National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hor se trap

  1. Barrier to Trap Filling CuIn1-xGaxSe2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Ramanathan, K.; Contreras, M.; Abushama, J.; Crandall, R. S.

    2003-04-01

    Voltage pulses of variable length were applied to CuIn1-xGaxSe2/CdS (0< x< 1) junction solar cells. The resulting transient capacitance emission signal was recorded for several minutes. The amplitude of the capacitance emission signal increased linearly with the log of pulse time. These data do not follow the standard model for trap capture and emission of carriers. Instead they follow a simple electrostatic model based on electrostatic charging of traps.

  2. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  3. Gate-modulated weak anti-localization and carrier trapping in individual Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li-Xian; Yan, Yuan; Liao, Zhi-Min Yu, Da-Peng

    2015-02-09

    We report a gate-voltage modulation on the weak anti-localization of individual topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbons. The phase coherence length decreases with decreasing the carrier density of the surface states on the bottom surface of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanoribbon as tuning the gate voltage from 0 to −100 V, indicating that the electron-electron interaction dominates the decoherence at low carrier density. Furthermore, we observe an abnormal conductance decline at positive gate voltage regime, which is ascribed to the capture of surface carriers by the trapping centers in the surface oxidation layer.

  4. Recombination luminescence and trap levels in undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films on quartz and GaSe (0 0 0 1) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evtodiev, I.; Caraman, I.; Leontie, L.; Rusu, D.-I.; Dafinei, A.; Nedeff, V.; Lazar, G.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO films on GaSe create electron trapping states and PL recombination levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn and Al diffusion in GaSe produces low-energy widening of its PL emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO:Al films on GaSe lamellas are suitable for gas-discharge lamp applications. -- Abstract: Photoluminescence spectra of ZnO and ZnO:Al (1.00, 2.00 and 5.00 at.%) films on GaSe (0 0 0 1) lamellas and amorphous quartz substrates, obtained by annealing, at 700 K, of undoped and Al-doped metal films, are investigated. For all samples, the nonequilibrium charge carriers recombine by radiative band-to-band transitions with energy of 3.27 eV, via recombination levels created by the monoionized oxygen atoms, forming the impurity band laying in the region 2.00 - 2.70 eV. Al doping induces an additional recombination level at 1.13 eV above the top of the valence band of ZnO films on GaSe substrates. As a result of thermal diffusion of Zn and Al into the GaSe interface layer from ZnO:Al/GaSe heterojunction, electron trap levels located at 0.22 eV and 0.26 eV below the conduction band edge of GaSe, as well as a deep recombination level, responsible for the luminescent emission in the region 1.10 - 1.40 eV, are created.

  5. COLD TRAPS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  6. TRAP) K. S. Marble

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The trap's electric quadrupole field is provided by a SHIP TRAPS RF electronic circuit to the four segmented electrodes at the center of the trap while the trap's 7 Tesla magnetic ...

  7. COLD TRAP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  8. VACUUM TRAP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  9. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  10. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  11. Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water GREENPOWER TRAP-MUFFLER(tm) System (US Patent 6892531, 5085049, PCT, others pending) www.dieselnet.comdr.rim CatalystDPF EGR Accumulator Air Intake Filter Turbo Charger ...

  12. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  13. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  14. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  15. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  16. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E.; Alexander, Michael L.; Follansbee, James C.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  17. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  18. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  19. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, Brian R.

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  20. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  1. Filter vapor trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  2. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  3. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  4. CNEEC - Nanophotonic Light Trapping Tutorial by Shanhui Fan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanophotonic Light Trapping for Solar Cells

  5. Thermostatic steam trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.H.; Mac Nicol, A.E.

    1987-03-03

    A thermostatic trap is described for a heating system having a feed pipe connected to a source of steam and a discharge pipe for discharge of condensate and comprising: housing means defining a volume and comprising a bowl shaped body, a removable cover therefor, a housing inlet pipe portion projecting from a side wall portion of the body and adapted for connection to the discharge pipe. A housing outlet pipe portion projects from a bottom wall portion of the body, and an outlet orifice defined by the bottom wall portion and extends between the volume and the outlet pipe portion; a valve body means retained within the volume and comprising an end wall, a side wall and a retaining ring portion that together define a valve chamber. The end wall defines a valve inlet opening communicating with the chamber and an annular valve seat within the chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening. The valve body means comprises a valve outlet pipe that defines a valve outlet opening axially aligned with the valve inlet opening and communicating with the chamber, the outlet pipe being fixed in the outlet orifice; a resilient, annular seal means disposed within the valve chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening; and a bi-metallic disc disposed within the valve chamber between the annular seal means and the outlet opening and having an outer peripheral portion retained by the retaining ring portion of the valve body means.

  6. Audit unto others hor ellipsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, You're in a heap o' trouble boy '' Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a Buffalo Bill'' goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I'm fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived Because this first encounter of the worst kind'' made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  7. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  8. Fundamental Electroweak Studies using Trapped Ions & Atoms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    collaboration performs fundamental electroweak studies on trapped ions & atoms. We use neutral atom and ion trapping techniques at radioactive ion beam facilities here and...

  9. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1999-03-09

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector. 5 figs.

  10. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  11. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  13. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  14. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  15. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  16. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  17. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can become temporarily trapped by the molecule before ultimately escaping,

  18. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally thought to be forbidden can in fact be excited in conjunction with certain types of molecular vibrations. Specifically, they found that when the symmetry of a linear triatomic molecule is broken by asymmetric vibrational modes, photoelectrons can

  19. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.; Glish, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  20. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  1. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  2. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  3. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance is presented. The role of trapped ion granulations, clusters of trapped ions correlated by precession resonance, is the focus. ...

  4. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  5. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Witten, William B.; Kornienko, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  6. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J.; Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M. Chiaverini, J.

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  7. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each ... particle; trap; consists; array; electrode; surfaces; maintained; electrostatic; ...

  8. Thermal stability and photoconductive properties of photosensors with an alternating multilayer structure of amorphous Se and As{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tung-Yuan; Pan, Fu-Ming Chang, Cheng-Yi; Lin, Jian-Siang; Huang, Wen-Hsien

    2015-07-28

    In this study, we fabricated a-Se based photosensors with an alternating multilayer structure of a-Se and As{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} by rotational thermal evaporation deposition. During the deposition of the amorphous As{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} layers, As diffuses into the underlying a-Se component layers, thereby improving the thermal stability of the multilayer photosensor and thus increasing the breakdown electric field. Although the As doping introduces carrier traps in the a-Se layers, the multilayer photosensors demonstrate an effective quantum efficiency comparable to the single-layered a-Se sensor under the blue light illumination but are with a lower dark current density by two orders of magnitude. In addition to the top As{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} layer being functioning as an electron blocking layer, carrier traps present in the multilayer structure may decrease the drift mobility of charge carriers and disturb electric field distribution in the photosensors, thereby suppressing the dark current.

  9. Solon SE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Solon SE Place: Berlin, Berlin, Germany Zip: D-12489 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer of PV modules and tracking systems, and integrator of solar...

  10. About-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LGRT Conte Buildings The University of Massachusetts Amherst Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) - Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy, PHaSE - was one of 46 ...

  11. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  12. Measurements of PM Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurements of PM Traps 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentantion: West Virginia University PDF icon 2004deerclark.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  13. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary ... Fossil Energy Research Benefits FE's early investments in shale research in the 1970s ...

  14. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  15. The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory doesn't trap people named...

  16. Transient and steady state photoelectronic analysis in TlInSe{sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qasrawi, A.F.; Gasanly, N.M.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The steady state and time dependent photoconductivity kinetics of the TlInSe{sub 2} crystals are investigated in the temperature region of 100-350 K. {yields} The photocurrent of the sample exhibited linear, sublinear, and supralinear recombination mechanisms, at, above and below 160 K, respectively. {yields} Steady state photoconductivity revealed two recombination centres located at 234 and 94 meV. {yields} The transient photoconductivity is limited by a trapping center located at 173 meV. {yields} The capture coefficient of the trap for holes was determined as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}. -- Abstract: The temperature and illumination effects on the transient and steady state photoconductivities of TlInSe{sub 2} crystals have been studied. Namely, two recombination centres located at 234 and at 94 meV and one trap center located at 173 meV were determined from the temperature-dependent steady state and transient photoconductivities, respectively. The illumination dependence of photoconductivity indicated the domination of sublinear and supralinear recombination mechanisms above and below 160 K, respectively. The change in the recombination mechanism is attributed to the exchange of roles between the linear recombination at the surface and trapping centres in the crystal, which become dominant as temperature decreases. The transient photoconductivity measurement allowed the determination of the capture coefficient of traps for holes as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}.

  17. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  18. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  19. Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bear Trap Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Bear...

  20. NAC 503 - Hunting, Fishing and Trapping | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fishing and TrappingLegal Abstract These code sections outline the protective measures and restrictions on hunting, fishing, and trapping in the state of Nevada. Published...

  1. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  2. Resources-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources This webpage is provided for legacy archive purposes only, as of 30 April 2015. However, the facilities and resources created under PHaSE (thanks to the support of the U.S. Department of Energy) remain available for their original purpose of investigating organic-based electronic materials. Resources As a national and regional center of excellence for energy research, PHaSE has access to many resources linked from the Department of Energy and the greater UMass Amherst campus, as well

  3. Trapped Ion Optical Clocks at NPL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, H. S.; Barwood, G. P.; Hosaka, K.; Klein, H. A.; Lea, S. N.; Walton, B. R.; Webster, S. A.; Gill, P.; Huang, G.; Stannard, A.

    2006-11-07

    Forbidden transitions in single laser-cooled trapped ions provide highly stable and accurate references for optical frequency standards. This paper describes recent progress on strontium and ytterbium ion optical frequency standards under development at NPL.

  4. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. The 3 Protections Protection #1: Remove the source of contamination Protection #2: Stabilize,

  5. News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News and Highlights Saxony This page shows highlights and news items about PHaSE activities, research achievements, and people; archived items can be accessed by year at the menu to the left. If you have questions about any items, or want to know more, please contact either Tom Russell or D. Venkataraman. Final archive date: 26 April

  6. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant

  7. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their

  8. Audit unto others{hor_ellipsis}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember? The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, ``You`re in a heap o` trouble boy!`` Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a ``Buffalo Bill`` goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I`m fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived? Because this ``first encounter of the worst kind`` made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  9. Barron: Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-5402) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-5402) Barron: Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-5402) December 17, 2015 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Barron ...

  10. Shandong Hongtai: Noncompliance Determination (2016-SE-42010...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Noncompliance Determination (2016-SE-42010) Shandong Hongtai: Noncompliance Determination (2016-SE-42010) January 6, 2016 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to ...

  11. I2SE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I2SE Jump to: navigation, search Name: I2SE Place: Leipzig, Germany Zip: 4103 Sector: Efficiency Product: IT company providing solutions for energy efficiency and data...

  12. SE Project Srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SE Project Srl Place: San Pietro, Italy Zip: 35010 Sector: Solar Product: Italian manufacturer and supplier of solar modules and solar technology. References: SE...

  13. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  14. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  15. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  16. Entanglement generation in planar Penning traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Ana M.; Mendonca, J. T.; Guerreiro, A.; Vieira, V. R.

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the generation of entanglement between the axial degrees of freedom of electrons confined in separated locations in planar Penning traps. We show that there are two different sources of entanglement: one is related with the mechanism of switching on and off the electrical coupling between the two electrons, and the other is due to the two-quanta-transition term of the coupling interaction. We show that the degree of entanglement can be controlled by adjusting the strength of the coupling between the traps and the time of interaction. We show that the coupled electrons behave as a temporal active interferometer.

  17. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  18. Analysis of a magnetically trapped atom clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadio, D.; Band, Y. B.

    2006-11-15

    We consider optimization of a rubidium atom clock that uses magnetically trapped Bose condensed atoms in a highly elongated trap, and determine the optimal conditions for minimum Allan variance of the clock using microwave Ramsey fringe spectroscopy. Elimination of magnetic field shifts and collisional shifts are considered. The effects of spin-dipolar relaxation are addressed in the optimization of the clock. We find that for the interstate interaction strength equal to or larger than the intrastate interaction strengths, a modulational instability results in phase separation and symmetry breaking of the two-component condensate composed of the ground and excited hyperfine clock levels, and this mechanism limits the clock accuracy.

  19. Entanglement of trapped-ion clock states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haljan, P. C.; Lee, P. J.; Brickman, K-A.; Acton, M.; Deslauriers, L.; Monroe, C.

    2005-12-15

    A Moelmer-Soerensen entangling gate is realized for pairs of trapped {sup 111}Cd{sup +} ions using magnetic-field insensitive 'clock' states and an implementation offering reduced sensitivity to optical phase drifts. The gate is used to generate the complete set of four entangled states, which are reconstructed and evaluated with quantum-state tomography. An average target-state fidelity of 0.79 is achieved, limited by available laser power and technical noise. The tomographic reconstruction of entangled states demonstrates universal quantum control of two ion qubits, which through multiplexing can provide a route to scalable architectures for trapped-ion quantum computing.

  20. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  1. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guise, Nicholas D. Fallek, Spencer D.; Stevens, Kelly E.; Brown, K. R.; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.; Amini, Jason M.; Higashi, Robert E.; Lu, Son Thai; Chanhvongsak, Helen M.; Nguyen, Thi A.; Marcus, Matthew S.; Ohnstein, Thomas R.; Youngner, Daniel W.

    2015-05-07

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with {sup 171}Yb{sup +} ions in a second BGA trap.

  2. Bucket-type steam traps removed in $82K retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplett, J.

    1985-08-19

    A retrofit of 481 mostly failed steam traps at Martin Marietta's Aerospace Division should reduce steam costs by $70,000 and require little or no maintenance. Payback should occur within 14 months. The new traps include orifice, bellow-type thermostatic, and float-type traps that have few or no moving parts. Lack of maintenance was responsible for the poor performance of the bucket traps that were replaced, although manufacturers of the bucket traps disagree that replacement of certain parts is necessary every six months. The author describes the design and operation of each type of trap.

  3. RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RYPOS Inc. 2002_deer_depetrillo1.pdf (812.87 KB) More Documents & Publications RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2

  4. RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RYPOS Inc. 2002_deer_depetrillo2.pdf (1016 KB) More Documents & Publications RYPOS Trap Field Demonstrations Part 1

  5. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  6. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

  7. Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Printable fact sheet (552 KB) Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Technology Marketing SummaryA nanoscale version of the Paul ion trap was developed by

  8. November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010: Antimatter Trapped and Stored November 18, 2010 The Department's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) announces that atoms of antimatter have been trapped and stored for the first time in a magnetic bottle-like device by the ALPHA collaboration, an international team of scientists working at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research near Geneva, Switzerland. Scientists

  9. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inspect and Repair Steam Traps Inspect and Repair Steam Traps This tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #1 Inspect and Repair Steam Traps (January 2012) (393.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors

  10. High voltage gas insulated transmission line with continuous particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a novel high voltage gas insulated transmission line utilizing insulating supports spaced at intervals with snap-in means for supporting a continuous trapping apparatus and said trapping apparatus having perforations and cutouts to facilitate trapping of contaminating particles and system flexibility.

  11. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  12. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  13. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L.; Sumner, D. Warren; Sheoran, Yogendra; Judd, Z. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  14. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  15. Sales lag sparks steam trap diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, E.

    1980-03-03

    Competing manufacturers have broadened their product range and customer services in an effort to survive a tightened market and the introduction of unconventional devices. Users and vendors agree that rising energy costs now give inspection and maintenance of steam traps top priority. New products on the market are described. Competition has led to some questionable advertising and legal action. Fixed orifice and temperature-actuated valves are among the alternative products offered. Models of the major manufacturers are compared by type, pressure and condensate load range, primary use, and price.

  16. Li2Se as a Neutron Scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Mao-Hua; Shi, Hongliang; Singh, David J.

    2015-06-23

    We show that Li2Se:Te is a potential neutron scintillator material based on density functional calculations. Li2Se exhibits a number of properties favorable for efficient neutron detection, such as a high Li concentration for neutron absorption, a small effective atomic mass and a low density for reduced sensitivity to background gamma rays, and a small band gap for a high light yield. Our calculations show that Te doping should lead to the formation of deep acceptor complex VLi-TeSe, which can facilitate efficient light emission, similar to the emission activation in Te doped ZnSe.

  17. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  18. Oxidation of ultrathin GaSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; McDonald, Anthony E.; Ohta, Taisuke; Howell, Stephen W.; Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Kowalski, Brian M.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Spataru, Catalin D.; Pask, Jesse A.

    2015-10-26

    Oxidation of exfoliated gallium selenide (GaSe) is investigated through Raman, photoluminescence, Auger, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Photoluminescence and Raman intensity reductions associated with spectral features of GaSe are shown to coincide with the emergence of signatures emanating from the by-products of the oxidation reaction, namely, Ga2Se3 and amorphous Se. Furthermore, photoinduced oxidation is initiated over a portion of a flake highlighting the potential for laser based patterning of two-dimensional heterostructures via selective oxidation.

  19. Q Cells SE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Q-Cells SE Place: Thalheim, Brandenburg, Germany Zip: 6766 Product: German PV cell manufacturer; also makes strategic venture capital and corporate investments....

  20. Templates-Resources-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    templates 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements, 12-panel layout (typical pattern used by UMass PSE) (PPT file download) 42 inch high by 48 inch wide, landscape poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 36 inch high by 48 inch wide, portrait poster template with PHaSE acknowledgements (PPT file download) 16:9 Slide Templates

  1. Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2011-09-15

    A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.

  2. Identification of microscopic hole-trapping mechanisms in nitride semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    John L. Lyons; Krishnaswamy, Karthik; Luke Gordon; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Anderson, Janotti

    2015-12-17

    Hole trapping has been observed in nitride heterostructure devices, where the Fermi level is in the vicinity of the valence-band maximum. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we examine microscopic mechanisms for hole trapping in GaN and AlN. In a defect-free material, hole trapping does not spontaneously occur, but trapping can occur in the vicinity of impurities, such as C-a common unintentional impurity in nitrides. As a result, using Schrödinger-Poisson simulations, we assess the effects of C-derived hole traps on N-face high-electron mobility transistors, which we find to be more detrimental than the previously proposed interface traps.

  3. Investigation of long lifetimes in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by time-resolved photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiberg, Matthias; Hölscher, Torsten; Zahedi-Azad, Setareh; Fränzel, Wolfgang; Scheer, Roland

    2015-09-21

    The main objective of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) is to characterize minority carrier recombination in semiconductors. However, trap states in the band gap can lead to artificially long decay times thus distorting the measured minority carrier lifetime. In this work, we propose to measure TRPL under elevated temperature and excitation in order to reduce minority carrier trapping. Taking three Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} layers as examples, we show that the decay time decreases with increasing temperature—in accordance with simulations. Under increasing excitation, the decay time can become smaller due to trap saturation but also can become larger due to asymmetric hole and electron lifetimes. By comparison of simulation and experiment, we can find the energy, the density, and the electron capture cross-section of the trap which in the present example of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films gives values of ∼200 meV, ∼10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3}, and ∼10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  4. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_harris.pdf (388.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Euro

  5. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  6. Steam trap maintenance management saves $180,000 annually

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, F.C.; Wickersham, C.

    1985-12-01

    The Reichhold Chemical plant is located in Elizabeth, NJ. At this location, the cost of steam had skyrocketed to $5.30 per million Btu. The plant has 600 steam traps manufactured by ten different companies. Some 17 different models of traps are used with 33 piping configurations. There are five different operating pressures throughout the plant ranging from 15-175 psig, including 30, 65, and 120 psig. Five different applications of steam usage can be broken down as follows: steam tracing (56%); drip (21%); comfort heating (18%); tank coil (4%); and process (1%). In the fall of 1983, the annual yearly inspection of steam traps was supplanted with an independent trap survey service, specializing in detecting the malfunctioning of various types of steam traps. The basic program included location and tagging of all steam traps; survey and inspection of steam trap population; development of a trap map; and full computer analysis of collected data. It was determined that approximately 3919 lb/hr of steam could be saved by repairing the failed open traps and implementing the report's recommendations. There were also benefits from fixing the failed closed traps which were out of service at the time of the survey. These traps do not allow the flow of steam or condensate to pass through the orifice. This condition causes condensate to back up and reduce efficiency. The maintenance management has been pleased with the results and recommendations of the program. It has provided them with a complete inventory and status report of the 600 traps plantwide. It saved $180,000 over the previous year in energy expenditures. This was the most important contribution in lowering the plant energy costs.

  7. Thermostatic/orifice trap reduces fuel, repair costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article is an evaluation of a steam trap that combines the continuous drain oriface with a thermostatically controlled trap oriface to efficiently remove condensate from virtually any steam system within its operating limits. This trap effectively reduces fuel and repair costs and has a capacity of 6000 il/hr, handles various pressures up to 600 psig, and operates against back pressures up to 90% of inlet pressure.

  8. Wolf Trap, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWolfTrap,Virginia&oldid253815" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  9. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials We provide ...

  10. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps Citation Details In-Document ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM ...

  11. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured ...

  12. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between ... More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor ...

  13. A Sub-Millimeter Solenoid Device for Trapping Paramagnetic Microbeads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a paramagnetic microsphere trapping and separation device consisting of a copper solenoid ... to the design of magnetic-based separation devices because the ...

  14. Particle trapping: A key requisite of structure formation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particle trapping is shown to control the existence of ... Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International ...

  15. Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells: SulfaTrap Sorbents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biogas Purifications for Fuel Cells SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Gökhan Alptekin, PhD Vice President, Technology Tel: 303 940 2349 galptekin@tda.com DOE Workshop on Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Applications Argonne National Laboratory March 7, 2014 TDA Research Inc. * Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 * www.tda.com Background - SulfaTrap TM Sorbents Bio-ethanol desulfurizer SulfaTrap TM sorbents for stationary/mobile fuel cell applications * Fundamental work started at TDA Research in 2002 * SulfaTrap LLC was

  16. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) More Documents & Publications Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation ...

  17. H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ArvinMeritor 2003deercrane.pdf (630.37 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  18. Stable metal-organic frameworks containing single-molecule traps...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Stable metal-organic frameworks containing single-molecule traps for enzyme encapsulation Authors: Feng, Dawei ; Liu, Tian-Fu ; Su, Jie ; Bosch, Mathieu ; Wei, Zhangwen ; ...

  19. Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dworschak, M.; Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Vorobyev, G. K.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Eliseev, S.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Kluge, H.-J.

    2010-06-15

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt allows accurate mass measurements of radionuclides, produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated by the velocity filter SHIP from the primary beam. Recently, the masses of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No were determined. These are the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements, which provide new anchor points in this region. The heavy nuclides were produced in cold-fusion reactions by irradiating a PbS target with a {sup 48}Ca beam, resulting in production rates of the nuclei of interest of about one atom per second. In combination with data from decay spectroscopy our results are used to perform a new atomic-mass evaluation in this region.

  20. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L.; Pace, Marshall O.; Christophorou, Loucas G.

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  1. Production of Ultracold Trapped Molecular Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, P.; Roth, B.; Froehlich, U.; Wenz, H.; Schiller, S.

    2005-10-28

    We have cooled ensembles of the molecular hydrogen ions H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, and all their deuterated variants to temperatures of a few mK in a radio frequency trap, by sympathetic cooling with laser-cooled beryllium ions. The molecular ions are embedded in the central regions of Coulomb crystals. Mass spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations were used to accurately characterize the properties of the ultracold multispecies crystals. We demonstrate species-selective purification of multispecies ensembles. These molecules are of fundamental importance as the simplest of all molecules, and have the potential to be used for precision tests of molecular structure theory, tests of Lorentz invariance, and measurements of electron to nuclear mass ratios and their time variation.

  2. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  3. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency

  4. Quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); James, Daniel F. V. [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kamenev, Dimitri I. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2000-06-01

    We describe the transition to quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap and interacting with two laser fields. Under the conditions of adiabatic illumination of the upper level of the ion, and when the frequencies of the two laser beams are slightly different, the system is reduced to a quantum linear oscillator interacting with a monochromatic wave. The property of localization over the quantum resonance cells is proposed to exploit in order to facilitate the process of measurement of the probability distribution of an ion on the vibrational levels. In the regime of strong chaos the time-averaged values of the energy and dispersion of energy are computed and compared with the corresponding classical quantities for different values of the perturbation amplitude. In the exact resonance case, the classical analog of the system possesses an infinite inhomogeneous stochastic web. We analyze the quantum dynamics inside the inhomogeneous web. It is shown that the quantum system mimics on average the dynamics of the corresponding classical system. Formation of the quantum resonance cells is illustrated in the case of a finite detuning from the exact resonance, and under increasing of the wave amplitude. The parameters of the model and the initial conditions are close to the real physical situation which can be realized in the system of cold trapped ion perturbed by two lasers fields with close frequencies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  5. SE Drive Technik | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drive Technik Jump to: navigation, search Name: SE Drive Technik Place: Bochum, Germany Zip: 44791 Product: Germany-based R&D subsidiary of Indian turbine maker Suzlon. References:...

  6. Facilities-Resources-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Various PHaSE EFRC equipment may be accessed by making arrangments for training and acceptance to the list of registered users. Access to the facility rooms requires a password ...

  7. 2013 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Archives Volodimyr Duzhko photo Volodimyr Duzhko promoted to (extension) Assistant Professor of Polymer Science & Engineering. PHaSE is pleased to announce that Facility Director Dr. Volodimyr Duzhko has been promoted to extension Assistant Professor of Polymer Science & Engineering. Volodimyr is a semiconductor physicist with considerable experience in polymer materials. Since joining PHaSE, he has trained over 70 people to use 10 instruments in the Photovoltaic & Optical

  8. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  9. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  10. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  11. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  12. A transferable force field for CdS-CdSe-PbS-PbSe solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Huis, Marijn A. van; Wang, Shuaiwei; Yalcin, Anil O.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Zandbergen, Henny W.

    2014-12-28

    A transferable force field for the PbSe-CdSe solid system using the partially charged rigid ion model has been successfully developed and was used to study the cation exchange in PbSe-CdSe heteronanocrystals [A. O. Yalcin et al., “Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth,” Nano Lett. 14, 3661–3667 (2014)]. In this work, we extend this force field by including another two important binary semiconductors, PbS and CdS, and provide detailed information on the validation of this force field. The parameterization combines Bader charge analysis, empirical fitting, and ab initio energy surface fitting. When compared with experimental data and density functional theory calculations, it is shown that a wide range of physical properties of bulk PbS, PbSe, CdS, CdSe, and their mixed phases can be accurately reproduced using this force field. The choice of functional forms and parameterization strategy is demonstrated to be rational and effective. This transferable force field can be used in various studies on II-VI and IV-VI semiconductor materials consisting of CdS, CdSe, PbS, and PbSe. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of the force field model by molecular dynamics simulations whereby transformations are initiated by cation exchange.

  13. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  14. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  15. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high;more » for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  16. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.

  17. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  18. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and ? ????trap-shy?¢??? species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  19. Scalable error correction in distributed ion trap computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oi, Daniel K. L.; Devitt, Simon J.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2006-11-15

    A major challenge for quantum computation in ion trap systems is scalable integration of error correction and fault tolerance. We analyze a distributed architecture with rapid high-fidelity local control within nodes and entangled links between nodes alleviating long-distance transport. We demonstrate fault-tolerant operator measurements which are used for error correction and nonlocal gates. This scheme is readily applied to linear ion traps which cannot be scaled up beyond a few ions per individual trap but which have access to a probabilistic entanglement mechanism. A proof-of-concept system is presented which is within the reach of current experiment.

  20. Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders Print Friday, 10 June 2016 13:23 "Trap-jaw" spiders are tiny (about 2 mm), ground-dwelling spiders that rely on hunting rather than web-building to capture prey. Hannah Wood, curator of spiders at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, was curious as to why these spiders' carapaces (their front sections) seemed almost neck-like and their chelicerae (mandibles or

  1. Movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-02-03

    Manipulation of DNA and cells/spores using dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces to perform sample preparation protocols for polymerized chain reaction (PCR) based assays for various applications. This is accomplished by movement of particles using sequentially activated dielectrophoretic particle trapping. DEP forces induce a dipole in particles, and these particles can be trapped in non-uniform fields. The particles can be trapped in the high field strength region of one set of electrodes. By switching off this field and switching on an adjacent electrodes, particles can be moved down a channel with little or no flow.

  2. Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_larson.pdf (637.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Rh/Ba NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Production, Storage, and FC Analysis

  3. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M.; Germain, Malcolm R.

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  4. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential ...

  5. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  6. 2011 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Archives solar cells video clip Solar Cells from Plastics? Mission Possible at the PHaSE energy research center, UMass Amherst!, a YouTube video about work at PHaSE, debuted on 24 March 2011. This video is part of our center's contributions to the Energy Frontier Research Centers Summit & Forum on 25-27 May 2011, which is further described below. Many thanks to Harihara Venkatraman (DV group, ERG 1) and Dr. Emily Pentzer (Emrick group, ERG 1) for starring in the video clip, along with

  7. Single-step in-situ synthesis and optical properties of ZnSe nanostructured dielectric nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Chirantan; Rahaman Molla, Atiar; Tarafder, Anal; Karmakar, Basudeb; Kr Mishra, Manish; De, Goutam; Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2014-04-07

    This work provides the evidence of visible red photoluminescent light emission from ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) grown within a dielectric (borosilicate glass) matrix synthesized by a single step in-situ technique for the first time and the NC sizes were controlled by varying only the concentration of ZnSe in glass matrix. The ZnSe NCs were investigated by UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sizes of the ZnSe NCs estimated from the TEM images are found to alter in the range of 2–53 nm. Their smaller sizes of the NCs were also calculated by using the optical absorption spectra and the effective mass approximation model. The band gap enlargements both for carrier and exciton confinements were evaluated and found to be changed in the range of 0–1.0 eV. The Raman spectroscopic studies showed blue shifted Raman peaks of ZnSe at 295 and 315 cm{sup −1} indicating phonon confinement effect as well as compressive stress effect on the surface atoms of the NCs. Red photoluminescence in ZnSe-glass nanocomposite reveals a broad multiple-peak structure due to overlapping of emission from NC size related electron-hole recombination (∼707 nm) and emissions from defects to traps, which were formed due to Se and Zn vacancies signifying potential application in photonics.

  8. Fuel traps: mapping stability via water association.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan L.; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Alam, Todd M; Leung, Kevin; Varma, Sameer; Sabo, Dubravko; Martin, Marcus Gary; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-03-01

    Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology required for attaining a hydrogen-based economy. Fundamental research can reveal the underlying principles controlling hydrogen uptake and release by storage materials, and also aid in characterizing and designing novel storage materials. New ideas for hydrogen storage materials come from exploiting the properties of hydrophobic hydration, which refers to water s ability to stabilize, by its mode of association, specific structures under specific conditions. Although hydrogen was always considered too small to support the formation of solid clathrate hydrate structures, exciting new experiments show that water traps hydrogen molecules at conditions of low temperatures and moderate pressures. Hydrogen release is accomplished by simple warming. While these experiments lend credibility to the idea that water could form an environmentally attractive alternative storage compound for hydrogen fuel, which would advance our nation s goals of attaining a hydrogen-based economy, much work is yet required to understand and realize the full potential of clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage. Here we undertake theoretical studies of hydrogen in water to establish a firm foundation for predictive work on clathrate hydrate H{sub 2} storage capabilities. Using molecular simulation and statistical mechanical theories based in part on quantum mechanical descriptions of molecular interactions, we characterize the interactions between hydrogen and liquid water in terms of structural and thermodynamic properties. In the process we validate classical force field models of hydrogen in water and discover new features of hydrophobic hydration that impact problems in both energy technology and biology. Finally, we predict hydrogen occupancy in the small and large cages of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, a property unresolved by previous experimental and theoretical work.

  9. Evolution of Electronic Properties of (Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-Based Solar Cells During a 3-Stage Growth Process: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AbuShama, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Crandall, R.; Young, D.; Noufi, R.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the electronic properties of ZnO/CdS/CIGS /Mo/SLG polycrystalline thin-film solar cells with compositions ranging from Cu-rich to In(Ga)-rich by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. This compositional change represents the evolution of the film during growth by the 3-stage process. Two sets (four samples each) of CIGS thin films were prepared with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios of~0.3 (low Ga) and~0.6 (high Ga). The Cu/(In+Ga) ratio ranges from 1.24 (Cu-rich) to 0.88 (In(Ga)-rich). The films were treated with NaCN to remove the Cu2-xSe phase where needed. Key results include: (1) For low-Ga devices, DLTS data show that acceptor-like traps dominate in samples where CIGS grains do not go through the Cu-rich to In(Ga)-rich transition, whereas donor-like traps dominate in In(Ga)-rich samples. Therefore, we see a clear transformation of defects from acceptor-like to donor-like traps. The activation energies of these traps range from 0.12 to 0.63 eV. We also observed that NaCN treatment eliminates a deep minority trap in the In(Ga)-rich devices, (2) For high-Ga devices, only majority-carrier traps were detected. These traps again range from shallow to deep, (3) The carrier concentration around the junction and the density of traps decrease as the CIGS becomes more In(Ga)-rich.

  10. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps for Enzyme Encapsulation Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Jie Su, Mathieu Bosch, Zhangwen Wei, Wei Wan,...

  11. Catch and Release: Reaction Dynamics from a Freed "Tension Trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Catch and Release: Reaction Dynamics from a Freed "Tension Trapped Transition State" Authors: Wang, J ; Ong, M T ; Kouznetsova, T B ; Lenhardt, J M ; Martinez, T J ; Craig, ...

  12. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Sajeev

    2014-08-15

    We provide designs of thin-film solar cells utilizing optimized photonic-crystal light-trapping and numerical simulations of their solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies.

  13. Stories of Discovery & Innovation: Trapping the Light Fantastic...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Trapping the Light Fantastic Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers ... Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page New solar cell design uses advanced ...

  14. Laser-driven Sisyphus cooling in an optical dipole trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Vladyslav V.; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2011-12-15

    We propose a laser-driven Sisyphus-cooling scheme for atoms confined in a far-off resonance optical dipole trap. Utilizing the differential trap-induced ac Stark shift, two electronic levels of the atom are resonantly coupled by a cooling laser preferentially near the trap bottom. After absorption of a cooling photon, the atom loses energy by climbing the steeper potential, and then spontaneously decays preferentially away from the trap bottom. The proposed method is particularly suited to cooling alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms where two-level systems with narrow electronic transitions are present. Numerical simulations for the cases of {sup 88}Sr and {sup 174}Yb demonstrate the expected recoil and Doppler temperature limits. The method requires a relatively small number of scattered photons and can potentially lead to phase-space densities approaching quantum degeneracy in subsecond time scales.

  15. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Accident Trap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accident Traps Four Workers 1,800 Feet below Ground Photo - rescue from 1,800 feet below ... Thousands of workers have completed millions of accident-free hours at this heavy industry ...

  16. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D.; Keville, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  17. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  18. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps - Steam Tip Sheet #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Electrostatic ion beam trap for electron collision studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heber, O.; Witte, P.D.; Diner, A.; Bhushan, K.G.; Strasser, D.; Toker, Y.; Rappaport, M.L.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Altstein, N.; Schwalm, D.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a system combining an ion beam trap and a low energy electron target in which the interaction between electrons and vibrationally cold molecular ions and clusters can be studied. The entire system uses only electrostatic fields for both trapping and focusing, thus being able to store particles without a mass limit. Preliminary results for the electron impact neutralization of C{sub 2}{sup -} ions and aluminum clusters are presented.

  20. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  1. PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties PowerTrap: Ultrafine PM Control without Performance Penalties 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Per-Tec Ltd, University of Manchester 2003_deer_kukla.pdf (693.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology Active Soot Filter Regeneration

  2. Anisotropy in CdSe quantum rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liang-shi

    2003-09-01

    The size-dependent optical and electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals have drawn much attention in the past decade, and have been very well understood for spherical ones. The advent of the synthetic methods to make rod-like CdSe nanocrystals with wurtzite structure has offered us a new opportunity to study their properties as functions of their shape. This dissertation includes three main parts: synthesis of CdSe nanorods with tightly controlled widths and lengths, their optical and dielectric properties, and their large-scale assembly, all of which are either directly or indirectly caused by the uniaxial crystallographic structure of wurtzite CdSe. The hexagonal wurtzite structure is believed to be the primary reason for the growth of CdSe nanorods. It represents itself in the kinetic stabilization of the rod-like particles over the spherical ones in the presence of phosphonic acids. By varying the composition of the surfactant mixture used for synthesis we have achieved tight control of the widths and lengths of the nanorods. The synthesis of monodisperse CdSe nanorods enables us to systematically study their size-dependent properties. For example, room temperature single particle fluorescence spectroscopy has shown that nanorods emit linearly polarized photoluminescence. Theoretical calculations have shown that it is due to the crossing between the two highest occupied electronic levels with increasing aspect ratio. We also measured the permanent electric dipole moment of the nanorods with transient electric birefringence technique. Experimental results on nanorods with different sizes show that the dipole moment is linear to the particle volume, indicating that it originates from the non-centrosymmetric hexagonal lattice. The elongation of the nanocrystals also results in the anisotropic inter-particle interaction. One of the consequences is the formation of liquid crystalline phases when the nanorods are dispersed in solvent to a high enough

  3. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority-Carrier Trapping Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.

    2011-01-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at heterointerface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2}, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  4. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  5. UMass-Resources-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UMass Resources UMass logo The following links provide information about important local (UMass Amherst) campus and departmental offices and resources, including major interdepartmental research centers that pursue work closely akin to research that was initiated or expanded under PHaSE. The last four links go to sites with energy or research news of potential interest to scientists interested in organic electronic materails. Major UMass User Facilities Vice-Chancellor for Research UMass

  6. Organization-About-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Mission Statement (PDF) Organization Contact Us organization This webpage is provided for legacy archive purposes only, as of 30 April 2015. The day to day operations of the University of Massachusetts Amherst PHaSE EFRC are administered by co-directors. Russell is the Samuel Conte Distingushed Professor of Polymer Science and Engineering, with years of previous experience at IBM Research, over 620 publications and 21 patents for polymer chemistry and physics. Lahti has over 29 years at

  7. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a Na/K geothermometer probability greater than 200 deg C map, as well as two play fairway analysis (PFA) models. The probability map acts as a composite risk segment for the PFA models. The PFA models differ in their application of magnetotelluric conductors as composite risk segments. These PFA models map out the geothermal potential in the region of SE Great Basin, Utah.

  8. 2010 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Archives PHaSE welcomes Dr. Lawrence Friedman as our new Managing Director. Larry comes to us with strong backgrounds in both academic and industrial experience. He is well acquainted with UMass Amherst from his time at Bayer Materials Science, where he was much involved in doctoral level recruiting and in academic/industrial liaison work as Head of University Relations. Before this, he was at Polaroid doing work in flims research as a manager and senior scientist. His academic credentials

  9. 2013 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Archives PHaSE EFRC work was featured in an MRS-TV video production, UMASS Amherst -- Optimal Design: Interdisciplinary Teamwork from Synthesis to Production, that was highlighted on electronic signage throughout the Fall 2014 Boston Materials Research Society meeting. Major vignettes were shown from Maroudas group, DV group, Emrick group. Both faculty and undergraduates/graduates/postdocs described EFRC work and work being carried out by closely allied groups interested in energy-related

  10. AeroSys: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) AeroSys: Noncompliance Determination (2010-SE-0302) April 13, 2010 DOE issued a Notice of Noncompliance Determination to AeroSys, Inc. ...

  11. SeQuential Pacific Biodiesel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pacific Biodiesel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: SeQuential-Pacific Biodiesel LLC Place: Oregon Sector: Biofuels Product: JV between SeQuential Biofuels, Pacific Biodiesel,...

  12. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  13. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  14. Photoinduced Surface Oxidation and Its Effect on the Exciton Dynamics of CdSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Douglas A.; Becker, Matthew A.; Kamat, Prashant V.

    2012-11-14

    With increased interest in semiconductor nanoparticles for use in quantum dot solar cells there comes a need to understand the long-term photostability of such materials. Colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were suspended in toluene and stored in combinations of light/dark and N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} to simulate four possible benchtop storage environments. CdSe QDs stored in a dark, oxygen-free environment were observed to better retain their optical properties over the course of 90 days. The excited state lifetimes, determined through femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, of air-equilibrated samples exposed to light exhibit a decrease in average lifetime (0.81 ns) when compared to samples stored in a nitrogen/dark environment (8.3 ns). A photoetching technique commonly used for controlled reduction of QD size was found to induce energetic trap states to CdSe QDs and accelerate the rate of electron-hole recombination. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis confirms surface oxidation, the extent of which is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the ligand shell.

  15. 2009 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 Archives U.S. DOE Announces Energy Frontier Research Centers (08/2009) UMass Amherst EFRC Proposal (08/2009) EFRC Funding Distributed to Successful Centers (08/2009) PHaSE co-director Paul Lahti led off a set of presentations organized by the UMass Amherst Research & Liaison office to meet with a delegation of scientists from various technical research centers of the Gipuzkoa province in the Basque region of northern Spain. The delegation was organized through the Tecnalia Corporation,

  16. 2012 Archives-News-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Archives Tom Russell photo Joint work by Tom Russell, Alex Briseno, and coworkers describes fabrication and a significant degree of device optimization of a low band polymer pDPP/PCBM solar cell, in an article published in Advanced Materials. Photoconversion efficiency up to 5.6% with a fill factor of 60% were obtained. Morphology control based on solvent mixture tuning was critically important for best electrical output. [read more] PHaSE members D. Venkataraman and Tom Russell have edited a

  17. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2013-03-19

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  18. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  19. Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

    2005-09-15

    We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose the use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.

  20. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Sharma, Mamta

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  1. Photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in poly(methylmethacrylate) film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xiaoling; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-12-28

    The photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) has been studied under varied conditions. We discussed the main features of the evolution of photoluminescence (PL) intensity and energy at different laser powers, which showed critical dependences on the environment. The PL red shift in a vacuum showed strong temperature dependence, from which we concluded that the thermal activation energy for trapping states of the charge carriers was about 14.7 meV. Furthermore, the PL spectra showed asymmetric evolution during the laser irradiation, for which two possible explanations were discussed. Those results provided a comprehensive picture for the photo-instability of the colloidal QDs under different conditions.

  2. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  3. Three dimensional separation trap based on dielectrophoresis and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2004-05-04

    An apparatus is adapted to separate target materials from other materials in a flow containing the target materials and other materials. A dielectrophoretic trap is adapted to receive the target materials and the other materials. At least one electrode system is provided in the trap. The electrode system has a three-dimensional configuration. The electrode system includes a first electrode and a second electrode that are shaped and positioned relative to each such that application of an electrical voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode creates a dielectrophoretic force and said dielectrophoretic force does not reach zero between the first electrode and the second electrode.

  4. Theory of magic optical traps for Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derevianko, Andrei

    2010-05-15

    Precision measurements and quantum-information processing with cold atoms may benefit from trapping atoms with specially engineered, 'magic' optical fields. At the magic trapping conditions, the relevant atomic properties remain immune to strong perturbations by the trapping fields. Here we develop a theoretical analysis of magic trapping for especially valuable Zeeman-insensitive clock transitions in alkali-metal atoms. The involved mechanism relies on applying a magic bias B field along a circularly polarized trapping laser field. We map out these B fields as a function of trapping laser wavelength for all commonly used alkalis. We also highlight a common error in evaluating Stark shifts of hyperfine manifolds.

  5. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  6. Single particle density of trapped interacting quantum gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, Renu; Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.

    2015-05-15

    An expression for single particle density for trapped interacting gases has been obtained in first order of interaction using Greens function method. Results are easily simplified for homogeneous quantum gases and are found to agree with famous results obtained by Huang-Yang-Luttinger and Lee-Yang.

  7. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  8. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given ...

  9. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving ...

  10. SE-MA-NO Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SE-MA-NO Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: SE-MA-NO Electric Coop Place: Missouri Phone Number: (417) 924-3291 Website: www.semano.com Facebook: https:...

  11. MgSe/ZnSe/CdSe coupled quantum wells grown on InP substrate with intersubband absorption covering 1.55??m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guopeng; Shen, Aidong; De Jesus, Joel; Tamargo, Maria C.

    2014-12-08

    The authors report the observation of intersubband (ISB) transitions in the optical communication wavelength region in MgSe/ZnSe/CdSe coupled quantum wells (QWs). The coupled QWs were grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. By inserting ZnSe layers to compensate the strain, samples with high structural quality were obtained, as indicated by well resolved satellite peaks in high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The observed ISB transition energies agree well with the calculated values.

  12. Goodman Manufacturing: Order (2011-SE-4301) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goodman Manufacturing: Order (2011-SE-4301) Goodman Manufacturing: Order (2011-SE-4301) March 2, 2012 DOE ordered Goodman Manufacturing Company, L.P., to pay a $14,800 civil penalty after finding Goodman had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 74 units of commercial package air conditioner basic model CPC180*. Goodman Manufacturing: Order (2011-SE-4301) (131.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Goodman Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2011-SE-4301) Goodman

  13. Barron: Order (2013-SE-5402) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Order (2013-SE-5402) Barron: Order (2013-SE-5402) March 22, 2016 DOE ordered Barron Lighting Group, Inc. to pay a $22,849 civil penalty after finding Barron had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. 429 units of various noncompliant metal halide lamp fixtures. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Barron. Barron: Order (2013-SE-5402) (19.24 KB) More Documents & Publications Barron: Noncompliance Determination (2013-SE-5402)

  14. The role of ligands in the optical and electronic spectra of CdSe nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilina, Svletana; Sergei, Ivanov A; Victor, Klimov I; Sergei, Tretiak

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of ligands on morphology, electronic structure, and optical response of the Cd33Se33 cluster, which already overlapps in size with the smallest synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Our Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate significant surface reorganization both for the bare cluster and for the cluster capped by amine and phosphine oxide ligand models. We observe strong surface-ligand interactions leading to substantial charge redistribution and polarization effects on the surface. This effect results in the appearance of hybridized states, where the electronic density is spread over the cluster and the ligands. Neither the ligand's nor hybridized molecular orbitals appear as trap states inside or near the band gap of the QD. Instead, being optically dark, dense hybridized states from the edges of the valence and the conduction bands could open new relaxation channels for high energy photoexcitations. Comparing quantum dots passivated by different ligands, we found that hybridized states are denser in at the edge of the conduction band of the cluster ligated with phosphine oxide molecules than that with primary amines. Such a different manifestation of ligand binding may potentially lead to the faster electron relaxation in dots passivated by phosphine oxide than by amine ligands, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  15. Probing Interfacial Electronic States in CdSe Quantum Dots using Second Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doughty, Benjamin L.; Ma, Yingzhong; Shaw, Robert W

    2015-01-07

    Understanding and rationally controlling the properties of nanomaterial surfaces is a rapidly expanding field of research due to the dramatic role they play on the optical and electronic properties vital to light harvesting, emitting and detection technologies. This information is essential to the continued development of synthetic approaches designed to tailor interfaces for optimal nanomaterial based device performance. In this work, closely spaced electronic excited states in model CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are resolved using second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy, and the corresponding contributions from surface species to these states are assessed. Two distinct spectral features are observed in themore » SHG spectra, which are not readily identified in linear absorption and photoluminescence excitation spectra. These features include a weak band at 395 6 nm, which coincides with transitions to the 2S1/2 1Se state, and a much more pronounced band at 423 4 nm arising from electronic transitions to the 1P3/2 1Pe state. Chemical modification of the QD surfaces through oxidation resulted in disappearance of the SHG band corresponding to the 1P3/2 1Pe state, indicating prominent surface contributions. Signatures of deep trap states localized on the surfaces of the QDs are also observed. We further find that the SHG signal intensities depend strongly on the electronic states being probed and their relative surface contributions, thereby offering additional insight into the surface specificity of SHG signals from QDs.« less

  16. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  17. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John

    2014-09-15

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  18. Dipole Excitation With A Paul Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Chutjian, A.

    2011-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the use of an auxiliary radiofrequency (rf) excitation voltage in combination with a high purity, high voltage rf generator to perform dipole excitation within a high precision Paul ion trap. These results show the effects of the excitation frequency over a continuous frequency range on the resultant mass spectra from the Paul trap with particular emphasis on ion ejection times, ion signal intensity, and peak shapes. Ion ejection times are found to decrease continuously with variations in dipole frequency about several resonant values and show remarkable symmetries. Signal intensities vary in a complex fashion with numerous resonant features and are driven to zero at specific frequency values. Observed intensity variations depict dipole excitations that target ions of all masses as well as individual masses. Substantial increases in mass resolution are obtained with resolving powers for nitrogen increasing from 114 to 325.

  19. Bose gas in a single-beam optical dipole trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Lena; Strunz, Walter T.

    2010-06-15

    We study an ultracold Bose gas in an optical dipole trap consisting of one single focused laser beam. An analytical expression for the corresponding density of states beyond the usual harmonic approximation is obtained. We are thus able to discuss the existence of a critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation and find that the phase transition must be enabled by a cutoff near the threshold. Moreover, we study the dynamics of evaporative cooling and observe significant deviations from the findings for the well-established harmonic approximation. Furthermore, we investigate Bose-Einstein condensates in such a trap in Thomas-Fermi approximation and determine analytical expressions for chemical potential, internal energy, and Thomas-Fermi radii beyond the usual harmonic approximation.

  20. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  1. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Two-dimensional GaSe/MoSe2 misfit bilayer heterojunctions by van der Waals epitaxy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Bing; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Wu; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Chi, Miaofang; et al

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures hold the promise for future atomically-thin electronics and optoelectronics due to their diverse functionalities. While heterostructures consisting of different transition metal dichacolgenide monolayers with well-matched lattices and novel physical properties have been successfully fabricated via van der Waals (vdW) or edge epitaxy, constructing heterostructures from monolayers of layered semiconductors with large lattice misfits still remains challenging. Here, we report the growth of monolayer GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures with large lattice misfit by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both vertically stacked and lateral heterostructures are demonstrated. The vertically stacked GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures exhibit vdW epitaxy with well-aligned lattice orientation between themore » two layers, forming an incommensurate vdW heterostructure. However, the lateral heterostructures exhibit no lateral epitaxial alignment at the interface between GaSe and MoSe2 crystalline domains. Instead of a direct lateral connection at the boundary region where the same lattice orientation is observed between GaSe and MoSe2 monolayer domains in lateral GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures, GaSe monolayers are found to overgrow MoSe2 during CVD, forming a stripe of vertically stacked vdW heterostructure at the crystal interface. Such vertically-stacked vdW GaSe/MoSe2 heterostructures are shown to form p-n junctions with effective transport and separation of photo-generated charge carriers between layers, resulting in a gate-tunable photovoltaic response. In conclusion, these GaSe/MoSe2 vdW heterostructures should have applications as gate-tunable field-effect transistors, photodetectors, and solar cells.« less

  3. Spectral photoresponse of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures with CdSe ultra-thin quantum well insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valverde-Chvez, D. A.; Sutara, F.; Hernndez-Caldern, I.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the spectral photoresponse (SPR) of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures for different ZnSe film thickness with and without CdSe ultra-thin quantum well (UTQW) insertions. We observe a significant increase of the SPR of heterostructures containing 3 monolayer thick CdSe UTQW insertions; these results encourage their use in photodetectors and solar cells.

  4. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubsk, Vt Krej?i?k, David

    2014-10-15

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  5. Hydrogen trapping, diffusion, and recombination in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Trapping, diffusion, and recombination of hydrogen in austenitic stainless steels are reviewed. It is suggested that since all of these processes are strongly interdependent and since the measured recombination rates are found to vary four orders of magnitude at any temperature, the data analysis techniques used to date are insufficient. A two-region diffusion model with surface recombination is proposed in which the surface layer is characterized by a smaller diffusion coefficient than the bulk.

  6. Twinning effect on photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Chunrui Wu, Binhe; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Oh, Hongseok; Baek, Hyeonjun; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2014-11-07

    Bandgap engineering in a single material along the axial length of nanowires may be realized by arranging periodic twinning, whose twin plane is vertical to the axial length of nanowires. In this paper, we report the effect of twin on photoluminescence of ZnSe nanowires, which refers to the bandgap of it. The exciton-related emission peaks of transverse twinning ZnSe nanowires manifest a 10-meV-blue-shift in comparison with those of longitudinal twinning ZnSe nanowires. The blue-shift is attributed to quantum confinement effect, which is influenced severely by the proportion of wurtzite ZnSe layers in ZnSe nanowires.

  7. Observation of cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap using a laser-pulse-train technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menegatti, Carlos R.; Marangoni, Bruno S.; Marcassa, Luis G.

    2011-11-15

    In this work, we have developed and characterized a laser-pulse-train technique to observe cold Rb{sub 2} molecules trapped in an optical dipole trap. The molecules are produced in a magneto-optical trap, and then loaded into a crossed optical dipole trap. The time evolution of the molecular population is obtained by applying a laser pulse train, which photoionizes the ground-state molecules through intermediate molecular bands. Our results show that this technique allows us to obtain a faster data acquisition rate of the time evolution of the molecule population than other techniques.

  8. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  9. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.

    2013-05-08

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  10. X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O.

    2013-12-07

    We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?{sub e} through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ?20 Gy at 21 C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ?50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 C, 21 C, and 35 C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?{sub r} that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?{sub r} is a few hours at 21 C and only a few minutes at 35 C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), N{sub d}, increases linearly with D (N{sub d} ? D) whereas at 35 C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in N{sub d} with D, and N{sub d} saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (?50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

  11. Ion Trap Array-Based Systems And Methods For Chemical Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitten, William B [Oak Ridge, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-23

    An ion trap-based system for chemical analysis includes an ion trap array. The ion trap array includes a plurality of ion traps arranged in a 2-dimensional array for initially confining ions. Each of the ion traps comprise a central electrode having an aperture, a first and second insulator each having an aperture sandwiching the central electrode, and first and second end cap electrodes each having an aperture sandwiching the first and second insulator. A structure for simultaneously directing a plurality of different species of ions out from the ion traps is provided. A spectrometer including a detector receives and identifies the ions. The trap array can be used with spectrometers including time-of-flight mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers.

  12. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  13. Imaging electronic trap states in perovskite thin films with combined fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong; Simpson, Mary Jane; Doughty, Benjamin; Yang, Bin

    2016-04-22

    Charge carrier trapping degrades the performance of organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. To characterize the locations of electronic trap states in a heterogeneous photoactive layer, a spatially resolved approach is essential. Here, we report a comparative study on methylammonium lead tri-iodide perovskite thin films subject to different thermal annealing times using a combined photoluminescence (PL) and femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) approach to spatially map trap states. This approach coregisters the initially populated electronic excited states with the regions that recombine radiatively. Although the TAM images are relatively homogeneous for both samples, the corresponding PL images are highly structured. Themore » remarkable variation in the PL intensities as compared to transient absorption signal amplitude suggests spatially dependent PL quantum efficiency, indicative of trapping events. Furthermore, detailed analysis enables identification of two trapping regimes: a densely packed trapping region and a sparse trapping area that appear as unique spatial features in scaled PL maps.« less

  14. Thermoelectric transport of Se-rich Ag{sub 2}Se in normal phases and phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, Wenlong; Lv, Yanhong; Qiu, Pengfei; Shi, Xun E-mail: cld@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, Lidong E-mail: cld@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Tiansong

    2014-03-31

    Small amount of Se atoms are used to tune the carrier concentrations (n{sub H}) and electrical transport in Ag{sub 2}Se. Significant enhancements in power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) are observed in the compositions of Ag{sub 2}Se{sub 1.06} and Ag{sub 2}Se{sub 1.08}. The excessive Se atoms do not change the intrinsically electron-conducting character in Ag{sub 2}Se. The detailed analysis reveals the experiment optimum carrier concentration in Ag{sub 2}Se is around 5??10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}. We also investigate the temperature of maximum zT and the thermoelectric transport during the first order phase transitions using the recently developed measurement system.

  15. Confined lattice dynamics of single and quadruple SnSe bilayers in [(SnSe) 1.04 ] m [MoSe 2 ] n ferecrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klobes, Benedikt; Hu, Michael Y.; Beekman, Matt; Johnson, David C.; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2015-11-30

    The Sn specific densities of phonon states in the SnSe subunits of [(SnSe)1.04]m[MoSe2]n ferecrystals with (m,n) = (1,1), (4,1) and in bulk SnSe were derived from nuclear inelastic scattering by the 119Sn M ssbauer resonance. When using different measurement configurations, phonons with polarization parallel and perpendicular to the ferecrystal plane were specifically probed. Vibrational properties and phonon spectral weight are found to strongly depend on the phonon polarization and layer count m. Moreover, a highly peculiar feature of these ferecrystal densities of phonon states is the emergence of rather sharp high energy vibrational modes polarized perpendicular to the ferecrystal plane,more » which contrasts with usual findings in thin layered structures and nanostructured materials in general, and a depletion of modes with a gap appearing between acoustic and high energy modes. The spectral weight of these phonons depends on the overall SnSe content, m, but cannot be unambiguously attributed to SnSe MoSe2 interfaces. Considering the low energy part of lattice dynamics, ferecrystals exhibit rather low average phonon group velocities as compared to the speed of sound in the long wavelength limit. For the (1,1) ferecrystal, this effect is most pronounced for vibrations polarized in the ferecrystal plane. Therefore, an experimental microscopic origin for the vibrational and bonding anisotropy in subunits of ferecrystals is provided.« less

  16. CuInSe/sub 2/-based photoelectrochemical cells: their use in characterization of thin CuInSe/sub 2/ films, and as photovoltaic cells per se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahen, D.; Chen, Y.W.; Ireland, P.J.; Noufi, R.; Turner, J.A.; Rincon, C.; Bachmann, K.J.

    1984-05-01

    Photoelectrochemistry has been employed to characterize the p-CuInSe/sub 2/ component of the CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ on-metal and a nonaqueous electrolyte containing a redox couple not specifically adsorbed onto the semiconductor, we can test the films for photovoltaic activity and obtain effective electronic properties of them, before CdS deposition, in a nondestructive manner. Electrochemical decomposition of CuInSe/sub 2/ was investigated in acetonitrile solutions to determine the mechanism of decomposition (n and p) in the dark and under illumination. Electrochemical, solution chemical and surface analyses confirmed at the light-assisted decomposition of CuInSe/sub 2/ resulted in metal ions and elemental chalcogen. On the basis of the results from the electrochemical decomposition, and studies on the solid state chemistry of the (Cu/sub 2/Se)/sub x/(In/sub 2/Se/sub 3/)/sub 1-x/ system and surface analyses, the CuInSe/sub 2//polyiodide interface was stabilized and up to 11.7% conversion efficiencies were obtained.

  17. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  18. Point defects in CdTexSe1-x crystals grown from a Te-rich solution for applications in detecting radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gul, R.; Roy, U. N.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Lee, W.; Yang, G.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.; Cui, Y.

    2015-04-15

    We investigated cadmium telluride selenide (CdTeSe) crystals, newly grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM), for the presence and abundance of point defects. Deep Level Transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) was used to determine the energies of the traps, their capture cross sections, and densities. The bias across the detectors was varied from (1–30) V. Four types of point defects were identified, ranging from 10 meV to 0.35 eV. Two dominant traps at energies of 0.18 eV and 0.14 eV were studied in depth. Cd vacancies are found at lower concentrations than other point defects present in the material.

  19. Point defects in CdTexSe1-x crystals grown from a Te-rich solution for applications in detecting radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gul, R.; Roy, U. N.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Lee, W.; Yang, G.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.; et al

    2015-04-15

    We investigated cadmium telluride selenide (CdTeSe) crystals, newly grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM), for the presence and abundance of point defects. Deep Level Transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) was used to determine the energies of the traps, their capture cross sections, and densities. The bias across the detectors was varied from (1–30) V. Four types of point defects were identified, ranging from 10 meV to 0.35 eV. Two dominant traps at energies of 0.18 eV and 0.14 eV were studied in depth. Cd vacancies are found at lower concentrations than other point defects present in the material.

  20. Perlick: Agreement (2010-SE-0109) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perlick: Agreement (2010-SE-0109) Perlick: Agreement (2010-SE-0109) February 7, 2011 DOE and Perlick Residential & Hospitality Products entered into a Compromise Agreement in which Perlick agreed to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after DOE found that Perlick had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. model HP72ROO-S, a noncompliant refrigerator. The Compromise Agreement reflected the settlement terms between DOE and Perlick. Perlick: Agreement (2010-SE-0109) (240.67 KB) More

  1. SeQuential Biofuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: SeQuential Biofuels LLC Place: Portland, Oregon Zip: 97231 Sector: Biofuels Product: A biofuels marketing and distribution company...

  2. Research Forum Schedule-Research-PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Forum Schedule PHaSE Research Fora and Talks This webpage is provided for legacy archive purposes only, as of 30 April 2015.

  3. SE Idaho Load Service Update - June 10, 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SE-Idaho-Load-Service-Update---June-10,-2015 Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Doing Business Expand Doing Business Customer Involvement Expand...

  4. U-105:Oracle Java SE Critical Patch Update Advisory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities were reported in Oracle Java SE. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions.

  5. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  6. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore » large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  7. Nonideal fishbone instability excited by trapped energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Tang, C. J.; Wang, Z. T.; Long, Y. X.; Dong, J. Q.

    2013-03-15

    It is shown that trapped energetic electrons can resonate with the collisionless m = 1 nonideal kink mode, therefore exciting the nonideal e-fishbone, which would often lead to a drop in soft x-ray emissivity and frequency chirping. The theory predictions agree well with the experimental observations of e-fishbone on HL-2A. It is also found that the effects of MHD energy of background plasma might be the reason for the observed phenomena: frequency chirping up and down, and V-font-style sweeping.

  8. Selective interactions in trapped ions: State reconstruction and quantum logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano, E.

    2005-01-01

    We propose the implementation of selective interactions of atom-motion subspaces in trapped ions. These interactions yield resonant exchange of population inside a selected subspace, leaving the others in a highly dispersive regime. Selectivity allows us to generate motional Fock (and other nonclassical) states with high purity out of a wide class of initial states, and becomes an unconventional cooling mechanism when the ground state is chosen. Individual population of number states can be distinctively measured, as well as the motional Wigner function. Furthermore, a protocol for implementing quantum logic through a suitable control of selective subspaces is presented.

  9. Selective control of the symmetric Dicke subspace in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-15

    We propose a method of manipulating selectively the symmetric Dicke subspace in the internal degrees of freedom of N trapped ions. We show that the direct access to ionic-motional subspaces, based on a suitable tuning of motion-dependent ac Stark shifts, induces a two-level dynamics involving previously selected ionic Dicke states. In this manner, it is possible to produce, sequentially and unitarily, ionic Dicke states with increasing excitation number. Moreover, we propose a probabilistic technique to produce directly any ionic Dicke state assuming suitable initial conditions.

  10. Photovoltaic cell with light trapping for enhanced efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Fofang, Nche Tumasang; Luk, Ting S.

    2015-11-19

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell is enhanced by light trapping using Mie-scattering nanostructures. In one embodiment, an array of nanocylinders is formed on the front surface of a silicon film to enhance forward scattering into the film, and an array of nanocylinders is formed on the back surface to enhance backscattering so that more light is absorbed within the silicon film. In an alternate embodiment, a mirror layer is formed on the back surface of the silicon film to reflect light within the film back toward the front-surface nanocylinder array.

  11. Confocal shift interferometry of coherent emission from trapped dipolar excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repp, J.; Schinner, G. J.; Schubert, E.; Rai, A. K.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Wurstbauer, U.; Holleitner, A. W.; and others

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a confocal shift-interferometer based on optical fibers. The presented spectroscopy allows measuring coherence maps of luminescent samples with a high spatial resolution even at cryogenic temperatures. We apply the spectroscopy onto electrostatically trapped, dipolar excitons in a semiconductor double quantum well. We find that the measured spatial coherence length of the excitonic emission coincides with the point spread function of the confocal setup. The results are consistent with a temporal coherence of the excitonic emission down to temperatures of 250 mK.

  12. Atomic clock based on transient coherent population trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Tao; Deng Ke; Chen Xuzong; Wang Zhong

    2009-04-13

    We proposed a scheme to implement coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock based on the transient CPT phenomenon. We proved that the transient transmitted laser power in a typical {lambda} system near CPT resonance features as a damping oscillation. Also, the oscillating frequency is exactly equal to the frequency detuning from the atomic hyperfine splitting. Therefore, we can directly measure the frequency detuning and then compensated to the output frequency of microwave oscillator to get the standard frequency. By this method, we can further simplify the structure of CPT atomic clock, and make it easier to be digitized and miniaturized.

  13. Rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped molecular hydrogen ions at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, B.; Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Daerr, H.; Schiller, S.

    2006-10-15

    We report a high-resolution spectroscopic study of molecular ions at millikelvin temperatures. We measured several rovibrational infrared transitions in HD{sup +} molecular ions, stored in a radio-frequency trap and sympathetically cooled to {approx_equal}20 mK by laser-cooled Be{sup +} ions. We observed hyperfine splitting of the lines, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The transitions were detected by monitoring the decrease in ion number after selective photodissociation of HD{sup +} ions in the upper vibrational state. The method described here is expected to be generally applicable.

  14. CdSe self-assembled quantum dots with ZnCdMgSe barriers emitting throughout the visible spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Paz, M. Noemi; Zhou Xuecong; Munoz, Martin; Lu Hong; Sohel, Mohammad; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jean-Mary, Fleumingue; Akins, Daniel L.

    2004-12-27

    Self-assembled quantum dots of CdSe with ZnCdMgSe barriers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. The optical and microstructural properties were investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Control and reproducibility of the quantum dot (QD) size leading to light emission throughout the entire visible spectrum range has been obtained by varying the CdSe deposition time. Longer CdSe deposition times result in a redshift of the PL peaks as a consequence of an increase of QD size. AFM studies demonstrate the presence of QDs in uncapped structures. A comparison of this QD system with CdSe/ZnSe shows that not only the strain but also the chemical properties of the system play an important role in QD formation.

  15. Project Closeout Report Francium trapping facility at Triumf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco, Luis A

    2014-09-30

    This is a report of the construction of a Francium Trapping Facility (FTF) at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) of TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, where the Francium Parity Non Conservation (FrPNC) international collaboration has its home. This facility will be used to study fundamental symmetries with high-resolution atomic spectroscopy. The primary scientific objective of the program is a measurement of the anapole moment of francium in a chain of isotopes by observing the parity violation induced by the weak interaction. The anapole moment of francium and associated signal are expected to be ten times larger than in cesium, the only element in which an anapole moment has been observed. The measurement will provide crucial information for better understanding weak hadronic interactions in the context of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The methodology combines nuclear and particle physics techniques for the production of francium with precision measurements based on laser cooling and trapping and microwave spectroscopy. The program builds on an initial series of atomic spectroscopy measurements of the nuclear structure of francium, based on isotope shifts and hyperfine anomalies, before conducting the anapole moment measurements, these measurements performed during commissioning runs help understand the atomic and nuclear structure of Fr.

  16. Trapping ultracold gases near cryogenic materials with rapid reconfigurability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naides, Matthew A.; Turner, Richard W.; Lai, Ruby A.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate an atom chip trapping system that allows the placement and high-resolution imaging of ultracold atoms within microns from any ?100??m-thin, UHV-compatible material, while also allowing sample exchange with minimal experimental downtime. The sample is not connected to the atom chip, allowing rapid exchange without perturbing the atom chip or laser cooling apparatus. Exchange of the sample and retrapping of atoms has been performed within a week turnaround, limited only by chamber baking. Moreover, the decoupling of sample and atom chip provides the ability to independently tune the sample temperature and its position with respect to the trapped ultracold gas, which itself may remain in the focus of a high-resolution imaging system. As a first demonstration of this system, we have confined a 700-nK cloud of 8??10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms within 100??m of a gold-mirrored 100-?m-thick silicon substrate. The substrate was cooled to 35?K without use of a heat shield, while the atom chip, 120??m away, remained at room temperature. Atoms may be imaged and retrapped every 16?s, allowing rapid data collection.

  17. Have the best available trap on the job, check design, installation, and maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spires, F.; Toy, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial and commercial installations can have much more efficient steam systems with properly designed, installed, and maintained steam traps. Thirty years ago, steam trap maintenance did not have near the significance it does today; fuel costs have risen from about $0.30 per 1000 lb of steam to over 25 times that a few years ago to about 15 times that cost today. Worn or otherwise malfunctioning steam traps can take quite a toll on the energy bill, especially since most traps are designed to fail in the open position. Failure of just one steam trap with a 1/2'' diameter orifice in the open position can cost $45,090 a year. This article gives guidelines for the prevention of steam trap failures.

  18. GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System This hydrated EGR system reduces NOx and enhances fuel efficiency, and the DPF is catalyzed by the fuel-borne catalyst generated by the oil-borne catalyst system deer09_rim.pdf (118.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DPF -"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System GreenPowerTM Trap-Muffler

  19. Ionization of polarized 3He+ ions in EBIS trap with slanted electrostatic mirror.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikin,A.; Zelenski, A.; Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Prelee, K.; Raparia, D.

    2007-09-10

    Methods of producing the nuclear polarized {sup 3}He{sup +} ions and their ionization to {sup 3}H{sup ++} in ion trap of the electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) are discussed. Computer simulations show that injection and accumulation of {sup 3}He{sup +} ions in the EBIS trap with slanted electrostatic mirror can be very effective for injection times longer than the ion traversal time through the trap.

  20. Using impedance measurements for detecting pathogens trapped in an electric field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-07-20

    Impedance measurements between the electrodes in an electric field is utilized to detect the presence of pathogens trapped in the electric field. Since particles trapped in a field using the dielectiphoretic force changes the impedance between the electrodes by changing the dielectric material between the electrodes, the degree of particle trapping can be determined by measuring the impedance. This measurement is used to determine if sufficient pathogen have been collected to analyze further or potentially to identify the pathogen.

  1. Polarization-dependent atomic dipole traps behind a circular aperture for neutral-atom quantum computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Copsey, Bert D.

    2011-02-15

    The neutral-atom quantum computing community has successfully implemented almost all necessary steps for constructing a neutral-atom quantum computer. We present computational results of a study aimed at solving the remaining problem of creating a quantum memory with individually addressable sites for quantum computing. The basis of this quantum memory is the diffraction pattern formed by laser light incident on a circular aperture. Very close to the aperture, the diffraction pattern has localized bright and dark spots that can serve as red-detuned or blue-detuned atomic dipole traps. These traps are suitable for quantum computing even for moderate laser powers. In particular, for moderate laser intensities ({approx}100 W/cm{sup 2}) and comparatively small detunings ({approx}1000-10 000 linewidths), trap depths of {approx}1 mK and trap frequencies of several to tens of kilohertz are achieved. Our results indicate that these dipole traps can be moved by tilting the incident laser beams without significantly changing the trap properties. We also explored the polarization dependence of these dipole traps. We developed a code that calculates the trapping potential energy for any magnetic substate of any hyperfine ground state of any alkali-metal atom for any laser detuning much smaller than the fine-structure splitting for any given electric field distribution. We describe details of our calculations and include a summary of different notations and conventions for the reduced matrix element and how to convert it to SI units. We applied this code to these traps and found a method for bringing two traps together and apart controllably without expelling the atoms from the trap and without significant tunneling probability between the traps. This approach can be scaled up to a two-dimensional array of many pinholes, forming a quantum memory with single-site addressability, in which pairs of atoms can be brought together and apart for two-qubit gates for quantum computing.

  2. DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER).

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DYNAMICAL STABILITY AND QUANTUM CHAOS OF IONS IN A LINEAR TRAP (1999002ER). The realization of a paradigm chaotic system, namely the harmonically driven oscillator, in the quantum domain using cold trapped ions driven by lasers is theoretically investigated. The simplest characteristics of regular and chaotic dynamics

  3. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference ...

  4. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample ...

  5. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Synergies of ...

  6. Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the Trapping of an Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the Trapping of an Artificial Radiation Belt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling Drift Loss Cone Effects on the ...

  7. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial

  8. CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy with a CdTe submonolayer stressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedova, I. V. Lyublinskaya, O. G.; Sorokin, S. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Toropov, A. A.; Donatini, F.; Dang, Si Le; Ivanov, S. V.

    2007-11-15

    A procedure for formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in a ZnSe matrix is suggested. The procedure is based on the introduction of a CdTe submonolayer stressor deposited on the matrix surface just before deposition of the material of the QDs. (For CdTe/ZnSe structure, the relative lattice mismatch is {delta}a/a {approx} 14%.) The stressor forms small strained islands at the ZnSe surface, thus producing local fields of high elastic stresses controlling the process of the self-assembling of the QDs. According to the data of transmission electron microscopy, this procedure allows a considerable increase in the surface density of QDs, with a certain decrease in their lateral dimensions (down to 4.5 {+-} 1.5 nm). In the photoluminescence spectra, a noticeable ({approx}150 meV) shift of the peak to longer wavelengths from the position of the reference CdSe/ZnSe QD structure is observed. The shift is due to some transformation of the morphology of the QDs and an increase in the Cd content in the QDs. Comprehensive studies of the nanostructures by recording and analyzing the excitation spectra of photoluminescence, the time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, and the cathodoluminescence spectra show that the emission spectra involve two types of optical transitions, namely, the type-I transitions in the CdSeTe/ZnSe QDs and the type-II transitions caused mainly by the low cadmium content (Zn,Cd)(Se,Te)/ZnSe layer formed between the QDs.

  9. Victory: Order (2015-SE-42033) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Order (2015-SE-42033) Victory: Order (2015-SE-42033) October 27, 2015 DOE ordered Victory Refrigeration to pay a $1,600 civil penalty after finding Victory had manufactured and distributed in commerce in the U.S. at least 8 units of commercial refrigerator-freezer basic model RFS-1D-S1-EW-PT-HD, a noncompliant product. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Victory. Victory: Order (2015-SE-42033) (21.59 KB) More Documents & Publications

  10. Optical Probing of metamagnetic phases in epitaxial EuSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galgano, G. D.; Henriques, A. B.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2011-12-23

    EuSe is a wide gap magnetic semiconductors with a potential for applications in proof-of-concept spintronic devices. When the temperature is lowered, EuSe goes through sharp transitions between a variety of magnetic phases and is thus described as metamagnetic. The purpose of the present investigation is to correlate the magnetic order to the sharp dichroic doublet, discovered recently in high quality thin epitaxial layers of EuSe, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report detailed measurements of the doublet positions and intensities as a function of magnetic field in low temperatures, covering several magnetic phases.