Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector  

SciTech Connect

A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

Hollands, K. G. Terry (Elora, CA); Sibbitt, Bruce (Waterloo, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

`Convective` flat plate collectors and their applications  

SciTech Connect

The `convective` flat plate collector is a particular two-way collector system with air in gravity flow as primary working fluid. Its thermal characteristics are described. Results of outdoor tests and thermal simulations are shown. Different applications of the system are presented: water heating, steam generation for medical sterilization, solar cooking and space heating. 10 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Grupp, M.; Bergler, H.; Bertrand, J.P. [Synopsis, Lodeve (France); Kromer, B. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik der Universtaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Cieslok, J. [INCO, Aachen (Germany)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.

Not Available

1978-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

4

Flat-plate solar collector handbook: a survey of principles, technical data and evaluation results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report begins with a discussion of flat plate solar collector principles. Evaluation data are presented for thirteen manufacturers of medium temperature collectors that have met the criteria: (a) intention by the manufacturer that the equipment be used only for heating and cooling buildings and for domestic hot water heating and (b) evaluation of the collector by NASA using a solar simulator as a basis for collector selection and performance prediction. (WDM)

Newkirk, H. W.

1976-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

5

A SOLAR STILL AUGMENTED WITH A FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR AND A REFLECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A SOLAR STILL AUGMENTED WITH A FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR AND A REFLECTOR A. Saleh A. Badran Mechanical ­ Jordan Amman ­ Jordan e-mail: asaleh@philadelphia.edu.jo e-mail: badran@ju.edu.jo ABSTRACT A solar distillation system was built and tested to study the effect of increasing the solar radiation incident

6

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Side-by-side comparisons of evacuated compound parabolic concentrator and flat plate solar collector systems  

SciTech Connect

Three liquid-based solar heating systems employing different types of solar collectors were tested side by side near Chicago, Illinois for one year. The three different types of collectors were: a flat plate collector with a black-chrome coated absorber plate and one low-iron glass cover; an evacuated-tube compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with a concentration ratio of 1.1, oriented with tubes and troughs along a north-south axis; and an evacuated-tube CPC collector with a concentration ratio of 1.3 and one low-iron glass cover, with tubes and troughs oriented along an east-west axis. Results indicate that the flat plate collector system was the most efficient during warm weather, but the CPC systems were more efficient during cold weather, but the CPC systems were more efficient during cold weather, and the CPC systems operated under conditions too adverse for the flat plate collector. The computer simulation model ANSIM was validated by means of the side-by-side tests. The model uses analytical solutions to the storage energy balance. ANSIM is compared with the general simulation TRNSYS. (LEW)

McGarity, A.E.; Allen, J.W.; Schertz, W.W.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Methods for reducing heat losses from flat plate solar collectors: Phase II. Final report, February 1, 1976--August 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvements to flat plate solar collectors for heating and cooling of buildings were investigated through two parallel studies. The first study, which deals with the free convective heat loss from V-corrugated absorber plate to a plane glass cover, has shown that, for the same average spacing, the free convective heat loss is greater for a V-corrugated absorber plate than for a plane absorber plate. However, provided the average spacing is large enough, the amount of increase is slight. The second study, which deals with the free convective heat loss in a honeycomb solar collector in which the honeycomb consists of a set of horizontal partitions, or slits, has shown that provided the solar collector is tilted to near vertical, such a honeycomb gives equivalent or superior free convective loss suppression than does a square-celled honeycomb having the same amount of material. Correlation equations for the free convective heat loss are given for both studies.

Hollands, K.G.T.; Raithby, G.D.; Unny, T.E.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Performance of residential solar heating and cooling system with flat-plate and evacuated tubular collectors: CSU Solar House I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurements in Solar House I at Colorado State University have provided comparison data on space heating, water heating, and cooling by systems in which flat-plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used. Data were procured on 47 days during operation of the flat-plate collector and on 112 days when the house was heated or cooled by the evacuated tube collector system. It was concluded that the system comprising an evacuated tubular collector, lithium bromide absorption water chiller, and associated equipment is highly effective in providing space heating and cooling to a small building, that it can supply up to twice the space heating and several times the cooling obtainable from an equal occupied area of good quality flat-plate collectors, and that a greater fraction of the domestic hot water can be obtained by supplying its heat from main storage. The cost-effectiveness of the system, in comparison with one employing a good flat-plate collector, can be determined when commercial pricing data are made available. A summary of monthly and annual energy use for space heating, domestic hot water (DHW) heating, and space cooling is presented. The collector performance is presented. The first two months of data were obtained with the system employing flat-plate collectors, whereas heating and cooling during the following nine months were supplied by the evacuated tube collector system.

Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Construction and testing of large-area CPC-collector and comparison with a flat plate collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 13.6 m{sup 2} east-west aligned CPC-collector(compound parabolic concentrator) with flat absorbers, proposed for use in large-area applications, has been built and tested and compared with a flat plate collector. The performance of the CPC at a working temperature of 50{degree}C over ambient can be described by F`{eta}{sub 0} = 0.75 and F`U{sub L} = 2.5 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1} while the flat plate collector is described by F`{eta}{sub 0} = 0.80, and F`U{sub L} = 3.3 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The large difference in heat loss coefficient is to a large degree explained by absorption of solar radiation in the reflectors in the CPC-collector. The incidence angle dependence of the optical performance of the two collectors showed a similar appearance. Both collector constructions are based on the LGB (long ground based) technology, which allows them to be built in large modules up to 170 m{sup 2}. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Roennelid, M. [Dalarna Univ., Borlaenge (Sweden)] [Dalarna Univ., Borlaenge (Sweden); Perers, B.; Karlsson, B. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)] [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

Tuttle, R E

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Nonimaging solar energy concentrators (CPC's) with fully illuminated flat receivers: A viable alternative to flat-plate collectors  

SciTech Connect

Low-concentration, stationary, nonimaging concentrators (CPC's) with flat receivers illuminated on both sides are considered as viable alternatives to flat-plate solar collectors. Closed-form, analytic formulae are derived for the geometric characteristics of two concentrator types of greatest interest (i.e., stationary collectors for year-round energy delivery), which enable calculations of collectible energy without computer ray-tracing stimulations. The relative merits of these concentrators in terms of energy collection and production costs are assessed with respect to each other as well as to flat-plate collectors.

Gordon, J.M.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Performance of residential solar heating and cooling system with flat-plate and evacuated tubular collectors: CSU Solar House I  

SciTech Connect

Measurements in Solar House I at Colorado State University have provided comparison data on space heating, water heating, and cooling by systems in which flat-plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used. Data were procured on 47 days during operation of the flat-plate collector and on 112 days when the house was heated or cooled by the evacuated tube collector system. It was concluded that the system comprising an evacuated tubular collector, lithium bromide absorption water chiller, and associated equipment is highly effective in providing solar heating and cooling to a small building, that it can supply up to twice the space heating and several times the cooling obtainable from an equal occupied area of good quality flat-plate collectors, and that a greater fraction of the domestic hot water can be obtained by supplying its heat from main storage. The cost-effectiveness of the system, in comparison with one employing a good flat-plate collector, can be determined when commercial pricing data are made available.

Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Solar Radiation Data Manual Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefuleness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply iots endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not

15

Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost  

SciTech Connect

Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

Wilhelm, W.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Interferometric study of the natural convection characteristics of flat plate, slat and vee-corrugated solar collectors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The natural convection heat transfer relations for the heat transfer between absorber and cover plates of solar collectors have been studied. Interferometric techniques were employed to evaluate the local coefficients. Average values were obtained by integration of the local values. The results are presented in terms of correlations between Nusselt number and Grashof number. The investigations were carried out over tilt angles of 45 to 90 degrees. The Grashof number range tested was representative of that existing in flat plate collectors. The various geometrics included large flat enclosures, small aspect ratio enclosures representative of honeycomb or slat collectors, vee-corrugated (vee-grooved) collectors, and compound parabolic concentrators.

El Wakil, M.M.; Mitchell, J.W.

1979-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

17

Heat pipes applied to flat-plate solar collectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to analytically and experimentally investigate the use of heat pipes in flat-plate solar collectors. Heat pipes are passive heat transport devices which utilize a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. Because of their high equivalent conductance, they appear to be well suited to transport heat from the solar absorber to an air or liquid distribution system. The program consisted of the following tasks: (I) Configuration Studies, (II) Parametric Performance Studies, (III) Economic Analysis, (IV) System Integration Studies, (V) Submodule Fabrication and Testing (in the laboratory), and (VI) Full-Scale Module Fabrication and Testing (using solar input). An additional Task VII, Feasibility Study of a Stationary Concentrator, was identified during the program and was also completed. In performing Tasks I through IV, various aspects of integrating heat pipes into flat-palte solar collectors were investigated. The results of these tasks were reported in the Annual Progress Report (Ref. 2) dated January 31, 1975. A summary of that program effort is included in the present report. The results of the experimental work conducted under Tasks V and VI are presented in this report. Under Task V, breadboard heat pipes were fabricated from sections of Roll-Bond panels and their heat transfer performance was evaluated in the laboratory. Three complete solar panels, two of which were heat pipe absorbers and one was a Roll-Bond control panel, were fabricated and solar tested during Task VI. Finally, under the new Task VII, a feasibility study of a stationary concentrator using heat pipes as thermal diodes was conducted. Results are presented and discussed.

Bienert, W.B.; Wolf, D.A.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions  

SciTech Connect

New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica Tecnica, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)

Armstrong, P R; Cox, M; de Winter, F

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate Solar Collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The information used in evaluating the design of the Sunmat Liquid Flat Plat Plate Solar Collector developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company is presented. Included in this package are the Subsystem Performance Specification, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.

Not Available

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coaxial extrusion conversion concept for polymeric flat plate solar collectors. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study investigated materials and processes for fundamental improvements in flat-plate solar collector cost and performance. The goal was to develop a process for direct conversion of inexpensive raw materials into a completed solar collector unit, without labor intensive assembly operations. It was thought that materials carefully matched to the process and end-use environment would substantially reduce collector costs, as compared to conventional industry practice. The project studied the feasibility of a cost-effective, glazed solar collector, with low labor input, utilizing a coaxial extrusion of compatible polymeric materials. This study evaluated all considered materials for the desired application. In addition, there was a trial extrusion of the leading candidate glazing and absorber materials, which resulted in successfully performing a coaxial extrusion of one cell. At the time the study was conducted, there were no materials available that met the necessary requirements for the specified utilization. It was recommended that, if potentially compatible materials become available, further investigation into the suitability of those materials be researched. Then, if a suitable material was found, proceeding into Phase II would be recommended.

Rhodes, R.O.; Chapman, N.J.; Chao, K.C.; Sorenson, K.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Flat plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

A lightweight flat plate heat exchanger comprised of two or more essentially parallel flat plates which are formed and arranged to provide fluid flow passages between the plates. New combinations of plastic plates include the usage of transparent plastic foam and honeycomb structures. Improved shapes of flow passages include the usage of flow nozzles, flow diffusers, and jet pumps to increase fluid flow and heat transfer. The invention includes the usage of transparent plastic foam plates which are shaped to concentrate solar energy onto plastic tubes. Clear plastic tubes containing black heat transfer fluid are included. The invention includes the usage of spiral flow channels within plastic foam plates. Six different embodiments of the invention are included. Five of the embodiments could be used as efficient lightweight solar collectors.

Berringer, R.T.

1981-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

23

Side-by-side comparisons of evacuated compound parabolic concentrator and flat plate solar collector systems at temperatures of 90 to 100/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

This collector system study is an extension of a previous system study in which Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) compared the performance of three solar energy systems operated side by side for over a year. In the present system study, four solar energy systems were operated side by side for part of a year. Two of the collector systems used commercially available compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) collectors, one used a commercially available flat plate collector, and one used an experimental CPC collector built by The University of Chicago. The collectors were mounted in fixed positions; they did not track the sun, and their tilt angles were not seasonally adjusted. All of the collector arrays faced south and were tilted at 42/sup 0/ with respect to the horizon (to match the 42/sup 0/N latitude at ANL). All four collector systems started each day with their storage temperatures at 90/sup 0/C. During the day, each system was operated by its own solar controller. At the end of the day, the tanks were mixed and the temperature changes in the tanks were measured. The change in storage energy was calculated from the temperature change, the heat capacity of the storage system, and the pump energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Allen, J.W.; Schertz, W.W.; Wantroba, A.S.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from SUNY

(Abstract):Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Central America
<...

25

Flat plate solar oven  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

Parikh, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the sun. They respond to sunlight that is direct or diffuse. Even in clear skies, the diffuse component of sunlight accounts for between 10% and 20% of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. On partly sunny days, up to 50% of that radiation is diffuse, and on cloudy days, 100% of the radiation is diffuse.

27

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame.

28

Modified horizontal solar collector for low temperature grain drying  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project consisted of constructing a horizontal solar collector with a small amount of rock storage integrated into the collector air stream. The collected energy was used to dry corn in a 6000 bushel low-temperature drying facility. The collector proved to be economically feasible to build and collected sufficient energy to show a reasonable return on the investment.

None

1980-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY

(Abstract):Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba

(Purpose):<...

30

Solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

Cassidy, V.M.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or...

32

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Modules Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials,...

33

Natural convection flow over an inclined flat plate with internal heat generation and variable viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present investigation deals with study of laminar natural convection flow of a viscous fluid over a semi-infinite flat plate inclined at a small angle to the horizontal with internal heat generation and variable viscosity. The dimensionless boundary ... Keywords: Heat generation, Inclined flat surface, Natural convection, Temperature dependent viscosity

S. Siddiqa; S. Asghar; M. A. Hossain

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These panels can be fixed in place or allowed to track the movement of the Illustration of a cutaway of a typical flat-plate module. The layers, in order from top to bottom, are: cover film, solar cell, encapsulant, substrate, cover film, seal, gasket, and frame. One typical flat-plate module design uses a substrate of metal, glass, or plastic to provide structural support in the back; an encapsulant material to protect the cells; and a transparent cover of plastic or glass. sun. They respond to sunlight that is direct or diffuse. Even in clear skies, the diffuse component of sunlight accounts for between 10% and 20%

35

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Balance of System Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are composed of three subsystems....

36

Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

37

EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

ANDREWS,J.W.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Module Basics Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with wavelengths from 350 to 1200 nm. Also, reflection from the front surface should be minimal. An antireflection coating added to the top surface can greatly reduce the reflection of sunlight, and texturing of the surface can cause light that strikes the surface to stay within the cells. Unfortunately, these textured

39

Structurally integrated steel solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

Moore, Stanley W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1977-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America from SUNY Central America from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Central America (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

42

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

43

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

44

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

45

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

46

Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km resolution for 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

47

Wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An investigation of wind loads on solar collectors. Appendix II - net pressure coefficients. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A wind-tunnel study of a series of model solar-collector installations (flat-plate collectors) immersed in a thick turbulent shear layer was undertaken in order to determine design wind loads on such installations. Wind tunnel measurements were made of the mean and fluctuating pressures on a model of a single flat-plate collector which was a component of different multi-panel installations. The pressures were spatially integrated over the top and bottom of the single collector separately.

Tieleman, H.W.; Akins, R.E.; Sparks, P.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Tracking system for solar collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report  

SciTech Connect

The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

An investigation of wind loads on solar collectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A wind-tunnel study of a series of model solar-collector installations (flat-plate collectors) immersed in a thick turbulent shear layer was undertaken in order to determine design wind loads on such installations. Wind tunnel measurements were made of the mean and fluctuating pressures on a model of a single flat-plate collector which was a component of different multi-panel installations. The pressures were spatially integrated over the top and bottom surface of the single collector separately.

Tieleman, H.W.; Akins, R.E.; Sparks, P.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

An investigation of wind loads on solar collectors. Appendix I - data listing for top and bottom of collector. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A wind-tunnel study of a series of model solar-collector installations (flat-plate collectors) immersed in a thick turbulent shear layout was undertaken in order to determine design wind loads on such installations. Wind tunnel measurements were made of the mean and fluctuating pressures on a model of a single flat-plate collector which was a component of different multi-panel installations. The pressures were spatially integrated over the top and bottom surface of the single collector separately.

Tieleman, H.W.; Akins, R.E.; Sparks, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Analysis of a Flat-Plate, Liquid-Desiccant, Dehumidifier and Regenerator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A numerical model for isothermal and non-isothermal flat-plate liquid-desiccant dehumidifiers and regenerators was developed and implemented. The two-dimensional model takes into account the desiccant, water (more)

Mesquita, Lucio Cesar De Souza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Modeling, Designing, Fabricating, and Testing of Channel Panel Flat Plate Heat Pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Flat plate heat pipes are very efficient passive two-phase heat transport devices. Their high e'ciency and low mass are desirable in the aerospace and electronics (more)

Harris, James R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Solar collectors, energy storage, and materials  

SciTech Connect

This volume was prepared as an extended, annotated bibliography in the solar thermal energy collection field, documenting the state-of-the-art in the late 1980s. It covers collectors of solar thermal energy, including salt gradient solar ponds, flat plate collectors, compound parabolic concentrators, and other stationary and tracking collection systems. Collectors that are used for building applications are emphasized since power and industrial applications are considered in other volumes.

de Winter, F. (ed.) (Altas Corp., Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This model uses information on hourly satellite observed visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam insolation falling on a tracking concentrator pointed

59

Flat Plate PV Module Eligibility Listing Procedure Updated 6/28/12 Senate Bill 1 (SB1) defines the solar incentive programs for California, and flat plate PV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the solar incentive programs for California, and flat plate PV modules1 must be listed on the SB1 compliant programs for investor owned utility (IOU) territories, the California Solar Initiative (CSI) and the New module list to be eligible for incentives in California. Senate Bill 1 encompasses two staterun

60

Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of possible solutions to the problems of corrosion and freezing in flat-plate collectors are listed and discussed briefly. Specific considerations involved in the choice and definition of these solutions are discussed in greater detail. (MHR)

de Winter, F.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

62

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

63

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate

64

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the

65

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

66

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Solar collector related research and development in the United States for heating and cooling of buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Some of the research funded by the Research and Development Branch of the Heating and Cooling Division of Solar Energy of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration is described. Specifically, collector and collector materials research is reported on during FY-1977. The R and D Branch has funded research in open and closed cycle liquid heating flat plate collectors, air heating flat plate collectors, heat pipe collectors, concentrating collectors, collector heat transfer studies, honeycomb glazings, evacuated tube collectors, ponds both salt gradient and viscosity stabilized, materials exposure testing, collector testing standards, absorber surface coatings, and corrosion studies. A short description of the nature of the research is provided as well as a presentation of the significant results.

Collier, R.K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Forecasting of thermal energy storage performance of Phase Change Material in a solar collector using soft computing techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a solar collector system using sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na"2CO"3.10H"2O) as Phase Change Material (PCM) was experimentally investigated during March and collector efficiency was compared with those of convectional system including ... Keywords: Flat plate solar collector, PCM, Soft computing

Yasin Varol; Ahmet Koca; Hakan F. Oztop; Engin Avci

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Proceedings of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project Research Forum on the design of flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central stations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, has focused on advancing technologies relevant to the design and construction of megawatt-level central-station systems. Photovoltaic modules and arrays for flat-plate central-station or other large-scale electric power production facilities require the establishment of a technical base that resolves design issues and results in practical and cost-effective configurations. The Central Station Research Forum addressed design, qualification and maintenance issues related to central-station arrays derived from the engineering and operating experiences of early applications and parallel laboratory research activities. Technical issues were examined from the viewpoint of the utility engineer, architect-engineer and laboratory researcher. The forum included presentations on optimum source-circuit designs, module insulation design for high system voltages, array safety, structural interface design, measurements and array operation and maintenance. The Research Forum focused on current capabilities as well as design difficulties requiring additional technological thrusts and/or continued research emphasis. Session topic summaries highlighting major points during group discussions, identifying promising technical approaches or areas of future research, are presented.

None

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Proceedings of the flat-plate solar array project research forum on photovoltaic metallization systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Photovoltaic Metallization Research Forum, under the sponsorship of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Flat-Plate Solar Array Project and the US Department of Energy, was held March 16-18, 1983 at Pine Mountain, Georgia. The Forum consisted of five sessions, covering (1) the current status of metallization systems, (2) system design, (3) thick-film metallization, (4) advanced techniques and (5) future metallization challenges. Twenty-three papers were presented.

None

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Performance Testing at the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) performance testing project at the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC) is a multi-year, data-driven effort to provide unbiased field testing of a variety of commercial-scale solar PV systems under different environmental and seasonal conditions. Its core aim is to assess and characterize the operation of both well-established as well as less mature PV module technologies to ultimately inform future PV product investment decisions by electric utilities and ...

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

72

Analysis of asymmetric disk-shaped and flat-plate heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

An analytical investigation and conceptual design of a disk-shaped asymmetric heat pipe is presented in this work. Using the conservative formulations for the steady incompressible vapor and liquid flow for a disk-shaped heat pipe, an in-depth integral analysis is applied. Analytical results for the asymmetric vapor velocity profile, the vapor and liquid pressure distributions, and the vapor temperature distribution in the heat pipe are obtained and compared to those of a rectangular flat-plate heat pipe. The analysis establishes the physics of the process and the intrawick interactions for the disk-shaped heat pipe. The effects of variations in the thicknesses of the vapor channel and the wick as well as the heat pipe on the performance of both disk-shaped and rectangular flat-plate heat pipes are analyzed in detail and compared with each other. The factors limiting heat pipe performance are discussed and the results show that the disk-shaped heat pipe, while utilizing a smaller surface area and being more adaptable to several application areas, significantly increases the heat transfer capability per unit surface area compared to rectangular flat-plate heat pipe. 19 refs., 7 figs.

Vafai, K.; Zhu, N.; Wang, W. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Stress analyses of flat plates with attached nozzles. Vol. 3. Experimental stress analyses of a flat plate with two closely spaced nozzles of equal diameter attached  

SciTech Connect

The complete test results for a flat plate with two closely spaced nozzles attached are presented. Test loadings were 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 biaxial planar tension loadings on the plate, axial thrust loadings applied separately to the nozzles, and bending moment loadings applied to the nozzles both within and normal to the plane of symmetry containing the nozzle axes. The test plate was 36 x 36 x 0.375 in., and the attached nozzles had outer diameters of 2.625 in. and wall thicknesses of 0.250 in. The nozzles were located in the center of the plate with their centers 3.0 in. apart and were considered to be free of weld distortions and irregularities in the junction region. 6 references. (auth)

Bryson, J.W.; Swinson, W.F.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant cooling  

SciTech Connect

The use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are less expensive than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, we studied the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. We found that the thermal coefficient of performance of the cooling system with unglazed collectors was lower than that of the cooling system with glazed collectors because the former system did not use the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. Although the area required for the unglazed collector array was 70% more than that required for the glazed collector array in a 10.56 kW (3 ton) solar cooling system, the cost of the unglazed array was 45% less than the cost of the glazed array. The simple payback period of the unglazed collector was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when replacing an equivalent gas-fired air heater. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors seems to make economic sense relative to use of glazed conventional collectors, some practical considerations may limit their use for desiccant regeneration.

Pesaran, A.A.; Wipke, K.B. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Performance and testing of a stationary concentrating collector. [Compound parabolic concentrators coupled to tubular evacuated receivers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of nonimaging solar collectors for heating and cooling applications is reported. A totally stationary concentrating collector has been designed, built, and tested. The collectors employ compound parabolic concentrators coupled to tubular evacuated receivers. Performance of the collector is substantially better than flat plate collectors, and the collectors are suitable for powering mechanically driven air conditioning systems as well as conventional absorption cycle machines. This collector concept was awarded an IR-100 award by Industrial Research Magazine as one of the 100 most significant new developments in 1977.

Cole, R L; Allen, J W; Levitz, N M; McIntire, W R; Schertz, W W

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Interim qualification tests and procedures for terrestrial photovoltaic thin-film flat-plate modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document provides recommended procedures and specifications for qualification tests that are structured to evaluate terrestrial thin-film flat-plate photovoltaic nonconcentrating modules intended for power generation applications. The qualification tests provided in this document are designed to evaluate flat-plate thin-film photovoltaic (PV) module design performance and susceptibility to known failure mechanisms. Emphasis is placed on testing and evaluating module performance characteristics and design features that will affect possible degradation of module performance and physical properties resulting from solar exposure, environmental weathering, mechanical loading, corrosion, and module shadowing. Because of limited thin-film module field operation experience and the evolutionary nature of new thin-film module material technologies and designs, these tests should not be considered definitive or complete, nor do they provide a basis to predict 30-year field life. Current understanding of failure and degradation mechanisms and the relationship between accelerated tests and field reliability is not sufficient to allow accurate estimation of life-expectancy, nor are the cycling tests given in this document considered to be equivalent to a full 30-year field exposure. However, the test and evaluation procedures given in this document provide a common approach for conducting qualification tests. Acceptable results from these tests should provide reasonable assurance that the modules that pass these tests will perform reliably in the field but for an unspecified period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs.

DeBlasio, R.; Mrig, L.; Waddington, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An evaluation of the thermal characteristics of a flat plate heat pipe spreader was performed through an analytical, numerical, and experimental analysis. The physical system considered was comprised of a high heat flux heat source attached to the center of a flat plate heat pipe, mounted at the base of a plate-finned heat sink and cooled by forced convection. In the analysis, the theoretical maximum operating conditions for the heat pipe are predicted, and it is found that the specific heat pipe configuration would most likely fail based on capillary limitations of the wick structure for conditions typical of electronic cooling applications. The mass and heat transfer processes which contribute to the capillary limitation were considered in theory, and a novel technique which utilizes well-known conventional heat pipe relations for pressure loss was developed to estimate the point of heat pipe failure. In addition, a thermal resistance network was developed in an effort to predict the temperature drop across the heat pipe spreader. Through a separate approach, a numerical model was developed to solve the conjugate problem of heat transfer in the heat pipe/heat sink with turbulent forced convection. In this approach, the heat pipe was modeled as a solid material having a high effective conductivity. Finally, the system was tested experimentally, and the results were compared to the analytical and numerical results. It was found that the capillary limit model over-predicted the measured point of heat pipe failure by several orders of magnitude, and the resistance model under-represented the actual resistance by a factor of 2 to 3. In addition, a change in thermal resistance with power input was discovered during experimentation that was not predicted by the analysis. The numerical model was compared to the experimental results and a relation for the effective conductivity as a function of power input was determined. Complexities associated with the internal heat and mass transfer processes of the flat plate heat pipe spreader were thoroughly discussed and the discrepancies between the experimental and analytical results were examined.

Chesser, Jason Blake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

79

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

80

Heat pipe dynamics. Final report, April 30, 1981. [Uses of heat pipe, especially in solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A heat-pipe flat plate solar collector is constructed like a typical flat plate collector with the exception that individual heat pipes are attached to the collector surface to transfer collected heat via a phase change from collector surface into an attached jacket containing a phase change material. The efficiency of such a collector was measured roughly. Also briefly described are: a heat-pipe heat exchanger, heat-pipe heat exchanger freeze proofing, heat-pipe attic ventilation, transfer of light bulb heat via a heat pipe to heat water, heat recovery via heat pipe, cooling of oil in engines and transmissions via heat pipe, a tracking reflector, automatic sun tracker, single-stroke vacuum pump for heat-pipe manufacture, and heat pipe heat transfer from rock bed. (LEW)

Norman, R.M. Sr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields. Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a theoretical study of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays. Local pressure distributions and total aerodynamic forces on the arrays are shown. Design loads are presented to cover the conditions of array angles relative to the ground from 20/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/, variable array spacings, a ground clearance gap up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and array slant heights of 2.4 m (8 ft) and 4.8 m (16 ft). Several means of alleviating the wind loads on the arrays are detailed. The expected reduction of the steady state wind velocity with the use of fences as a load alleviation device are indicated to be in excess of a factor of three for some conditions. This yields steady state wind load reductions as much as a factor of ten compared to the load incurred if no fence is used to protect the arrays. This steady state wind load reduction is offset by the increase in turbulence due to the fence but still an overall load reduction of 2.5 can be realized. Other load alleviation devices suggested are the installation of air gaps in the arrays, blocking the flow under the arrays and rounding the edges of the array. Included is an outline of a wind tunnel test plan to supplement the theoretical study and to evaluate the load alleviation devices.

Miller, R.; Zimmerman, D.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

Kutscher, C.F. (ed.)

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

New look at long-term collector performance and utilizability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple technique has been developed to calculate monthly collection efficiency or monthly utilizability for solar thermal flat-plate and concentrating generic collectors. It is applicable to collectors operating with a fixed fluid inlet temperature although extensions to other more generalized uses of utilizability are discussed. The heart of the technique consists of empirically determined performance maps that make possible quick evaluations of changes in collector design, geographic location and collector inlet temperature. The collector input variables are those that are commonly measured in most thermal test procedures; geographic input variables are the mean monthly temperature and K/sub T/ (the Liu and Jordan clearness factor). The method, in general, gives good results compared to long term hourly simulation. The technique also allows one to determine under what operating conditions collector performance begins to depend on site-to-site solar radiation/weather variability and what uncertainties can be expected from its use.

Evans, D.L.; Rule, T.T.; Wood, B.D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Enrichment of heavy water in flat-plate thermal diffusion columns of the Frazier scheme inclined for improved performance  

SciTech Connect

A separation theory for the enrichment of heavy water in flat-plate thermal diffusion columns of the Frazier scheme inclined for improved performance has been developed. Equations for the best angle of inclination and maximum separation have been derived. Considerable improvement in separation is obtainable if the columns are inclined at the best angle, so that the convective strength can be properly reduced and controlled, resulting in suppression of the undesirable remixing effect while still preserving the desirable cascading effect.

Ho-Ming Yeh [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Evacuated tubular collector utilizing a heat pipe. Final report, August 1-September 30, 1977  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of three evacuated tubular solar collector designs is reported: heat pipe cusp; counter flow cusp; and counter flow/flat plate. Comparative field testing of 4' x 4' modules was completed for all three designs. Thermal analysis of data shows that the evacuated heat pipe/cusp collector is a viable concept, more suitable for medium to high temperatures and high solar flux intensities.

Ortabasi, U.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evacuated tubular collector utilizing a heat pipe. Final report, August 1-September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The evaluation of three evacuated tubular solar collector designs is reported: heat pipe cusp; counter flow cusp; and counter flow/flat plate. Comparative field testing of 4' x 4' modules was completed for all three designs. Thermal analysis of data shows that the evacuated heat pipe/cusp collector is a viable concept, more suitable for medium to high temperatures and high solar flux intensities.

Ortabasi, U.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermal performance evaluation of the solargenics solar collector at outdoor conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information contained within this report presents test procedures used during the performance of an evaluation program. The test program was conducted to obtain the following performance data and information on the solar collector. (1) Thermal performance data under outdoor conditions, (2) Structural behavior of collector under static conditions, and (3) Effects of long term exposure to material weathering elements. The Solargenics is a liquid, single-glazed, flat-plate collector. Approximate dimensions of each collector are 240 inches long, 36 inches wide, and 3.5 inches in depth.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Contoured insulation window for evacuated solar collector  

SciTech Connect

An insulating contoured window is provided for use with an enclosed chamber such as an evacuated flat plate solar heat collector with the contoured solar window being of minimum thickness and supported solely about its peripheral edge portions. The window is contoured in both its longitudinal and transverse directions, such that in its longitudinal direction the window is composed of a plurality of sinusoidal corrugations whereas in its transverse direction the peaks of such corrugations are contoured in the form of paraboloids so that the structure may withstand the forces generated thereon by the atmosphere.

Coppola, F. T.; Lentz, W. P.; Vandewoestine, R. V.

1980-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

Neeper, D.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a week function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

Neeper, D.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

Not Available

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Radiation Incident on Tilted Collectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For solar energy system design purposes, observations of solar radiation on a horizontal surface must be converted to values on a tilted energy collector. An empirical conversion relationship, introduced by Liu and Jordan (1960) and based on ...

P. J. Robinson

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Development of high efficiency collector plates. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Composite metal technology was used to manufacture intermetallic compound (IC) absorption surfaces and to combine them integrally with composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates. Five material systems in which Al was one component metal and Fe, Cr, or Ni and their alloy was the other pair, were evaluated. All intermetallic compounds had high solar absorptance ..cap alpha.. approx. = 0.9. The AlNi was most promising and ..cap alpha.. > or = 0.95 and epsilon approx. = 0.3 were obtained over a broad range of compounding conditions. After eight months exposure in a flat plate collector enclosure the characteristic properties of AlNi surfaces remained virtually unchanged. Only LCS/Cu composite metal tube-in-sheet collector plates could be manufactured successfully. The technical difficulties associated with integrating the intermetallic compound and tube-in-sheet technologies make the manufacturing of composite metal collector plates at the time being economically unfeasible.

Santala, T.; Sabol, R.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Comparison of Energy Production and Performance from Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Technologies Deployed at Fixed Tilt: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the performance data for 14 photovoltaic modules deployed at fixed-latitude tilt in the field are presented and compared. Module performance is monitored continuously for optimum power characteristics. Flat-plate module technologies representative of crystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon, and cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide, are scrutinized for energy production, effective efficiency and performance ratio-ratio of effective to reference efficiency. Most performance ratios exhibit seasonal fluctuations largely correlated to air or module temperatures, varying between 80% and 100%. These ratios tend toward larger values during winter and vise versa, except for amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride modules. In a-Si cases, the situation appears reversed: better performance ratios are exhibited during late summer. The effective efficiency and average daily and yearly energy production are analyzed and quantified.

del Cueto, J. A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Evaluation of high performance evacuated tubular collectors in a residential heating and cooling system: Colorado State University Solar House I. Report for October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CSU Solar House I is configured with a prototype Corning evacuated tubular collector and a new Arkla lithium bromide water chiller designed for solar operation. Data have been collected for this configuration since January 1977. Prior to that time and since mid-1974, Solar House I has operated with a flat-plate collector and a previous Arkla LiBr air conditioner modified to operate in the lower solar temperature ranges. Project objectives were to develop an operating and control system for the new configuration and to compare the performance of the new residential solar heating, cooling, and hot water system with performance of the previous system. Many problems were encountered in the evolution of the operating and control systems due to the different operating characteristics of evacuated tubular collectors, such as their rapid thermal response and the possibility of much higher temperatures as compared to a flat-plate collector.

Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Heat collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

Merrigan, M.A.

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Thermal performance evaluation of the Calmac (liquid) solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Calmac Manufacturing Company, S.N.1, (Liquid) Solar Collector are presented. The flat-plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is aluminum with plastic tubes coated with Urethane black. The glazing consists of a single .040'' Fiberglas reinforced polyester (Kalwall). The collector weight is 78.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 50.3'' x 98.3'' x 3.8''. The test program was conducted to obtain the following information: Thermal performance data under simulated conditions, structural behavior under static loading and the effects of long-term exposure to natural weathering. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

Usher, H.

1978-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

On second-law efficiency of solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Traditionally, the performance of solar collectors has been examined from the standpoint of energy-balance approach (Hahne, 1985; Francy et al., 1985; Lund, 1985; Satyamurty, 1985; Proctor, 1984a; Proctor; 1984b; Proctor, 1984c). It is important to note that this approach gives a very poor indication of how well a particular energy resource is being utilized by a given system to accomplish a specific objective. For example, it is difficult to examine the performance of solar thermal collectors versus solar-photovoltaic panels, strictly based on the first law of thermodynamics. A photovoltaic panel having ten percent first-law efficiency may be better than a solar collector converting 50 percent of useful energy by raising the water temperature from 30 to 50 C. Thus, it has been necessary to resort to the second law of thermodynamics for evaluation of solar systems, particularly collection devices. The second-law efficiency addresses the quality of energy. The quality of energy may be defined as its available portion; that portion which may be used for producing shaft work. It is important to note that the energy be conserved, but the manner in which energy is used must be examined. To use high quality energy for low-quality energy tasks is wasteful. This type of indication can only be examined from the second-law point of view. In this paper, measurements obtained from an experimental solar collector test facility are presented. Analysis of the performance of two flat-plate thermal solar collectors and one photovoltaic panel are analyzed based on both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The measurements presented, indicate very low second-law efficiency (maximum of 17 percent for photovoltaic panel and 11 percent for solar thermal flat-plate collectors), but are merely used as a vehicle for discussion.

Said, S.A.M.; Zubair, S.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Analysis of heat-pipe absorbers in evacuated-tube solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer in evacuated-tube solar collectors with heat-pipe absorbers is compared with that for similar collectors with flow-through absorbers. In systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids, the heat-pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow-through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat-pipe condenser and system manifold. The heat transfer penalty decreases with decreasing collector heat loss coefficient, suggesting that evacuated tubes with optical concentration are more appropriate for use with heat pipes than evacuated or nonevacuated flat-plate collectors. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat-pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow-through absorbers.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.; Allen, J.W.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Analysis and experimental tests of a high-performance evacuated tubular collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A high-performance collector based on the use of all-glass, evacuated tubular collector elements is described and analyzed, and supporting experimental data presented. The collector operates with excellent efficiency at temperatures high enough to drive existing air conditioning units, and shows good performance under diffuse light and low insolation conditions. collector efficiency is insensitive to operating temperature, ambient temperature, and wind speed. In addition, air as well as liquid can be used as the heat transfer fluid, with no significant performance penalty. While the equations governing the useful energy produced can be cast in a form similar to that for flat plate collectors, several important parameters are unique in a number of respects.

Beekley, D.C.; Mather, G.R. Jr.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Optimum plate-spacing for the best performance of the enrichment of heavy water in flat-plate thermal-diffusion columns of the Frazier scheme  

SciTech Connect

The effect of plate spacing on the degree of separation and production rate for the enrichment of heavy water in flat-plate thermal diffusion columns of the Frazier scheme with fixed operating expense has been investigated. The equations for estimating optimum plate-space for maximum separation and for maximum production rate have been developed. Considerable improvement in performance is obtainable when thermal diffusion columns with optimum plate-spacing are employed for operation.

Ho-Ming Yeh [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978. [CSU Solar House 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar House I, the first residential solar system test facility at the Colorado State University, is described. Provision was made for the removal and replacement of the various subsystems so that the facility could be utilized to evaluate other residential size solar components and systems. Two evacuated tube collectors and one flat plate collector were evaluated. The operations history, system performance, performance assessment, and comparison with model are included. (MHR)

Loef, G.O.G.; Duff, W.S.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Solar collector with altitude tracking  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

Barak, Amitzur Z. (Chicago, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Investigation Of The Friction Factor Behavior for Flat Plate Tests Of Smooth And Roughened Surfaces With Supply Pressures Up To 84 Bars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annular gas seal clearances were simulated with closely spaced parallel plates using a Flat?Plate tester. The device is designed to measure the pressure gradient along the test specimen. The main function of the Flat?Plate tester is to provide friction factor data and measure dynamic pressure oscillations. A detailed description of the test facility is described, and a theory for determining the friction factor is reviewed. Three clearances were investigated: 0.635, 0.381, and 0.254 mm. Tests were conducted at three different inlet pressures (84, 70, and 55 bars), producing Reynolds numbers range from 50,000 to 700,000. Three surface configurations were tested including smooth?on-smooth, smooth?on?hole, and hole?on?hole. The Hole?pattern plates are identical with the exception of the hole depth. The results indicate that, for the smooth?on?smooth and smooth?on?hole configurations, the friction factor remains constant or increases slightly with increasing Reynolds numbers. Moreover, the friction factor increases as the clearance between the plates increases. However, the results from the hole?on-hole configurations are quite different. A "friction?factor jump" phenomenon was observed, and the Helmholtz frequency was detected on the frequency spectra.

Kheireddin, Bassem A.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Double-duty collector  

SciTech Connect

The design of a liquid solar collector that helps heat an indoor pool and household water is described. Collector design and specifications and installation of the collector are discussed.

Hill, L.; Yates, D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

External reflectors for large solar collector arrays, simulation model and experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A model for the calculation of incident solar radiation from flat-and CPC-shaped external reflectors onto flat plate solar collector arrays has been developed. Assuming an infinite length of the collector/reflector rows, the basic calculations of incident radiation in the collector plane from the reflector become very simple. The direct radiation from the sun is projected into a vertical plane perpendicular to the collector and reflector plane. The incident radiation onto the collector, including corrections for shadowing and lost radiation above the collector, can then be calculated using 2-D geometry. For very short collector/reflector rows a 3-D model is given for correction for the loss of specular radiation in the east west direction. The diffuse radiation is assumed to be isotropic. The diffuse radiation in the collector plane is calculated using view factors. CPC-shaped reflectors can be treated with the same models by introducing an equivalent flat reflector. The incidence angle for the solar radiation from the reflector onto the collector is in most cases higher than the incidence angle for the radiation directly from the sun. Therefore the incidence angle characteristics of the collector glazing and absorber become more important in this application. Equations are given for the incidence angles for diffuse and beam radiation. An annual performance increase of over 30%, 100-120 kW h/m[sup 2], has been measured for aged (four operating seasons) flat reflectors in the Swedish climate. With a CPC-shaped reflector and new reflector materials, a performance increase of up to 170 kW h/m[sup 2] is not unrealistic. This means that the collector and ground area requirement can be reduced by more than 30% for a given load.

Perers, B.; Karlsson, B. (Vattenfall Utveckling, Aelvkarleby (Sweden))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Wind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of wind heat transfer coefficient, h{sub w}, is required for estimation of upward losses from the outer surface of flat plate solar collectors/solar cookers. In present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the wind induced convective heat transfer coefficient by employing unglazed test plate (of size about 0.9 m square) in outdoor conditions. Experiments, for measurement of h{sub w}, have been conducted on rooftop of a building in the Institute campus in summer season for 2 years. The estimated wind heat transfer coefficient has been correlated against wind speed by linear regression and power regression. Experimental values of wind heat transfer coefficient estimated in present work have been compared with studies of other researchers after normalizing for plate length. (author)

Kumar, Suresh; Mullick, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tube solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. The progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two types of evacuated tube solar collectors have been operated in space heating, cooling and domestic hot water heating systems in Colorado State University Solar House I. An experimental collector from Corning Glass Works supplied heat to the system from January 1977 through February 1978, and an experimental collector from Philips Research Laboratory, Aachen, which is currently in use, has been operating since August 1978. A flat absorber plate inside a single-walled glass tube is used in the Corning design, whereas heat is conducted through a single glass wall to an external heat exchanger plate in the Philips collector. In comparison with conventional flat-plate collectors, both types show reduced heat losses and improved efficiency. For space heating and hot water supply in winter, the solar delivery efficiency of the Corning collector ranged from 49% to 60% of the incident solar energy. The portion of the space heating and domestic hot water load carried by solar energy through fall and winter ranged from 50% to 74%, with a four-month contribution of 61% of the total requirements. Data on the Philips collector are currently being analyzed.

Conway, T.M.; Duff, W.S.; Lof, G.O.G.; Pratt, R.G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Solar air collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heating system including a radiant heat collector apparatus made up of an enclosure having glazed panels. The collector provided within the enclosure is upstanding with the enclosure and the collector has heat absorbent flat walls spaced inwardly from the glazed panels. A heat storage core is provided centrally within the collector and spaced from the walls of the collector. The heat storage core includes an insulated housing and a heat retaining member within the insulated housing. Air passageways are formed between the collector walls and the insulated housing for passing input air, and duct members are provided for communicating with a household.

Deschenes, D.; Misrahi, E.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Collector research and development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current solar collector research of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The document is divided into three sections dealing with the three aspects of the program: reliability and maintainability, optical materials, and evacuated tube collector testing.

Neeper, D.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Evaluation of the Corning and Philips evacuated tubular collectors in a residential solar heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 May 1976--1 December 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Applications Laboratory of Colorado State University has completed the design, construction, and installation of a complete set of evacuated tubular collectors on a test bed behind Solar House I. The collectors, the Corning evacuated tube collector (December 16, 1976 to December 31, 1977) and the Philips evacuated tube collector (January 16, 1978 to January 31, 1979) are being used sequentially to operate the heating and cooling system of Solar House I. Data are being collected over an entire heating and cooling season and analyses are being performed on these data to provide an evaluation of the two new collectors and comparison with the present conventional collector as part of a residential heating and cooling system that is otherwise identical in every way. This project is significant for several reasons. First, the two high performance collectors operate in conjunction with an advanced ARKLA lithium bromide water chiller. This cooling unit is designed specifically for operation with solar energy systems. For comparative purposes the advanced ARKLA unit will be available for use with the existing conventional flat-plate collector. In addition, comparisons of operating data are being made with Solar Houses II and III, adjacent to Solar House I. Solar Houses II and III have the same thermal load characteristics as Solar House I, but have different solar heating and cooling systems. House II has an air heating collector and pebble-bed storage. House III has an evacuated tube solar collector, and is also coupled with an advanced absorption water chiller unit. The comparative analysis under the same load conditions, provides an exceptional opportunity in evaluating the relative merits of the new collector systems.

Duff, W.S.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Internal absorber solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Solar energy collector  

SciTech Connect

An evacuated solar collector receives impinging solar radiation of varying intensity and converts the same into useful thermal energy in a selected working range of the ambience. The collector has absorber and window surfaces selectively coated for rendering the conversion of solar radiation to useful thermal energy more efficient by increasing absorption, reducing reradiation, and in certain cases may include at least one electrically conductive coating on the solar window which is capable of carrying an electric current, for suppressing snow accumulation thereon.

Kenny, N.S.

1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

118

Biological sample collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

Murphy, Gloria A. (French Camp, CA)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Standard for solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this standard is to estabish for solar collectors: definitions; requirements for testing and rating; specifications, literature and advertising requirements; requirements for marking; requirements for safety; and conformance conditions. This standard is intended for the guidance of the industry including manufacturers, engineers, distributors, installers, contractors, and consumers. This standard applies to factory-made solar collectors using either air or a liquid as the heat transfer fluid for one or more of the following purposes: a) heating service water or other fluids and b) heating or cooling of buildings.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

HALOGEN COLLECTOR TEST PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Efficiency tests of removal of radioactive iodine from an air stream were performed on the following halogen collectors: a silver-plated copper-ribbon bed: activatedcharcoal beds, 0.5 and l.0 in. deep: a molecular-sieve bed; and a sodium thiosulfate bed. The tests were conducted at 70 and 160 deg F and at 70 and 95% relative humidity. Only the activated-charcoal collectors achieved a high iodineremoval efficiency over a sustained period at the various operating conditions. (C.J.G.)

1960-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Structurally integrated steel solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

Moore, S.W.

1975-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

122

Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

1980-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solar energy collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

Brin, Raymond L. (Cedar Crest, NM); Pace, Thomas L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Solar collector assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

Murphy, J.A.

1980-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

125

Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors with compound parabolic concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The intermediate range of concentration ratios (1.5X-10X) which can be achieved with CPC's without diurnal tracking provides both economic and thermal advantages for solar collector design even when used with non-evacuated absorbers. The present paper summarizes more than 3 years of research on non-evacuated CPC's and reviews measured performance data and critical design considerations. Concentrations in the upper portions of the practical range (e.g. 6X) can provide good efficiency (40% to 50%) in the 100/sup 0/C to 160/sup 0/C temperature range with relatively frequent tilt adjustments (12 to 20 times per year). At lower concentrations (e.g. 3X) performance will still be substantially better than that for a double glazed flat plate collector above about 70/sup 0/C and competitive below, while requiring only semi-annual adjustments for year round operation. In both cases the cost savings associated with inexpensive reflectors, and the optimal coupling to smaller, simple inexpensive absorbers (e.g. tubes, fins, etc.) can be as important an advantage as the improved thermal performance.

Rabl, A.; O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Isothermal process solar collector panel  

SciTech Connect

An isothermal process solar collector panel is disclosed. The panel includes a collector plate for absorbing radiant heat; and a plurality of isothermal process heat pipes in an array over a surface of the collector plate. Each heat pipe is closed at both ends and contains thermodynamic working fluid for transferring heat energy from the collector plate to a second fluid fowing through a manifold pipe for conducting the heat energy from the collector panel. The manifold pipe is coupled to the collector plate and has an evaporator section wherein heat energy is transferred from the collector plate to the thermodynamic working fluid; and the other end of each heat pipe is positioned within the manifold pipe ad has a condenser section wherein heat energy is transferred from the thermodynamic working fluid to the second fluid flowing through the manifold pipe.

Watt, R.E.

1978-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

127

Parabolic concentrating collector: a tutorial  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tutorial overview of point-focusing parabolic collectors is presented. Optical and thermal characteristics of such collectors are discussed. Data representing typical achievable collector efficiencies are presented and the importance of balancing collector cost with concentrator quality is argued through the development of a figure of merit for the collector. The impact of receiver temperature on performance is assessed and the general observation made that temperatures much in excess of 1500 to 2000/sup 0/F can actually result in decreased performance. Various types of two-axis tracking collectors are described, including the standard parabolic deep dish, Cassegrainian and Fresnel, as well as two forms of fixed mirrors with articulating receivers. The present DOE program to develop these devices is briefly discussed, as are present and projected costs for these collectors. Pricing information is presented for the only known commercial design available on the open market.

Truscello, V.C.

1979-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Comparative performance of two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, October 1 1977-September 30 1978 (including 1974-1977 operating results comparisons)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been operated in space heating, cooling, and domestic hot water heating systems in Colorado State University Solar House I. An experimental collector from Corning Glass works supplied heat to the system from January 1977 through February 1978, and an experimental collector from the Phillips Research Laboratory, Aachen, which is currently in use, has been operating since August 1978. A flat absorber plate inside a single-walled glass tube is used in the Corning design, whereas heat is conducted through a single glass wall to an external heat exchanger plate in the Philips collector. The respective aperture areas are 50.0 m/sup 2/ and 44.7 m/sup 2/. Since system designs and conditions of operation were not identical, efficiencies and energy deliveries of the two evacuated tubular collectors should not be compared without recognition of these factors. But in comparison with conventional flat plate collectors, both types show substantially reduced heat losses and improved efficiency.

Loef, G.O.G.; Duff, W.S.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Solar heat collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar heat collector is described that pre-heats water for a household hot water heating system, and also heats the air inside a house. The device includes solar heating panels set into an A-shape, and enclosing an area therein containing a water tank and a wristatic fan that utilize the heat of the enclosed air, and transmit the thermal energy therefrom through a water line and an air line into the house.

Sykes, A.B.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Turning collectors for solar radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

Barak, Amitzur Z. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Solar collector manufacturing activity 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report presents national and State-level data on the U.S. solar thermal collector and photovoltaic cell and module manufacturing industry.

Not Available

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Collector: storage wall systems  

SciTech Connect

Passive Trombe wall systems require massive masonry walls to minimize large temperature swings and movable night insulation to prevent excessive night heat losses. As a solar energy collection system, Trombe wall systems have low efficiencies because of the nature of the wall and, if auxiliary heat is needed, because of absorption of this heat. Separation of collector and storage functions markedly improves the efficiency. A simple fiberglass absorber can provide high efficiency while phase change storage provides a compact storage unit. The need for movable insulation is obviated.

Boardman, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Double-exposure collector system. Technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A retrofit solar water-heating system has been installed in a three-story apartment building at Drexel University. The system employs two conventional collector banks (10 PPG collectors) mounted at the latitude angle for Philadelphia of 40 deg from the horizontal and two double-exposure collectors (DEC's) mounted vertically in mirrored enclosures. Although the DEC units are being used for year-round domestic water heating for the building, they are designed to provide maximum output in the winter and are therefore well-suited to solar space heating applications. Instrumentation for testing the two types of collectors has been operating in the apartment building for some time. Summer performance data have been obtained which indicate that, at a minimum, the DEC units will provide twice as much useful heat output per panel as conventional collectors. In addition some results for an overcast day showed that comparable relative performance could be expected on these days.

Larson, D C; Savery, C W

1979-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Transparent solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

Infrared solar radiation is absorbed by a transparent converter glass for conversion of the infrared radiation into thermal energy. Liquid or air forms a transparent fluid medium that is conducted into heat transfer contact with the glass to carry the thermal energy away from the glass to a point of utilization. In one embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of sintered particles of infrared absorptive glass located within a collector space formed within an all-glass panel. The panel includes glass walls extending outwardly of the walls forming the collector space. In a further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of elongated strips of infrared absorptive glass carried by support members so that the strips extend in a parallel, spaced-apart relation to form a venetian blind-like structure between glass panels. In a still further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of a slab of infrared absorptive glass extending vertically within a building structure to form a passageway for the flow of convectivelydriven air between the glass slab and two window panels forming a dry airspace therebetween. Instead of a thick unitary glass slab, smaller bricks of infrared absorptive glass are arranged to form courses of an internal wall within a building structure adjacent a glass window.

Deminet, C.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

135

Integrated solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

Tchernev, Dimiter I. (9 Woodman Rd., Chestnut Hill, MA 02167)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

137

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

138

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

is usually at an angle that is less than optimal. Therefore, fixed arrays collect less energy per unit area of array than tracking arrays. However, this drawback must be balanced...

139

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have...

140

Concentrating solar collector: technical note  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Acurex Model 3002 concentrator is a reflecting parabolic trough collector designed to heat liquids or gases to temperatures between 140/sup 0/F and 350/sup 0/F. The cost effectiveness, performance, reliability, and technical description of the collector are presented.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Interactions and Implications of a Collector Well with a River in an Unconfined Aquifer with Regional Background Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ranney radial collector wells consist of an array of horizontal lateral wells arranged radially around and connected to the base of a vertical well. They offer numerous advantages over traditional vertical wells with application in both the petroleum industry and hydrologic sciences. This study improved the understanding of the interaction of collector wells and the aquifers/reservoirs they tap by numerically modeling flux exchanges between a collector well and a river in an unconfined aquifer with regional background flow. Modeling demonstrated that flux along each horizontal lateral increased with distance from the vertical well stem following a third order polynomial function. Ultimately these models demonstrated that in the collector well/aquifer/river system, the pumping rate of the collector well was the dominant factor in controlling flux between the river and aquifer under various conditions. This study can be used to project the maximum allowable pumping rate without causing an initially gaining river to become a losing river.

Dugat, William D., IV

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar heat collector comprises an evacuated transparent pipe; a solar heat collection plate disposed in the transparent pipe; a heat pipe, disposed in the transparent pipe so as to contact with the solar heat collection plate, and containing an evaporable working liquid therein; a heat medium pipe containing a heat medium to be heated; a heat releasing member extending along the axis of the heat medium pipe and having thin fin portions extending from the axis to the inner surface of the heat medium pipe; and a cylindrical casing surrounding coaxially the heat medium pipe to provide an annular space which communicates with the heat pipe. The evaporable working liquid evaporates, receiving solar heat collected by the heat collection plate. The resultant vapor heats the heat medium through the heat medium pipe and the heat releasing member.

Yamamoto, T.; Imani, K.; Sumida, I.; Tsukamoto, M.; Watahiki, N.

1984-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

143

Solar energy collector  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector is disclosed herein which comprises a pipe interconnecting lower and upper headers, the upper header structurally supporting the pipe. The pipe extends within an opening in the lower header and includes an exterior shoulder which rests upon the lower header. The other end of the pipe includes an exterior shoulder, the pipe extending into an opening in the upper header. A spring rests on the shoulder on the upper end of the pipe and holds a combination bearing and fluid seal against the upper header. A parabolic reflector is supported by the pipe, and a fluid is movable through the pipe from one header to the other for receiving the solar energy focused upon the pipe by the reflector. The pipe is operable to rotate to direct the reflector toward the sun.

Yoke, J.H.

1978-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

144

AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

2007-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

CPC thermal collector test plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive set of test procedures has evolved at Argonne National Laboratory for establishing the performance of compound parabolic and related concentrating thermal collectors with large angular fields of view. The procedures range from separate thermal and optical tests, to overall performance tests. A calorimetric ratio technique has been developed to determine the heat output of a collector without knowledge of the heat transfer fluid's mass flow rate and heat capacity. Sepcial attention is paid to the problem of defining and measuring the incident solar flux with respect to which the collector efficiency is to be calculated.

Reed, K A

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

Kinoshita, G.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

Abright, B.L.

1982-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design package for concentrating solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information used to evaluate the design of the Northrup concentrating collector is presented. Included are the system performance specifications, the applications manual, and the detailed design drawings of the collector. The Northrup concentrating solar collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, fiber glass insulation and weighs 98 pounds. The gross collector area is about 29.4/sup 2/ per collector. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Radiant energy collector. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses.

McIntire, W.R.

1980-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

150

Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

Not Available

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Performance characteristics of open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator for solar cooling applications. Part I: two dimensional analysis of heat and mass transfer for open flow over rough inclined surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work presents an analytical approach to simulate the combined heat and mass transfer on the interface between wetted collector surface and ambient air. Emphasis was placed on the development of a mathematical model of turbulent natural convection on an inclined rough plate. The effect of surface velocity is also considered. The systems of partial differential equations governing fluid motion, heat and mass transfer along an inclined flat plate were formulated in terms of vorticity transport and stream function equations. One-equation model of turbulence was used to compute the turbulent viscosity. The length scale used in this model was expressed algebraically in terms of the mixing length. A length scale modified function was derived to take into account the bouyancy effects on turbulence. The effect of surface roughness was taken into a account by introducing a characteristic roughness length. A computational technique was developed to solve the resulting elliptic partial differential equations. This technique involved an 'inflow-outflow' scheme to determine the free boundary conditions at the leading and trailing edges of the inclined plate. The validity of this computational technique was tested and confirmed by some testing problems. Among these are (1) laminar natural convection on an inclined isothermal plate (2) turbulent natural convection on a vertical isothermal plate and (3) turbulent natural convection on an inclined constant heat flux flat plate.

Not Available

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

OpenEI - solar radiation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/500 (Abstract):  Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America,
and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose):  Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the

155

Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air-cooled and suitable for use with flat plate or higher-temperature collectors. Operation of the controls test facility and computer modeling of collector loop and building load dynamics are yielding quantitative evaluations of the performance of different control strategies for active solar-heating systems. Research is continuing on ''passive'' approaches to solar heating and cooling, where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs which are in the public domain. The resulting passive analysis capabilities are used in systems studies leading to design tools and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat-storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, and would then provide ''coolness'' to the building. Laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Active Heating and Cooling Division and the Passive and Hybrid Division of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low-grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the ''shape-memory'' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources, such as solar-heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central

Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

2005-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

156

Orientation of stationary axial collectors  

SciTech Connect

Attention is drawn to the fact that stationary solar collectors with axial symmetry have a third degree of freedom which must be considered, in addition to their azimuth and tilt angles, if their orientation is to be optimized on an annual or seasonal basis. The authors set up the equations needed to describe collector orientation in terms of all angles, including this extra degree of freedom which they refer to as skewness. Examples of the use of these equations are then given, both for northern and southern latitudes, which illustrate the manner in which skewness may be taken into consideration and highlight the importance of doing this. For the sake of simplicity the illustrative examples treat only the direct beam component of the total insolation intercepted by the collector.

Faiman, D.; Mills, D.R. (Sydney Univ., New South Wales (Australia))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

A mark-and-sweep collector C++  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our research is concerned with compiler-independent, tag-free garbage collection for the C++ programming language. We have previously presented a copying collector based on root registration. This paper presents a mark-and-sweep garbage collector that ...

Daniel R. Edelson

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Test results of early photovoltaic concentrating collectors  

SciTech Connect

Several passively and actively cooled photovoltaic concentrating collectors built during the period 1976 to 1979 have been tested. The tests provide information on the performance characteristics of these collectors. The results of the tests are summarized.

Gerwin, H.J.; Pritchard, D.A.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Collector efficiency of the double-pass solar air collectors with fins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The experimental study on a forced-convective double-pass solar air collector with fins in the second channel has been conducted. The experiments were conducted by changing the parameters that influence the thermal efficiency of the collector. The efficiency ... Keywords: collector efficiency, double-pass solar air collector, fins absorbers

A. Fudholi; M. H. Ruslan; M. Y. Othman; M. Yahya; Supranto Supranto; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, ... Special collectors are evacuated tube ...

162

Experimental parabolic trough collector performance characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental data from the Collector Module Test Facility (CMTF) at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, are used to develop a collector performance model and characterize three parabolic trough solar collectors. The independent variables used in the model are selected and fitted to the experimental data using a multiple linear regression technique. The collector model developed accounts for optical performance, including incident angle effects and thermal losses, both linear and non-linear.

Lukens, L.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Solar Buildings: Transpired Air Collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transpired air collectors preheat building ventilation air by using the building's ventilation fan to draw fresh air through the system. The intake air is heated as it passes through the perforated absorber plate and up the plenum between the absorber and the south wall of the building. Reduced heating costs will pay for the systems in 3--12 years.

NONE

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Steam generation in compound parabolic concentrator collectors  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the advantages of generating steam directly in a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) collector rather than using a heat-transfer fluid and a secondary heat exchanger. The predicted performance advantages from generating steam directly in CPC collectors are significant, and that performance has ben verified using a collector built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. The collector and the method used to test its operation in a steam-generating mode are described. Test results are included for a 6.4-m/sup 2/ array of evacuated tube collectors with an advanced absorber coating, silver reflectors, and tubes oriented in a north-south configuration. Also described are the test methods and results for indoor testing for heat loss by the collectors and outdoor testing of their instantaneous optical efficiency.

Allen, J.W.; Schertz, W.W.; Wantroba, A.S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Installation package for Sunpak solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Owens-Illinois, Inc., has developed a subsystem (air/liquid vacuum collector) for use with solar combined heating and cooling subsystems. The Model SEC-601 collector is modular in design, is approximately twelve-feet-three-inches wide and is eight-feet-seven-inches high. The module contains 72 collector tube elements and weighs approximately 300 pounds. The Installation, Operating, and Maintenance Instructions, List of Materials and the Assembly Drawing are presented.

Not Available

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Alignment method for solar collector arrays - Energy ...  

The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising ...

167

The Relationship of Collectors and Periodic Table  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Chemical Element (IV)The Relationship of Collectors and Periodic Table of ..... One Dimensional Multiferroic Nanomaterials/Nanocomposites for Solar...

168

Performance of a parabolic trough solar collector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs) constitute a proven source of thermal energy for industrial process heat and power generation, although their implementation has been strongly (more)

Brooks, Michael John

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

A solar concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis discusses aspects of a novel solar concentrating photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector that has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water. (more)

Coventry, Joseph S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: RadOnCol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

project involving flat plate collectors. Might also be of interest to solar engineers, solar installers. Input Local Latitude, altitude, and azimuth and tilt of collector....

171

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Geographic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

crops. Lower 48 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Collectors 40km Reslution These datasets provide solar radiation values for common flat-plate and concentrating collectors for 239 stations...

172

Power Electronics Design Implications of Novel Photovoltaic Collector Geometries and Their Application for Increased Energy Harvest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The declining cost of photovoltaic (PV) modules has enabled the vision of ubiquitous photovoltaic (PV) power to become feasible. Emerging PV technologies are facilitating the creation of intentionally non-flat PV modules, which create new applications for this sustainable energy generation currently not possible with the traditional rigid, flat silicon-glass modules. However, since the photovoltaic cells are no longer coplanar, there are significant new requirements for the power electronics necessary to convert the native form of electricity into a usable form and ensure maximum energy harvest. Non-uniform insolation from cell-to-cell gives rise to non-uniform current density in the PV material, which limits the ability to create series-connected cells without bypass diode or other ways to shunt current, which is well known in the maximum power tracking literature. This thesis presents a modeling approach to determine and quantify the variations in generation of energy due to intentionally non-flat PV geometries. This will enable the power electronics circuitry to be optimized to harvest maximum energy from PV pixel elements clusters of PV cells with similar operating characteristics. This thesis systematically compares different geometries with identical two-dimensional projection "footprints" for energy harvest throughout the day. The results show that for the same footprint, a semi-cylindrical surface harvests more energy over a typical day than a flat plate. The modeling approach is then extended to demonstrate that by using non flat geometries for PV panel, the availability of a remotely located stand-alone power system can be increased when compared to a flat panel of same footprint. These results have broad application to a variety of energy scavenging scenarios in which either total energy harvested needs to be maximized or unusual geometries for the PV active surfaces are required, including building-integrated PV. This thesis develops the analysis of the potential energy harvest gain for advanced non-planar PV collectors as a necessary first step towards the design of the power electronics circuits and control algorithms to take advantage of the new opportunities of conformal and non-flat PV collectors.

Karavadi, Amulya

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

SunShot Initiative: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors on...

174

Wind loads on heliostats and parabolic dish collectors: Final subcontractor report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major intent of this study was to define wind load reduction factors for parabolic dish solar collectors within a field protected by upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other blockages. This information will help researchers improve the economy of parabolic collector support structures and drive mechanisms. The method used in the study was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind tunnel. A second objective of the study was to confirm and document a sensitivity in load to level of turbulence, or gustiness, in the approaching wind. A key finding was that wind-load reduction factors for forces (horizontal and vertical) were roughly similar to those for flat heliostats, with some forces significantly less than those for flat shapes. However, load reductions for moments showed a smaller load reduction, particularly for the azimuth moment. The lack of load reduction could be attributed to collector shape, but specific flow features responsible for and methods to induce a load reduction were not explored. 62 figs., 13 tabs.

Peterka, J.A.; Tan, Z.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Solar collector with improved thermal concentration  

SciTech Connect

Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

Barak, Amitzur Z. (Chicago, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Solar collector and heat and cold generator  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a collector designed and positioned for installations within a predetermined range of latitudes without modification of collector position, construction, or tracking the sun's movement, and comprises a generator of hot or cold fluid by solar energy collection during the day to heat the fluid and/or chilling of the fluid at nocturnal nighttime.

Risser, J.A.

1982-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

178

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon) Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon) Eligibility Agricultural Industrial Savings For Bioenergy Biofuels Alternative...

179

Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

8 Medium-temperature collectors are solar thermal ... Special collectors are evacuated tube ... data are for the industrial sector and independent pow ...

180

A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector  

SciTech Connect

Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Maisonneuve W., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Northrup, Inc., has developed and delivered 300 square feet of Concentrating Solar Collector (ML Series) and Attitude Control System, under the direction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ''ML Series'' Solar Collector Panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel Prismatic Lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ration, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, in unassembled components for field erection. The Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual, Warranty, List of Materials, Sub-Assembly drawings and Final Field Assembly Drawings are included in the package.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Engineering design construction and testing of a salt-water absorption unit optimized for use with a solar collector heat source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of a 3 ton direct evaporatively cooled LiBr chiller and the construction of three operable field test units suitable for use with flat plate collectors is reported. Compared to conventional LiBr chillers using shell and tube heat exchangers and a separate cooling tower this approach aims to reduce first cost, installation cost and parasitic power. The unit is packaged into a size approximately 94 cm square and 2 meters tall. It produces 7.2/sup 0/C (45F) chilled water with a .72 COP when fired with 89.4/sup 0/C (193F) hot water while rejecting heat to 25.6/sup 0/C (78F) wb ambient air. Power to operate the condenser fan, solution pump and surface wetting pump is 450 watts. This unit deals with water freezing by making the sump and wetting pump freeze resistant so that seasonal draining is not required. Low heat flux through the wetted surfaces yields performance insensitivity to the accumulation of scale.

Ferguson, T.; Merrick, R.H.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren ?stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre within the project "Connectable solar air collector/PVT collector" (Sammenkoblelig luftsolfanger

184

Cogenerating Photovoltaic and Thermal Solar Collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat US Department of Energy: Parabolic Trough SpectroLab Concentrating Terrestrial PV Cell C1MJ CDO peak load and irradiance hours of the day #12;Design · Parabolic solar collector · GaAs PV cells

Eirinaki, Magdalini

185

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass. The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

186

Horizontal Plate Plate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Horizontal Plate Plate Horizontal Plate Plate Metadata also available as Metadata: Identification_Information Data_Quality_Information Spatial_Data_Organization_Information Spatial_Reference_Information Entity_and_Attribute_Information Distribution_Information Metadata_Reference_Information Identification_Information: Citation: Citation_Information: Originator: Ray George Publication_Date: Unknown Title: Horizontal Plate Plate Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data Online_Linkage: Description: Abstract: Monthly and annual average solar resource potential for the lower 48 states Purpose: Provide information on the solar resource potential for the lower 48

187

Nonlinear Horizontal Diffusion for GCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixing-length-based parameterization of horizontal diffusion, which was originally proposed by Smagorinsky, is revisited. The complete tendencies of horizontal momentum diffusion, the associated frictional heating, and horizontal diffusion of ...

Erich Becker; Ulrike Burkhardt

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

ARM - Measurement - Horizontal wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsHorizontal wind govMeasurementsHorizontal wind ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Horizontal wind The horizontal wind in terms of either speed and direction, or the zonal (u) and meridional (v) components. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer

189

Component report performance of solar collector arrays and collector controllers in the National Solar Data Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accumulated National Solar Data Network (NSDN) data has been analyzed with regard to collector and collector control performance. The collector data is presented in the ASHRAE format as efficiency vs. operating point, (T/sub inlet/ - T/sub ambient/)/insolation. Collector controls were analyzed by determining the losses caused by control problems common to the NSDN solar systems. This study of collectors and collector controls has several objectives: To compare actual and predicted collector performance; to determine which generic types of components performed well and which performed poorly; to determine why predicted performance was not achieved in the field; to determine the types and causes of failures; to determine the reliability weaknesses; and to determine whether there are any component integration problems. To accomplish these objectives, the work was divided into two parts, the first part was dedicated to the collector component and the second part covered the control component. The report is organized similarly, and also includes a description of each solar system (Appendix A) and a discussion of the interactions between the components.

Logee, T.L.; Kendall, P.W.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

solar radiation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

radiation radiation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Central America GEF. latitude tilt GIS Mexico NREL solar solar radiation SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 241.3 KiB)

191

Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

192

latitutde tilt irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitutde tilt irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Bangladesh. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated November 01st, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GEF GIS latitutde tilt irradiance NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 35.5 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 26.7 KiB) Quality Metrics

193

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

194

latitude tilt | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

latitude tilt latitude tilt Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. Source U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor GIS latitude tilt Nepal NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 25.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 36.2 KiB)

195

Experimental performance characterization of line-focus collectors  

SciTech Connect

To be able to predict accurately the performance of a specific solar collector in a given environment, its performance must first be characterized over the range of conditions under which the collector is expected to operate. In the present paper, collector performance models are developed for parabolic trough and compound-parabolic type concentrating collectors. Experimental collector performance data from Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama are used in a multiple linear regression analysis to identify significant independent variables and refine the collector performance models. The refined collector performance models are used to characterize performance of three different parabolic trough collectors and two different compound-parabolic collectors, with good correlations between modeled and experimental performance.

Lukens, L.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Experimental performance characterization of line-focus collectors  

SciTech Connect

To be able to predict accurately the performance of a specific solar collector in a given environment, its performance must first be characterized over the range of conditions under which the collector is expected to operate. In the present paper, collector performance models are developed for parabolic-trough and compound-parabolic-type concentrating collectors. Experimental collector-performance data from Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque, New Mexico) and Wyle Laboratories (Huntsville, Alabama) are used in a multiple-linear-regression analysis to identify significant independent variables and refine the collector-performance models. The refined collector-performance models are used to characterize performance of three different parabolic-trough collectors and two different compound-parabolic collectors, with good correlations between modeled and experimental performance.

Lukens, L.L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Analysis of the influence of geography and weather on parabolic trough solar collector design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential performance of single-axis tracking parabolic trough solar collectors as a function of optical energy distribution and receiver size has been calculated for eleven sites using typical meteorological year input data. A simulation based on the SOLTES code was developed which includes the three-dimensional features of a parabolic trough and calculates the thermooptical tradeoffs. The capability of the thermooptical model has been confirmed by the comparison of calculated results with the experimental results from an all-day test of a parabolic trough. The results from this eleven-site analysis indicate a potential performance superiority of a north-south horizontal axis trough and, in addition, a high quality (optical error, sigma/sub system/ less than or equal to 0.007 radian) collector should be of the same geometric design for all of the sites investigated and probably for all regions of the country.

Treadwell, G.W.; Grandjean, N.R.; Biggs, F.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed the performance characteristics of the unglazed transpired solar air collector and compared them with several kinds of traditional solar air collectors. The results showed that the unglazed transpired solar air collector has unparalleled advantages in the ventilation preheating area and also proves that CFD tools have their own advantages in the solar air collector research area.

Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

1994-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

200

Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

Petri, Randy J. (Crete, IL); Meek, John (Downers Grove, IL); Bachta, Robert P. (Chicago, IL); Marianowski, Leonard G. (Mount Prospect, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carribean Islands | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carribean Islands Carribean Islands Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. Source NREL Date Released January 31st, 2004 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Carribean Islands Central America GEF GHI GIS Mexico NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 244 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

202

GEF | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GEF GEF Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China GEF GHI GIS NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 629.4 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 779.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

203

China | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China China Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords China GEF GHI GIS NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 629.4 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 779.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

204

Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Ocean Solar Photovoltaics Cells Systems Concentrating Solar...

206

Energy Basics: Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Balance of System Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are composed of three subsystems. On the power-generation side, the first subsystem of PV devices (cells, modules, and...

207

Weather durability testing and failures in terrestrial flat plate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Atlas XR-260 large scale xenon weathering device ... & standard Atlas xenon Weather-Ometers) ... Atlas SolarClimatic 1600 metal-halide global solar ...

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the technology and system design. To be accessible by the financial community, the impact of variations in energy yield must also flow through to financial metrics, such as the...

209

Qualification test and analysis report: solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Test results show that the Owens-Illinois Sunpak/sup TM/ Model SEC 601 air-cooled collector meets the national standards and codes as defined in the Subsystem Performance Specification and Verification Plan of NASA/MSFC Contract NAS8-32259, dated October 28, 1976. The architectural and engineering firm of Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, Detroit, Michigan, acted in the capacity of the independent certification agency. The program calls for the development, fabrication, qualification and delivery of an air-liquid solar collector for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar absorber metal foils are discussed in terms of materials and basic processing science. Also included is the use of finished heavy sheet stock for direct fabrication of solar collector panels. Both the adhesives and bonding methods for foils and sheet are surveyed. Developmental and representative commercial foils are used as illustrative examples. As a result it was found that foils can compete economically with batch plating but are limited by adhesive temperature stability. Also absorber foils are very versatile and direct collector fabrication from heavy foils appears very promising.

Lampert, Carl M.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

U-153: EMC Data Protection Advisor Server and Collector Bugs...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: EMC Data Protection Advisor Server and Collector Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service U-153: EMC Data Protection Advisor Server and Collector Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service...

212

Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors for detecting a bio-agent plume Title Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors for detecting a...

213

SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment National Laboratory Research & Development

214

Apparatus for preventing high temperatures in a glazed solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Venting the glazing (i.e., transparent cover) of a solar collector can be used to prevent the collector's absorber surface from reaching too high a temperature.

Buckley, Bruce S. (410 Memorial Dr., #154, Cambridge, MA 02139)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

A Collector for Fog Water and Interstitial Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An active heatable cloud water collector for ground sampling is presented. The collector can be operated unattended for approximately one week, even in harsh winter conditions. The collection strands are Teflon tubes. A preset cycle of 15-min ...

Otto Klemm; Thomas Wrzesinsky; Jrg Gerchau; Frank Griessbaum

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Solar air collectors: how much can you save  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4'' x 8'' collectors in a typical house.

Newburn, J.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Design considerations for parabolic-cylindrical solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents in some detail the various significant factors which influence the design of parabolic-cylindrical solar collectors.

Treadwell, G.W.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-22 #12;Connectable solar air collectors Søren ?stergaard Jensen Miroslav Bosanac Solar Energy Centre Package 91 #12;92 #12;93 #12;Appendix B Working drawings for the connectable solar air collectors 94 #12

219

Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

Moore, Stanley W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

Moore, S.W.

1981-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

STAM: SERI standard module for collector evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A test facility is being planned for use at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). Identified as STAM (STAndard Module), the facility will be capable of supplying a working fluid under carefully controlled temperature and flowrate conditions to whatever solar collector may be connected to the facility. This capability will be useful in such areas of investigation as collector thermal performance, materials testing, and reliability studies. Initially, emphasis will fall on using the facility to evolve a standard testing procedure for quantifying the thermal performance of concentrating solar collectors. To this end, the equipment will permit measuring the useful energy generated in a solar collector via the conventional mC/sub p/..delta..T procedure (as used in ASHRAE 93-77) as well as the calorimetric ratio technique which offers special advantages at higher operating temperatures. Implementation of the facility will occur in several stages. A detailed design is to be prepared first, based upon SERI's specification of the facility's operating characteristics. Fabrication and installation at the SERI field site will then occur in the last quarter of CY78.

Castle, J.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Colimits for Concurrent Collectors Dusko Pavlovic1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the overall specification in Fig. 1. In this diagram we have added monotone white Mutator monotone white Mut in the previous section we have added the Collector invariant black white = gray = monotone white Mutator Coll information. In the greater part of the paper we work out the example of concurrent garbage collection

223

Cementing horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of horizontal drilling, most completions have been open hole. Open-hole or slotted-liner completions may be satisfactory in straight, thick formations, if stimulation is not required. But if the wellbore wanders out of the reservoir, whether due to loss of directional control or spotty knowledge of formation dimensions, casing becomes a necessity. In addition, a wellbore that stays in the formation but comes uncomfortably close to the water-oil contact or gas cap requires casing to prevent coning. Further, if stimulation is anticipated, or may become a necessity, it is essential that the hole be cased and cemented. Otherwise, there is no control of the stimulation treatment. Even if the horizontal wellbore itself does not require casing, intermediate casing in the high-angle hole is needed. This is especially critical in open-hole completions below a gas cap, for example. The keys to effective horizontal cementing are fundamentally the same as for cementing vertical wells: proper centralization of casing in the bore-hole to ensure efficient mud removal and well-designed cement slurries.

Baret, F.; Griffin, T.J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collector R&D Collector R&D Featured Resource Learn more about NREL's capabilities in collector/receiver characterization. Collector research at NREL focuses on developing and testing the next generation of concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors that reduce delivered electricity costs by 50%. NREL's work involves improved reflector development, optical model development, optical measurement techniques, testing standards, and reliability assessments. NREL also works to upgrade and adapt optical tools to enhance laboratory testing capabilities. CSP collectors capture the sun's energy with mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a receiver, creating the heat that is used to generate electricity. Opportunities and Potential Impact Collectors-whether for parabolic trough, power tower, or dish

225

Gas supplemented solar collector storage means  

SciTech Connect

The gas supplemented solar collector storage means includes a water tank having supply and return connections for circulating water from the tank to a solar collector and back to the tank. A combustion chamber having top and side openings is disposed within the upper half portion of the tank and connects respectively to an upwardly extending flue pipe and an inlet side cylinder to provide an air and gas passage through the upper half of the tank in heat exchange relationship with water. A gas burner is receivable in the combustion chamber and is operated by a thermostat to provide heat to the water only in the event that the solar heating of the water is insufficient to maintain the water above a minimum temperature.

Bressickello, L.J.; Moore, H.J.

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

NETL: Control Technology: Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Under DOE-NETL sponsorship, the University of North Dakota, Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) has developed a new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Otter Tail Power Company. The AHPC utilizes both electrostatic collection and filtration in a unique geometric configuration that achieves ultrahigh particle collection with much less collection area than conventional particulate control devices. The primary technologies for state-of-the-art particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A major limitation of ESPs is that the fractional penetration of 0.1- to 1.0-µm particles is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than for 10-µm particles, so a situation exists where the particles that are of greatest health concern are collected with the lowest efficiency. Fabric filters are currently considered to be the best available control technology for fine particles, but emissions are dependent on ash properties and typically increase if the air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio is increased. In addition, many fabrics cannot withstand the rigors of high-SO2 flue gases, which are typical for bituminous fuels. Fabric filters may also have problems with bag cleanability and high pressure drop, which has resulted in conservatively designed, large, costly baghouses.

227

Thin film absorber for a solar collector  

SciTech Connect

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

R. Lawrence Ives, Amarjit Singh, Michael Read, Philipp Borchard, Jeff Neilson

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to

230

HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

Treshow, M.

1958-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

231

Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

or collectors of biomass. The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in facilities such as those producing electricity from anaerobic...

232

Parabolic trough solar collectors : design for increasing efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Parabolic trough collectors are a low cost implementation of concentrated solar power technology that focuses incident sunlight onto a tube filled with a heat transfer (more)

Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal ...  

An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance ...

234

Preheating Collector Bars and Cathode Blocks Prior to Rodding with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrically heating collector bar/cathode block assemblies uses less than 15% of the energy required for propane gas burner heating. The method is quiet,...

235

Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.

Benjamin, C.M.

236

Two dimensional compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Seven different compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector designs were tested by the ray trace method. The comparison of the collector was performed by simulating sunlight striking the designs at various angles of the sun during the course of the day. All of the CPC solar collector designs used the same type of reflective material, Kinglux reflective aluminum, which is a highly reflective surface used in solar applications. The CPC solar collector designs were subjected to a light source consisting of one helium-neon laser. The laser, to represent the effect of sunlight on the stationary CPC solar collector, was slowly moved across the aperture opening. This is explained in detail. Mathematic equations were used to develop the different CPC solar collector designs. The different shapes for each collector design, were acquired by varying the size of the absorber tube, and also by varying the acceptance angle of the collector. The seven CPC solar collector designs were tested, and the optimal design was selected for experimental testing.

Henry, J.P.; Gamble, N.T.; Cassidy, S.A.

1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

237

Self-sealing solar collector shield  

SciTech Connect

Window structure for a solar collector shield or the like having a frame defining a row of separate window openings. A selfcontained window unit is installed in each opening. Each window unit comprises a pair of rectangular glass panes held in laterally spaced parallel relation by a peripheral window frame. A mounting frame is provided for mounting each window unit in its window opening. Each mounting frame has overlapping frame members. Adjacent side frame members of adjacent window units also overlap. The overlap is for the purpose of excluding moisture and preventing heat loss. A peripheral window seal is provided for the same purpose.

Katona, J.W.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

238

Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

Murphy, L.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Combined current collector and electrode separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

1983-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Design and Calibration of a High Volume Fogwater Collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An inertial impactor is described that is designed to actively collect fog droplets from a flowing airstream. This collector samples 60 liters of air per second with a theoretical d50 currently set at 8 ?m. Collector performance was assessed by ...

Gerald Pade; David Covert; Timothy Larson

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Performance Prediction of Solar Collectors Using Artificial Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed in this study to determine the performance of solar collectors. The experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Beijing. Performance parameters obtained from ... Keywords: ANN, solar collector, performance prediction

Hui Xie; Li Liu; Fei Ma; Huifang Fan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Application of glass technology to novel solar energy collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Various compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) configurations are discussed, and the application of glass technology to CPC designs is discussed. CPC designs with flat absorbers, cylindrical absorbers, evacuated receivers, and evacuated tube receivers are considered. Also a floodlamp collector concept and a fluorescent tube collector concept are discussed. (WHK)

Reed, K A

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A new parabolic trough solar collector P. Kohlenbach1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) power generation system. The parabolic trough collectors have been installed in the National Solar-selective paint. The absorber operates in a 50mm non-evacuated glass tube to minimize convection losses. Thermal and power generation (CHP), CSIRO has built a solar thermal parabolic trough collector field which

245

A Linear Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Performance Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A performance model has been programmed for solar thermal collector based on a linear, tracking parabolic trough reflector focused on a surface-treated metallic pipe receiver enclosed in an evacuated transparent tube: a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC). This steady state, single dimensional model comprises the fundamental radiative and convective heat transfer and mass and energy balance relations programmed in the Engineering Equation Solver, EES. It considers the effects of solar intensity and incident angle, collector dimensions, material properties, fluid properties, ambient conditions, and operating conditions on the performance of the collector: the PTSC. Typical performance calculations show that when hot-water at 165C flows through a 6m by 2.3m PTSC with 900 w/m^2 solar insulation and 0 incident angle, the estimated collector efficiency is about 55% The model predictions will be confirmed by the operation of PTSCs now being installed at Carnegie Mellon.

Qu, M.; Archer, D.; Masson, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

An Optical Characterization Technique for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors Using Images of the Absorber Reection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? As the concentrating solar power industry competes to develop a less-expensive parabolic trough collector, assurance is needed that new parabolic trough collectors maintain accurate (more)

Owkes, Jeanmarie Kathleen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Thermal and Electrical Performance Evaluation of PV/T Collectors in UAE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Photovoltaic Thermal/Hybrid collectors are an emerging technology that combines PV and solar thermal collectors by producing heat and electricity simultaneously. In this paper, thermal (more)

Kaya, Mustafa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Low-temperature collectors are solar thermal collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 F. 6 No data are available for 1985. 2 Medium ...

250

Fundamentals of horizontal well completions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil and gas wells are drilled horizontally for a variety of reasons, chiefly to improve production without drilling multiple vertical wells and to prevent water or gas coning. Benefits of horizontal drilling are well documented. This article addresses the fundamentals of completing a horizontal well, discussing completion by (1) open hole, (2) casing packers, (3) slotted or perforated liner, and (4) cemented casing/liner. Completion methods 1 through 3 are generally known as ''drain hole'' completions, and method 4 is commonly called the ''case hole'' or ''stimulated'' completion.

Austin, C.; Zimmerman, C.; Sullaway, B.; Sabins, F.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Alignment method for solar collector arrays  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

Driver, Jr., Richard B

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

253

SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collectors R&D for CSP Systems to Collectors R&D for CSP Systems to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Collectors R&D for CSP Systems on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Collectors Receivers Power Block Thermal Storage Systems Analysis Competitive Awards Staff Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Collectors R&D for CSP Systems Collectors-whether for trough, tower (heliostat), linear Fresnel or dish

254

Wind effects on convective heat loss from a cavity receiver for a parabolic concentrating solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tests were performed to determine the convective heat loss characteristics of a cavity receiver for a parabolid dish concentrating solar collector for various tilt angles and wind speeds of 0-24 mph. Natural (no wind) convective heat loss from the receiver is the highest for a horizontal receiver orientation and negligible with the reveler facing straight down. Convection from the receiver is substantially increased by the presence of side-on wind for all receiver tilt angles. For head-on wind, convective heat loss with the receiver facing straight down is approximately the same as that for side-on wind. Overall it was found that for wind speeds of 20--24 mph, convective heat loss from the receiver can be as much as three times that occurring without wind.

Ma, R.Y. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomoma, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

Dandl, Raphael A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Inconel Inert Anode Current Collector for Solid Oxide Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, An innovative inert anode current collector is successfully developed and ... During electrolysis at 1423 K, magnesium cations in the flux are reduced at a ... Inclusions from Molten Steel Using a High Frequency Magnetic Field.

258

Low cost bare-plate solar air collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boston University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Parabolic trough solar collectors : design for increasing efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parabolic trough collectors are a low cost implementation of concentrated solar power technology that focuses incident sunlight onto a tube filled with a heat transfer fluid. The efficiency and cost of the parabolic trough ...

Figueredo, Stacy L. (Stacy Lee), 1981-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

Chao, Bei Tse (Urbana, IL); Rabl, Ari (Downers Grove, IL)

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Transparent composite laminar structure, solar collector and method  

SciTech Connect

An improved transparent laminar structure useful as a window in a solar collector having an absorber characterized with a low absorption/emission ratio is described. The structure includes a glass substrate, a particularly defined infrared-reflecting (Irr) layer provided on a major surface of the substrate, and a solar reflection-reducing layer of polymethacrylate composition provided on the irr layer. Also described are an improved solar collector and method for collecting solar radiation, wherein the laminar structure is employed.

Silverstein, S.D.

1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

264

Proceedings of the solar thermal concentrating collector technology symposium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the symposium was to review the current status of the concentrating collector technology, to disseminate the information gained from experience in operating solar systems, and to highlight the significant areas of technology development that must be vigorously pursued to foster early commercialization of concentrating solar collectors. Separate abstracts were prepared for thirteen invited papers and working group summaries. Two papers were previously abstracted for EDB.

Gupta, B.P.; Kreith, F. (eds.) [eds.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

1975-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Transpired Collectors (Solar Preheaters for Outdoor Ventilation Air)--023385m FTA collectors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Federal Technology Alert describes transpired collectors or solar preheaters for outdoor ventilation air. The President's Million Solar Roofs Initiative aims to install 1 million solar energy systems on residential, commercial, and public-sector buildings by 2010. In support of the Initiative, and as part of a continual effort to ensure U.S. buildings are energy efficient and environmentally sustainable, the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) will help install those solar systems targeted for the federal sector.

268

Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Horizontal completions challenge for industry  

SciTech Connect

As the technology to drill horizontal wells continues to evolve, the problem of efficiently and cost-effectively completing such wells grows. The economics of applying horizontal technology in high-productivity reservoirs demands both increased production and lower development costs. Such high productivity reservoirs are typical of the Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, South China basin, and other areas. Lowering development costs is achieved by drilling fewer wells and in the offshore environment by reducing the number of platforms and other well structures. Specifically addressed in this article are the problems of achieving high efficiency, long lasting completions while controlling costs in unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs.

Zaleski, T.E. Jr.; Spatz, E.

1988-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan  

SciTech Connect

As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

Miller, S.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector  

SciTech Connect

This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collector. The noteworthy design features of the BPFC architecture include the use of relatively cheaper flat mirrors and a design which allows the mirror support beam sections to act as load-bearing structural elements resulting in more than a 36% reduction in the overall structural weight compared to an optimized parabolic trough. Also, it was shown that the utilization of small mass-produced elements significantly lowers mass-production and logistics costs that can more quickly deliver economies of scale, even for smaller installations while also reducing shipping and installation costs. Moreover, unlike the traditional Fresnel trough the BPFC architecture does not require complex articulating drive mechanisms but instead utilizes a standard parabolic trough hydraulic drive mechanism. In addition to the development of the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector, an optimized conventional space-frame type parabolic trough was also designed, built, analyzed and field-tested during the first phase of this award. The design of the conventional space-frame parabolic collector was refined with extensive FEA and CFD analysis to reduce material costs and re-designed for simpler fabrication and more accurate lower-cost field assembly. This optimized parabolic trough represented an improvement over the state-of-the art of the traditional parabolic trough architecture and also served as a more rigorous and less subjective benchmark that was used for comparison of new candidate design architectures. The results of the expanded 1st phase of the DOE award project showed that both the Optimized Parabolic Trough and the new Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector design concepts failed to meet the primary objectives for the project of achieving a 50% cost reduction from the industry reference total installed cost of $350/m2. Results showed that the BPFC came in at projected total installed cost of $237/m2 representing a 32% savings compared to the industry benchmark conventional parabolic trough. And the cost reduction obtained by the Optimized Parabolic Trough compared to the

Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

Miller, Jan D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wang, Xuming (Salt Lake City, UT); Li, Minhua (Salt Lake City, UT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

global horizontal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

87 87 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278787 Varnish cache server global horizontal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Documentation of the satellite-based high resolution solar resource assessment for Ghana provided by DLR. The high resolution solar data (10kmx10km) provide country maps of the annual and monthly sums of hourly global horizontal and direct normal irradiance (GHI and DNI) for the year 2000, 2001 and 2002. Additionally, for selected sites hourly values of GHI and DNI are provided.The Documentation gives an overview about the used input data and used methodology, shows example maps and describes a comparison with ground data (if provided by the country)

275

MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) took place in spring 2007 and is the third in the series of Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) experiments. The HATS experiments have been instrumental in testing and developing subfilterscale (...

Edward G. Patton; Thomas W. Horst; Peter P. Sullivan; Donald H. Lenschow; Steven P. Oncley; William O. J. Brown; Sean P. Burns; Alex B. Guenther; Andreas Held; Thomas Karl; Shane D. Mayor; Luciana V. Rizzo; Scott M. Spuler; Jielun Sun; Andrew A. Turnipseed; Eugene J. Allwine; Steven L. Edburg; Brian K. Lamb; Roni Avissar; Ronald J. Calhoun; Jan Kleissl; William J. Massman; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Jeffrey C. Weil

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Growing Nanowires Horizontally Yields New Benefit: 'Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growing Nanowires Horizontally Yields New Benefit: 'Nano-LEDs'. ... Optical microscope image of nano LEDs emitting light. ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

279

Definition: Global horizontal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Normal Irradiance (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DIF).1 Related Terms DNI, Solar radiation, Concentrating solar power, Photovoltaics References http:...

280

Parabolic trough collector systems for thermal enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques offer a means of increasing US oil production by recovering oil otherwise unavailable when using primary or secondary production methods. The use of parabolic trough collector solar energy systems can expand the production of oil recovered by the most prevalent of these techniques, thermal EOR, by improving the economics and lessening the environmental impacts. These collector systems, their state of development, their application to EOR, and their capacity for expanding oil production are reviewed. An economic analysis which shows that these systems will meet investment hurdle rates today is also presented.

Niemeyer, W.A.; Youngblood, S.B.; Price, A.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Regeneration characteristics of adsorbent in the integrated desiccant/collector  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a solar desiccant system using an adsorbent in an integrated desiccant/solar collector that uses direct solar energy as a heat source for efficient regeneration of the adsorbent. The objective of this study is to investigate an integrated desiccant/collector in which the adsorbent absorbs solar radiation fully and is heated for regeneration. Another objective is to obtain the regeneration characteristics in the equipment proposed by both experiments and simulations. Throughout this study, silica gel is used as the adsorbent.

Saito, Y. (Osaka Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Next-Generation Solar Collectors Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

283

Cost goals for a residential photovoltaicthermal liquid collector system set in three northern locations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study compares the allowable costs for a residential PV/T liquid collector system with those of both PV-only and side-by-side PV and thermal collector systems. Four types of conventional energy systems provide backup: ...

Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak Air-Cooled Solar Collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak Air-Cooled Solar Collector. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Solar energy collector for mounting over windows of buildings for space heating thereof  

SciTech Connect

The ornamental design for a solar energy collector for mounting over windows of buildings for space heating thereof, as shown.

Arrington, P.M.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New analytical method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Transpired Solar Collectors: Office of Power Technologies (OPT) Success Stories Series Fact Sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transpired solar collectors are a reliable, low-cost way to preheat ventilation air in commercial buildings.

Not Available

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Hybrid photovoltaic thermal collector (PVT) for the production of hot water and electricity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main concept of developing the hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) is to increase the efficiency of the solar and thermal collector. It is known that the efficiency of the Photovoltaic solar collector is decreases when the ambient temperature increased ... Keywords: absorber collectors, hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT), thermal and electrical efficiency

Adnan Ibrahim; K. Sopian; M. Y. Othman; M. H. Ruslan; M. A. Alghoul; M. Yahya; Azami Zaharim

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The cylindrical parabolic mirror as reflector for solar collectors. Efficiencies and optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After introducing the concentration ratio and intercept factor of focusing collectors with parabolic cylinder mirrors, the energy balance equations were derived to determine the efficiencies under steady state conditions. The components of the collector were varied and optimized with respect to maximum efficiency. The dynamic behavior of the collector was calculated and the average efficiencies compared with the efficiencies in the steady state condition.

Koehne, R.

1976-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

290

Experiments on solar absorption using a greenhouse-effect gas in a thermal solar collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates an augmentation to the thermal solar absorption of solar collectors by introducing a greenhouse gas between the glazing and the absorber part of the solar collector. Experiments are designed and conducted to compare the effect of adding the gas on the efficiency of the collector without that addition. The maximum temperature rise of the absorber

Abdul Hai M. B. Alami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

None

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Concentrating Collectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Parabolic trough collector: A high-temperature (above 360K) solar thermal concentrator with the capacity) Tubular absorbers with specular cusp reflector; c) Plane receiver with plane reflector; d) parabolic for tracking the sun using one axis of rotation. It uses a trough covered with a highly reflective surface

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

294

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center Concentrating Collectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflector; c) Plane receiver with plane reflector; d) parabolic concentrator; e) Fresnel reflector f) Array that are faced at different angles so that light falling on any ring is focused to the same point. Parabolic trough collector: A high-temperature (above 360K) solar thermal concentrator with the capacity

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

295

Effect of circumsolar radiation on performance of focusing collectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circumsolar radiation is one of several factors, along with optical errors (contour, tracking, etc.), that determine the size and shape of the solar image at the receiver of a concentrating collector. The sensitivity of a collector to circumsolar radiation depends on insolation conditions and on collector parameters; it increases with geometrical concentration ratio and decreases with operating threshold. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) circumsolar data are used to develop fast computational procedures for calculating the effect of circumsolar radiation on both the instantaneous and the long-term average performance of focusing collectors. For predictions of long-term average performance, a standard synthetic circumsolar scan has been developed that describes the brightness distribution of the solar disk (limb darkening) and of the circumsolar region. The radiation intercepted by a receiver is calculated separately for the solar portion and for the circumsolar portion of this standard sun shape, and these two contributions are then weighted according to the long-term average circumsolar ratio for the location and period under study.

Bendt, P.; Rabl, A.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Development and fabrication of solar-collector SMC reflector assemblies  

SciTech Connect

This project produced a parabolic trough solar collector array consisting of four each 2 x 6 m reflector modules. Each module required a structural torque tube on which were mounted six 1 x 2 m molded sheet molding compound (SMC)/glass panels. The project reported here established the fabrication, assembly, and inspection procedures for production of SMC reflector panels and assemblies.

Kirsch, P.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations

298

Performance evaluation of two black nickel and two black chrome solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This test program was based on the evaluation of four unique solar collectors described as follows: (a) black nickel collector surface with a desiccant drying bed, (b) black nickel collector surface without a desiccant drying bed, (c) black chrome collector surface with a dessicant drying bed, and (d) black chrome collector surface without a desiccant drying bed. The test program included three distinct phases: Initial performance evaluation, natural environmental aging, and post-aging performance evaluation. Results of Phase III testing conclusively indicated a higher normalized efficiency for black chrome surfaces when compared to black nickel. Analysis of these results is shown. The results are tabulated.

Losey, R.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

Peterka, J.A.; Derickson, R.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the Northrup Concentrating Solar Collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a Northrup concentrating solar collector under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar simulator. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. The Northrup concentrating solar collector is a water/glycol/working fluid type, dipped galvanized steel housing, transparent acrylic Fresnel lens cover, copper absorber tube, fiber glass insulation and weighs approximately 98 pounds. The gross collector area is about 29.4 ft/sup 2/ per collector. A collector assembly includes four collector units within a tracking mount array.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

Butler, B.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Thermal design of compound parabolic concentrating solar-energy collectors  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical analysis of the heat exchanges in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator solar energy collector is presented. The absorber configuration considered is that of a tube (with or without a spectrally-selective surface) either directly exposed or enclosed within one or two glass envelopes. The annular cavity formed between the tube and the surrounding envelope can be either air-filled or evacuated. The optimal annular gap, which leads to the best overall collector efficiency, has been predicted for the nonevacuated arrangement. It was found to be approximately 5 mm for the considered geometry. The evacuation of the annular cavity or the application of a selective surface, separately employed, are demonstrated to yield improvements of the same order.

Prapas, D.E.; Norton, B.; Probert, S.D.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

direct normal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance insolation latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL South America SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Maps (zip, 13.9 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

305

Africa | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa Africa Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released July 31st, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Africa direct normal irradiance DNI GEF GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance latitutde tilt irradiance NASA NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Images (zip, 19.3 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 3.4 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

306

Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting.

Singh, Amarjit (Greenbelt, MD); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA); Schumacher, Richard V. (Campbell, CA); Mizuhara, Yosuke M. (Palo Alto, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Common-Collector Amplifier Example R P x y,( )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Common-Collector Amplifier Example R P x y,( ) x y. x y Function for calculating parallel resistors. R 1 100000 R 2 120000 R C 0 R E 5600 R S 5000 R L 10000 V plus 15 V minus 15 V BE 0.65 V T 0.025 99 0.99 r x 20 r 0 50000 v s 1 With v s = 1, the voltage gain is equal to v o. DC Bias Circuits

Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

308

Grid Collector: Facilitating Efficient Selective Access from DataGrids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Grid Collector is a system that facilitates the effective analysis and spontaneous exploration of scientific data. It combines an efficient indexing technology with a Grid file management technology to speed up common analysis jobs on high-energy physics data and to enable some previously impractical analysis jobs. To analyze a set of high-energy collision events, one typically specifies the files containing the events of interest, reads all the events in the files, and filters out unwanted ones. Since most analysis jobs filter out significant number of events, a considerable amount of time is wasted by reading the unwanted events. The Grid Collector removes this inefficiency by allowing users to specify more precisely what events are of interest and to read only the selected events. This speeds up most analysis jobs. In existing analysis frameworks, the responsibility of bringing files from tertiary storages or remote sites to local disks falls on the users. This forces most of analysis jobs to be performed at centralized computer facilities where commonly used files are kept on large shared file systems. The Grid Collector automates file management tasks and eliminates the labor-intensive manual file transfers. This makes it much easier to perform analyses that require data files on tertiary storages and remote sites. It also makes more computer resources available for analysis jobs since they are no longer bound to the centralized facilities.

Wu, Kesheng; Gu, Junmin; Lauret, Jerome; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Zhang, Wei-Ming

2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

309

Thin-film absorber for a solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, W.G.

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

Murphy, L. M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solar evacuated tube collector: absorption chiller systems simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A residential air conditioning system incorporating an Arkla Solaire absorption chiller and Corning Glass Works evacuated tube collectors is simulated and the design parameters studied. Mathematical models of the evacuated tube collector and Arkla absorption chiller based on experimental results of the components have been created and incorporated into a complete system simulation. The chiller model includes transient start-up effects and the evacuated tube collector model includes numerous optical effects. A standard Arkla chiller in a humid climate (Washington, D.C.) and an Arkla unit with a modified charge for dry climates (Fort Collins, Colorado) are studied. Design parameters considered include the use of chilled water storage to reduce transient start-up effects of the absorption unit, the effects of removing heat from the solar system for preheating service hot water, the use of a tempering valve to prevent over-firing of the absorption unit in dry climates, and solar storage sizing considerations. The study results and conclusions are used to specify a cooling system design.

Leflar, J.A.; Duff, W.S.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gravel packing feasible in horizontal well completions  

SciTech Connect

Successful completion of horizontal wells in unconsolidated formations depends on proper equipment selection and installation method balanced with reservoir objectives, formation parameters, and costs. The guidelines for designing these completions are based on generalized field experience, including horizontal cases where applicable.

Zaleski, T.E. Jr.; Ashton, J.P. (Baker Sand Control, Houston, TX (US))

1990-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

313

Evaluation of Collector Well Configurations to Model Hydrodynamics in Riverbank Filtration and Groundwater Remediation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collector well designs are necessary to maximize groundwater uptake and riverbank filtration without negatively impacting an aquifer. Unfortunately, there is a lack of information and research regarding the implementation of collector well design parameters. In the past, collector well installation was too costly, but recent advances in well technology have made collector wells more cost effective. This research will contribute a set of guidelines to optimize riverbank filtration and groundwater remediation. This study models the hydrodynamics surrounding collector well configurations in riverbank filtration and groundwater remediation. Visual Modflow was utilized to run a variety of numerical models to test four areas: flux along the laterals of a collector well, collector well interactions with a river, collector well yield, and collector well remediation capability. The two design parameters investigated were lateral length (25 m, 50 m, and 100 m) and number of laterals (3 and 4). The lateral flux tests confirm flux increases towards the terminal end of each lateral and pumping rate is the controlling factor in flux amount obtained along the laterals. The analysis of the flux-river interaction shows the main factor in determining flux amount is the initial river geometry, followed by the pumping rate, regional background flow, and collector well design, respectively. The models suggest that the 4-lateral collector well design is more effective than the 3-lateral design and in addition, 100 meter length laterals provide the highest amount of yield with the least amount of drawdown. The remediation tests investigate the application of vertical well equations to evaluate collector well designs in two areas: minimum pumping rate to capture line source of particles and first arrival time of particles. The remediation models show 100 meter length laterals provide both the lowest pumping rate and the highest residence time with the surrounding aquifer for maximum remediation. Ultimately, these models provide basic design guidelines and explain which designs are most effective, depending on the collector well purpose.

De Leon, Tiffany Lucinda

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

global horizontal irradiance | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

horizontal irradiance horizontal irradiance Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Global Horizontal IrradianceNASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005) Parameter: Insolation Incident On A Horizontal Surface (kWh/m^2/day) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Note 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords GHI GIS global horizontal irradiance NASA solar

315

File:SWERA-202.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 863 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Sri Lanka Description Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2004-07-01 Extent International Countries Sri Lanka UN Region Southern Asia External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=202 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment

316

File:SWERA-277.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

annual average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL annual average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 236 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Annual Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Southern Mexico. Description Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Sources University at Albany, SUNY Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2005-09-06 Extent International Countries Mexico UN Region Central America External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=277 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

317

New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation  

SciTech Connect

A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Wall collector design analysis: project status report No. 2. Hing/daylighting prototype development, Phase I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design process and energy analyses for the wall (air) collector component for the passive/hybrid system building alternatives for pre-engineered metal buildings are described. A hybrid collector was coupled to the rockbed storage and ceiling plenum of the office and maintenance spaces. A thermosyphon collector was coupled directly to the interior space of the warehouse. The schematic design, design development, and performance analysis are included. (MHR)

Aronson, S.J.; deCampo, R.; Snyder, M.K.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Optical analysis and optimization of parabolic-trough collectors: a user's guide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a detailed optical analysis of parabolic trough solar collectors are summarized by a few universal graphs and curve fits. These graphs enable the designer of parabolic trough collectors to calculate the performance and to optimize the design with a simple hand calculator. The method is illustrated by specific examples that are typical of practical applications. The sensitivity of the optimization to changes in collector parameters and operating conditions is evaluated.

Bendt, P.; Rabl, A.; Gaul, H.W.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Viability Of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System With Solar Thermal Collectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a study for examining the viability of hybrid ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems that use solar thermal collectors as the supplemental (more)

Rad, Farzin M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Performance and reliability evaluation of Sacramento demonstration novel ICPC solar collectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation focuses on the reliability and degradation of the novel integral compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC) evacuated solar collector over a 13 year period. The (more)

Daosukho, Jirachote "Pong"

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Analytical and Experimental Study of a PV/Thermal Transpired Collector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the last few years, unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTCs) have proven to be an effective and viable method of reducing HVAC loads and building (more)

Veronique, Delisle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies.

Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hochheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

A nonlinear steady-state characteristic performance curve for medium-temperature solar energy collectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a numerical simulation model that was employed to investigate the effects of ambient temperature and insolation of the efficiency of compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors. The limitations of presently used collector performance characterization curves were investigated and a new approach proposed. The major advantage of the new procedure over those employed previously is that different solar collector performance characteristics can now be readily normalized to a common set of environmental conditions. Thus, an equitable comparison may be made, in the context of the application conditions, of rating characteristics for disparate collectors which were obtained initially under different conditions.

Eames, P.C.; Norton, B. (PROBE, Dept. of Building and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (IE))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

Meller, Yosef [Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Proper centralizers can improve horizontal well cementing  

SciTech Connect

The selection and spacing of appropriate centralizers can improve the cementation of high-angle and horizontal wells. Mud removal is one of the most important factors in obtaining a good cement job. Effective centralization assists in mud removal and helps ensure an even cement coat around the casing. Centralizers for horizontal wells have to fulfill two requirements: They should have a high restoring capability and a low moving force, and they should allow pipe rotation and reciprocation. Conventional bow-type centralizers have been used successfully in some horizontal wells. But as the horizontal section length increases, special centralizers, such as low-moving-force, bow-type centralizers and rigid centralizers, may be necessary. The paper describes the following: cementing liners, centralization, torque and drag, centralizer placement, the bow-type centralizer, the rigid centralizer, and the downhole activated centralizer.

Kinzel, H. (Weatherford Oil Tool, Langenhagen (Germany))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

327

Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of ...

Donald A. Haines

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

Gurau, Vladimir (Miami, FL); Barbir, Frano (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Neutzler, Jay K. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

329

A Cyclic Distributed Garbage Collector for Network Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. This paper presents an algorithm for distributed garbage collection and outlines its implementation within the Network Objects system. The algorithm is based on a reference listing scheme, which is augmented by partial tracing in order to collect distributed garbage cycles. Processes may be dynamically organised into groups, according to appropriate heuristics, to reclaim distributed garbage cycles. The algorithm places no overhead on local collectors and suspends local mutators only brie y. Partial tracing of the distributed graph involves only objects thought to be part of a garbage cycle: no collaboration with other processes is required. The algorithm o ers considerable exibility, allowing expediency and fault-tolerance to be traded against completeness.

Helena Rodrigues; Richard Jones

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Study of segmented absorbers of thermal solar compound parabolic collectors  

SciTech Connect

One of the most promising means of improving the performance of solar thermal collectors is by reducing the energy lost by the host absorber. One way to do this, not currently part of the technology, is by recognizing that the absorber is usually not irradiated uniformly. Therefore, it is possible to construct an absorber of thermally isolated segments, circulate the fluid in sequence from low to high irradiance segments, and reduce loss by improving effective concentration. This procedure works even for ideal concentrators, without violating Winston's theorem.

Keita, M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Marketing Strategies for Horizontal Axis Washers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal axis washing machines provide superior washing quality and gentleness as well as reduced energy use. This EPRI guide describes how utilities can effectively engage the horizontal axis washing machine market and the strategic and load-related reasons they should be interested in doing so. The guide covers topics ranging from a detailed overview of the marketplace to specific tactical advice that offers practical insights for any utility considering entering this new market.

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

332

Simple solar spectral model for direct and diffuse irradiance on horizontal and tilted planes at the earth's surface for cloudless atmospheres  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, simple model for calculating clear-sky direct and diffuse spectral irradiance on horizontal and tilted surfaces is presented. The model is based on previously reported simple algorithms and on comparisons with rigorous radiative transfer calculations and limited outdoor measurements. Equations for direct normal irradiance are outlined; and include: Raleigh scattering; aerosol scattering and absorption; water vapor absorption; and ozone and uniformly mixed gas absorption. Inputs to the model include solar zenith angle, collector tilt angle, atmospheric turbidity, amount of ozone and precipitable water vapor, surface pressure, and ground albedo. The model calculates terrestrial spectra from 0.3 to 4.0 ..mu..m with approximately 10 nm resolution. A major goal of this work is to provide researchers with the capability to calculate spectral irradiance for different atmospheric conditions and different collector geometries using microcomputers. A listing of the computer program is provided.

Bird, R.; Riordan, C.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Economic viability of multiple-lateral horizontal wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Horizontal wells are gaining popularity throughout the petroleum industry as a means to increase well productivity and enhance incremental economics. Horizontal wells provide greater reservoir (more)

Smith, Christopher Jason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Energy collector for collecting solar energy and the like  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector connectable with a fluid-circulating system is contained in a plenum within an insulative housing and has a plurality of generally parallel, heat-absorbing conduits extending between intake and outlet manifolds and confronting the sun or other heat source through a transparent window, each conduit being separated from an adjacent conduit by an intervening slot. Positioned below the conduits is a heat-absorbing tank which is connected in fluid-flow relationship with the outlet manifold and also with the circulation system so that a heat-transfer medium may flow continuously between the energy collector and the circulation system. The tank receives radiant energy through the slots and after absorbing some of the radiation reflects the remaining portion upwardly to the conduits to thereby increase radiation intensity on and heat absorption by the conduits. Multiple reflections between tank and conduits further increase energy absorption both by tank and conduit. The conduits may be of round cross section or may have a planar heat-absorbing surface facing the sun and an arcuate, convex surface facing the tank. The tank may be provided with a plurality of arcuate troughs, a trough underlying and paralleling each conduit to both absorb energy and reflect energy toward the overlying conduit. The conduits may be provided with internal air ducts which communicate with the hot-air plenum and permit heat from the hot air to be transferred through the duct walls and to the fluid medium within the conduits.

Bansal, J.M.; Kumar, A.

1978-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

335

Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis [Department of Mechanical Engineering Educators, ASPETE, N. Iraklio, GR 14121 (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis [Environmental Engineering Dept., Technical University of Crete, Technical University Campus, GR 73100, Chania (Greece); Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), 19th km Marathon Ave., GR 19001, Pikermi (Greece)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

Murphy, L.M.

1984-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

338

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating  

SciTech Connect

This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Panel Shading  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panel Shading Panel Shading lets you optimize the geometry of rows of flat-plate solar collectors (PV or solar thermal) by visualizing on an annual basis how much the rows shade...

340

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nashua Community College, Nashua NH Nashua Community College Solar Hot Water Install 16 flat-plate solar hot water collectors atop existing gym roof. 03 04 11 Stephen B. Humble...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER I. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

near the leading edge, Electrical 'power is individuallythis way, and the electrical power input can be measured towould be to reduce the electrical power required to maintain

Robben, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER I. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

l~ Roberts, "Catathermal Combustion: A New Process for Lm'l-significant gas phase combustion is induced by the presenceInternational) on Combustion (to be published), The

Robben, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER II. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D.G. , Fourteenth Sympo- sium (International) on Combustion,The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 107 (1973). Wilson,Program for Calculation of Combustion Reaction Equilibrium

Schefer, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Historical evidence of importance to the industrialization of flat-plate silicon photovoltaic systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a literature search on the diffusion of new industrial production processes and the determinants of success of previous federally-funded demonstration projects are presented. The industrialization goal of the LSSA project is analyzed. The conclusions of that analysis are used to develop recommendations with respect to pilot, demonstration, and commercial scale production plants, as well as the disposition of the LSSA annual output goal. (MHR)

Smith, J.L.; Gates, W.R.; Lee, T.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Drag Measurements of an Axisymmetric Nacelle Mounted on a Flat Plate at  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of diverter wedge half-angle and nacelle lip height on the drag characteristics of an assembly consisting of a nacelle fore cowl from a typical high-speed civil transport (HSCT) and ...

Flamm Jeffrey D.; Jr Floyd J. Wilcox

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement by carbon nano fibers deposited on a flat plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of flow and heat transfer have been performed for flow over a plate surface covered with carbon nano fibers (CNFs). The CNFs influence on fluid flow and heat transfer has been investigated. Firstly, a stochastic model for CNFs deposition ... Keywords: Carbon nano fibers, Heat transfer, Lattice Boltzmann method

Nikola Pelevic; Theo Van Der Meer

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER II. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process, and to determine the roles of heat and mass transferheat and mass transfer in the catalytic combustion process, and

Schefer, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Catalyzed combustion in a flat plate boundary layer. II. Numerical calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program has been developed to solve the boundary layer equations for laminar flow over a heated plate with H/sub 2//air combustion. The objectives are to investigate the importance of homogeneous as opposed to catalytic surface reactions during the combustion process, and to determine the roles of heat and mass transfer and their effect on combustion. Results are presented for combustion of H/sub 2//air at an equivalence ratio of 0.1 for flow over a noncatalytic plate at a surface temperature of 1100/sup 0/K. A detailed mechanism involving 8 chemical species and 13 reactions has been used to describe the kinetics. The reactions leading to the initiation of combustion and the effect of the large diffusivity of hydrogen are discussed. The boundary conditions for catalytic surface and a simplified model to account for catalytic wall reaction are formulated. Results are presented for combustion over a catalytic surface and compared with the non-catalytic case.

Schefer, R.; Robben, F.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic (PV) module I-V curves were measured at Florida, Colorado, and Oregon locations to provide data for the validation and development of models used for predicting the performance of PV modules.

Marion, B.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Review of Consensus Standard Spectra for Flat Plate and Concentrating Photovoltaic Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Consensus standard reference terrestrial solar spectra are used to establish nameplate ratings for photovoltaic device performance at standard reporting conditions. This report describes reference solar spectra developed in the United States and international consensus standards community which are widely accepted as of this writing (June 2011).

Myers, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Investigation on thermal performance calculation of two type solar air collectors using artificial neural network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, two types of solar air collectors are constructed and examined experimentally. The types are called as zigzagged absorber surface type and flat absorber surface type called Model I and Model II respectively. Experiments are carried out ... Keywords: ANN, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Solar air collector, Thermal performance

Murat Caner; Engin Gedik; Ali Keeba?

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A pilot study of the building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPVT) collector for commercial applications in Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Building integrated photovoltaic thermal solar collector (BIPVT) has been designed to produce both electricity and hot water and later integrated to building. The hot water is produced at the useful temperatures for the applications in Malaysia such ... Keywords: BIPVT collector, hot water heating system, thermal and electrical efficiency

A. Ibrahim; M. Y. Othman; M. H. Ruslan; S. Mat; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Certification and verification for Northrup Model NSC-01-0732 Fresnel lens concentrating solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The certification and verification of the Northrup Model NSC-01-0732 Fresnel lens tracking solar collector are presented. A certification statement is included with signatures and a separate report on the structural analysis of the collector system. System verification against the Interim Performance Criteria are indicated by matrices with verification discussion, analysis, and enclosed test results.

Not Available

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector. Final report, September 25, 1978-September 24, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The goal to design, construct and test an integrated solar zeolite collector, capable of providing hot water during the day and chilled water at night, which will act as one-for-one replacement for existing hot water solar collectors was achieved using the following steps: The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchangers, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicated close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance. During the second year of the contract the goal was to evauate the performance of the integrated zeolite collector under different climatic conditions in different parts of the USA. This goal was achieved by constructing 10 integrated zeolite collectors, testing them individually at the plant and installing a completely instrumented pair at each of the following locations: The Anaconda Company Research Lab in Tucson, Arizona, SERI in Golden, Colorado, and the Zeopower Company in Natick, Massachusetts. After correcting many instrumentation and collector failures, the performance of the pairs is as expected.

Tchernev, D.I.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Experimental Performance of a Solar Collector in Solar Chimney Power Plant System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar chimney power plant has been proposed as a device to economically generate electricity from solar energy in large scale in the future. There are many factors to influence on the performance of the solar collector. This paper describes details of ... Keywords: generate electricity, thermal storage material, pebbles, solar collector

Huilan Huang; Gang Li; Hua Zhang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Tor A. Johansena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-based Control of a Distributed Solar Collector Field Tor A. Johansena Camilla Storaaa that the primary energy source, solar radiation, cannot be manipulated. The distributed solar collector eld may, Norway. Model-based control of the outlet temperature of a distributed solar col- lector eld is studied

Johansen, Tor Arne

357

Calculation and Analysis of Optimal Tilt Angle for PV/T Hybrid Collector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of solar energy received world wide attention in recent years. Solar energy is a free and clean natural resource which can be utilized by using a solar collector. In this paper, a model was presented for the calculation of the optimal tilt angle ... Keywords: Solar energy, Optimal tilt angle, Optimization, PV/T hybrid collector

Xianping Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

File:SWERA-254.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Nepal. Description Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2005-04-12 Extent International Countries Nepal UN Region Southern Asia External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=254 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment

359

File:SWERA-214.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

.pdf .pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 390 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba Description Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Sources University at Albany, SUNY Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2004-10-07 Extent International Countries Cuba UN Region Caribbean External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=214 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

360

File:SWERA-212.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

.pdf .pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central America from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 665 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) Title Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Central America Description Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central America from SUNY Sources University at Albany, SUNY Related Technologies Solar Creation Date 2004-10-07 Extent Regional Regions Central America External links http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=35&idx=212 File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

1980-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

362

Method Of Making Solar Collectors By In-Situ Encapsulation Of Solar Cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making solar collectors by encapsulating photovoltaic cells within a base of an elongated solar collector wherein heat and pressure are applied to the cells in-situ, after an encapsulating material has been applied. A tool is fashioned having a bladder expandable under gas pressure, filling a region of the collector where the cells are mounted. At the same time, negative pressure is applied outside of the bladder, enhancing its expansion. The bladder presses against a platen which contacts the encapsulated cells, causing outgassing of the encapsulant, while heat cures the encapsulant. After curing, the bladder is deflated and the tool may be removed from the collector and base and reflective panels put into place, if not already there, thereby allowing the solar collector to be ready for use.

Carrie, Peter J. (Toronto, CA); Chen, Kingsley D. D. (Markham, CA)

2000-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

363

Improvement of solar air collectors: Study and Experimental Research Project. Final report, May 1976-June 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Literature and patents relevant to solar air-heating collectors were reviewed. The design constraints are listed. The analysis considered the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of the various designs. Three absorbers along with the baseline design were mounted in identical collector bodies and subjected to thermal efficiency tests on Solaron's collector test stand. The testing was done simultaneously on the four panels in a side-by-side collector test. Various manufacturing techniques for producing an absorber with extended heat transfer surface were investigated. It was found that fins could be attached to the absorber in a cost-effective manner by an electrical resistance weld. Four finned absorbers were fabricated by resistance welding and installed in a 2 x 2 collector array to verify that these production model prototypes would, in fact, increase performance by a factor of 1.11. (MHR)

Cole-Appel, B.E.; Loef, G.O.G.; Shaw, L.E.; Fischer, B.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

WILLA Z. SILVERMAN. The New Bibliopolis: French Book Collectors and the Culture of Print, 1880-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The New Bibliopolis: French Book Collectors and the Cultureand image, then the luxury books coveted and collected byThe New Bibliopolis: French Book Collectors and the Culture

Everton, Elizabeth

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Sand-control alternatives for horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that it has been well documented that horizontal completions increase production rates, as much as two to five times those of conventional techniques, because more of the producing formation is exposed to the wellbore. Although productivity improvements are highly sensitive to reservoir parameters, it is becoming generally accepted that optimum horizontal lengths will be 2,000 to 4,000 ft. The length of these completions generally causes the velocity of the fluid at the sandface to be an order of magnitude less than that observed in conventional completions. Because drag forces contributed to sand production, horizontal wells can produce at higher sand-free flow rates than conventional completions in the same reservoir. While it is frequently argued that horizontal wells do not need sand control, the potential for sand production increases significantly as reserves deplete and rock stresses increase. This is becoming more evident today in several major North Sea oil fields with conventional completions. Also, many unconsolidated formations produce sand for the first time with the onset of water production, a typical problem in such areas as the Gulf of Mexico. Operators must decide whether to implement sand control in the original horizontal-completion program because of an immediate concern or because the potential exists for a problem to arise as the well matures.

Zaleski, T.E. Jr. (Baker Sand Control (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Performance of a glazed open flow liquid desiccant solar collector for both summer cooling and winter heating: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the work performed under DOE Contract ACO3-82SF11658, entitled, ''A Research Study to Determine the Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of an Open Flow Solar Collector for Both Summer Cooling and Winter Heating.'' Data and computer simulation results are shown for a glazed, open flow collector used for reconcentrating a lithium chloride solution and for thermal energy collection. A comparison of the glazed collector with an unglazed collector from a previous study is also presented.

McCormick, P.O.; Brown, S.R.; Tucker, S.P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Horizontal stirring in the global ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

Hernndez-Carrasco, I; Hernndez-Garca, E; Turiel, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mean wind forces on parabolic-trough solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of mean wind loads produced by airflow in and around several configurations of parabolic trough solar collectors with and without a wind fence. Four basic parabolic shapes were investigated as single units and one shape was studied as part of several array fields. One 1:25 scale model of each parabolic shape was constructed for mounting on a force balance to measure two forces and three moments. The effects of several dominant variables were investigated in this study: wind-azimuth (or yaw), trough elevation (or pitch) angle, array field configuration, and protective wind fence characteristics. All measurements were made in a boundary-layer flow developed by the meteorological wind tunnel at the Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory of Colorado State University. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

Peterka, J.A.; Sinau, J.M.; Cermak, J.E.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Development of low cost concentrating solar collectors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low cost concentrating collector has been developed that has the following features: (1) Material cost per 4 foot by 8 foot panel of $175 or $225 at retail prices depending on which of the two versions are used. (2) Low weight of 159 pounds per panel when liquid-filled or approximately 5 pounds per square foot to result in minor additional roof stress. (3) A concentration factor of 1.72 to reduce the necessary storage volume for winter heating and obtain adequate temperature for future air conditioning.(4) High efficiency when mounted parallel to the roof to reduce wind damage, roof stresses, and blend better with architectural features of a house.

Batzer, D.

1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the two sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

Murphy, L.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

Henning, C.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Glass-heat-pipe evacuated-tube solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, R.D.; VanSant, J.H.

1981-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

375

Lightweight performance data collectors 2.0 with Eiger support.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the use and design of a portable, extensible performance data collection tool motivated by modeling needs of the high performance computing systems co-design com- munity. The lightweight performance data collectors with Eiger support is intended to be a tailorable tool, not a shrink-wrapped library product, as pro ling needs vary widely. A single code markup scheme is reported which, based on compilation ags, can send perfor- mance data from parallel applications to CSV les, to an Eiger mysql database, or (in a non-database environment) to at les for later merging and loading on a host with mysql available. The tool supports C, C++, and Fortran applications.

Allan, Benjamin A.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Thermal simulation and economic assessment of unglazed transpired collector systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unglazed transpired collectors (UTCs) have recently emerged as a new solar air heating technology. They are relatively inexpensive, efficient, and particularly suited to applications in which a high outdoor air requirement must be met. A TRNSYS model has been created for UTC systems. Annual simulations are performed for several representative buildings. The statewide economic potential of UTC systems is assessed for Wisconsin. UTC systems on existing buildings are competitive with electric heating systems but not with gas or oil heating. Electric heating is not widely used in most buildings that are well-suited for UTC systems, with the exception of large apartment buildings. Therefore, there is no significant statewide economic potential for retrofit of UTC systems on existing buildings except in the residential sector. However, UTC systems are cost effective for new buildings because their low first cost allows them to compete with gas and oil heating.

Summers, D.N.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Use of electrodialysis for concentrating simulated (Model) drainage collector waters  

SciTech Connect

The volume of mineralized drainage collector waters (DCW) increased as the result of development of soil reclamation. For example, this volume is 0.3 km/sup 3//yr in the Ashkhabad province alone, and the total for the Turkmen SSR is 5 km/sup 3//hr. The degree of mineralization of DCW varies from 2 to 33 g/liter. About 50% of the mineralization of DCW is made up of hardness salts. Desalination of mineralized DCW and their return the water-supply system would decrease consumption of fresh water and diminish salination of existing water sources. The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of obtaining highly concentrated brines during desalination of simulated DCW without preliminary softening with the use of MK-100M cation-exchange membrane obtained by chemical modification of homogeneous MK-100 cation-exchange membrane with the ethylenediamine.

Grebenyuk, V.D.; Veisov, B.K.; Chebotareva, R.D.; Braude, K.P.; Nefedova, G.Z.

1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

Rim-drive cable-aligned heliostat collector system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a heliostat collector apparatus comprising at least one heliostat suspended from a plurality of longitudinally extending linkage means. An enclosure structure is disposed adjacent the heliostat and provides a means for allowing the heliostat to be substantially protected from weathering. A first drive means is operatively connected to the heliostat to effect steering thereof in at least one of first and second predetermined directions. Finally, a frame member is adapted for supporting the heliostat at an inner portion thereof. The frame includes a plurality of outer expandable portions. Each one of the expandable portions is adapted to slidably engage a corresponding one of the plurality of linkage means. The expandable portions are further adapted to allow the heliostat to be slidably moved along the linkage means in directions away from and towards the enclosure structure and to substantially reduce stress acting on the heliostat during steering.

Dolan, J.E.; Sands, T.D.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Asia | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10 10 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142281010 Varnish cache server Asia Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Asia DNI GEF GHI insolation NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Regions (zip, 20.2 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 960.7 KiB)

380

insolation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2 2 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278432 Varnish cache server insolation Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Asia DNI GEF GHI insolation NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile and Cell Regions (zip, 20.2 MiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 960.7 KiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Free-formed insulated concentrating solar collector. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A free-formed, insulated solar concentrating-collector was designed, built, and tested. The design utilizes new concepts to achieve simplicity, low cost, high efficiency, and long service life. Three concepts were utilized to meet these goals: First, the concentrating reflector is free-formed by hand from a thin steel sheet. Second, a transparent cover is placed over the concentrator and insulation is placed on the back and ends reduce heat losses and protect the reflecting surface from attack by rain and dust. Third, a highly-reflective aluminum film, protected by bonding between two thin sheets of uv stabilized polyester, is fastened to the steel substrate by peelable adhesive. The material cost of the unit without sun seeking electronics and drive motor is about $6.75 per square foot of sun capturing area. Sun following equipment adds to the cost, however, in units of about 100 square feet sun following equipment contributes about $2.00 per square foot. Labor costs are estimated to be approximately $3.00 per square foot for a $5.00 per hour labor rate for a trained crew. On a do-it-yourself basis a 100 square foot unit would cost about $875. Tests of the prototype collector performed by a certified solar test laboratory were made and the results compared with similar tests of a commercial unit. These tests indicate that the efficiency of the prototype is higher than the commercial unit at outlet temperatures below 160/sup 0/F and comparable with the commercial unit at the boiling point of water.

Goodwin, G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Shape control of solar collectors using torsional shape memory alloy actuators  

SciTech Connect

Solar collectors that are focused on a central receiver are designed with a mechanism for defocusing the collector or disabling it by turning it out of the path of the sun`s rays. This is required to avoid damaging the receiver during periods of inoperability. In either of these two cases a fail-safe operation is very desirable where during power outages the collector passively goes to its defocused or deactivated state. This paper will be principally concerned with focusing and defocusing the collector in a fail-safe manner using shape memory alloy actuators. Shape memory alloys are well suited to this application in that once calibrated the actuators can be operated in an on/off mode using a small amount of electric power. Also, in contrast to other smart materials that were investigated for this application, shape memory alloys are capable of providing enough stroke at the appropriate force levels to focus the collector. In order to accommodate the large, nonlinear deformations required in the solar collector plate to obtain desired focal lengths, a torsional shape memory alloy actuator was developed that produces a stroke of 0.5 inches. Design and analysis details presented, along with comparisons to test data taken from an actual prototype, demonstrate that the collector can be repeatedly focused and defocused within accuracies required by typical solar energy systems.

Lobitz, D.W.; Rice, T.M.; Grossman, J.W. [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Distribution of Cloud Horizontal Sizes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud horizontal size distributions from near-global satellite data, from aircraft, and from a global high-resolution numerical weather prediction model, are presented for the scale range 0.18000 km and are shown to be well-represented using a ...

Robert Wood; Paul R. Field

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Matching collector's azimuthal orientation and energy demand profile for thermosyphonic systems  

SciTech Connect

When a load profile is given, a thermosyphonic solar water heater's collector's azimuthal orientation should be considered as a parameter for maximizing the system's performance. This is demonstrated by simulating such a system with various azimuthal collectors orientation subjected to a single fixed or a daily routine load during the day. The results indicate that the system performance, which is measured here by the average (or mixed-cup) temperature of the withdrawn load, could be improved appreciably by a proper match between the collector's azimuthal orientation and the specifics of the load profiles.

Sokolov, M.; Vaxman, M. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Engineering)

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Comparison of heat transfer in solar collectors with heat pipe versus flow through absorbers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of heat transfer in solar collectors with heat pipe absorbers is compared to that for collectors with flow through absorbers. Both pumped and thermosiphon systems that produce hot water or other heated fluids are discussed. In these applications the heat pipe absorber suffers a heat transfer penalty compared with the flow through absorber, but in many cases the penalty can be minimized by proper design at the heat pipe condenser and system manifold. When the solar collector is used to drive an absorption chiller, the heat pipe absorber has better heat transfer characteristics than the flow through absorber.

Hull, J.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

Horizontal Wavenumber Spectra of Vertical Vorticity and Horizontal Divergence in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author shows that the horizontal two-point correlations of vertical vorticity and the associated vorticity wavenumber spectrum can be constructed from previously measured velocity structure functions in the upper troposphere and lower ...

Erik Lindborg

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Frequency response analysis of fluid control systems for parabolic trough solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous studies of solar collector fluid control systems have utilized computer simulations of collector and piping dynamics to evaluate stability and response characteristics. To obtain reasonable simulation accuracy requires substantial computer memory and time, and is well beyond the capability of small desk-top computers. Here a linearized steady state frequency response is derived for parabolic trough collectors and for connecting piping, which can be used in standard gain-phase analyses to evaluate system stability and closed loop frequency response. The frequency response characteristics of a typical collector string and piping are used in a gain-phase analysis to get some insight into the effect on system stability of various system parameters such as controller gain, sensor and controller time constants, and sensor location.

Schindwolf, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3M Company is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Custom Engineering parabolic glass reflector for the Sandia prototype solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The parabolic glass reflector, designed and constructed by Custom Engineering, Incorporated, is described. A brief summary of its performance as part of the Sandia prototype trough solar collector system is given.

Otts, J.; Sallis, D.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mechanical development of an actuation system for a parabolic solar trough collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis documents my personal contribution to the development of a hydraulic-based actuation system for a solar trough collector. The goal of this project was to design the actuation system using hydraulic actuators ...

Carrillo, Juan Felipe (Carrillo Salazar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode  

A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite ...

396

Indoor test for thermal performance of the Sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on Sunmaster DEC-8 and 8A (modified) solar collector under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar simulator. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. The Sunmaster evacuated tube solar collector is a water working fluid type. The gross collector area is about 17.17 ft/sup 2/ and weight is approximately 65 pounds empty and 90 pounds filled. The overall dimensions are about 48'' x 51.5'' x 7.8''.

Not Available

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Intergrated function nonimaging concentrating collector tubes for solar thermal energy. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A substantial improvement in optical efficiency over contemporary external reflector evacuated tube collectors has been achieved by integrating the reflector surface into the outer glass envelope. Described are the design fabrication and test results for a prototype collector based on this concept. A comprehensive test program to measure performance and operational characteristics of a 2 m/sup 2/ panel (45 tubes) has been completed. Efficiencies above 50% relative to beam at 200/sup 0/C have been repeatedly demonstrated. Both the instantaneous and long term average performance of this totally stationary solar collector are comparable to those for tracking line focus parabolic troughs. The yield, reliability and stability of performance achieved have been excellent. Subcomponent assemblies and fabrication procedures have been used which are expected to be compatible with high volume production. The collector has a wide variety of applications in the 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C range including industrial process heat, air conditioning and Rankine engine operation.

Winston, R

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Incidence angle modifiers in cylindrical solar collector design. Final report, June 1996--May 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This thesis presents an analysis of the thermal performance of cylindrical solar collectors. A major contributor to performance is optics, the principle focus of this work. A tool used to compute the incidence angle modifiers (IAM`s) for cylindrical solar collectors is presented. The Monte Carlo Method is employed in a Fortran 90 computer code to compute the hemispheric IAM`s of cylindrical solar collectors. Using concentric cylinders, the tubes are modeled with and without back plane reflectors of varying size. The computed IAM`s are verified both analytically and experimentally. Outdoor experiments on an array of cylindrical tubes with various back planes and two different tube spacings are described. Agreement with TRNSYS runs in daily energy gain is excellent. Over the 38 data sets, taken on different days, a maximum error of 11.2% is observed, with an average error of 3%. Heat loss tests, used to calculate an overall heat loss coefficient for the collector, are also described. A parametric variation study is used to illustrate the effect of varying many of the collector parameters. This study provides insight into the significant design parameters for cylindrical solar collectors. This insight is used to analyze the effect of these design parameters on the annual energy delivered by the collector. In addition, a simple cost analysis illustrates the benefits of varying the design parameters. The use of this new program and a detailed Life Cycle Cost analysis are the tools needed for optimizing the design of a cylindrical solar collector. 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Ryan, J.P.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comparison of indoor-outdoor thermal performance for the Sunpak evacuated tube liquid collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance data is provided for current Sunpak production collectors. The effects of an improved manifold are seen from the test results. The test results show excellent correlation between the solar simulator derived test results and outdoor test results. Also, because of different incident angle modifiers, the all-day efficiency of this collector with a diffuse reflector is found to be comparable to the performance with the standard shaped specular reflector.

Not Available

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

Venable, S.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Horizontal drilling in shallow, geologically complex reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to test the concept that multiple hydraulic fracturing from a directionally-drilled horizontal well, using the medium radius build rate method, can increase gas production sufficiently to justify economic viability over conventional stimulated vertical wells. The test well is located in Yuma County, Colorado, in a favorable area of established production to avoid exploration risks. This report presents: background information; project description which covers location selection/geologic considerations; and preliminary work plan. (AT)

Venable, S.D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Portable top drive cuts horizontal drilling costs  

SciTech Connect

Economic analysis of a seven-well, long-reach horizontal drilling program into an unconsolidated, heavy-oil-bearing reservoir in Winter field near the Alberta/Saskatchewan border in Canada reveals that -- in the right application -- renting a portable top drive drilling system can reduce total drilling costs. Use of the portable top drive combined with other cost-saving measures enabled Saskoil, one of Canada`s larger independents, to drill more cheaply, on a cost-per-meter basis, in 1993 than in 1992. This was despite significant rental rates for drilling rigs and directional drilling services caused by increased demand in Western Canada. Total cost savings of 10% on wells that would otherwise cost in the (C) $500,000 range are believed realistic. Based on this year`s performance, Saskoil recommends top drive for the company`s future horizontal wells in this area. This article describes the operator`s horizontal well program, advantages of top drive in that program and how it was installed and applied. Estimated time savings for six wells, plus other ways top drive can cut costs and improve operations are discussed.

Jackson, B. [Saskoil, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Yager, D. [Tesco Drilling Tech., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Measurements of insolation variation over a solar collector field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The experiment described in this report makes observations to determine the direct insolation every 16 sec at corners of a quadrilateral approximately 600 meters in size located near Barstow, California. This size approximates the collector field of the solar power plant to be built near Barstow. Data from the first three months of operation of this experiment indicate cloudy conditions, capable of affecting the operation of a solar power plant, occurred during 15% of the daylight hours of some months. Patterns of insolation variation over the experiment area indicate shadows often exist with dimensions less than the projected size of the collection field for the 10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal power plant. Detailed statistical summaries of four partly cloudy events are included. Rates of insolation change on an individual sensor greater than or equal to 30 Wm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ have been observed, but these rate measurements have probably been limited by the response time of the experimental system. Spatial averaging of the measured insolation over the sensor field lowers the rate of insolation change.

Not Available

1978-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Estimators for the Standard Deviation of Horizontal Wind Direction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard deviation of horizontal wind direction is a central quantity in the description of atmospheric turbulence and of great practical use in dispersion models. As horizontal wind direction is a circular variable, its standard deviation ...

Rudolf O. Weber

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

High accuracy diffuse horizontal irradiance measurements without a shadowband  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The standard method for measuring diffuse horizontal irradiance uses a fixed shadowband to block direct solar radiation. This method requires a correction for the excess skylight blocked by the band, and this correction varies with sky conditions. Alternately, diffuse horizontal irradiance may be calculated from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance. This method is in error because of angular (cosine) response of the total horizontal pyranometer to direct beam irradiance. This paper describes an improved calculation of diffuse horizontal irradiance from total horizontal and direct normal irradiance using a predetermination of the angular response of the total horizontal pyranometer. We compare these diffuse horizontal irradiance calculations with measurements made with a shading-disk pyranometer that shields direct irradiance using a tracking disk. Results indicate significant improvement in most cases. Remaining disagreement most likely arises from undetected tracking errors and instrument leveling.

Schlemmer, J.A; Michalsky, J.J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Horizontal drilling boosts Pennsylvanias natural gas production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Between 2009 and 2011, Pennsylvania's natural gas production more than quadrupled due to expanded horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing.

407

Eight evacuated collector installations. Interim report for the IEA task on the performance of solar heating, cooling and hot water systems using evacuated collectors  

SciTech Connect

The cooperative IEA task on evacuated collector systems includes the following research and development projects: solar heated and cooled single family residences in Japan and the USA, a solar heated single family residence in the Netherlands, a solar heated multi-family unit in West Germany, a solar test facility in the United Kingdom, solar heated and cooled offices in Australia, a solar heated and cooled laboratory in Italy, an industrial process heat application in Canada, a solar heated and cooled university building in the USA and district heating systems in Sweden and Switzerland. The task covers the important evacuated collector applications. The same collectors are used in several installations and nearly all currently available evacuated collectors are used in at least one installation. Exchange of performance results within the task has been greatly enhanced by adoption of a mandatory highly prescriptive common reporting structure. Detailed unambiguous performance comparisons are made which would otherwise be difficult or impractical. This report, the first in a series of reports that will be published through 1986, describes the system and climate at eight of the installations and illustrates and compares seasonal, monthly, daily and hourly performance of the installations in Japan, Sweden, the USA and West Germany.

Duff, W.S.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Participation in multilateral effort to develop high performance integrated CPC evacuated collectors. [Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)  

SciTech Connect

The University of Chicago Solar Energy Group has had a continuing program and commitment to develop an advanced evacuated solar collector integrating nonimaging concentration into its design. During the period from 1985--1987, some of our efforts were directed toward designing and prototyping a manufacturable version of an Integrated Compound Parabolic Concentrator (ICPC) evacuated collector tube as part of an international cooperative effort involving six organizations in four different countries. This multilateral'' project made considerable progress towards a commercially practical collector. One of two basic designs considered employed a heat pipe and an internal metal reflector CPC. We fabricated and tested two large diameter (125mm) borosilicate glass collector tubes to explore this concept. The other design also used a large diameter (125mm) glass tube but with a specially configured internal shaped mirror CPC coupled to a U-tube absorber. Performance projections in a variety of systems applications using the computer design tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) task on evacuated collectors were used to optimize the optical and thermal design. The long-term goal of this work continues to be the development of a high efficiency, low cost solar collector to supply solar thermal energy at temperatures up to 250{degree}C. Some experience and perspectives based on our work are presented and reviewed. Despite substantial progress, the stability of research support and the market for commercial solar thermal collectors were such that the project could not be continued. A cooperative path involving university, government and industrial collaboration remains the most attractive near term option for developing a commercial ICPC.

Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

1992-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

Harrison, T.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A solar test collector for evaluation of both selective and non-selective absorbers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar test collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatings under controlled conditions. The design consisted of a collector fed by a controlled temperature fluid within the range of 25 to 90/sup 0/C (77 to 194/sup 0/F). This temperature was maintained by a custom electronic controller. A small variable flow pump circulated water through three collector pipes at selected flow rates. Strip heaters coupled with a differential temperature controller compensated for edge losses associated with small collectors. Detailed design and operation data were presented and three black chrome and one non-selective absorber were analyzed in detail by test collector measurements. Results showed Efficiencies as high as 77% and 75% (..delta..T = 0) were obtained respectively for 1.0 ..mu..m black chrome on copper and nickel plated steel. The lowest loss coefficients were about 3.8 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C for all black chrome/metal surfaces with the highest being 8.4 W/m/sup 2/ /sup 0/C for the black paint/metal sample.

Lampert, C.M.; Washburn, J.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Determining the optical quality of focusing collectors without laser ray tracing  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a novel alternative to the laser ray trace technique for evaluating the optical quality of focusing solar collectors. The new method does not require any equipment beyond what is used for measuring collector efficiency; it could therefore become part of routine collector testing. The total optical errors resulting from imperfect specularity and from inaccuracies in reflector position or slope are characterized by an angular standard deviation sigma/sub optical/, the rms deviation of the reflected rays from the design direction. The method is based on the fact that the off-axis performance of a concentrator depends on sigma/sub optical/. An angular scan is performed, i.e., the collector output is measured as a function of misalignment angle over the entire range of angles for which there is measurable output (typically a few degrees). This test should be carried out on a very clear day, with receiver close to ambient temperature (if the latter conditions cannot be satisfied, appropriate corrections are necessary). The parameter sigma/sub optical/ is then determined by a least-squares fit between the measured and the calculated angular scan. We tested the method on a parabolic trough collector manufactured by Hexcel, but it is suitable for parabolic dishes as well. The method appears to be accurate enough to determine sigma/sub optical/ within about 10%.

Bendt, P.; Gaul, H.; Rabl, A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Solar-collector field experimental tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar-collection field subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been operated successfully for two years. It has been demonstrated that during a one-year period, the solar-collector field can, on the average, provide about 2500 kWh of thermal energy a day for days with a daily insolation total greater than 4000 Wh/m/sup 2/. This is a yearlong solar-collector field average efficiency of 22.5%. In Yanbu, from October 1, 1985, until September 30, 1986, there were only 21 days (5.8%) when the daily direct-normal insolation was less than the mid-60% to 70% range with a peak output of 51 kW per solar collector. It has also been demonstrated that the Power Kinetics, Inc., square-dish solar collector has a problem due to the fixed aperture (outboard focus) that seriously hurts the performance of the solar collector during the summer months at this latitude. A location at latitudes greater than +-35/degree/ would see greatly improved daylong summer performance. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mercuty Control With The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4 - Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Highly efficient solar collector including means for preventing cover plate fluid condensation  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy collector of low cost and high thermal efficiency is disclosed having a heat trap produced by zigzagging a thin strip of polyethylene terephthalate between opposite sides of the trap while wrapping the strip about rows of dowels positioned at opposite sides of the frame of the solar collector. A window of soda lime glass filters uv radiation to inhibit discoloration of the plastic heat trap walls. An absorber plate having fluid pipes therein is positioned underneath the heat trap and a first layer of fiberglass, and a second layer of polyurethane foam are positioned below the absorber plate. The fiberglass layer prevents overheating of the polyurethane foam layer to in turn inhibit the formation of toxic fluids, which may condense upon the underside of the window to reduce the efficiency of the collector.

Root, E.F.; Kunica, S.; Simmons, H.M.

1977-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

417

Random Deployment of Data Collectors for Serving Randomly-Located Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, wireless communication industries have begun to extend their services to machine-type communication devices as well as to the user equipment. Such machine-type communication devices as meters and sensors need intermittent uplink resources to report measured or sensed data to their serving data collector. It is however hard to dedicate limited uplink resources to each of them. Thus, efficient service of a tremendous number of devices with low activities may consider simple random access as a solution. The data collectors receiving the measured data from many sensors simultaneously can successfully decode only signals with signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) above a certain value. The main design issues for this environment become how many data collectors are needed, how much power sensor nodes transmit with, and how wireless channels affect the performance. This paper provides answers to those questions through a stochastic analysis based on a spatial point process and on simulations.

Kwon, Taesoo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solar Collector: A Novel Way of Harnessing the Sun's Energy The team analysed the prototype and different design alternatives.The goal of the Solar Collector is to better  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Collector: A Novel Way of Harnessing the Sun's Energy Overview The team analysed the prototype and different design alternatives.The goal of the Solar Collector is to better harness the solar in SolidWorks and simulating and analysing the designs in ASAP. Approach · The group visited Solar Dynamic

Demirel, Melik C.

419

Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

A.K. Scheider

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Horizontal flow drilling requires focus on well control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal wells drilled underbalanced or while flowing must have surface equipment and a blow-out preventer stack specially designed for circulating operations. Functional well control methods for drilling horizontal wells have been developed in specific regions worldwide. Special safety equipment and procedures, however, are still required in most horizontal development applications. The challenge for horizontal drilling development and underbalanced drilling is to overcome the obstacles of government regulation, reduce pollution dangers, and improve personnel and equipment safety. Well control techniques tailored to the demands of each field can help overcome these challenges. Several well control elements must be addressed carefully on each horizontal well: drilling fluid requirements, well control procedures and equipment, and surface equipment and special considerations for handling hydrocarbons produced while drilling. The paper discusses each of these elements for underbalanced horizontal drilling.

Tangedahl, M.J. (RBOP Oil Tools International Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

Chao, Bei Tse (Urbana, IL); Rabl, Ari (Downers Grove, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solar collector/still for salt-water desalination. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined in-line solar collector/still for the desalination of salt water was designed, built, and tested on site in the Florida Keys. During the course of the project the basic configuration was modified, as project funds permitted, to enhance performance. This collector/still utilizes sunlight for the direct heating of water and for the heating of air. The heating air is bubbled through the heated water producing desalinated water vapor which is subsequently collected. The result is non-salted water produced using sunlight.

Fonash, R.L.

423

Frequency response analysis of fluid control systems for parabolic-trough solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A linearized steady-state frequency response is derived for parabolic-trough collectors and for connecting piping that can be used in standard gain-phase analyses to evaluate system stability and closed-loop frequency response. The frequency-response characteristics of a typical collector string and piping are used in a gain-phase analysis to get some insight into the effect on system stability of various system parameters such as controller gain, sensor and controller-time constants, and sensor location.

Schindwolf, R.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Measured performances of curved inverted-vee, absorber compound parabolic concentrating solar-energy collectors  

SciTech Connect

The design and thermal performance of modified compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) solar-energy collectors are described. The designs incorporate a curved inverted-Vee absorber fin, which allows a reflector of simple geometry to be used. This CPC collector, has exhibited a superior performance to that of a conventional cusp-reflector CPC design, owing to the enhancement of the optical efficiency obtained by eliminating gap optical losses and an enhanced heat removal factor. The consequence upon the performance of a further design refinement, which inhibited the convective heat losses, is also reported.

Norton, B. (Univ. of Ulster at Jordanstown (Ireland)); Prapas, D.E. (Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece)); Eames, P.C.; Probert, S.D. (Cranfield Institute of Technology, Bedford (England))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Detailed parametric analyses of heat transfer in CPC solar energy collectors  

SciTech Connect

A detailed parametric analysis of heat transfer in compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors has been performed, using a unified model for their optical and thermophysical behaviour. The effects of angular inclination and collector acceptance angles on free convection within the cavity are presented. The circumferential variation of local Nusselt number about the absorber is determined. A convective heat transfer correlation is obtained for the average Nusselt number with respect to Grashof number that takes into account acceptance angle and angular inclination. The developed correlation is extended to truncated compound parabolic concentrators.

Eames, P.C.; Norton, B. (Univ. of Ulster (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Validated, unified model for optics and heat transfer in line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous numerical simulation model for the prediction of the combined optical and thermofluid behaviour of line-axis concentrating solar energy collectors combines two-dimensional steady-state finite element analysis of convective heat transfer and ray-trace techniques. The optical analysis considers both direct and diffuse insolation components and is therefore useful for the analysis of compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Experiments using Mach-Zehnder interferometry indicate a parametric range for which such a two-dimensional representation is valid.

Eames, P.C.; Norton, B. (Univ. of Ulster (United Kingdom))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Shallow horizontal drilling in unconsolidated sands offshore California  

SciTech Connect

Four shallow horizontal wells were drilled from Platform C in Dos Cuadras field offshore California to recover reserves inaccessible with conventional drilling techniques. The wells had true vertical depths (TVD's) ranging from 746 to 989 ft with total horizontal displacements from 1,613 to 3,788 ft. The wells had horizontal displacement TVD ratios up to 3.95. The targets were unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. This paper details well planning, drilling, and completion.

Payne, J.D.; Bunyak, M.J. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Huston, C.W. (Smith International Inc., Tyler, TX (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Measurements of sky luminance, sky illuminance, and horizontal solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents initial findings of a sky measurement program currently in progress at the National Bureau of Standards. Measurements are reported on sky luminance and illuminance and how they relate to horizontal solar radiation and sun position. Correlations are presented relating horizontal illuminance to horizontal solar radiation, and zenith luminance to solar altitude. These empirical models are particularly suitable for use in daylighting energy studies since they are based on existing solar data currently available on standard weather tapes.

Treado, S.; Gillette, G.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Guided Horizontal Drilling: A Primer for Electric Utilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is intended to be an introduction to guided horizontal drilling, also termed horizontal directional drilling (HDD), as an alternative construction method to open trenching for the installation of underground power cables, pipes, ducts, or conduits. It is written for an audience that includes electric power engineers, designers, operations and procurement personnel. The document introduces guided horizontal drilling technology, the equipment, and several critical aspects of operating the equ...

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

430

Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

Harrison, T.D.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Drilling Sideways -- A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

DOE/EIA-TR-0565 Distribution Category UC-950 Drilling Sideways -- A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application April 1993 Energy Information ...

432

ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR - PILOT-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding. In addition to DOE and the EERC, the project team includes W.L. Gore and Associates, Inc., Allied Environmental Technologies, Inc., and the Big Stone power station. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique approach to develop a compact but highly efficient system. Filtration and electrostatics are employed in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The objective of the AHPC is to provide >99.99% particulate collection efficiency for particle sizes from 0.01 to 50 {micro}m and be applicable for use with all U.S. coals at a lower cost than existing technologies. In previous field tests with the AHPC, some minor bag damage was observed that appeared to be caused by electrical effects. Extensive studies were then carried out to determine the reason for the bag damage and to find possible solutions without compromising AHPC performance. The best solution to prevent the bag damage was found to be perforated plates installed between the electrodes and the bags, which can block the electric field from the bag surface and intercept current to the bags. The perforated plates not only solve the bag damage problem, but also offer many other advantages such as operation at higher A/C (air-to-cloth) ratios, lower pressure drop, and an even more compact geometric arrangement. For this project, AHPC pilot-scale tests were carried out to understand the effect of the perforated plate configuration on bag protection and AHPC overall performance and to optimize the perforated plate design. Five different perforated plate configurations were evaluated in a coal combustion system. The AHPC performed extremely well even at a low current level (1.5-3.0 mA) and a low pulse trigger pressure of 6.5 in. W.C. (1.62 kPa), resulting in a bag-cleaning interval of over 40 min at an A/C ratio of 12 ft/min (3.7 m/min) for most of the test period. The longest bag-cleaning interval was 594 min, which is the best to date. The residual drag was reduced to the range from 0.25 to 0.35 in. H{sub 2}O/ft/min, showing an excellent bag-cleaning ability under the perforated plate configurations. The K{sub 2}C{sub i} at the current level of 3 mA was as low as 1.0, indicating excellent ESP performance. All the results are the best achieved to date.

Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michael E. Collings; Michelle R. Olderbak

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Performance characteristics of open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator for solar cooling applications. Part 2. System simulation and performance measurements. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focussed on the performance and system simulation of an open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator.

Wood, B.D.; Siebe, D.A.; Applebaum, M.A.; Novak, K.S.; Ballew, L.M.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling  

SciTech Connect

A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Huang, J. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch{reg_sign}) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Low-concentration CPC's for low-temperature solar energy applications  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the feasiblity of low-concentration CPC's for low-temperature applications. A quantitative assessment of optical gains versus thermal losses, and of savings in reflector area, leads to the conclusion that low-concentration CPC's of relatively small acceptance angle may be competitive with, or superior to, flat plates. Calculations of yearly collected energy and material requirements are presented, and comparisons are made with corresponding flat plate collectors.

Gordon, J.M.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Variation of collector efficiency and receiver thermal loss as a function of solar irradiance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efficiency and thermal loss of a parabolic trough concentrating solar collector have been measured for values of solar irradiance between 400 W/m/sup 2/ and 1000 W/m/sup 2/. Both parameters are shown to vary significantly with changing solar irradiance. Significant errors can result from improper use of currently published efficiency data.

Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

ETRANS: an energy transport system optimization code for distributed networks of solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optimization code ETRANS was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to design and estimate the costs associated with energy transport systems for distributed fields of solar collectors. The code uses frequently cited layouts for dish and trough collectors and optimizes them on a section-by-section basis. The optimal section design is that combination of pipe diameter and insulation thickness that yields the minimum annualized system-resultant cost. Among the quantities included in the costing algorithm are (1) labor and materials costs associated with initial plant construction, (2) operating expenses due to daytime and nighttime heat losses, and (3) operating expenses due to pumping power requirements. Two preliminary series of simulations were conducted to exercise the code. The results indicate that transport system costs for both dish and trough collector fields increase with field size and receiver exit temperature. Furthermore, dish collector transport systems were found to be much more expensive to build and operate than trough transport systems. ETRANS itself is stable and fast-running and shows promise of being a highly effective tool for the analysis of distributed solar thermal systems.

Barnhart, J.S.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

George, Thomas J. (Star City, WV); Meacham, G. B. Kirby (Shaker Heights, OH)

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

440

Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Planar fuel cell utilizing nail current collectors for increased active surface area  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plurality of nail current collector members are useful in the gas flow passages of an electrochemical device to optimize the active surfaces of the device and to provide structural support. In addition, the thicknesses of cathode and anode layers within the electrochemical device are varied according to current flow through the device to reduce resistance and increase operating efficiency.

George, Thomas J.; Meacham, G.B. Kirby

1999-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

442

Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Revised fact sheet describes the transpired solar collector that was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

443

Solar heat collectors. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains selected patents concerning solar heat collector apparatus and systems. Building panels, air conditioning systems, chemical heat pumps, refrigeration systems, and controls are discussed. Applications include residential and commercial building space and water heating, greenhouse heating, and swimming pool heating. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Low-cost site-assembled solar collector designs for use with heat pumps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four low cost solar collector designs have been produced for use in solar assisted heat pump systems. Three principles guided the design: the use of air as the heat transfer medium, the use of on-site easy-to-install construction rather than modularized prefabricated construction, and the collection of solar energy at reduced temperatures.

Andrews, J W; Wilhelm, W

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Brief Energy-based control of a distributed solar collector field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model-based control of the outlet temperature of a distributed solar collector field is studied. An energy-based controller is derived using internal energy as a controlled variable. The controller relies on a distributed parameter nonlinear plant model ... Keywords: Distributed parameter systems, Model-based control, Nonlinear control, Solar power

Tor A. Johansen; Camilla Storaa

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A study of the scalability of stop-the-world garbage collectors on multicores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale multicore architectures create new challenges for garbage collectors (GCs). In particular, throughput-oriented stop-the-world algorithms demonstrate good performance with a small number of cores, but have been shown to degrade badly beyond ... Keywords: garbage collection, multicore, numa

Lokesh Gidra; Gal Thomas; Julien Sopena; Marc Shapiro

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Collector surface for a microwave tube comprising a carbon-bonded carbon-fiber composite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a microwave tube, an improved collector surface coating comprises a porous carbon composite material, preferably a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite having a bulk density less than about 2 g/cc. Installation of the coating is readily adaptable as part of the tube manufacturing process. 4 figs.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Moorhead, A.J.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

448

Experiment study on single-pass photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) air collector with absorber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Problem statement: Solar cell received heat from solar irradiance as well and this will reduce the efficiency of the solar cell. The heat trap at the solar photovoltaic panel becomes waste energy. Approach: The solution for this was by adding a cooling ... Keywords: air collector, photovoltaic thermal, rectangle tunnel absorber, thermal efficiency

Goh Li Jin; Hafidz Ruslan; Sohif Mat; Mohd. Yusof Othman; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The analysis and comparison of actual to predicted collector array performances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hottel-Whillier-Bliss (HWB) equation has been the standard tool for the evaluation of collector thermal performance for four decades. This paper presents a technique that applies the criteria of ASHRAE Standard 93-77 to the determination of the HWB ...

W. H. McCumber; M. W. Weston

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR COLLECTOR OF STARDUST. A. J. Westphal1 , C. Allen2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. Approximately 85% of the 1039 cm2 collector area of the Stardust Interstellar tray consists of aerogel tiles incorporation of data from vary- ing heliocentric distances and better understanding of particle size filtering particles >300 nm in size to have hit aerogel and 15 to have impacted the aluminum foil. An important lesson

451

Qualification test procedures and results for Honeywell solar collector subsystem, single-family residence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedures and results are described in qualifying the Honeywell solar collector subsystem. Testing began in mid-August 1976, and was concluded in late February 1977. Testing was done in the following areas: pressure, service loads, hail, solar degradation, pollutants, thermal degradation, and outgassing. Results from these tests are summarized.

Not Available

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Atomic-absorption analysis in a graphite furnace fitted with a metal ballast collector  

SciTech Connect

One reason for the deterioration in sensitivity in the electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy of petroleum products is the uncontrolled spread and diffusion of the liquid throughout the furnace. This paper describes a metal ballast collector whose wettability and sorptive properties contain the sample and allow for its uniform and controlled evaporation and atomization.

Katskov, D.A.; Vasil' eva, L.A.; Grinshtein, I.L.; Savel' eva, G.O.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Application of horizontal wells in steeply dipping reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A three-dimensional reservoir simulation study is performed to evaluate the impact of horizontal well applications on oil recovery from steeply dipping reservoirs. The Provincia field, located in Colombia, provided the basic reservoir information for the study. Reservoir simulation results indicate that for reservoir dip angles greater than about 40', this parameter has little or no effect on the primary recovery performance for homogeneous high-permeability reservoirs, The initial gascap size and the anisotropy of permeability (kv/kh ratio) are the dominant parameters affecting the oil recovery. For thin reservoirs, the location of the horizontal injector will not significantly affect the oil recovery. Simultaneous gas and water injection through horizontal wells can increase the oil recovery factor from almost 35% under primary production to 40%. A significant incremental oil recovery could be expected by employing horizontal wells for simultaneous gas and water injection. A comparison of the production performance of horizontal and vertical producers shows that a horizontal well can produce oil up to 2.5 times the oil rate of a vertical well, without a high rate of gas production. Also, the use of horizontal producers significantly accelerates the oil recovery. For the case of a homogeneous reservoir under simultaneous gas and water injection, the horizontal well system does not give a significant increment in the oil recovery compared to the vertical well system.

Lopez Navarro, Jose David

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

The Foundation and Application of Horizontal Well Deliverability Type Curves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a development technique to improve oil and gas deliverability, horizontal wells have recently become an important technical support to develop low permeability or extra-low permeability and unconventional oil and gas fields. Therefore, it is quite ... Keywords: Horizontal well, Impermeable and circular boundary reservoir, Stehfest numerical inversion, Blasingame decline curves, Single well dynamic reserves

Rong Wang; Yonggang Duan; Quantang Fang; Cao Tingkuan; Mingqiang Wei

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Feddema, John T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Solar heating and you  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet for use with primary school classes describes what solar collectors are and how they work, passive solar rooms, flat-plate collectors, and why one should use solar heating systems. Making a solar air heater is described step-by-step with illustrations. A resource list for both students and teachers is provided for further information.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.

Moss, Timothy A.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Goals study for technical development and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator concept for solar energy collector applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Argonne National Laboratories, contracted with Arthur D. Little, Inc. (ADL), to perform a 6 week goal study for the purpose of evaluating the technical applicability and the economic viability of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) concept for all solar energy applications except large central power plants. During this period, we studied the use of CPC units in a large number of residential, industrial, and commercial applications. The predicted performance of CPC augmented solar collectors was compared with other available solar collectors. Application of the CPC to on-site power generation using solar Rankine power generation techniques was studied in detail. Techniques and costs for fabricating CPC collectors were studied. Collectors with insulation and with full-surface reflectors were studied along with the use of CPC augmentation for evacuated receivers with selective surfaces. Manufacturing costs are compared with those reported by others. A qualitative comparison was made between the various classes of solar collectors that are either presently available or are expected to become available in the near future. Comparative energy costs for various collectors are discussed based upon the predicted performance and the estimated costs for manufacture. The problems of introducing the CPC, or other advanced technology type of solar collectors, into the U. S. construction and HVAC market are briefly discussed. (auth)

None

1975-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "horizontal flat-plate collectors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Outdoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak SEC-601 (air) solar collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedures used and the test results obtained during the performance of an evaluation test program on the Owens-Illinois Sunpak, model SEC-601, air solar collector under natural outdoor weather conditions are presented. All testing activities were performed on a single module installed on the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar House. The test was performed and the data evaluated according to the methods provided in ASHRAE 93-77 (Method of Testing to Determine the Thermal Performance of Solar Collectors) as applicable to outdoor testing of solar collectors.

Not Available

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Vapor Flow to Horizontal Wells in Unsaturated Zones Hongbin Zhan* and Eungyu Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Flow to Horizontal Wells in Unsaturated Zones Hongbin Zhan* and Eungyu Park ABSTRACT and vaporthree dimensional form for a horizontal-well sink in an unsaturated zone. This is done by solving; horizontal-well axis to obtain the solution of flow to a horizontal-well Zhan and Cao, 2000). Horizontal

Zhan, Hongbin

463

Fraced horizontal well shows potential of deep tight gas  

SciTech Connect

Successful completion of a multiple fraced, deep horizontal well demonstrated new techniques for producing tight gas sands. In Northwest Germany, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH drilled, cased, and fraced the world`s deepest horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand at 15,687 ft (4,783 m) true vertical depth. The multiple frac concept provides a cost-efficient method to economically produce significant gas resources in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand. Besides the satisfactory initial gas production rate, the well established several world records, including deepest horizontal well with multiple fracs, and proved this new technique to develop ultra-tight sands.

Schueler, S. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany); Santos, R. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

1996-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Numerical and experimental investigation of a supersonic flow field around solid fuel on an inclined flat plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research adopts a shock tube 16 meters long and with a 9 cmbore to create a supersonic, high-temperature, and high-pressure flowfield to observe the gasification and ignition of HTPB solid fuel under different environments. Also, full-scale 3D numerical ...

Uzu-Kuei Hsu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Wind Mixing In a Turbulent Surface Layer in the Presence of a Horizontal Density Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of a horizontal density gradient of buoyancy on the turbulent kinetic energy budget of the surface mixed layer in the ocean is discussed. The combination of a horizontal buoyancy gradient and a vertical shear of the horizontal velocity ...

Johan Rodhe

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 2, April 1978-September 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat pipe fluid-vessel combinations continued to be life tested at design and stagnation conditions for time periods exceeding 14,000 hours. Additional testing was carried out at the lower end of the environment temperature range by freeze-thaw testing of several water heat pipes. Additional fluids search work resulted in developing a procedure to purify trimethylborate. Eight trimethylborate heat pipes were fabricated and installed in a modified GE TC-100 solar panel. Solar performance tests were performed on the heat pipe collector and a standard TC-100 collector. Heat pipe collector performance exceeded 90% of the TC-100. A source of water compatible steel, NP454, was identified as was an experimental tubing manufacturer. The current availability of NP454 and the successful demonstration of antifreeze mechanisms lays the ground work for testing a heat pipe collector using water heat pipes.

Ernst, D.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Horizontal and Vertical Structure of the Lake Turkana Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observational study was undertaken at selected sites in north Kenya (Turkana channel) in February 1983 and in JuneJuly 1984 to investigate the horizontal and vertical extent of the Turkana low-level jet. Observations indicate that strong ...

Joseph Hiri Kinuthia

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Means and Standard Deviations of Horizontal Wind Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is presented that computes a measure of horizontal wind dispersion. The algorithm features a compact, machine economic structure that removes wind direction scale discontinuities. By requiring only one pass through the input data, ...

G. R. Ackermann

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Does Increasing Horizontal Resolution Produce More Skillful Forecasts?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the impacts of increasing horizontal resolution on the performance of mesoscale numerical weather prediction models. A review of previous studies suggests that decreasing grid spacing to approximately 10 km orless generally ...

Clifford F. Mass; David Ovens; Ken Westrick; Brian A. Colle

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Does Increased Horizontal Resolution Improve Hurricane Wind Forecasts?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The representation of tropical cyclone track, intensity, and structure in a set of 69 parallel forecasts performed at each of two horizontal grid increments with the Advanced Research Hurricane (AHW) component of the Weather and Research and ...

Christopher Davis; Wei Wang; Jimy Dudhia; Ryan Torn

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Diagnosing Mesoscale Vertical Motion from Horizontal Velocity and Density Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale vertical velocity is obtained by solving a generalized omega equation (? equation) using density and horizontal velocity data from three consecutive quasi-synoptic high-resolution surveys in the Alboran Sea. The Atlantic Jet (AJ) ...

Enric Palls Sanz; lvaro Videz

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

The Response of a Uniform Horizontal Temperature Gradient to Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of a uniform horizontal temperature gradient to prescribed fixed heating is calculated in the context of an extended version of surface quasigeostrophic dynamics. It is found that for zero mean surface flow and weak cross-gradient ...

Maarten H. P. Ambaum; Panos J. Athanasiadis

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Mixed Layer Restratification Due to a Horizontal Density Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The restratification in the surface mixed layer driven by a horizontal density gradient following a storm is examined. For a constant layer depth H and constant buoyancy gradient |bx| = M2, geostrophic adjustment leads to new stratification with ...

Amit Tandon; Chris Garrett

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

High-Cloud Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Solar Albedo Bias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High ice cloud horizontal inhomogeneity is examined using optical depth retrievals from four midlatitude datasets. Three datasets include ice cloud microphysical profiles derived from millimeter cloud radar at the Southern Great Plains ...

Betty Carlin; Qiang Fu; Ulrike Lohmann; Gerald G. Mace; Kenneth Sassen; Jennifer M. Comstock

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

A New Horizontal Gradient, Continuous Flow, Ice Thermal Diffusion Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A continuous-flow, horizontal gradient, ice thermal diffusion chamber has been developed and tested for heterogeneous ice nucleation of aerosol particles under accurately controlled supersaturations and supercooling in the absence of a substrate. ...

E. M. Tomlinson; N. Fukuta

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

On Computing the Surface Horizontal Pressure Gradient over Elevated Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods are proposed for calculating the surface horizontal pressure gradient or geostrophic wind in a local area over elevated terrain from randomly spaced surface observations. These procedures avoid many of the problems associated with sea-...

Maurice Danard

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

On Computing the Horizontal Pressure Gradient Force in Sigma Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corby et al. present a finite-difference expression for the horizontal pressure gradient force in sigma coordinates that, in a barotropic atmosphere where the temperature varies linearly with logarithm of pressure, has the same net truncation ...

Maurice Danard; Qing Zhang; John Kozlowski

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

480

Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

Bae, Soonhoon

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z