, thereby protecting the collector surface from the elements and facilitating access thereto for maintenance.

  15. Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector Jinny Rhee and Jim Mokri COE Faculty peak load and irradiance hours of the day #12;Design · Parabolic solar collector · GaAs PV cells · Solar Energy and Alternative Energy can contribute to the energy supply ­ Renewable, doesn't emit

  16. Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2007-09-14

    Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

  17. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  18. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lanai high-density...

  19. Ness horizontal-well case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koonsman, T.L. (Mobil Exploration Norway Inc. (Norway)); Purpich, A.J. (Mobil North Sea Ltd. (United Kingdom))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews the reservoir management work that led to the recommendation to drill the Ness field horizontal well. It also discusses the poor well performance seen almost immediately after production began and the reasons for that well performance revealed by a postdrill reservoir simulation. Finally, the atypical logging responses observed in the well are discussed.

  20. November 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 2 Solar Electric Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    . (Solar irradiance is electromagnetic energy from the sun. Electromagnetic energy from other sources such as lamps can also be used by solar cells to generate electricity if the energy of the photons is highNovember 21, 2000 PV Lesson Plan 2 ­ Solar Electric Arrays Prepared for the Oregon Million Solar

  1. Unified irradiance equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

    1957-01-01

    dealt vdth a pair of irradiance functions representing twoHjC^.n^)^ which i s the irradiance a t time t on a unit areaCalifornia UNIFIED IRRADIANCE EQUATIONS R. W. Preisendorfer

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    2007-09-12

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  4. The horizontal desalination unit described herein utilizes the humidification-dehumidification process to purify water using air as a carrier gas. The temperature required to drive the process is low enough that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The horizontal desalination unit described herein utilizes the humidification enough that waste heat from a fuel combustion or solar collectors can be used. A unit in which air horizontal units, determine the efficiency of operation, and isolate ways of improving future units

  5. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  6. Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venable, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

  7. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  8. Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1995-01-01

    Horizontal wells are gaining popularity throughout the petroleum industry as a means to increase well productivity and enhance incremental economics. Horizontal wells provide greater reservoir exposure and are useful in ...

  9. Theory of solar luminosity variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. C. Spruit

    2000-03-03

    The theory of stellar structure can be used to identify the most plausible mechanisms for the irradiance variations associated with the solar cycle. Changes in surface emissivity, i.e. the reduced cooling in spots and enhanced emission by small scale magnetic fields, are the most effective mechanisms and account for most of the observed variation. Helioseismology will soon be able to test the consequences of changes in surface emissivity, and distinguish them from other scenarios for irradiance variability.

  10. Estimating solar irradiance using a geostationary satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urquhart, Bryan Glenn

    2011-01-01

    in harnessing the sun's energy. If sunbeams were weaponsBasic Physics The sun is the primary energy source for thespectrum. The sun emits its highest levels energy as visible

  11. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air-cooled and suitable for use with flat plate or higher-temperature collectors. Operation of the controls test facility and computer modeling of collector loop and building load dynamics are yielding quantitative evaluations of the performance of different control strategies for active solar-heating systems. Research is continuing on ''passive'' approaches to solar heating and cooling, where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs which are in the public domain. The resulting passive analysis capabilities are used in systems studies leading to design tools and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat-storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, and would then provide ''coolness'' to the building. Laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Active Heating and Cooling Division and the Passive and Hybrid Division of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low-grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the ''shape-memory'' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources, such as solar-heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central

  12. Satellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data A Review of Current European

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    . In addition, the potential of satellite data for short-term forecasting of solar irradiance is briefly for surface solar irradiance estiumation is not new Largely applied for climate research, global radiativeSatellite-Based Techniques for the Retrieval of Solar Radiation Data ­ A Review of Current European

  13. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  14. Horizontal well hydraulics in leaky aquifers Hongbin Zhan*, Eungyu Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Horizontal well hydraulics in leaky aquifers Hongbin Zhan*, Eungyu Park Department of Geology presents a general study of horizontal well hydraulics for three aquifer types: a leaky confined aquifer- standing of horizontal well hydraulics under various aquifer conditions. 2. Mathematical model I

  15. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and PWV, temperature, and pressure data are also combined with the MMAC model to simulate solar radiation under clear-sky conditions. The current NSRDB update is based on a 4-km x 4-km resolution at a 30-minute time interval, which has a higher temporal and spatial resolution. This paper demonstrates the evaluation of the data set using ground-measured data and detailed evaluation statistics. The result of the comparison shows a good correlation to the NSRDB data set. Further, an outline of the new version of the NSRDB and future plans for enhancement and improvement are provided.

  16. Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168OrganicInnovation

  17. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB), which is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation, remediates soils and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) both above and below the water table. ISB involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove .VOCs from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of VOCs. The innovation is in the combination of 3 emerging technologies, air stripping, horizontal wells, and bioremediation via gaseous nutrient injection with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation system.

  18. Decline curve analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Min-Yu

    1994-01-01

    Subject; Petroleum Engineering DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS A Thesis by MIN- YU SHIH Submitted to Texas A8tM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degtee of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content... curves are given as log-log plots of MttdaLLattaad: Fetkovich Type Curve Radial Flow, Circular Reservoir Solutions 12 Transient "Stems" tTransient Flow) 8 001 160 000 x10 Depletion "Stems" (Boundary-Dominated Flow) r)04Arps Equations b 0 0...

  19. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  20. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  1. Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    S1 Supporting Information (SI) Section Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties..................................................................................................7 Figure S3. A typical solar and spectral flux density of radiation, D0(), from the irradiation

  2. Horizontal wind rotor. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guard, E.J.

    1983-06-30

    A vertical axis wind machine called, ''Horizontal Wind Rotor'' conceived in 1979 by the Grantee E.J. Guard was an effort to marry a new high tech carousel type wind rotor to a basic building design for the purpose of generating practical amounts of electricty. This was directed especially towards high performance power generation, relative to low average wind velocity fields, typically found in Florida. From January 1980 to April 1983 two 1/30 scale wind tunnel type test models of buildings, one round and one square were built. An eight Hartzell shrouded wind tunnel fan machine was designed and built to supply uniform wind velocities for testing. All components of the Horizontal Wind Rotor (HWR) were fabricated, instrumented, mounted on the building models, and tested and modified repeatedly for performance optimization. Aerodynamic consultants, model makers, mechanical and computer engineers and technicians under the direction of E. Guard all teamed up to evolve the size, shape, and placement of the system components. It was recognized early that the machine had to be large in order to extract energy from low wind velocities. It was also noted that there were so many variables in the system, so as to elude analytical computation, that only testing could provide the answers. Consequently, this grant program has provided major contributions to the sparse available data in this little studied field, and set up valuable bench marks in design and power output parameters. This data will be the foundation for incorporating the newly discovered design improvements into the full scale prototype to follow. (Phase II) It is believed that this Rotor design is the only one in the world today that will produce as much power in the lower wind velocity ranges and it is also believed that every objective of the original grant proposal has been met or exceeded.

  3. Inferred influence of nutrient availability on the relationship between Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and incident irradiance in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Dan

    fluorescence and incident irradiance in the Bering Sea Christina Schallenberg,1 Marlon R. Lewis,1 Dan E. Kelley fluorescence and incident solar irradiance as a potential diagnostic of the nutritional status of phytoplankton normalized to the absorption of light by pigments were analyzed as a function of irradiance to describe

  4. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States Government or any agency thereof." Abstract Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas...

  5. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  6. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. ); Huang, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  7. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B.; Huang, J.

    1996-12-31

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T & N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  8. EPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasipuri, Asis

    experiments on solar-powered sensor nodes. Due to constraints in cost and size, the solar panelsEPIC-RoofNet: An Experimental Testbed for Solar-powered Wireless Sensor Networks Amitangshu Pal that periodically sample environmental parameters such as solar irradiance and temperature and transmit them

  9. The Effects of Solar Flares on Planetary Ionospheres PAUL WITHERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    The Effects of Solar Flares on Planetary Ionospheres PAUL WITHERS1 and MICHAEL MENDILLO1 1 Center 353 1531) During solar flares, the Sun's X-ray irradiance increases dramatically, often within a few during solar flares. Similar increases in plasma densities during solar flares have been observed

  10. Metabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kram, Rodger

    . Using a wind tunnel to apply horizontal impeding forces, Pugh (19) showed that the metabolic cost forces. Davies (5) compared the metabolic cost of running with wind resistance vs. wind assistanceMetabolic cost of generating horizontal forces during human running YOUNG-HUI CHANG AND RODGER KRAM

  11. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  12. Modeling the solar thermal receiver for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer A. (Jennifer Anne)

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to create an accurate steady state thermal model of a molten salt receiver prototype with a horizontal divider plate in the molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power on Demand (CSPonD). The purpose of the ...

  13. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  14. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. A. Croze; E. E. Ashraf; M. A. Bees

    2010-10-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow, and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  15. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  16. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  17. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  19. DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE FOR CSP BASED ON SATELLITE IMAGES OF METEOSAT SECOND GENERATION A. Hammer1). As for concentrating solar power (CSP) the frequency distribution of DNI is of special importance, special attention

  20. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  1. Abdel Wahab M., El-Metwally M., Hassan R., Lefvre M., Oumbe A., Wald L., 2008. Assessing surface solar irradiance in Northern Africa desert climate and its long-term variations from Meteosat images. International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Qubba, Cairo, Egypt. Mines ParisTech, Center for Energy and Processes, BP 207, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex under concern in this paper: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, is the prospect of energy production from sun. These four nations comprise approximately 130 millions inhabitants altogether and solar energy

  2. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  3. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Solar Data a. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide aAppendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. Convers

  4. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  5. A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid Flow In Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

  6. The time to reach pseudosteady-state in horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Kahtani, Abdulghafour

    1998-01-01

    Engineers need to estimate the expected productivity of horizontal wells. We need to know how long it takes to reach pseudosteady-state to accept that estimation. When all boundaries influence the pressure distribution in the drainage area...

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Michael Broughton

    1981-10-20

    An experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines is undertaken. The theoretical analyses cover the four major areas of aerodynamics, turbulence. aeroelasticity and blade optimisation. EXisting aerodynamic theories based...

  8. Pressure transient testing and productivity analysis for horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yueming

    2004-11-15

    This work studied the productivity evaluation and well test analysis of horizontal wells. The major components of this work consist of a 3D coupled reservoir/wellbore model, a productivity evaluation, a deconvolution ...

  9. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1968-01-01

    Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

  10. Simulation studies of waterflood performance with horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Horacio

    1995-01-01

    Two-and three-dimensional simulation studies have been carried out to evaluate waterflood oil recovery in a 40-acre 5-spot pattern using horizontal and vertical well systems. The three-dimensional simulation results indicate that the parameters...

  11. Application of horizontal wells in steeply dipping reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez Navarro, Jose David

    1995-01-01

    and the anisotropy of permeability (kv/kh ratio) are the dominant parameters affecting the oil recovery. For thin reservoirs, the location of the horizontal injector will not significantly affect the oil recovery. Simultaneous gas and water injection through...

  12. The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiajing

    2012-02-14

    Horizontal wells have been used to increase reservoir recovery, especially in unconventional reservoirs, and hydraulic fracturing has been applied to further extend the contact with the reservoir to increase the efficiency of development...

  13. Optimization of fractured well performance of horizontal gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magalhaes, Fellipe Vieira

    2009-06-02

    In low-permeability gas reservoirs, horizontal wells have been used to increase the reservoir contact area, and hydraulic fracturing has been further extending the contact between wellbores and reservoirs. This thesis presents an approach...

  14. Horizontal non-contact slumping of flat glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Edward, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues the work of M. Akilian and A. Husseini on developing a noncontact glass slumping/shaping process. The shift from vertical slumping to horizontal slumping is implemented and various technologies required ...

  15. Horizontal Code Transfer via Program Fracture and Recombination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidiroglou-Douskos, Stelios

    2015-04-14

    We present a new horizontal code transfer technique, program fracture and recombination, for automatically replacing, deleting, and/or combining code from multiple applications. Benefits include automatic generation of new ...

  16. Modeling performance of horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamkom, Rungtip

    2009-05-15

    Horizontal, undulating, and multilateral wells are relatively new alternatives in field development because they can increase the productivity per well and reduce the cost of field development. Because the feasibility of these wells may not be valid...

  17. Water coning calculations for vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Weiping

    1990-01-01

    recovery of several wells coning water. Since their type curves are specific for the data they investigated, it can not serve as a general method of coning evaluation. Addington'2 developed a set of gas coning correlations for 3-D coarse grid... for predicting (1) critical coning rate, (2) breakthrough time, and (3) WOR after breakthrough in both vertical and horizontal wells. Two hand calculation methods had been developed in this study. Either of them applies to both vertical and horizontal wells...

  18. Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

  19. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  20. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  1. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  2. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  3. FORMATION OF HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN ELECTRON-IRRADIATED CRYSTALLINE WATER ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    also present evidence on the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and possibly oxygen atoms as building the major constituent on the surfaces of small solar system objects such as Kuiper Belt objects (de Bergh to irradiation by energetic species from the solar wind (keV particles), the Galactic cosmic radiation field (ke

  4. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    investigated in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima expe- rienced in the past 100 years1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-013-0335-3 Changes in Quasi-periodic Variations of Solar Photospheric Fields: Precursor to the Deep Solar Minimum

  5. Short term forecasting of solar radiation based on satellite data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    have a significant influence on electric power generation by solar energy systems. An efficient use. Examples are the management of electricity grids with high penetration rates from solar sources are a high quality source for irradiance information because of excellent temporal and spatial resolution

  6. Apparatus and method for the horizontal, crucible-free growth of silicon sheet crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-09-12

    Apparatus is provided for continuously forming a silicon crystal sheet from a silicon rod in a non-crucible environment. The rod is rotated and fed toward an RF coil in an inert atmosphere so that the upper end of the rod becomes molten and the silicon sheet crystal is pulled therefrom substantially horizontally in a continuous strip. A shorting ring may be provided around the rod to limit the heating to the upper end only. Argon gas can be used to create the inert atmosphere within a suitable closed chamber. By use of this apparatus and method, a substantially defect-free silicon crystal sheet is formed which can be used for micro-circuitry chips or solar cells.

  7. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  8. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  9. Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansey, Eli

    Design of photonic metamaterial multi-junction solar cells using rigorous coupled wave analysis Eli a horizontally-oriented multi-junction solar cell by creating an array of cavities tuned with targeted CMs of New York, New York, NY, USA 10031 August 26, 2010 ABSTRACT We have developed a method to design multi-junction

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    network approach of solar potential in Turkey,” Renewabledue to the high solar resource potential. However, the solar

  11. Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Solar turbulence in earth's global and regional temperature anomalies Nicola Scafetta,1,2 Paolo a study of the influence of solar activity on the earth's temperature. In particular, we focus on the repercussion of the fluctuations of the solar irradiance on the temperature of the Northern and Southern

  12. SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    for this systems. Depending on the application, prediction of solar irradiance is beneficial on different timeSHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SATELLITE DATA WITH STATISTICAL METHODS Annette Solar World Congress. This portion of the paper is the abstract. The abstract should not exceed 250

  13. Abrupt Holocene climate change and potential response to solar forcing in western Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Feng Sheng

    Abrupt Holocene climate change and potential response to solar forcing in western Canada Daniel G Atmospheric circulation Biogenic silica British Columbia Diatoms Solar forcing a b s t r a c t Several abrupt of solar irradiance, also have been proposed to explain abrupt climatic events, but evidence remains

  14. Horizontal displacements contribution to tsunami wave energy balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutykh, Denys; Chubarov, Leonid; Shokin, Yuriy

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the generation of tsunamis is the deformation of the bottom of the ocean caused by an underwater earthquake. Usually, only the vertical bottom motion is taken into accound while the horizontal displacements are neglected. In the present paper we study both the vertical and the horizontal bottom motion while we propose a novel methodology for reconstructing the bottom coseismic displacements field which is transmitted to the free surface using a new three-dimensional Weakly Nonlinear (WN) approach. We pay a special attention to the evolution of kinetic and potential energies of the resulting wave while the contribution of horizontal displacements into wave energy balance is also quantified. Approaches proposed in this study are illustrated on the July 17, 2006 Java tsunami.

  15. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  16. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    data records. 1, Solar Data Solar energy is a general termin obtaining reliable data for solar energy applications,data and analyzed the consequences of designing solar energy

  17. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    a characteristic solar potential is expected to prevail, Theso many sites of potential solar energy applications will besun creates a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-

  18. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  19. Coiled tubing buckling implication in drilling and completing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses coiled tubing buckling and load transmission when drilling and completing horizontal wells. Comprehensive analyses and new equations are presented to predict buckling of coiled tubing, slack-off weight transmission, actual bit weight or packer load, and maximum horizontal length. Coiled tubing lock-up and yield due to buckling are also discussed. These equations can also be used for other coiled tubing operations, such as coiled tubing workover, coiled tubing well stimulation, and even for conventional joint-connected drill strings. Calculations based on the equations presented are also compared with the previous literature.

  20. Predicting horizontal well performance in solution-gas drive reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plahn, Sheldon Von

    1986-01-01

    University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard A. Star tzman Drilling horizontal wells to accelerate the recovery of oil is an old idea, but the practice was not widespread. Due to r ecent improvements in drilling technology, interest in drilling... permeability on hoi izontal 33 well pe formance INTRODUCTION Ba~cc~rLiiI The idea of dr illing horizontal wells to accelei ate the recovery of oil dates back to the 1940's. But, due to a lack of reliable directional drilling techniques and a relatively...

  1. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values ...

  2. IRRADIATION OF 3- SUBSTITUTED-2-PHENYLOXAZIRIDINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Splitter, Janet S.; Calvin, Melvin.

    2008-01-01

    1 . These oxaziridines from irradiation of the corresponding1). A complication in the irradiation of the ozaziridines isof imine formed in the irradiation of the oxaziridines. (

  3. Solar Resource Measurements at FPL Energy - Equipment Only. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, Mike

    2015-05-07

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: Establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; Provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; Support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; Provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  4. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;Solar Phys

  5. Horizontal Aggregations for Building Tabular Data Sets Carlos Ordonez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Carlos

    Horizontal Aggregations for Building Tabular Data Sets Carlos Ordonez Teradata, NCR San Diego, CA, USA ABSTRACT In a data mining project, a significant portion of time is devoted to building a data set suitable for analysis. In a re- lational database environment, building such data set usu- ally requires

  6. A Simplified Morphing Blade for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Simplified Morphing Blade for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Weijun WANG , St´ephane CARO, Fouad salinas@hotmail.com The aim of designing wind turbine blades is to improve the power capture ability by adjusting the twist of the blade's root and tip. To evaluate the performance of wind turbine blades

  7. TECHNICAL NOTES Determination of Length of a Horizontal Drain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    (Sherard et al. 1967; Sharma 1991) suggested limits for the upstream and the downstream slopes. Chahar1 Abstract: An earth dam can be prevented from a seepage failure due to softening of the downstream the downstream slope cover and the length of the downstream horizontal drain in homogeneous isotropic

  8. Experimental investigation of a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hae-Jin

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments is conducted in a two-dimensional glass-walled wave tank to confirm numerical solutions based on two-dimensional linear hydro-elastic theory for a horizontal flexible-membrane wave barrier. The model test is performed by a...

  9. Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications Stelios CSAIL, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract We present Code Phage (CP), a system for automatically transferring. To the best of our knowledge, CP is the first system to automatically transfer code across multiple

  10. Improved oil recovery using horizontal wells at Elk Hills, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangle, F.J.; Schultz, K.L.; McJannet, G.S.; Ezekwe, N.

    1995-03-01

    Eight horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in a steeply dipping Stevens sand reservoir in the Elk Hills field, Kern County, California. The subject reservoir, called the Stevens 26R, is a turbidite channel sand deposit one mile wide, three miles long, and one mile deep. Formation beds have a gross thickness up to 1,500 feet and dips as high as 60 degrees on the flanks. The original oil column of 1,810 feet has been pulled down to 200 feet by continual production since 1976. The reservoir management operating strategy has been full pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection since 1976. The steep dip of the formation makes gravity drainage the dominant drive mechanism. Additionally, improved recovery is coming from cycling dry gas through the large secondary gas cap region. The prudent placement of the horizontal wells above the oil/water contact promises to improve oil recovery and extend the operating life of the reservoir. Field results are given to compare the performance of the horizontal wells with the conventional wells. The horizontal wells produce at higher rates, lower draw downs, and lower gas/oil ratio which will extend the life of the project and result in higher recovery.

  11. Horizontal wells improve recovery at the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rintoul, B.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988 the US Department of Energy and Bechtel implemented a program to slow production declines in the Elk Hills 26R pool sand of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1. It was also hoped horizontal wells would increase the production rate, decrease gas production and extend economic life of the reservoir. The Stevens sand pool targeted for the project is a high-quality, sand-rich turbidite channel system encapsulated within Miocene Monterey siliceous shales, mudstones and associated sediments. The pool is about 3-miles long by 3/4-mile wide. The paper describes the specifications and drilling of the first four out of the 14 horizontal wells drilled at this facility. Horizontal drilling technology has completely altered the future of the 26R pool. In 1980 estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) from the sand was 211 million bbl. With the latest horizontal well drilling campaign, the pool is expected to pass that estimate in 1997 when oil production is forecasted to be at least 13,000 b/d. EUR form the 26R sand now is more than 250 million bbl, and even that estimate is being revised upward.

  12. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  13. Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    where = T(P0/P) ad (potential temperature) #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology Group velocity Helioseismology Global helioseismology: Determine set of nlm's infer global mean solar structure. LocalPetrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION Small departures from

  14. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  15. Some Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C. Temperature and energySolving the Unsovlable:Results of

  16. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14

    was revealed by Raman spectroscopy study of irradiated carbon buckypapers. The deviations from linear relationship were observed for the samples irradiated to very high fluence values. Annealing of irradiated samples was able to reduce the value of ID/IG ratio...

  17. Solar | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar SHARE Solar ORNL's Solar Technologies program supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office - SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy...

  18. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings ofa. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure ofMonthly Solar Data Latitude: Jan SOLAR RADIATION (kWhJm2 per

  19. Ensemble Solar Forecasting Statistical Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, WanYin; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Sun, Qian; Lehman, Brad

    2015-12-08

    Uncertainties associated with solar forecasts present challenges to maintain grid reliability, especially at high solar penetrations. This study aims to quantify the errors associated with the day-ahead solar forecast parameters and the theoretical solar power output for a 51-kW solar power plant in a utility area in the state of Vermont, U.S. Forecasts were generated by three numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, including the Rapid Refresh, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh, and the North American Model, and a machine-learning ensemble model. A photovoltaic (PV) performance model was adopted to calculate theoretical solar power generation using the forecast parameters (e.g., irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed). Errors of the power outputs were quantified using statistical moments and a suite of metrics, such as the normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE). In addition, the PV model's sensitivity to different forecast parameters was quantified and analyzed. Results showed that the ensemble model yielded forecasts in all parameters with the smallest NRMSE. The NRMSE of solar irradiance forecasts of the ensemble NWP model was reduced by 28.10% compared to the best of the three NWP models. Further, the sensitivity analysis indicated that the errors of the forecasted cell temperature attributed only approximately 0.12% to the NRMSE of the power output as opposed to 7.44% from the forecasted solar irradiance.

  20. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    at high photon energies. · Water vapor, CO2, absorb in infra-red. ­ Clouds, other local variation its spectral irradiance ­ Calculate properties of black body radiation: Max temperature, total power · Outline ­ Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts ­ Solar Spectrum ­ Terrestrial

  1. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  2. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  3. Montenegro: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (bbl) 156 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Montenegro Montenegro global irradiation and solar electricity potential (horizontally-mounted photovoltaic modules)...

  4. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  5. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  6. Comparison of transient horizontal magnetic fields in a plage region and in the quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryohko Ishikawa; Saku Tsuneta

    2008-12-09

    Properties of transient horizontal magnetic fields (THMFs) in both plage and quiet Sun regions are obtained and compared. Spectro-polarimetric observations with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the Hinode satellite were carried out with a cadence of about 30 seconds for both plage and quiet regions located near disk center. We select THMFs that have net linear polarization (LP) higher than 0.22%, and an area larger than or equal to 3 pixels, and compare their occurrence rates and distribution of magnetic field azimuth. We obtain probability density functions (PDFs) of magnetic field strength and inclination for both regions.The occurrence rate in the plage region is the same as for the quiet Sun. The vertical magnetic flux in the plage region is ~8 times larger than in the quiet Sun. There is essentially no preferred orientation for the THMFs in either region. However, THMFs in the plage region with higher LP have a preferred direction consistent with that of the plage-region's large-scale vertical field pattern. PDFs show that there is no difference in the distribution of field strength of horizontal fields between the quiet Sun and the plage regions when we avoid the persistent large vertical flux concentrations for the plage region. The similarity of the PDFs and of the occurrence rates in plage and quiet regions suggests that a local dynamo process due to the granular motion may generate THMFs all over the sun. The preferred orientation for higher LP in the plage indicates that the THMFs are somewhat influenced by the larger-scale magnetic field pattern of the plage.

  7. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  8. Horizontal Integration, an AS – Telecom Network Operations Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kekovole, Stephen Andaye

    2011-12-16

    the employees to make decisions pertaining to their day to day work activity. This did improve service delivery but it limited the employee to function within his/her silo. Thus the issue of cross team barriers still existed resulting in conflicts between... department to a 12 process. With expertise from each of the departments, these process teams are equipped with the multi-disciplinary expertise to make daily operational decisions. A final component of the horizontal organization is an appraisal...

  9. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  10. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  11. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M. (Oak Park, IL); Miyano, Kenjiro (Downers Grove, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  12. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  13. A mathematical simulation of horizontal drain-hole performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Thomas Ru-Kang

    1984-01-01

    Science and Technology, Kee-Lung, Taiwan, Republic of China Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Ching H. Wu The application of horizontal drain-hole in petroleum industry represents one of the new developments in oil recovery techniques. Many... production condition was simulated. The validity of the computational algorithm employed in the simulator was ascertained using the results obtained from a general purpose black oil simulator, BOSS-AIM. The verification runs were made under a semi...

  14. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  15. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  16. Small diameter horizontal hole drilling - state of technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the existing state of the art for small diameter, horizontal pilot hole drilling. The data were collected by contacting worldwide owners of raise or slant hole drill equipment, manufacturers of drills and bits, and manufacturers of survey tools. The study was limited to existing equipment and completed trials. Most attempts at directional pilot hole drilling, and most survey tools are designed for near vertical, downward drilling. Several types of controllable bits are available which depend upon in-hole motors and bent or wedged assemblies to bias the direction of drilling. Accurate horizontal drilling can be achieved in this way by alternately drilling and surveying at frequent intervals. This procedure is impractical, however, from both a production and a cost standpoint. A few attempts at directional drilling have been made using ordinary drilling tools, a rotary drill string and a tricone bit. Good equipment and a well trained drill crew appeared to be the most significant factor in practical, accurate drilling, whether horizontal or vertical. Because of the cost, no one uses steerable bit drilling except for correction, and then only for short portions of an overall drill program. No satisfactory continuous readout surveying tool, coupled with a remotely controlled bit capable of direction correction, exists. An industry need exists for a high speed, directional drill bit, coupled with a continuously monitored survey tool. 2 tables.

  17. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  18. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 85, 106103 (2014) Note: Calibration of EBT3 radiochromic film for measuring solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2014-01-01

    for measuring solar ultraviolet radiation S. L. Chun1 and P. K. N. Yu1,2,a) 1 Department of Physics 2014; published online 16 October 2014) Solar (UVA + UVB) exposure was assessed using the Gafchromic- mity of UV irradiation was crucial for an accurate calibration. For solar exposures ranging from 2

  19. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  20. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool...

  1. Horizontal structures in granulite terrains: A record of mountain building or mountain collapse?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    Horizontal structures in granulite terrains: A record of mountain building or mountain collapse horizontal structures occurred during the metamorphic culmination and was followed by isobaric cooling that no significant erosional denudation fol- lowed the development of the horizontal structures and thus precludes

  2. Hydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    of Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) through 90 to lie horizontally across a tidal flow · Stretch power (2) · Vertical axis turbines ­ Blue Energy ­ Polo ­ ... 4 other vertical axis devices · HorizontalHydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine Prof. Guy

  3. Fine Magnetic Structure and Origin of Counter-Streaming Mass Flows in a Quiescent Solar Prominence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Ying D; Chen, P F; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence which was consisted of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine, and counter-streaming mass flows were ubiquitous in the prominence. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connecting to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed and then reformed at a similar height, finally, it started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapsing and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and a vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot was consisted of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and with the both ends connecting to the solar surface, while the v...

  4. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  5. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  6. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalthe limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric powertechnologies is that of solar photovoltaics due to the high

  7. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  8. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  9. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    of these errors on solar design is discussed. To facilitateone of the simplified solar design methods discussed inWisconsin Interactive Solar Heating Design Program, , , , c,

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  14. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  15. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)synthetic hourly radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 49, pp. 67–for supplementing solar radiation network data,” Final

  16. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  17. Solar Resource Measurements in El Paso, Texas (Equipment CRADA Only): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-273

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas, A.

    2013-11-01

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  18. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  19. Cutaneous fusariosis developing in a post-irradiation site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    developing in a post-irradiation site WeiWei Dai DO 1 ,irradiated site. Irradiation led to atrophy, contraction,radiotherapy. Following irradiation, which had eradicated

  20. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  1. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol. 19, no. 6, pp.16 independent data banks,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no. 4,data,” Final Report of International Energy Agency Solar

  2. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation in Canada. Solar Energy ~, p.153. Threlkeld, J.L.pool. As the use of solar energy becomes more widespread,a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-heated swimming

  3. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  4. Storing and Handling Silage In Horizontal Above-Ground Silos. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorenson, J. W. (Jerome Wallace); Weihing, R. M.; Person, N. K.; Allen, W. S.

    1964-01-01

    ......................................................... 9 - -. ' SUMMARY Research conducted at Beaumont ?I$ College 1957-63 resulted in the developing of practical me ing clovers and grasses during weather too wet a haying. The addition of zinc bacatracin to forage at ensiling reduced dry matter... was develoPd fa ically unloading horizontal-type silos. A capacity of 7. silage per hour was obtained with the machine in t sorghum and clover silages. A commercial unl " after the experimental machine, but with incr~, capacity, has been built and tested...

  5. MHK Technologies/Horizon Horizontal Platform | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHK TechnologiesCatHorizontal Platform

  6. MHK Technologies/Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Turbine | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHK TechnologiesCatHorizontal

  7. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  9. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (John Wiley & Sons,New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John Duncan, C,

  10. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and operation of solar power plants and the model- ing offor application to solar ther- mal power plants energy

  11. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops   

  12. EFFECT OF HORIZONTALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEATING ON FLOW AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, P.; Vasyli?nas, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The solar chromosphere is heated by damped Alfvén waves propagating upward from the photosphere at a rate that depends on magnetic field strength, producing enhanced heating at low altitudes in the extended weak-field regions (where the additional heating accounts for the radiative losses) between the boundaries of the chromospheric network as well as enhanced heating per particle at higher altitudes in strong magnetic field regions of the network. The resulting inhomogeneous radiation and temperature distribution produces bulk flows, which in turn affect the configuration of the magnetic field. The basic flow pattern is circulation on the spatial scale of a supergranule, with upward flow in the strong-field region; this is a mirror image in the upper chromosphere of photospheric/subphotospheric convection widely associated with the formation of the strong network field. There are significant differences between the neutral and the ionized components of the weakly ionized medium: neutral flow streamlines can form closed cells, whereas plasma is largely constrained to flow along the magnetic field. Stresses associated with this differential flow may explain why the canopy/funnel structures of the network magnetic field have a greater horizontal extent and are relatively more homogeneous at high altitudes than is expected from simple current-free models.

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 96, NO. E2, PAGES 17,553-17,557, SEPTEMBER 25, 1991 IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN A COMET'S OUTER LAYERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    into the inner solar system. In this paper, the data relevant to irradiation effects and mantle formationV energies of interest for cosmic ray processing of the outer layers of the comet are not easily obtainable IRRADIATION EFFECTS IN A COMET'S OUTER LAYERS R. E. Johnson Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering

  14. CUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    READY BUILDINGS Solar access, easements, rights now and future Technical design ­ rCUTTING SOLAR RED TAPECUTTING SOLAR RED TAPE Evergreen State Solar PartnershipEvergreen State Solar Partnership Rooftop Solar Challenge 1 Sunshot #12;WASHINGTON PV CONTEXTWASHINGTON PV CONTEXT 285 cities, 39

  15. SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC EFFECT ON EARTH'S CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    comparison with a conventional approach by using a blackbody Sun's brightness temperature exhibits Experiment (SORCE) satellite are used to examine the magnitude and spectral distribution of the Earth radiation received at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is the same as that radiated at the Sun's surface

  16. Statistical analysis of solar irradiation in a distributed microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, James Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Wan, Yih-Huei. Golden : NREL: National Renewable EnergiesLaboratory, September 2004. NREL/TP-500-36551. 6. VoltageRenewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2004. 10. Lee, C. C.

  17. An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneand LosAmesAmped Up!EnergyAnAnAnAn

  18. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journalspectroscopy of aerosols(Technical

  19. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE SITE-218 58 84 168

  20. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  1. SPERMATOGONIAL STEM CELL RENEWAL FOLLOWING IRRADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    continuou-: lnw-l. -vel -,-irradiation for 15 wk, the curvesUnder Continuous Irradiation Cell Cycle Parameter (hr) >J. I. , Pathology of Irradiation, WiTiams and hiHins,

  2. MFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the feasibility of combining low-dose ionizing radiation of shrimp with tur- meric and salt as a preservativeMFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of shrimp extends their storage life. Low Level Ionizing Radiation are eliminated effectively and selectively by low-level doses of irradiation, thereby resulting in extension

  3. SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    SOLAR ENERGY FOR ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS Solar Suitability Assessment of Dalhousie University.................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Solar Radiation Data for Calculating Solar Energy Resource .................... 3 3 Campus.1 Evaluation of Suitability for Solar Energy Generation................................ 12 4.2 Solar

  4. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  5. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2014-01-07

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  6. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  7. Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing Facility (IMET)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a laboratory hood or modified glove boxes in the SPL. Applications Physical and mechanical properties testing Examination of irradiated materials Irradiated specimen storage...

  8. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  9. Solar Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesAVideo »ServicesShaleEnergyValleySolar Access

  10. Prospects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Chile) #12;Chile: The Atacama Solar Resource Capacity: 4.6 GW Load: 15.4 TWh 50 MW 99 MW Station Horizontal,000-40,000 2,000-14,000 2,000-21,000 302 323 442 Installed capacity of renewable energies 1236 [MW] PotentialProspects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile Part I

  11. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449:...

  12. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  13. edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home economics: student activities. Field test edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL TOOLS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GLAZING; HOUSES; SOLAR COOKERS; SOLAR...

  14. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  15. SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR ABUNDANCE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR ABUNDANCE PROBLEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SOLAR MODELS WITH ACCRETION. I. APPLICATION TO THE SOLAR...

  16. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  17. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  18. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  19. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  20. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

  1. Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  2. Gravity wave turbulence revealed by horizontal vibrations of the container

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno Issenmann; Eric Falcon

    2012-12-20

    We experimentally study the role of the forcing on gravity-capillary wave turbulence. Previous laboratory experiments using spatially localized forcing (vibrating blades) have shown that the frequency power-law exponent of the gravity wave spectrum depends on the forcing parameters. By horizontally vibrating the whole container, we observe a spectrum exponent that does not depend on the forcing parameters for both gravity and capillary regimes. This spatially extended forcing leads to a gravity spectrum exponent in better agreement with the theory than by using a spatially localized forcing. The role of the vessel shape has been also studied. Finally, the wave spectrum is found to scale linearly with the injected power for both regimes whatever the forcing type used.

  3. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  4. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  5. FORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    a limited evaluation of its performance against ground-measured and satellite-derived irradiances in AlbanyFORECASTING SOLAR RADIATION -- PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH BASED UPON THE NATIONAL NREL, 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80841 stephen_wilcox@nrel.gov Antoine Zelenka Meteosuisse

  6. 28.1.2015bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/54 Solar energy (thermal, PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Turku 2/54 2b.1 Solar energy #12;28.1.2015Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 3/54 Potential Solar energy could within one hour provide the energy that is used in all surface temperature Solar energy irradiation can be used to estimate planet surface temperature T

  7. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This study examines the value of improved solar power forecasting for the Independent System Operator-New England system. The results show how 25% solar power penetration reduces net electricity generation costs by 22.9%.

  8. High-frequency irradiance fluctuations and geographic smoothing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan; Arias-Castro, Ery

    2012-01-01

    analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 90. doi:PV systems. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 47, 281-

  9. A Horizontal Well Program for the Upper Miocene 26R Pool, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Kuespert, J.G. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (USDOE, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the complex geologic and reservoir characteristics of the 26R Pool, (2) note those characteristics and criteria that would make this Pool ideally suited for horizontal well technology, (3) discuss the evolution of horizontal drilling technology and our corresponding development of knowledge about the 26R Pool, and (4) discuss how our objectives have been achieved by utilizing horizontal wells. (VC)

  10. A Horizontal Well Program for the Upper Miocene 26R Pool, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); Kuespert, J.G. [Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); McJannet, G.S. [USDOE, Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the complex geologic and reservoir characteristics of the 26R Pool, (2) note those characteristics and criteria that would make this Pool ideally suited for horizontal well technology, (3) discuss the evolution of horizontal drilling technology and our corresponding development of knowledge about the 26R Pool, and (4) discuss how our objectives have been achieved by utilizing horizontal wells. (VC)

  11. High Resolution Irradiance Spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert L. Kurucz

    2006-05-01

    The FTS scans that made up the Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas by Kurucz, Furenlid, Brault, and Testerman (1984) have been re-reduced. An approximate telluric atmospheric model was determined for each FTS scan. Large-scale features produced by O3 and O2 dimer were computed and divided out. The solar continuum level was found by fitting a smooth curve to high points in each scan. The scans were normalized to the fitted continuum to produce a residual flux spectrum for each FTS scan. The telluric line spectrum was computed using HITRAN and other line data for H2O, O2, and CO2. The line parameters were adjusted for an approximate match to the observed spectra. The scans were divided by the computed telluric spectra to produce residual irradiance spectra. Artifacts from wavelength mismatches, deep lines, etc, were removed by hand and replaced by linear interpolation. Overlapping scans were fitted together to make a continuous spectrum from 300 to 1000 nm. All the above steps were iterative. The monochromatic error varies from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. The residual spectrum was calibrated two different ways: First by normalizing it to the continuum of theoretical solar model ASUN (Kurucz 1992), and second, by degrading the spectrum to the resolution of the observed irradiance (Thuillier et al. 2004) to determine a normalization function that was then applied to the high resolution spectrum.

  12. Some Practical Considerations Regarding Horizontal Resolution in the First Generation of Operational Convection-Allowing NWP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Some Practical Considerations Regarding Horizontal Resolution in the First Generation,# JASON J. LEVIT, GREGORY W. CARBIN, CRAIG S. SCHWARTZ,@ MORRIS L. WEISMAN,& KELVIN K. DROEGEMEIER

  13. Open Source Projects as Horizontal Innovation Networks - By and for users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Hippel, Eric

    2003-02-20

    Innovation development, production, distribution and consumption networks can be built up horizontally – with actors consisting only of innovation users (more precisely, ...

  14. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L. (Cedar Crest, NM); Pace, Thomas L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  15. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2013-05-29

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  16. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  17. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Pena-Garay; Aldo Serenelli

    2008-11-16

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  18. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements inmore »energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.« less

  19. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements in energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.

  20. Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4Energy Smooth BromeBuildings |Solar PoolU.S. Department

  1. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience of SignaturesSoft0 Soils SoilSolar

  2. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience(TechnicalFor Milwaukee, BySoft Solar Power

  3. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),layer,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013, 113,thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,

  4. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    grids,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2011, 95(5),thickness,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2013,analysis,? Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [130] J.

  5. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info...

  6. Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Chapter 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes To appear in "Chemistry of Carbon@acclab.helsinki.fi 1 #12;2CHAPTER 1. IRRADIATION-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN CARBON NANOTUBES #12;Contents 1 Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Interaction of energetic particles with solid targets . . . . . . . . 6 1.2.1 Ion irradiation

  7. Analytical and Numerical Solutions for the Case of a Horizontal Well with a Radial Power-Law Permeability Distribution--Comparison to the Multi-Fracture Horizontal Case 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Ryan Sawyer

    2013-02-08

    of the analytical pDdr solutions at tD=1 for a horizontal well producing at a constant rate, centered in a radial composite cylinder with a power-law permeability distribution in the inner region... ............................................................................ 29 vii FIGURE Page 3.12 Log-log plot of the analytical pDdr solutions at tD=10 for a horizontal well producing at a...

  8. The influence of mixed and phase clouds on surface shortwave irradiance during the Arctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin D.; Vogelmann A.

    2011-10-13

    The influence of mixed-phase stratiform clouds on the surface shortwave irradiance is examined using unique spectral shortwave irradiance measurements made during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. An Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer measured downwelling spectral irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm in one-minute averages throughout April-May 2008 from the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow. This study examines spectral irradiance measurements made under single-layer, overcast cloud decks having geometric thickness < 3000 m. Cloud optical depth is retrieved from irradiance in the interval 1022-1033 nm. The contrasting surface radiative influences of mixed-phase clouds and liquid-water clouds are discerned using irradiances in the 1.6-{micro}m window. Compared with liquid-water clouds, mixed-phase clouds during the Arctic spring cause a greater reduction of shortwave irradiance at the surface. At fixed conservative-scattering optical depth (constant optical depth for wavelengths {lambda} < 1100 nm), the presence of ice water in cloud reduces the near-IR surface irradiance by an additional several watts-per-meter-squared. This additional reduction, or supplemental ice absorption, is typically {approx}5 W m{sup -2} near solar noon over Barrow, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle. However, for some cloud decks this additional absorption can be as large as 8-10 W m{sup -2}.

  9. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C. (Osprey La., Rumson, NJ 07760)

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  10. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  12. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    and William A. Beckman, Solar Energy Thermal Processes (JohnWiley, Inc" New York. Solar Energy Thermal Processes. John1977): SOLCOST, Solar Energy Design Program for Non-Thermal

  13. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Users in a zone with one solar measurement location shouldin California where solar data of one kind or another havelifetime of the solar heating system: one can expect to pay

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  15. Solar Energy Entrepreneurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region May 31, 2012 #12;Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Meeting MD, DC, DE, VA Region Meeting Objectives should attend if you.... · ... work in the solar energy market

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    to create low-cost solar cells with performance andachieving stable and low-cost solar energy conversion.of large-scale solar power at low costs (1). The most

  17. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    to be supplied by solar, A cost analysis is not included.predict the performance and cost of solar energy systems forthe performance and costs of solar energy systems for

  18. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

  19. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  20. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    are many solar photovoltaic power plants internationally andUSA, Blythe, CA Solar electric power plant, Blythe USA, SanTX Blue Wing solar electric power plant USA, Jacksonville,

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  4. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  5. Proton irradiation effect on SCDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan-Ji Yang; Jing-Bin Lu; Yu-Sa Wang; Yong Chen; Yu-Peng Xu; Wei-Wei Cui; Wei Li; Zheng-Wei Li; Mao-Shun Li; Xiao-Yan Liu; Juan Wang; Da-Wei Han; Tian-Xiang Chen; Cheng-Kui Li; Jia Huo; Wei Hu; Yi Zhang; Bo Lu; Yue Zhu; Ke-Yan Ma; Di Wu; Yan Liu; Zi-Liang Zhang; Guo-He Yin; Yu Wang

    2014-04-19

    The Low Energy X-ray Telescope is a main payload on the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope satellite. The swept charge device is selected for the Low Energy X-ray Telescope. As swept charge devices are sensitive to proton irradiation, irradiation test was carried out on the HI-13 accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The beam energy was measured to be 10 MeV at the SCD. The proton fluence delivered to the SCD was $3\\times10^{8}\\mathrm{protons}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ over two hours. It is concluded that the proton irradiation affects both the dark current and the charge transfer inefficiency of the SCD through comparing the performance both before and after the irradiation. The energy resolution of the proton-irradiated SCD is 212 eV@5.9 keV at $-60\\,^{\\circ}\\mathrm{C}$, while it before irradiated is 134 eV. Moreover, better performance can be reached by lowering the operating temperature of the SCD on orbit.

  6. Proton irradiation effect on SCDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yan-Ji; Wang, Yu-Sa; Chen, Yong; Xu, Yu-Peng; Cui, Wei-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Li, Mao-Shun; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Juan; Han, Da-Wei; Chen, Tian-Xiang; Li, Cheng-Kui; Huo, Jia; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Bo; Zhu, Yue; Ma, Ke-Yan; Wu, Di; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zi-Liang; Yin, Guo-He; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The Low Energy X-ray Telescope is a main payload on the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope satellite. The swept charge device is selected for the Low Energy X-ray Telescope. As swept charge devices are sensitive to proton irradiation, irradiation test was carried out on the HI-13 accelerator at the China Institute of Atomic Energy. The beam energy was measured to be 10 MeV at the SCD. The proton fluence delivered to the SCD was $3\\times10^{8}\\mathrm{protons}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ over two hours. It is concluded that the proton irradiation affects both the dark current and the charge transfer inefficiency of the SCD through comparing the performance both before and after the irradiation. The energy resolution of the proton-irradiated SCD is 212 eV@5.9 keV at $-60\\,^{\\circ}\\mathrm{C}$, while it before irradiated is 134 eV. Moreover, better performance can be reached by lowering the operating temperature of the SCD on orbit.

  7. Complex Magnetic Evolution and Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2013-01-01

    Solar atmosphere is a single system unified by the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Topological changes in magnetic fields that occur in one place may have consequences for coronal heating and eruptions for other, even remote locations. Coronal magnetic fields also play role in transport of magnetic helicity from Sun's subphotosphere/upper convection zone to the interplanetary space. We discuss observational evidence pertinent to some aspects of the solar corona being a global interconnected system, i.e., large-scale coronal heating due to new flux emergence, eruption of chromospheric filament resulting from changes in magnetic topology triggered by new flux emergence, sunspots rotation as manifestation of transport of helicity through the photosphere, and potential consequences of re-distribution of energy from solar luminosity to the dynamo for solar cycle variations of solar irradiance.

  8. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

  9. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  10. Solar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Sources Renewables Solar Solar July 13, 2015 The New York City College of Technology is weatherproofing its house, called DURA, at a Brooklyn Navy Yard construction...

  11. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  12. Solar Permitting Law

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation also addressed permitting fees for solar systems.  Counties and cities may not charge permit fees for solar permit applications specifically, but they can charge building permit ...

  13. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  14. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  15. Your Solar Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Schoolhouse Education supplement for the Sacramento Bee to introduce solar to elementary school children and introduce the design and AD contest for local students.

  16. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    from industries or solar collectors 1.2.2 Multi-stage FlashWilliams Large area solar collector Desalination Process

  17. Solar Energy Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011, the Energy Department's Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) became the SunShot Initiative, a collaborative national effort that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy...

  18. Gravity wave turbulence revealed by horizontal vibrations of the container B. Issenmann and E. Falcon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gravity wave turbulence revealed by horizontal vibrations of the container B. Issenmann and E: December 20, 2012) We experimentally study the role of the forcing on gravity-capillary wave turbulence that the frequency power-law exponent of the gravity wave spectrum depends on the forcing parameters. By horizontally

  19. Low-frequency interaction between horizontal and overturning gyres in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-frequency interaction between horizontal and overturning gyres in the ocean M. A. Spall1] Low-frequency variability of the horizontal circulation in an idealized, eddy-permitting, numerical model drives the dominant mode of low-frequency variability in the meridional overturning circulation

  20. Analytical study of capture time to a horizontal well Hongbin Zhan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    ; Cleveland, 1994; Sawyer and Lieuallen-Dulam, 1998). This is partially because the cost of drilling Horizontal wells have been widely used in petro- leum industry for oil and gas production (Goode a horizontal well in a shallow aquifer is competitive with drilling a vertical well (Wilson and Kaback, 1993

  1. Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Horizontal subduction and truncation of the Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico Xyoli Pe from a trans-Mexico temporary broadband seismic network centered on Mexico City, we report that the subducting Cocos Plate beneath central Mexico is horizontal, and tectonically underplates the base

  2. Analysis of wellbore instability in vertical, directional, and horizontal wells using field data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    and directional wells is being redeveloped by drilling horizontal wells. The experience gained while drilling vertical and directional wells is not useful for drilling horizontal wells, as the failure rate is 1 in 3 holes. Quantification of drilling problems in sixty wells show that majority are tight holes. Stuck

  3. Near wake properties of horizontal axis marine current L. Myers and A.S. Bahaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    1 Near wake properties of horizontal axis marine current turbines L. Myers and A.S. Bahaj-scale horizontal axis turbine has been have been measured in a large water channel facility. A downstream map with different vertical shear and turbulence distributions. Offshore wind farms are perhaps the most closely

  4. Aquitard control of stream-aquifer interaction and flow to a horizontal well in coastal aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dongmin

    2007-04-25

    FINITE HORIZONTAL WELL IN CONFINED AQUIFERS..................................................................86 4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................... 87 4.2 Seawater Upconing Profile... under a Horizontal-Well in a Thick Aquifer .............................................................................................90 4.3 Analysis of Critical Condition of Seawater Upconing................... 108 4.4 Discussion...

  5. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures oscillations and with the tower bending tendency. Keywords: LQG control, Wind turbines, Multi-objective control

  6. Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Hydraulics of horizontal wells in fractured shallow aquifer systems Eungyu Parka,*, Hongbin Zhanb Accepted 1 May 2003 Abstract An analysis of groundwater hydraulic head in the vicinity of a horizontal well in fractured or porous aquifers considering confined, leaky confined, and water-table aquifer boundary

  7. Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    with the horizontal aquifer units; (4) drilling oper- ations are feasible near the ground surfaces that are obstructed groundwater, vapor, or oil improves the effective recovery of fluids. In a case study in a thin oil reservoir, and mine dewatering [Hantush and Papadopulos, 1962]. [4] An early study of fluid flow to a horizontal well

  8. Maintaining Horizontally Partitioned Warehouse School of Computer Science, University of Windsor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezeife, Christie

    maintenance cost. The scheme handles all three types of refresh operations. In addition, this paper proposes response time and maintenance cost. This paper proposes a scheme that efficiently maintains horizontally Applications, View Maintenance, Horizontal Partitioning, Performance Improvement. 1 Introduction Different data

  9. Thermal-hydraulic assessment of concrete storage cubicle with horizontal 3013 canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-08

    The FIDAP computer code was used to perform a series of analyses to assess the thermal-hydraulic performance characteristics of the concrete plutonium storage cubicles, as modified for the horizontal placement of 3013 canisters. Four separate models were developed ranging from a full height model of the storage cubicle to a very detailed standalone model of a horizontal 3013 canister.

  10. Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren Østergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Søren Østergaard Jensen and Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre, Danish Technological Institute

  11. Construction of an unyielding target for large horizontal impacts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, Douglas James; Davie, Neil Thomas; Kalan, Robert J.

    2010-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has constructed an unyielding target at the end of its 2000-foot rocket sled track. This target is made up of approximately 5 million pounds of concrete, an embedded steel load spreading structure, and a steel armor plate face that varies from 10 inches thick at the center to 4 inches thick at the left and right edges. The target/track combination will allow horizontal impacts at regulatory speeds of very large objects, such as a full-scale rail cask, or high-speed impacts of smaller packages. The load-spreading mechanism in the target is based upon the proven design that has been in use for over 20 years at Sandia's aerial cable facility. That target, with a weight of 2 million pounds, has successfully withstood impact forces of up to 25 million pounds. It is expected that the new target will be capable of withstanding impact forces of more than 70 million pounds. During construction various instrumentation was placed in the target so that the response of the target during severe impacts can be monitored. This paper will discuss the construction of the target and provide insights on the testing capabilities at the sled track with this new target.

  12. Horizontal underbalanced drilling of gas wells with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, R.J.; Li, J.; Lupick, G.S.

    1999-03-01

    Coiled tubing drilling technology is gaining popularity and momentum as a significant and reliable method of drilling horizontal underbalanced wells. It is quickly moving into new frontiers. To this point, most efforts in the Western Canadian Basin have been focused towards sweet oil reservoirs in the 900--1300 m true vertical depth (TVD) range, however there is an ever-increasing interest in deeper and gas-producing formations. Significant design challenges on both conventional and coiled tubing drilling operations are imposed when attempting to drill these formations underbalanced. Coiled tubing is an ideal technology for underbalanced drilling due to its absence of drillstring connections resulting in continuous underbalanced capabilities. This also makes it suitable for sour well drilling and live well intervention without the risk of surface releases of reservoir gas. Through the use of pressure deployment procedures it is possible to complete the drilling operation without need to kill the well, thereby maintaining underbalanced conditions right through to the production phase. The use of coiled tubing also provides a means for continuous wireline communication with downhole steering, logging and pressure recording devices.

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  14. Horizontally scaling dChache SRM with the Terracotta platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perelmutov, T.; Crawford, M.; Moibenko, A.; Oleynik, G.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The dCache disk caching file system has been chosen by a majority of LHC experiments Tier 1 centers for their data storage needs. It is also deployed at many Tier 2 centers. The Storage Resource Manager (SRM) is a standardized grid storage interface and a single point of remote entry into dCache, and hence is a critical component. SRM must scale to increasing transaction rates and remain resilient against changing usage patterns. The initial implementation of the SRM service in dCache suffered from an inability to support clustered deployment, and its performance was limited by the hardware of a single node. Using the Terracotta platform, we added the ability to horizontally scale the dCache SRM service to run on multiple nodes in a cluster configuration, coupled with network load balancing. This gives site administrators the ability to increase the performance and reliability of SRM service to face the ever-increasing requirements of LHC data handling. In this paper we will describe the previous limitations of the architecture SRM server and how the Terracotta platform allowed us to readily convert single node service into a highly scalable clustered application.

  15. Solar in Cold, Cloudy Climates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation delivered by Chuck Marken during the 2009 Northeastern Solar Cities Conference Solar Survey session.

  16. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets andLLC. (2007). Global Concentrated Solar Power Markets and

  17. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  18. New design of a guidelineless horizontal tree for deepwater ESP wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olijnik, L.A.; Vigesa, S.; Paula, M.T.R.; Figueiredo, M.W. de; Rutherford, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the new design of a horizontal tree for deepwater installation, as a key piece of equipment for application of a Electrical Submersible Pump in Subsea Wells. The production from subsea wells equipped with ESPs is a reality since October/94 with the first installation in Campos Basin. The horizontal tree adds simplicity to workover operations expected to be two to three times more frequency when compared to natural flow or gas lifted wells. The design and fabrication of the deepwater horizontal tree is a result of a Technological Cooperation Agreement. The design incorporates new solutions, mainly in diverless guidelineless connection of power cables and flowlines using the vertical connection system. The guidelineless horizontal subsea tree is fully prepared to be integrated on the new manifolds being designed for the Brazilian deepwater oilfields. The applications of the horizontal trees in subsea ESP wells reduce intervention cost, increasing economical attractiveness and scenarios for the applications of this new boosting technology.

  19. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  20. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  1. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    glass contact Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10):cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39.potential of these materials for solar energy conversion,

  2. Analysis and synthesis of the variability of irradiance and PV power time series with the wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perpinan, O.; Lorenzo, E.

    2011-01-15

    The irradiance fluctuations and the subsequent variability of the power output of a PV system are analysed with some mathematical tools based on the wavelet transform. It can be shown that the irradiance and power time series are nonstationary process whose behaviour resembles that of a long memory process. Besides, the long memory spectral exponent {alpha} is a useful indicator of the fluctuation level of a irradiance time series. On the other side, a time series of global irradiance on the horizontal plane can be simulated by means of the wavestrapping technique on the clearness index and the fluctuation behaviour of this simulated time series correctly resembles the original series. Moreover, a time series of global irradiance on the inclined plane can be simulated with the wavestrapping procedure applied over a signal previously detrended by a partial reconstruction with a wavelet multiresolution analysis, and, once again, the fluctuation behaviour of this simulated time series is correct. This procedure is a suitable tool for the simulation of irradiance incident over a group of distant PV plants. Finally, a wavelet variance analysis and the long memory spectral exponent show that a PV plant behaves as a low-pass filter. (author)

  3. Occlusion-Aware Hessians for Error Control in Irradiance Caching /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarzhaupt, Jorge Andres

    2013-01-01

    5.2 Derivation of the Irradiance Hessian . . 5.3of the translational irradiance gradient. . . . . .1.1.1 Occlusion-Aware Irradiance Hessian . . . . . . . .

  4. Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite...

  5. Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei-Tao

    2011-01-01

    by femtosecond laser irradiation Wei-Tao Liu, 1 S. W. Wu, 2USA Upon femtosecond laser irradiation, a bright, broadbandthe experimental etup. laser irradiation, strong PL signals

  6. Particle seeding flow system for horizontal shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Nicolas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Adam A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orlicz, Gregory C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prestridge, Katherine P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    The Extreme Fluids Team in P-23, Physics Division, studies fluid dynamics at high speeds using high resolution diagnostics. The unsteady forces on a particle driven by a shock wave are not well understood, and they are difficult to model. A horizontal shock tube (HST) is being modified to collect data about the behavior of particles accelerated by shocks. The HST has been used previously for studies of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) as well as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), diagnostics that measure density and velocity. The purpose of our project is to design a flow system that will introduce particles into the HST. The requirements for this particle flow system (PFS) are that it be non-intrusive, be able to introduce either solid or liquid particles, have an exhaust capability, not interfere with existing diagnostics, and couple with the existing HST components. In addition, the particles must flow through the tube in a uniform way. We met these design criteria by first drawing the existing shock tube and diagnostics and doing an initial design of the ducts for the PFS. We then estimated the losses through the particle flow system from friction and researched possible fans that could be used to drive the particles. Finally, the most challenging component of the design was the coupling to the HST. If we used large inlets, the shock would lose strength as it passed by the inlet, so we designed a novel coupling inlet and outlet that minimize the losses to the shock wave. Our design was reviewed by the Extreme Fluids Team, and it is now being manufactured and built based upon our technical drawings.

  7. Coiled tubing workover saves horizontal well in Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizak, K.; Patterson, J.; Suarez, D.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A slotted liner horizontal completion became stuck while being run. Inflatable packers were to be used to isolate the productive interval from a water-bearing, unconsolidated sand in the curved section of this well. While personnel were deciding how to cement the well, the liner was left in the hole with the inflatable packers unset, and the production tubing was run. Coiled tubing was used to log the well, isolate the productive interval, and remove damage to restore well productivity. Personnel considered all possible options, and a thorough decision-making process guided the workover. Because of severe lost-circulation problems, extensive ``what if`` scenarios were made and updated daily for the engineers on location. Service company and oil company personnel worked together to guarantee the job designs were practical and did not exceed the limits of the equipment on location. Computer simulations of all operations were run to allow corrective action to be taken if unusual circumstances arose. All fluids were thoroughly laboratory tested and witnessed by oil company personnel to ensure job success. Problems on the job included lost circulation, locating the exact positions of the packers and water zone, ensuring correct cement placement, removing mud and workover fluids without damaging the squeeze, and bad weather on Lake Maracaibo. Advantages and disadvantages of all the solutions that were considered are included to assist anyone in a similar situation. Post-job oil production has stabilized at 900 BOPD with no water or sand production. Careful job planning and the versatility of coiled tubing saved this well and proved economical with an estimated payout of 33 days, assuming a price of $12 per barrel of oil.

  8. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    USA, Jacksonville, FL Jacksonville Solar Energy Generation Facility Constructed Systems that produce electricity

  9. Solar Policy Environment: Houston

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure through strategic partnerships that address market barriers for solar energy through the Houston Solar Initiative. The initiative is dedicated to this long-term goal while focusing on near- and mid-term results that go beyond demonstration solar projects.

  10. Solar Policy Environment: Sacramento

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Sacramento and the greater Sacramento region is the home of a long standing history of commitment to solar. Sacramento Solar Access seeks to further widespread adoption of solar energy by addressing current market barriers and preparing, through design guidelines and education, the infrastructure that will optimize solar production in the future.

  11. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    Solar Energy Center USA, Blythe, CA Solar electric power plant,Solar Wind Total Northwest Imports Southwest Imports Total Energy System Table 1.18: Largest PV Power PlantsPlants……………………………………………………32 Table 1.19: Solar Desalination Systems…………………………………………………34 Table 1.20: Energy

  12. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    photovoltaic systems, Progress in Photovoltaics: Researchphotovoltaic systems, Progress in Photovoltaics: Researchphotovoltaic systems, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research

  13. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    aggregated power output of wind farms—a statistical analysisby Interconnecting Wind Farms, Journal of Appliedsmoothing effects at a wind farm, Wind Energy, 7 (2004) 61-

  14. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  15. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    the penetration of wind energy in the European electricitydistant wind turbines, Wind Energy, 7 (2004) 75-85. [14] J.effects at a wind farm, Wind Energy, 7 (2004) 61-74. [16

  16. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Locations, World Renewable Energy Forum, Denver, CO, 2012. [Locations, World Renewable Energy Forum, Denver, CO, 2012. [as it appears in Renewable Energy volume 35, issue 12,

  17. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  18. Analysis of solar radiation data for Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuye, A. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria)); Jagtap, S.S. (International Inst. of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria))

    1992-08-01

    The data on global irradiation incident on a horizontal surface in Port Harcourt during the 13-year period 1977-1989 are analyzed and shown to vary with the climatic changes of the year. The range of variation is found to be greatest in August. Based on the calculated average monthly clearness index values only five seasonal patterns are identified for Port Harcourt. The percentage of days with duration of sunshine less than 1.5 h is 28.3% while that greater than 9 h is 4.3%. The Angstrom type of regression model relating total global irradiation to sunshine duration has been found to be reasonably adequate only if long-term average monthly values are used.

  19. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Lexington Massachusetts Solar Developer of technologies for enhancing PV efficiency including new cell wiring and wafer packaging systems http www tech com Soltech Inc...

  20. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  1. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-01-01

    colorants. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [30]materials. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, [31] NRELmeasurements. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 89:319–

  2. Solar Policy Environment: Pittsburgh

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Pittsburgh plans to build on its reputation as a national leader in green practices. Its Solar America Cities project will develop a distributed approach to adoption of solar energy technologies. Pittsburgh’s partnership includes universities, non-profit organizations, and business, labor and foundation communities. The city plans to transform the solar energy market and stimulate early adoption of solar technology, to show that solar technology works in a northern city.

  3. Solar collector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  4. Magnetic field confinement by meridional flow and the solar tachocline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. L. Kitchatinov; G. Ruediger

    2006-03-16

    We show that the MHD theory that explains the solar tachocline by an effect of the magnetic field can work with the decay modes of a fossil field in the solar interior if the meridional flow of the convection zone penetrates slightly the radiative zone beneath. An equatorward flow of about 10 m/s penetrating to a maximum depth of 1000 km below the convection zone is able to generate almost horizontal field lines in the tachocline region so that the internal field is almost totally confined to the radiative zone. The theory of differential solar rotation indeed provides meridional flows of about 10 m/s and a penetration depth of < 1000 km for viscosity values that are characteristic of a stable tachocline.

  5. Impact of solar activity on climate changes in Athens region, Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gizani, Nectaria A B; Vatikiotis, Leonidas; Zervas, Efthimios

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this work is to study the role that the solar weather plays in terrestrial weather. For this reason we study the effect of the solar activity on the climate changes in Greece. In the current work we look for possible correlation between the solar activity data spanning the years from 1975 to 2000 and the meteorological data from two weather stations based inside the city of Athens, Greece (New Philadelphia) and in greater Athens in the north of Attica (Tatoi area). We examine the annual variations of the average values of six meteorological parameters: temperature, atmospheric pressure, direction and intensity of wind, rainfall and relative air humidity. The solar data include decade variations, within the above period, of the solar irradiance, mean sunspot number between two solar cycles, magnetic cycle influence, and solar UV driving of climate (radio flux).

  6. Ordred-Modification (1) SOLAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    C-7-2 SOL SOLAR 3 (1) SOLAR (2) (3) (1) SOL Ordred-Modification SOLAR CF SOLAR (2) BDD EM PRISM (3) CF SOLAR () (1) SOLAR SOLAR 2008 2011 20240016 Inference-based Hypothesis-finding and its Application to Systems Biology

  7. Preparation and characterization of solar exfoliated graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M, Sreejesh, E-mail: sreejeshmnasc@gmail.com; S, Nagaraja H., E-mail: hosakoppa@gmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka Surathkal, Mangalore-575025 (India); K, Udaya Bhat, E-mail: udayabhatk@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Karnataka Surathkal, Mangalore-575 025 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Hummer's method was used for the chemical synthesis of graphite oxide from graphite flakes. Simultaneous exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide to Graphene was achieved through focused solar light irradiation using a convex lens. The morphological characteristics were studied using SEM and TEM. Layered morphology of Graphene was observed through TEM. Raman spectra and FTIR were used for the structural characterization of Graphene. EDAX analysis showed the drop in oxygen content during exfoliation. The method offered a faster, easier and environmental friendly method to produce Graphene for potential applications.

  8. Buoyancy eects on heat transfer and temperature proles in horizontal pipe ow of drag-reducing uids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Buoyancy eects on heat transfer and temperature pro®les in horizontal pipe ¯ow of drag 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In heated ¯ows in horizontal pipes February 2000 Abstract We have studied the extent to which buoyancy eects in horizontal pipe ¯ows of drag

  9. Sandia Energy - Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Solar...

  10. Solar Design Workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  11. UK Irradiated Materials Archive Steve Roberts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Irradiated Materials Archive Steve Roberts University of Oxford MRF meeting ­ CCFE - 7th July 2015 #12;UK Irradiated Materials Archive Background · Establishment of National Nuclear User Facility exposure · Materials well suited for use in future university-based research programmes #12;UK Irradiated

  12. Vol. [VOL], No. [ISS]: 111 Irradiance Rigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Vol. [VOL], No. [ISS]: 1­11 Irradiance Rigs Hong Yuan UMass Amherst, Disney Interactive Studios that conveys their placement in the environment. Irradiance Volumes [Greger et al. 98] were designed specifically for this problem. The spatially varying irradiance in a volume is explicitly computed

  13. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    1999). Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization,Basic Energy Science Advisory Committe (BESAC), (2005),and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 94 (

  14. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  15. Plasmonic conversion of solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavero, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    solar energy conversion .This new paradigm of solar energy conversion, based on theon this field, solar energy conversion aimed at photovoltaic

  16. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    IRS 2009). 57 By funding amount, solar accounted for 21% orto 2008. In addition, funding to solar companies increasedfor solar installation technicians by providing funding to

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS OF THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACEVEDO-ARREGUIN, LUIS ANTONIO

    2012-01-01

    4.3 A “solar” model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of the solar tachocline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pro?le needed to recover the solar ? pro?le in our numerical

  18. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.Concentrating Solar Power—Technology, Cost, and Markets.

  19. SOLAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    for Conservation and Solar Applications of the U.S.~ the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, University ofInsulation- Proceedings the Solar Glazing Conference,

  20. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01

    which uses solar energy to generate electricity." Like otherwhich uses solar energy to generate electricity” qualifiesenergy technologies, solar PV creates the most jobs per unit of electricity