National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hor se trap

  1. Charge trapping and de-trapping in isolated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals under an external electric field: Indirect evidence for a permanent dipole moment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea

    2015-08-05

    Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.

  2. Roadmap: Horticulture Bachelor of Applied Horticulture [AS-BAH-HOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Horticulture ­ Bachelor of Applied Horticulture [AS-BAH-HOR] College of Arts and Sciences This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study for this major. However, courses is taken twice, in summer 1 and 2 #12;Roadmap: Horticulture ­ Bachelor of Applied Horticulture [AS

  3. Measuring charge trap occupation and energy level in CdSe/ZnS quantum dots using a scanning tunneling microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hummon, M. R.

    We use a scanning tunneling microscope to probe single-electron charging phenomena in individual CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots (QDs) at room temperature. The QDs are deposited on top of a bare Au thin film and form a ...

  4. Interaction of trapped ions with trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, Andrew T. (Andrew Todd)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results from two Paul-trap based ion traps carried out in the Vuleti? laboratory: the Atom-Ion trap for collision studies between cold atoms and cold ions, and the Cavity-Array trap for studying ...

  5. Steam Trap Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product...

  6. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus D. Hughes; Bjoern Lekitsch; Jiddu A. Broersma; Winfried K. Hensinger

    2011-06-28

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions within ion traps, which becomes an important factor in the miniaturization of ion traps.

  7. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  8. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  9. Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Marcus D; Broersma, Jiddu A; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2011-01-01

    Ion traps offer the opportunity to study fundamental quantum systems with high level of accuracy highly decoupled from the environment. Individual atomic ions can be controlled and manipulated with electric fields, cooled to the ground state of motion with laser cooling and coherently manipulated using optical and microwave radiation. Microfabricated ion traps hold the advantage of allowing for smaller trap dimensions and better scalability towards large ion trap arrays also making them a vital ingredient for next generation quantum technologies. Here we provide an introduction into the principles and operation of microfabricated ion traps. We show an overview of material and electrical considerations which are vital for the design of such trap structures. We provide guidance in how to choose the appropriate fabrication design, consider different methods for the fabrication of microfabricated ion traps and discuss previously realized structures. We also discuss the phenomenon of anomalous heating of ions with...

  10. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  11. Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  12. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  13. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the...

  14. HP Steam Trap Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2024 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 STEAM MONITORING HP... Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real...

  15. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  16. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  17. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  18. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  19. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  20. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11555 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 EVALUATING STEAM... TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests...

  1. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  2. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  3. De de se

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Pranav

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation, I argue against a unitary treatment of individual de se ascription. Based on consideration of Yoruba logophors and English dream-report pronouns, I show that one mechanism is best analyzed as binding ...

  4. Audit unto others hor ellipsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, You're in a heap o' trouble boy '' Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a Buffalo Bill'' goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I'm fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived Because this first encounter of the worst kind'' made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  5. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration Print In photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed at the ALS, a group of researchers has found that electronic transitions normally...

  6. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  7. PHaSe-EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae model (JournalHearingsHuman CapitalOmega LaserPHaSe

  8. Study Traps Avoid to Succeed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    Study Traps Avoid to Succeed Study traps are all around you! If you have found yourself saying any. Interrupt study time with planned breaks. Begin studying early, but increase study time as exams approach. "I've got so much to study... and so little time." Preview and skim your reading! Read chapter

  9. Optimal traps in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Downing; A. R. Pearce; R. J. Churchill; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-03-27

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunneling found in graphene, which could be explored experimentally with an artificial network of point charges held above the graphene layer. We also discuss scattering on these states and find the zero angular momentum states create a dominant peak in scattering cross-section as energy tends towards the Dirac point energy, suggesting a dominant contribution to resistivity.

  10. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Karan Kartik

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process ...

  11. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  12. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  13. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  14. Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2003-12-09

    Hydrodynamic enhanced dielectrophoretic particle trapping carried out by introducing a side stream into the main stream to squeeze the fluid containing particles close to the electrodes producing the dielelectrophoretic forces. The region of most effective or the strongest forces in the manipulating fields of the electrodes producing the dielectrophoretic forces is close to the electrodes, within 100 .mu.m from the electrodes. The particle trapping arrangement uses a series of electrodes with an AC field placed between pairs of electrodes, which causes trapping of particles along the edges of the electrodes. By forcing an incoming flow stream containing cells and DNA, for example, close to the electrodes using another flow stream improves the efficiency of the DNA trapping.

  15. Electronic Trap States in Methanofullerenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julia Schafferhans; Carsten Deibel; Vladimir Dyakonov

    2011-07-18

    The trap states in three fullerene derivatives, namely PC61BM ([6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester), bisPC61BM (bis[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) and PC71BM ([6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester), are investigated by thermally stimulated current measurements (TSC). Thereby, the lower limit of the trap densities for all studied methanofullerenes exhibits values in the order of 10^22 m^-3 with the highest trap density in bisPC61BM and the lowest in PC61BM. Fractional TSC measurements on PC61BM reveal a broad trap distribution instead of discrete trap levels with activation energies ranging from 15 meV to 270 meV and the maximum at about 75 meV. The activation energies of the most prominent traps in the other two fullerene derivatives are significantly higher, being at 96 meV and 223 meV for PC71BM and 184 meV for bisPC61BM, respectively. The influence of these findings on the performance of organic solar cells is discussed.

  16. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goeringer, Douglas E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  17. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  18. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

    2015-02-25

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  19. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  20. Holographic microscopy of holographically trapped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    . Padgett, "Permanent 3D microstructures in a polymeric host created using holographic optical tweezers," J to organize microscopic materials into three-dimensional structures. In a complementary manner, holographicHolographic microscopy of holographically trapped three-dimensional structures Sang-Hyuk Lee

  1. LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, Luis A.

    LASER COOLING AND TRAPPING OF NEUTRAL ATOMS Luis A. Orozco Department of Physics and Astronomy. Laser cooling and trapping is now an important tool for many spectroscopic studies. It enhances, 4]. In these notes I treat only very general aspects of laser cooling and trapping without

  2. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  3. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, K K; Bruzewicz, C D; Chuang, I L; Ram, R J; Sage, J M; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  4. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. K. Mehta; A. M. Eltony; C. D. Bruzewicz; I. L. Chuang; R. J. Ram; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-06-13

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This is the first demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware, in any modality, utilizing a commercial CMOS process, and it opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  5. The Elimination of Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickman, F.

    1985-01-01

    compile published data by three leading steam trap facturers. ANNUAL COST OF STEAM LOSS FOR 100 PSIG STEAM AT $5/1000 LBS. TgpOrlflce l18nul8ctuNf M.,utectu,., DI.mNr A' 84 1/." . $ 3,150 $ 2,313 e to from nu ufKluNf co 3,1711 1/4" $12,eoo $ 9...

  6. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Redshaw; Richard A. Bryce; Paul Hawks; Nadeesha D. Gamage; Curtis Hunt; Rathnayake M. E. B. Kandegedara; Ishara S. Ratnayake; Lance Sharp

    2015-10-25

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  7. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  8. Texas A&M Penning Trap Facility - Design of the Measurement Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mehlman; D. Melconian; P. D. Shidling

    2012-08-20

    A tandem Penning trap facility has been designed and is under construction at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute (TAMU-TRAP). The initial experimental program will be the study of correlation parameters for T=2 superallowed beta-delayed proton emitters. The measurement trap is a unique large-bore optimized 5-electrode cylindrical Penning trap, which features a 90 mm free radius, larger than in any existing Penning trap. This novel geometry allows for full radial containment of decay products of interest. The trap has also been designed to exhibit a "tunable" and "orthogonalized" geometry, which is useful for alternate experiments.

  9. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    devices, semiconductors containing scarce elements such as CdTe and CuInGaSe2 have entered the marketPlasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells P Spinelli1 , V E Ferry2 , J van de Groep1 , M van Lare

  10. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroicAwardElectron Trapping by Molecular

  11. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  12. Solon SE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSiliciumEnergy Inc Jump to:Solergy PowerSolisSolmicSolomonSE

  13. Wedding Reception Menu Hors d' Oeuvres Buffet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    vegetable platters with dips Coffee, decaf coffee, hot tea, iced tea, and ice water Select six items from include mixed field green platters with a choice of dressings, starch, seasonal vegetable, rolls, butter, coffee, decaf coffee, hot tea, iced tea, and ice water. Winter Park Mediterranean Herbed Chicken Sautéed

  14. Audit unto others{hor_ellipsis}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maday, J.H. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    My first encounter with a quality assurance auditor is reminiscent of an old Dodge commercial. You remember? The old sheriff, masked in mirrored sunglasses, paunch hanging over his gun belt, prophesying, ``You`re in a heap o` trouble boy!`` Well, my auditor could have been kin to the sheriff; they had the same posture, attitude, and mirrored sunglasses. Plus, my auditor wore a black leather vest and sported a ``Buffalo Bill`` goatee. While certainly memorable, both gentlemen were far from pleasant. I`m fairly certain that the compliance auditor of old deserved this perceived association with his law enforcement counterpart. Both believed in enforcing the letter of the law, or their interpretations of it. Neither seemed capable of exercising interpretive powers, but instead relied on winning through intimidation, possibly with an eye toward claiming some version of a monthly Quota Award. Is the auditor of today any better perceived? Because this ``first encounter of the worst kind`` made a lasting impression on me, I have dedicated considerable time and effort trying to avoid being perceived as another sheriff when I conduct audits. In my auditing career, I am determined to capitalize on each opportunity to turn negative situations, as experienced by the auditee, into meaningful opportunities for improved performance. I want to treat the auditee the way I want to be treated when I am being audited. (author)

  15. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  16. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers­beam optical traps use­ ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  17. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers-beam optical traps use- ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  18. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  19. Light-trapping concentrator cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keavney, C.J.; Geoffroy, L.M.; Sanfacon, M.M.; Tobin, S.P. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a thin, light-trapping silicon concentrator solar cell using a new structure, the cross-grooved cell. A process was developed for fabricating V-grooves on both sides of thin silicon wafers, the grooves on one side being perpendicular to those on the other side. A novel way of minimizing flat spots at the tops of the V-grooves was discovered. We experimentally verified the theoretical light-trapping superiority of the cross-grooved structure. We also demonstrated a reduction in grid line obscuration for grid lines running parallel to the V-grooves due to light reflection into the cell. high short-circuit current densities were achieved for p-i-n concentrator cells with the cross-grooved structure, proving the concept. The best efficiencies achieved were 18% at concentration, compared to 20% for a conventional planar low-resistivity cell. Recombination in the full-area emitter was identified as the major intrinsic loss mechanism in these thin, high-resistivity bifacial cells. Recombination on the emitter limits Voc and fill factor, and also leads to a large sublinearity of short-circuit current with light intensity. Reduction of the junction area is a major recommendation for future work. In addition, there were persistent problems with ohmic contacts and maintaining high minority-carrier lifetime during processing. We believe that these problems can be solved, and that the cross-grooved cell is a viable approach to the limit-efficiency silicon solar cell. This report covers research conducted between March 1987 and July 1989. 22 refs., 40 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. When a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation of black sea bass (Centropristis striata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at50 min, when the entry ratedeclined and the exit rate increased to a point where their confidenceWhen a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation entries and exits of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) from chevron traps (n ¼ 26) to quantify catch

  1. Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma...

  2. Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency Real-Time Measurement of Diesel Trap Efficiency 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

  3. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  4. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  5. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  6. Trapping efficiency depending on particulate size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Czerwinski, J.; Scheidegger, P.

    1996-09-01

    There is growing concern about the risk potential of Diesel particulates. This prompted two Swiss R and D projects focused on the capabilities of different soot trap concepts for filtering finest particulates. Eight different filter media, some in numerous variants, were tested on four different Diesel engines. All traps attained their gravimetric target. However, there are noticeable performance differences for finest particulates at or smaller than 50 nm. Fiber deep filters seem to be noticeably better than other filter types. If the carcinogens are mainly the finest particulates, then this criterion may become important in future trap evaluation.

  7. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Schlawin; Manuel Gessner; Shaul Mukamel; Andreas Buchleitner

    2014-10-07

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity which require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in [M. Gessner et al. New J. Phys. 16 092001 (2014)], we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems and discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods in combination with distinct features of ultra-cold matter systems allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and can therefore reliably probe systems where, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  8. Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, C.

    2008-01-01

    of continuous monitoring. In addition to energy loss failed open steam traps that go undetected can cause steam system issues. Over pressure on deairator tanks and return lines, electric condensate pump cavitation, and back pressure from undersized vent...

  9. Trapping cold rubidium in a fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, David Ross, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, we demonstrate the novel technique of loading cold ??Rb into a red-detuned optical dipole trap within a hollow core photonic fiber. This confines the atoms to 6 microns in two dimensions. We initially cooled ...

  10. A quantum information processor with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Philipp

    Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. ...

  11. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) Organizer: Ferdinand Hahn PH/DT Detector Seminar webpage  

  12. Quantum control of the motional states of trapped ions through fast switching of trapping potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Alonso; F. M. Leupold; B. C. Keitch; J. P. Home

    2012-12-21

    We propose a new scheme for supplying voltages to the electrodes of microfabricated ion traps, enabling access to a regime in which changes to the trapping potential are made on timescales much shorter than the period of the secular oscillation frequencies of the trapped ions. This opens up possibilities for speeding up the transport of ions in segmented ion traps and also provides access to control of multiple ions in a string faster than the Coulomb interaction between them. We perform a theoretical study of ion transport using these methods in a surface-electrode trap, characterizing the precision required for a number of important control parameters. We also consider the possibilities and limitations for generating motional state squeezing using these techniques, which could be used as a basis for investigations of Gaussian-state entanglement.

  13. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas D. Guise; Spencer D. Fallek; Kelly E. Stevens; K. R. Brown; Curtis Volin; Alexa W. Harter; Jason M. Amini; Robert E. Higashi; Son Thai Lu; Helen M. Chanhvongsak; Thi A. Nguyen; Matthew S. Marcus; Thomas R. Ohnstein; Daniel W. Youngner

    2015-05-05

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions in a second BGA trap.

  14. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  15. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-05-29

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  16. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Walther; Frank Ziesel; Thomas Ruster; Sam T. Dawkins; Konstantin Ott; Max Hettrich; Kilian Singer; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Ulrich Poschinger

    2012-06-02

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  17. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  18. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    , flanges and other connections. The economic loss can be significant. To appre ciate the massive economic impact of wasting steam, let's again look at the very small trap leak on 30 pound pressure typical for many process applications. Chart 1 shows... how much steam will be lost each hour from various size orifices and pressure ranges and the example calcula tions show how much steam is lost per year. Chart 1. Steam Loss Comparison For Various Pressures and Orifice Sizes Drip &Tracer Traps "1...

  19. Fast separation of two trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; S. Martínez-Garaot; U. G. Poschinger; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga

    2015-05-19

    We design fast protocols to separate or recombine two ions in a segmented Paul trap. By inverse engineering the time evolution of the trapping potential composed of a harmonic and a quartic term, it is possible to perform these processes in a few microseconds without final excitation. These times are much shorter than the ones reported so far experimentally. The design is based on dynamical invariants and dynamical normal modes. Anharmonicities beyond the harmonic approximation at potential minima are taken into account perturbatively. The stability versus an unknown potential bias is also studied.

  20. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  1. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soilof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Journals Tropicalof Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

  2. Fluorescence modulation in single CdSe quantum dots by moderate applied electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBlanc, Sharonda J. [Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States); McClanahan, Mason R.; Moyer, Tully; Moyer, Patrick J. [Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States); Jones, Marcus [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Single molecule time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) under the influence of moderate applied electric fields reveals distributed emission from states which are neither fully on nor off and pronounced changes in the excited state decay. The data suggest that a 54?kV/cm applied electric field causes small perturbations to the QD surface charge distribution, effectively increasing the surface trapping probability and resulting in the appearance of gray states. We present simultaneous blinking and fluorescence decay results for two sets of QDs, with and without an applied electric field. Further kinetic modeling analysis suggests that a single trapped charged cannot be responsible for a blinking off event.

  3. Exciton self-trapping in bulk polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ceresoli; M. C. Righi; E. Tosatti; S. Scandolo; G. Santoro; S. Serra

    2005-07-13

    We studied theoretically the behavior of an injected electron-hole pair in crystalline polyethylene. Time-dependent adiabatic evolution by ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the pair will become self-trapped in the perfect crystal, with a trapping energy of about 0.38 eV, with formation of a pair of trans-gauche conformational defects, three C$_2$H$_4$ units apart on the same chain. The electron is confined in the inter-chain pocket created by a local, 120$^\\circ$ rotation of the chain between the two defects, while the hole resides on the chain and is much less bound. Despite the large energy stored in the trapped excitation, there does not appear to be a direct non-radiative channel for electron-hole recombination. This suggests that intrinsic self-trapping of electron-hole pairs inside the ideal quasi-crystalline fraction of PE might not be directly relevant for electrical damage in high-voltage cables.

  4. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously "good" maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This paper will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months...

  5. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. El Ghafar; P. Torma; V. Savichev; E. Mayr; A. Zeiler; W. P. Schleich

    1996-12-18

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  6. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghafar, M E; Savichev, V; Mayr, E; Zeiler, A; Schleich, W P

    1997-01-01

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  7. Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emerald Ash Borer TEXAS TRAPPING PROJECT East Texas 2012 H. A. (Joe) Pase III Texas Forest Service Forest Health #12;#12;How To Identify Ash Trees Consider these quick points when identifying ash trees the EAB survey, ash trees do not need to be identified to species) Texas is home to at least six (6

  8. Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For maximum effectiveness in steam systems, steam traps should have operating characteristics which closely match the requirements of the applications for which they are used. A trap which holds back condensate until it is subcooled and some...

  9. Efficient light-trapping nanostructures in thin silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang Eon

    We examine light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon periodic nanostructures for solar cell applications. Using group theory, we show that light-trapping can be improved over a broad band when structural mirror symmetry ...

  10. Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    required to achieve economic tracer lengths; 3. Maximum allowable trapping distance for specific applications 4.Data important to determine condensate loads; 5. Trap selection, sizing, good installation practices, and proper maintenance. Using...

  11. European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    European Conference on Trapped Ions 1924 September 2010 Redworth Hall Conference Handbook Sponsored by: #12;ECTI 2010 Committees and Invited Wunderlich (Universität Siegen) ECTI 2010 1 #12;Scope of the Conference Ion traps are used as a basic tool

  12. Shuttling of ions for characterization of a microfabricated ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Zachary (Zachary Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I present experimental results demonstrating the characterization of a planar Paul trap. I discuss the theory of ion trapping and analyze the voltages required for shuttling. Next, the characteristics of a ...

  13. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  14. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  15. Microfabrication of surface electrode ion traps for quantum manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Yufei, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Trapped ions are a promising approach to quantum computation. This approach uses a qubit state which is the atomic state and quantum motional state of a trapped ion to encode information, and uses laser-ion interactions ...

  16. Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klidzejs, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts made at 3M Company plants to save energy in the steam distribution system by improving the maintenance of steam traps. The results from steam trap surveys for 17 facilities with over 6,400 ...

  17. Towards a cryogenic planar ion trap for Sr-88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakr, Waseem (Waseem S.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments with ion traps constructed with electrodes in a single two-dimensional plane, and ion traps operated in a cryogenic environment at 77K and 4K temperatures. These two technologies address ...

  18. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  19. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01

    In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

  20. Capture of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) with multilure traps and biolure attractants in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.J.; Salinas, E.J. [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 22675 N. Moorefield Rd, Edinburg, TX 78541-5033 (United States); Rendon, P. [USDA-APHIS-PPQ-CPHST, 4a Avenida 12-62, Zona 10, Guatemala City (Guatemala)

    2007-03-15

    Two trapping systems were compared in a study in Guatemala during the wet season, May through Dec 2001. Trap/lure combinations consisting of green or yellow-based plastic McPhail-like traps baited with a synthetic 2-component lure (putrescine and ammonium acetate) and 300 mL of propylene glycol antifreeze as a preservative were compared to the traditional glass McPhail baited with torula yeast/borax and 300 mL of water. Both systems captured several key Anastrepha species including Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann as well as Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Additionally, 13 other Anastrepha spp. were captured with the synthetic lure. The plastic traps captured more key flies than the McPhail trap except for A. distincta where there were no significant differences between the yellow-based plastic trap and the McPhail trap and no significant differences between any trap and lure for trapping A. fraterculus. The synthetic lure lasted 10 weeks. The sex ratio was female-biased for almost all captured key species in both systems. Moreover, there were significant numbers of captured nontarget insects in all traps; however, the captured flies in those traps with the synthetic lure were not adversely affected by these insects. Propylene glycol-based antifreeze was a superior preservative when compared to borax/water. (author) [Spanish] En Guatemala, se compararon dos sistemas de trampeo durante la epoca lluviosa de Mayo a Deciembre, 2001. Combinaciones de trampa/atrayente que consistieron de trampas de plastico con bases verdes o amarillos y con atrayentes sinteticos (acetate de amoniaco y putrecina) fueron comparadas con el sistema de trampeo tradicional McPhail de vidrio cebada con torula y borax en agua. Los dos sistemas capturaron moscas del genero Anastrepha incluyendo Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua, Macquart, A. serpentina Weidemann, A. striata Schiner, A. distincta Greene, A. fraterculus Weidemann y Ceratitis capitata Weidemann. Ademas, se capturaron 13 especias adicionales de Anastrepha asi como Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker con el cebo sintetico. El cebo sintetico fue efectivo por diez semanas sin recebar. Las trampas de plastico capturaron mas moscas del genero Anastrepha que la trampa de cristal McPhail. Las excepciones fueron A. distincta en donde no hubo differencias el la captura con la trampa de plastico con base amarillo y la trampa McPhail de cristal asi como A. fraterculus en donde no hubo differencias comparando la captura de moscas con ambos sistemas. La proporcion sexual de las moscas capturadas con los dos sistemas fue al favor de las hembras. La captura de otros tipos de insectos fue significantemente elevado, sin embargo, las moscas capturadas con los cebos sinteticos no fueron afectados adversamente por estos insectos. El 10% del anticongelante, glicol propilico, fue superior al borax/agua como conservador de las moscas capturardas. (author)

  1. Galp associa se melhor escola de petrleo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    juntaram-se à Galp para criar o ISPG, que se associou à Heriot Watt University para criar um mestrado em de uma parceria entre o ISPG e a Heriot Watt University, considera- da a melhor instituição de qualificado e de I&D deste sector para as operações que desenvolve em muitos países lusófo- nos, como Brasil

  2. University Ave SE University Ave W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    University Ave SE University Ave W Service Layer Credits: Sources: Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, USGS, Intermap, i UV55 ")280 University Ave. Ramp Major Access Routes University Ave. Ramp §¨¦35W §¨¦94 ")280 Date: 5/30/2014 #12;, , , , , , , ""A TCF Bank Stadium Access Routes University Ave. Ramp University Ave SE Service

  3. Organic magnetoresistance from deep traps N. J. Harmon1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    ,16 Traps that exhibit strong spin-orbit effects can enhance organic light-emitting diode (OLED) emission

  4. Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote Economics Department, EUI. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential poverty-trap implications of this use. If the capacity, the introduction of an insurance scheme could be an exit to the poverty trap and relax pressure on the resource

  5. Non-vanishing ponderomotive AC electrophoretic effect for particle trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Weihau; Park, Jae Hyun nmn; Krstic, Predrag S; Reed, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    We present here a study on overlooked aspects of alternating current (AC) electrokinetics AC electrophoretic (ACEP) phenomena. The dynamics of a particle with both polarizability and net charges in a non-uniform AC electric trapping field is investigated. It is found that either electrophoretic (EP) or dielectrophoretic (DEP) effects can dominate the trapping dynamics, depending on experimental conditions. A dimensionless parameter gamma is developed to predict the relative strength of EP and DEP effects in a quadrupole AC field. An ACEP trap is feasible for charged particles in salt-free or low salt concentration solutions. In contrast to DEP traps, an ACEP trap favors the downscaling of the particle size.

  6. REPRESENTATIVE COURSE SEQUENCE SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    REPRESENTATIVE COURSE SEQUENCE SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (SE) Freshman Year First Semester Second Semester Second Semester CSE 3310 ­ Fundamentals of Software CSE 3302 ­ Programming Languages Engineering CSE 3320 ­ Operating Systems CSE 3315 ­ Theoretical Concepts in CSE CSE 4310 ­ Software Engineering

  7. Dynamic trapping near a quantum critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Kolodrubetz; Emanuel Katz; Anatoli Polkovnikov

    2015-03-02

    The study of dynamics in closed quantum systems has recently been revitalized by the emergence of experimental systems that are well-isolated from their environment. In this paper, we consider the closed-system dynamics of an archetypal model: spins near a second order quantum critical point, which are traditionally described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Imbuing the driving field with Newtonian dynamics, we find that the full closed system exhibits a robust new phenomenon -- dynamic critical trapping -- in which the system is self-trapped near the critical point due to efficient absorption of field kinetic energy by heating the quantum spins. We quantify limits in which this phenomenon can be observed and generalize these results by developing a Kibble-Zurek scaling theory that incorporates the dynamic field. Our findings can potentially be interesting in the context of early universe physics, where the role of the driving field is played by the inflaton or a modulus.

  8. Progress towards a practical multicell positron trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielson, J. R. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States); Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Described here is progress in an experimental program to develop a 21 cell multicell trap for the accumulation and storage of {approx} 10{sup 12} positrons. The basic architecture is an arrangement of multiple Penning-Malmberg (PM) trapped plasmas (i.e., cells) arranged in parallel in a common vacuum system and magnetic field. Experiments are described that are intended to address several key issues, including the effects of large space charge potentials and high plasma densities on: plasma heating, deterioration of confinement, and decreased efficiency of rotating electric fields in producing plasma compression. The confinement of PM plasmas displaced both radially and toward the ends of the uniform magnetic field region will also be investigated.

  9. Enriched $^{82}$Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; P. Benetti; L. Cardani; N. Casali; D. Chiesa; M. Clemenza; I. Dafinei; S. Di Domizio; F. Ferroni; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; C. Gotti; M. Laubenstein; M. Maino; S. Nagorny; S. Nisi; C. Nones; F. Orio; L. Pagnanini; L. Pattavina; G. Pessina; G. Piperno; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; C. Rusconi; K. Schäffner; C. Tomei; M. Vignati

    2015-08-07

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched $^{82}$Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3% enriched $^{82}$Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of $^{232}$Th, $^{238}$U and $^{235}$U are respectively: $<$61 $\\mu$Bq/kg, $<$110 $\\mu$Bq/kg and $<$74 $\\mu$Bq/kg at 90% C.L.. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the $^{82}$Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se to 0$^+_1$, 2$^+_2$ and 2$^+_1$ excited states of $^{82}$Kr of 3.4$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, 1.3$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y and 1.0$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, respectively, with a 90% C.L..

  10. Transport quantum logic gates for trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Leibfried; E. Knill; C. Ospelkaus; D. J. Wineland

    2007-08-28

    Many efforts are currently underway to build a device capable of large scale quantum information processing (QIP). Whereas QIP has been demonstrated for a few qubits in several systems, many technical difficulties must be overcome in order to construct a large-scale device. In one proposal for large-scale QIP, trapped ions are manipulated by precisely controlled light pulses and moved through and stored in multizone trap arrays. The technical overhead necessary to precisely control both the ion geometrical configurations and the laser interactions is demanding. Here we propose methods that significantly reduce the overhead on laser beam control for performing single and multiple qubit operations on trapped ions. We show how a universal set of operations can be implemented by controlled transport of ions through stationary laser beams. At the same time, each laser beam can be used to perform many operations in parallel, potentially reducing the total laser power necessary to carry out QIP tasks. The overall setup necessary for implementing transport gates is simpler than for gates executed on stationary ions. We also suggest a transport-based two-qubit gate scheme utilizing microfabricated permanent magnets that can be executed without laser light.

  11. Trapped ion scaling with pulsed fast gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. B. Bentley; A. R. R. Carvalho; J. J. Hope

    2015-07-10

    Fast entangling gates for trapped ions offer vastly improved gate operation times relative to implemented gates, as well as approaches to trap scaling. Gates on neighbouring ions only involve local ions when performed sufficiently fast, and we find that even a fast gate between distant ions with few degrees of freedom restores all the motional modes given more stringent gate speed conditions. We compare pulsed fast gate schemes, defined by a timescale faster than the trap period, and find that our proposed scheme has less stringent requirements on laser repetition rate for achieving arbitrary gate time targets and infidelities well below $10^{-4}$. By extending gate schemes to ion crystals, we explore the effect of ion number on gate fidelity for coupling neighbouring pairs of ions in large crystals. Inter-ion distance determines the gate time, and a factor of five increase in repetition rate, or correspondingly the laser power, reduces the infidelity by almost two orders of magnitude. We also apply our fast gate scheme to entangle the first and last ions in a crystal. As the number of ions in the crystal increases, significant increases in the laser power are required to provide the short gate times corresponding to fidelity above 0.99.

  12. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar; Okyay, Ali K.; UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  13. Surface States in the Photoionization of High-Quality CdSe Core/Shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to rare photoionization events; events in which op- tically excited electrons tunnel to a nearby trap required in EFM, but it also provides a nearby electron trap state of known characteristics electron" process, using trap state

  14. ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW TIPSTER SE/CM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW TIPSTER SE/CM tipster@fipster.org THE TIPSTER ARCHITECTURE The TIPSTER Architecture is a software architecture for providing Document Detection (i.e. Document Retrieval and Message Routing) and Information Extraction functions to text handling applications. The high level architecture

  15. Enriched $^{82}$Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beeman, J W; Benetti, P; Cardani, L; Casali, N; Chiesa, D; Clemenza, M; Dafinei, I; Di Domizio, S; Ferroni, F; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gotti, C; Laubenstein, M; Maino, M; Nagorny, S; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Orio, F; Pagnanini, L; Pattavina, L; Pessina, G; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Previtali, E; Rusconi, C; Schäffner, K; Tomei, C; Vignati, M

    2015-01-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched $^{82}$Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3% enriched $^{82}$Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of $^{232}$Th, $^{238}$U and $^{235}$U are respectively: $<$61 $\\mu$Bq/kg, $<$110 $\\mu$Bq/kg and $<$74 $\\mu$Bq/kg at 90% C.L.. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the $^{82}$...

  16. NPS-SE-10-003 POSTGRADUATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NPS-SE-10-003 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA INTEGRATED PROJECT An Integrated Command and Control Architecture Concept for Unmanned Systems in the Year of 2030 By Omari D Buckley reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including

  17. Two dipolar atoms in a harmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O?dziejewski, Rafa?; Rz??ewski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Two identical dipolar atoms moving in a harmonic trap without an external magnetic field are investigated. Using the algebra of angular momentum a semi - analytical solutions are found. We show that the internal spin - spin interactions between the atoms couple to the orbital angular momentum causing an analogue of Einstein - de Haas effect. We show a possibility of adiabatically pumping our system from the s-wave to the d-wave relative motion. The effective spin-orbit coupling occurs at anti-crossings of the energy levels.

  18. Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

    1979-01-01

    the bottom edge and out, the bucket becomes bouyant, floats up, closes the valve and the flow stops. The slight static pressure the water around the bucket exerts on the steam inside will begin to drive it out through the small hole in the top we spoke... at which condensate is forming, thus steam will eventually flow into the trap. Steam unlike condensate, or air in a relative sense, is highly compressible and will undergo a substantial volume change in expanding from the inlet to outlet pressure...

  19. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Giovanna Morigi

    2007-03-20

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency.

  20. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  1. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

    1992-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  2. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions |(Conference)ProjectProposedAmerica'sTrap and Remove

  3. Corrections to our results for optical nanofiber traps in Cesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Ding; A. Goban; K. S. Choi; H. J. Kimble

    2012-12-20

    Several errors in Refs. [1, 2] are corrected related to the optical trapping potentials for a state-insensitive, compensated nanofiber trap for the D2 transition of atomic Cesium. Section I corrects our basic formalism in Ref. [1] for calculating dipole-force potentials. Section II corrects erroneous values for a partial lifetime and a transition wavelength in Ref. [1]. Sections III and IV present corrected figures for various trapping configurations considered in Refs. [1] and [2], respectively.

  4. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  5. Inertial measurement with trapped particles: A microdynamical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, E. Rehmi; Popescu, George A.; Gershenfeld, Neil [Center for Bits and Atoms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-05

    We describe an inertial measurement device based on an electrodynamically trapped proof mass. Mechanical constraints are replaced by guiding fields, permitting the trap stiffness to be tuned dynamically. Optical readout of the proof mass motion provides a measurement of acceleration and rotation, resulting in an integrated six degree of freedom inertial measurement device. We demonstrate such a device - constructed without microfabrication - with sensitivity comparable to that of commercial microelectromechanical systems technology and show how trapping parameters may be adjusted to increase dynamic range.

  6. Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant...

  7. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  8. Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W

    2006-09-01

    To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.

  9. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  10. Bait formulations and longevity of navel orangeworm egg traps tested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuenen, L.P.S. Bas; Bentley, Walt; Rowe, Heather; Ribeiro, Brian

    2008-01-01

    there were 1% or 3% crude almond oil received more eggshaving no letters crude almond oil or traps baited with inone standard error. crude almond oil received significantly

  11. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    installed steam traps may have failed-thus allowing live steam to escape into the condensate return system. In systems with a regularly scheduled maintenance program, leaking...

  12. Wavebreaking and Particle Trapping in Collisionless Plasmas: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadwick, Bradley A [University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    2013-08-01

    The final report describing accomplishments in understanding phase-space processes involved in particle trapping and in developing advance numerical models of laser-plasma interactions.

  13. Anomalous dynamic behaviour of optically trapped high aspect ratio nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toe, Wen Jun; Angstmann, Christopher; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Henry, Bruce; Reece, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of high aspect ratio nanowires trapped axially in a single gradient force optical tweezers. A power spectrum analysis of the Brownian dynamics reveals a broad spectral resonance of the order of a kHz with peak properties that are strongly dependent on the input trapping power. Modelling of the dynamical equations of motion of the trapped nanowire that incorporate non-conservative effects through asymmetric coupling between translational and rotational degrees of freedom provides excellent agreement with the experimental observations. An associated observation of persistent cyclical motion around the equilibrium trapping position using winding analysis provides further evidence for the influence of non-conservative forces.

  14. Neutron-Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in a Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kerbikov; O. Lychkovskiy

    2008-06-01

    We calculate the rate of neutron-mirror-neutron oscillations for ultracold neutrons trapped in a storage vessel. Recent experimental bounds on the oscillation time are discussed.

  15. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY light-trapping, photonic crystals, high-efficiency thin-film solar cells Word Cloud...

  16. Ratchet Cellular Automata for Colloids in Dynamic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-02-13

    We numerically investigate the transport of kinks in a ratchet cellular automata geometry for colloids interacting with dynamical traps. We find that thermal effects can enhance the transport efficiency in agreement with recent experiments. At high temperatures we observe the creation and annihilation of thermally induced kinks that degrade the signal transmission. We consider both the deterministic and stochastic cases and show how the trap geometry can be adjusted to switch between these two cases. The operation of the dynamical trap geometry can be achieved with the adjustment of fewer parameters than ratchet cellular automata constructed using static traps.

  17. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution...

  18. Mesoscopic supersolid of dipoles in a trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golomedov, A. E.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2011-09-15

    A mesoscopic system of dipolar bosons trapped by a harmonic potential is considered. The system has a number of physical realizations including dipole excitons, atoms with large dipolar moment, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms in inhomogeneous electric field. We carry out a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation to define the quantum properties of a two-dimensional system of trapped dipoles at zero temperature. In dimensionless units the system is described by two control parameters, namely, the number of particles and the strength of the interparticle interaction. We have shown that when the interparticle interaction is strong enough a mesoscopic crystal is formed. As the strength of interactions is decreased a multistage melting takes place. Off-diagonal order in the system is tested using natural-orbitals analysis. We have found that the system might be Bose condensed even in the case of strong interparticle interactions. There is a set of parameters for which a spatially ordered structure is formed while simultaneously the fraction of Bose-condensed particles is nonzero. This might be considered as a realization of a mesoscopic supersolid.

  19. Energy trapping from Hagedorn densities of states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor Behan; Klaus Larjo; Nima Lashkari; Brian Swingle; Mark Van Raamsdonk

    2013-04-26

    In this note, we construct simple stochastic toy models for holographic gauge theories in which distributions of energy on a collection of sites evolve by a master equation with some specified transition rates. We build in only energy conservation, locality, and the standard thermodynamic requirement that all states with a given energy are equally likely in equilibrium. In these models, we investigate the qualitative behavior of the dynamics of the energy distributions for different choices of the density of states for the individual sites. For typical field theory densities of states (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E^{\\alphaenergy spread out relatively quickly. For large N gauge theories with gravitational duals, the density of states for a finite volume of field theory degrees of freedom typically includes a Hagedorn regime (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E). We find that this gives rise to a trapping of energy in subsets of degrees of freedom for parametrically long time scales before the energy leaks away. We speculate that this Hagedorn trapping may be part of a holographic explanation for long-lived gravitational bound states (black holes) in gravitational theories.

  20. Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Stephan

    Chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba+ ions and neutral molecules in the gas phase B. Roth, D-cooled ion trapping apparatus, we have investigated laser-induced chemical reactions between cold trapped Ba is to investigate chemical reactions between cold atomic and molecular ions trapped in radio-frequency traps

  1. Successful Implementation of a Sustainable Trap Management Program. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, J.

    2013-01-01

    significant cost penalty in delaying implementation of a program to manage the steam trap population. Plants typically embark on a trap management initiative by focusing on a survey, but may not maximize returns because they fail to execute or sustain possible...

  2. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  3. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry Qinghao Wu and Richard N. Zare* A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm

  4. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping-generation solar cells. The ultimate success of photovoltaic (PV) cell technology requires great advancements

  5. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid for addressing the key challenge of light trapping in thin-film solar cells. We experimentally and theoretically

  6. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    approach for characterizing their performance. This combination makes possible real-time adaptive trap widely known as an optical tweezer [1]. Multiple beams of light pass- ing simultaneously through-time characterization and optimization of entire arrays of traps through digital video microscopy. Such adaptive

  7. Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberoff, K.; Fajans, J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2007-10-15

    The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3-D PIC) simulation code WARP is used to study positron confinement in antihydrogen traps. The magnetic geometry is close to that of a UC Berkeley experiment conducted, with electrons, as part of the ALPHA collaboration (W. Bertsche et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 796, 301 (2005)). In order to trap antihydrogen atoms, multipole magnetic fields are added to a conventional Malmberg-Penning trap. These multipole fields must be strong enough to confine the antihydrogen, leading to multipole field strengths at the trap wall comparable to those of the axial magnetic field. Numerical simulations reported here confirm recent experimental measurements of reduced particle confinement when a quadrupole field is added to a Malmberg-Penning trap. It is shown that, for parameters relevant to various antihydrogen experiments, the use of an octupole field significantly reducesthe positron losses seen with a quadrupole field. A unique method for obtaining a 3-D equilibrium of the positrons in the trap with a collisionless PIC code was developed especially for the study of the antihydrogen trap; however, it is of practical use for other traps as well.

  8. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  9. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  10. Q Cells SE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLCALLETE Inc dEAPrysmianPvT Capital GmbhQ Cells SE

  11. Investigation of plasma hydrogenation and trapping mechanism for layer transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Peng; Chu, Paul K.; Hoechbauer, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Nastasi, M.; Buca, D.; Mantl, S.; Loo, R.; Caymax, M.; Alford, T.; Mayer, J.W.; Theodore, N. David; Cai, M.; Schmidt, B.; Lau, S.S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Institut fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B - 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Advanced Products R and D Lab., Motorola Inc., 2100 East Elliot Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States); University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California, 92093 (United States)

    2005-01-17

    Hydrogen ion implantation is conventionally used to initiate the transfer of Si thin layers onto Si wafers coated with thermal oxide. In this work, we studied the feasibility of using plasma hydrogenation to replace high dose H implantation for layer transfer. Boron ion implantation was used to introduce H-trapping centers into Si wafers to illustrate the idea. Instead of the widely recognized interactions between boron and hydrogen atoms, this study showed that lattice damage, i.e., dangling bonds, traps H atoms and can lead to surface blistering during hydrogenation or upon postannealing at higher temperature. The B implantation and subsequent processes control the uniformity of H trapping and the trap depths. While the trap centers were introduced by B implantation in this study, there are many other means to do the same without implantation. Our results suggest an innovative way to achieve high quality transfer of Si layers without H implantation at high energies and high doses.

  12. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  13. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  14. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Epstein; S. Seidelin; D. Leibfried; J. H. Wesenberg; J. J. Bollinger; J. M. Amini; R. B. Blakestad; J. Britton; J. P. Home; W. M. Itano; J. D. Jost; E. Knill; C. Langer; R. Ozeri; N. Shiga; D. J. Wineland

    2007-07-10

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  15. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  16. Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ramm; Thaned Pruttivarasin; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-12-20

    We experimentally study energy transport in chains of trapped ions. We use a pulsed excitation scheme to rapidly add energy to the local motional mode of one of the ions in the chain. Subsequent energy readout allows us to determine how the excitation has propagated throughout the chain. We observe energy revivals that persist for many cycles. We study the behavior with an increasing number of ions of up to 37 in the chain, including a zig-zag configuration. The experimental results agree well with the theory of normal mode evolution. The described system provides an experimental toolbox for the study of thermodynamics of closed systems and energy transport in both classical and quantum regimes.

  17. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  18. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  19. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-DegradingAccess For Readers Hubs Characterization of Trapped Lignin-11:36:02 AM] PLoS ONE: Characterization of Trapped Lignin-

  20. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniilidis, N.

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...

  1. Single-step in-situ synthesis and optical properties of ZnSe nanostructured dielectric nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Chirantan; Rahaman Molla, Atiar; Tarafder, Anal; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, 700032 Kolkata (India); Kr Mishra, Manish; De, Goutam [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Nano-Structured Materials Division, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, 700032 Kolkata (India); Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, G. P. [Glass and Advanced Ceramics Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, 400085 Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-07

    This work provides the evidence of visible red photoluminescent light emission from ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) grown within a dielectric (borosilicate glass) matrix synthesized by a single step in-situ technique for the first time and the NC sizes were controlled by varying only the concentration of ZnSe in glass matrix. The ZnSe NCs were investigated by UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sizes of the ZnSe NCs estimated from the TEM images are found to alter in the range of 2–53?nm. Their smaller sizes of the NCs were also calculated by using the optical absorption spectra and the effective mass approximation model. The band gap enlargements both for carrier and exciton confinements were evaluated and found to be changed in the range of 0–1.0?eV. The Raman spectroscopic studies showed blue shifted Raman peaks of ZnSe at 295 and 315?cm{sup ?1} indicating phonon confinement effect as well as compressive stress effect on the surface atoms of the NCs. Red photoluminescence in ZnSe-glass nanocomposite reveals a broad multiple-peak structure due to overlapping of emission from NC size related electron-hole recombination (?707?nm) and emissions from defects to traps, which were formed due to Se and Zn vacancies signifying potential application in photonics.

  2. Stochastic modeling and survival analysis of marginally trapped neutrons for a magnetic trapping neutron lifetime experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Coakley; M. S. Dewey; M. G. Huber; P. R. Huffman; C. R. Huffer; D. E. Marley; H. P. Mumm; C. M. O'Shaughnessy; K. W. Schelhammer; A. K. Thompson; A. T. Yue

    2015-08-10

    In a variety of neutron lifetime experiments, in addition to $\\beta-$decay, neutrons can be lost by other mechanisms including wall losses. Failure to account for these other loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in neutron lifetime measurements. In this work, we develop a physical model for neutron wall losses and construct a competing risks survival analysis model to account for losses due to the joint effect of $\\beta-$decay losses, wall losses of marginally trapped neutrons, and an additional absorption mechanism. We determine the survival probability function associated with the wall loss mechanism by a Monte Carlo method. Based on a fit of the competing risks model to a subset of the NIST experimental data, we determine the mean lifetime of trapped neutrons to be approximately 700 s -- considerably less than the current best estimate of (880.1 $\\pm$ 1.1) s promulgated by the Particle Data Group [1]. Currently, experimental studies are underway to determine if this discrepancy can be explained by neutron capture by ${}^3$He impurities in the trapping volume. Analysis of the full NIST data will be presented in a later publication.

  3. Quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); James, Daniel F. V. [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kamenev, Dimitri I. [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Theoretical Division T-13, and CNLS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod, 603600, Russia (Russian Federation)

    2000-06-01

    We describe the transition to quantum chaos of an ion trapped in a linear ion trap and interacting with two laser fields. Under the conditions of adiabatic illumination of the upper level of the ion, and when the frequencies of the two laser beams are slightly different, the system is reduced to a quantum linear oscillator interacting with a monochromatic wave. The property of localization over the quantum resonance cells is proposed to exploit in order to facilitate the process of measurement of the probability distribution of an ion on the vibrational levels. In the regime of strong chaos the time-averaged values of the energy and dispersion of energy are computed and compared with the corresponding classical quantities for different values of the perturbation amplitude. In the exact resonance case, the classical analog of the system possesses an infinite inhomogeneous stochastic web. We analyze the quantum dynamics inside the inhomogeneous web. It is shown that the quantum system mimics on average the dynamics of the corresponding classical system. Formation of the quantum resonance cells is illustrated in the case of a finite detuning from the exact resonance, and under increasing of the wave amplitude. The parameters of the model and the initial conditions are close to the real physical situation which can be realized in the system of cold trapped ion perturbed by two lasers fields with close frequencies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Progress towards high precision measurements on ultracold metastable hydrogen and trapping deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Julia K., 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) not achieve deuterium trapping through helium-surface cooling. It is proposed that buffer gas loading can be used to cryogenically cool and trap deuterium.

  5. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  6. Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Volumetric imaging of holographic optical traps Yohai Roichman, Ilias Cholis, and David G. Grier distributions. We create volumetric representations by by holographically translating the traps through

  7. Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.

    Scientific Achievement Networks of highly photoresponsive crystalline GaSe nanosheets a crystalline GaSe target was adjusted to directly grow networks of interconnected triangular GaSe crystalline nanosheets of ~ 200 nm size (inset shows atomic

  8. Extending the applicability of an open-ring trap to perform experiments with a single laser-cooled ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Cornejo; M. Colombano; J. Doménech; M. Block; P. Delahaye; D. Rodríguez

    2015-07-08

    An open-ring ion trap, also referred to as transparent trap was initially built up to perform $\\beta$-$\

  9. Quantum information processing with trapped electrons and superconducting electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikos Daniilidis; Dylan J Gorman; Lin Tian; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-04-17

    We describe a parametric frequency conversion scheme for trapped charged particles which enables a coherent interface between atomic and solid-state quantum systems. The scheme uses geometric non-linearities of the potential of a coupling electrode near a trapped particle. Our scheme does not rely on actively driven solid-state devices, and is hence largely immune to noise in such devices. We present a toolbox which can be used to build electron-based quantum information processing platforms, as well as quantum interfaces between trapped electrons and superconducting electronics.

  10. Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pychewicz, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    of every steam system. It is common to find 10-60% of the team traps in any facility malfunctioning. The result ant waste can easily equal 5-15% of a plant' total steam generation with concomitant processing and safety problems from failed open... into the effective utilization of st l am traps and, hopefully, will serve as a guide or your energy saving efforts in this vital are CHAMPION The key to the success of an effective team trap program rests with a single individual the person selected...

  11. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1980-01-01

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  12. Photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in poly(methylmethacrylate) film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyi; Liu, Yu; Ye, Xiaoling; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-12-28

    The photo-instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) has been studied under varied conditions. We discussed the main features of the evolution of photoluminescence (PL) intensity and energy at different laser powers, which showed critical dependences on the environment. The PL red shift in a vacuum showed strong temperature dependence, from which we concluded that the thermal activation energy for trapping states of the charge carriers was about 14.7 meV. Furthermore, the PL spectra showed asymmetric evolution during the laser irradiation, for which two possible explanations were discussed. Those results provided a comprehensive picture for the photo-instability of the colloidal QDs under different conditions.

  13. 2100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 59, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012 A Distributed Bulk-Oxide Trap Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    a distributed circuit model for bulk-oxide traps based on tunneling between the semiconductor surface and trap explained by the distributed bulk-oxide trap model. Index Terms--Bulk-oxide trap, III­V, MOS, tunneling. I-oxide traps or border traps, do have long time constants as they interact with the conduction band electrons

  14. Reaction kinetics of a-CuInSe2 formation from an In2Se3/CuSe bilayer precursor film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    with Ga or S are proven absorber materials for high efficiency thin film solar cells. Interestingly CIGS system using the stacked elemental film precursors (e.g. glass/Cu/In/Se, glass/Cu/Se, glass

  15. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  16. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Franklin, Elizabeth (Rolla, MO); Prickett, Zane T. (Golden, CO); Artau, Alexander (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  17. Cavity Sideband Cooling of a Single Trapped Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuletic, Vladan

    We report a demonstration and quantitative characterization of one-dimensional cavity cooling of a single trapped [superscript 88]Sr[superscript +] ion in the resolved-sideband regime. We measure the spectrum of cavity ...

  18. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  19. What To Do With Cold Traps and Why 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.; Walter, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Increased emphasis on energy management has helped sites reduce system cost through the diagnosis and repair of “Leaking” or “Blowing” steam traps (“Leakage Failures”). Timely maintenance response is a significant action to lower energy use and GHG...

  20. Construction and Operation of a Floating Alaska Salmon Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dismantling a trap Storage . . ... Acknowledgments ill Page 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 12 12

  1. SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    REPORTS SOLAR CELLS Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have now achieved 20.1% certified power con- version efficiencies (1

  2. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  3. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  4. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  5. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    .0420" 21.85 0.0935" 51.84 0.1440" 91.20 0.1910" 1.10 0.0210" 4.62 0.0430" 21.94 0.0937" 54.02 0.1470" 93.60 0.1935" 1.26 0.0225" 5.40 0.0465" 23.04 0.0960" 55.87 0.1495" 96.04 0.1960" 1.44 0.0240" 5.49 0.0469" 24.01 0.0980" 57.76 0.1520" 99.00 0... and effective trap consumes 1-2 Ibs./hr. steam just to functionally efficient. Energy operating targets function properly. An inverted bucket trap loses 2-4 should include an analysis of steam trapping practices Ibs./hr. and a thermodynamic disc trap 0.5-1 lbs...

  6. Neutron lifetime measurements using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; V. E. Varlamov; A. G. Kharitonov; A. K. Fomin; Yu. N. Pokotilovski; P. Geltenbort; I. A. Krasnoschekova; M. S. Lasakov; R. R. Taldaev; A. V. Vassiljev; O. M. Zherebtsov

    2009-02-02

    Our experiment using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the neutron lifetime is reviewed. Ultracold neutrons were trapped in a material bottle covered with perfluoropolyether. The neutron lifetime was deduced from comparison of UCN losses in the traps with different surface-to-volume ratios. The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. In this experiment, the UCN storage time is brought closer to the neutron lifetime than in any experiments before:the probability of UCN losses from the trap was only 1% of that for neutron beta decay. The neutron lifetime obtained,878.5+/-0.7stat+/-0.3sys s, is the most accurate experimental measurement to date.

  7. Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stable Metal-Organic Frameworks Containing Single-Molecule Traps for Enzyme Encapsulation Previous Next List Dawei Feng, Tian-Fu Liu, Jie Su, Mathieu Bosch, Zhangwen Wei, Wei Wan,...

  8. From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. -H. Yung; J. Casanova; A. Mezzacapo; J. McClean; L. Lamata; A. Aspuru-Guzik; E. Solano

    2013-07-16

    Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.

  9. Light trapping limits in plasmonic solar cells: an analytical investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We analytically investigate the light trapping performance in plasmonic solar cells with Si/metallic structures. We consider absorption enhancements for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at planar Si/metal interfaces and ...

  10. Novel trapping techniques for shaping Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Micah (Micah Scott)

    2007-01-01

    A combination of radio frequency radiation and magnetic field gradients was used to trap atoms in dressed states. In a magnetic field with a quadrupole minimum. RF fields resonant with the (I F. m)) 11. -1) -- 1, 0) ...

  11. Tests of Lorentz Symmetry with Penning Traps and Antihydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Russell

    2005-11-22

    Possibilities for testing Lorentz symmetry using precision experiments with antiprotons in Penning traps and with antihydrogen spectroscopy are reviewed. Estimates of bounds on relevant coefficients for Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension (SME) are considered.

  12. Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

    1980-01-01

    justification for the survey program. Defective steam traps and their energy characteristics will also be discussed. An on-going preventive maintenance program can be initiated from the information derived from the survey. Sustained energy efficiency...

  13. Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    2012-01-01

    Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...

  14. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  15. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  16. Optical Trapping and Control of a Nanowire by a Nanoaperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aporvari, Mehdi Shafiei; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single sub-wavelength nanoaperture in a metallic thin film can be used to achieve dynamic optical trapping and control of a single dielectric nanowire. A nanoaperture can trap a nanowire, control its orientation when illuminated by a linearly-polarized incident field, and also rotate the nanowire when illuminated by a circularly-polarized incident field. Compared to other designs, this approach has the advantages of a low-power driving field entailing low heating and photodamage.

  17. Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

    1998-04-21

    The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  18. The Effects of Derelict Blue Crab Traps on Marine Organisms in the Lower York River, Virginia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    addition of over 100,000 traps annually to the Chesapeake Bay derelict trap population in Virginia. The top are vandalized, or storms roll the traps, pulling the buoy below the surface. In Florida, Alabama, Mississippi waters. Blue crabs and various fish species that are entrapped and die in derelict traps can act

  19. Influence of static electric fields on an optical ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Schneider; Martin Enderlein; Thomas Huber; Stephan Dürr; Tobias Schaetz

    2011-12-16

    We recently reported on a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating optical trapping of an ion in a single-beam dipole trap superimposed by a static electric potential [Nat. Photonics 4, 772--775 (2010)]. Here, we first discuss the experimental procedures focussing on the influence and consequences of the static electric potential. These potentials can easily prevent successful optical trapping, if their configuration is not chosen carefully. Afterwards, we analyse the dipole trap experiments with different analytic models, in which different approximations are applied. According to these models the experimental results agree with recoil heating as the relevant heating effect. In addition, a Monte-Carlo simulation has been developed to refine the analysis. It reveals a large impact of the static electric potential on the dipole trap experiments in general. While it supports the results of the analytic models for the parameters used in the experiments, the analytic models cease their validity for significantly different parameters. Finally, we propose technical improvements for future realizations of experiments with optically trapped ions.

  20. Bichromatic State-insensitive Trapping of Caesium Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metbulut, M M

    2015-01-01

    State-insensitive dipole trapping of multilevel atoms can be achieved by an appropriate choice of the wavelength of the trapping laser, so that the interaction with the different transitions results in equal AC Stark shifts for the ground and excited states of interest. However this approach is severely limited by the availability of coherent sources at the required wavelength and of appropriate power. This work investigates state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms for which the required wavelength of 935.6 nm is inconvenient in terms of experimental realization. Bichromatic state-insensitive trapping is proposed to overcome the lack of suitable laser sources. We first consider pairs of laser wavelengths in the ratio 1:2 and 1:3, as obtained via second- and third- harmonic generation. We found that the wavelength combinations 931.8-1863.6 nm and 927.5-2782.5 nm are suitable for state-insensitive trapping of caesium atoms. In addition, we examine bichromatic state-insensitive trapping produced by pairs of l...

  1. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  2. MgSe/ZnSe/CdSe coupled quantum wells grown on InP substrate with intersubband absorption covering 1.55??m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guopeng; Shen, Aidong; De Jesus, Joel; Tamargo, Maria C.

    2014-12-08

    The authors report the observation of intersubband (ISB) transitions in the optical communication wavelength region in MgSe/ZnSe/CdSe coupled quantum wells (QWs). The coupled QWs were grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. By inserting ZnSe layers to compensate the strain, samples with high structural quality were obtained, as indicated by well resolved satellite peaks in high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The observed ISB transition energies agree well with the calculated values.

  3. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  4. The role of ligands in the optical and electronic spectra of CdSe nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilina, Svletana; Sergei, Ivanov A; Victor, Klimov I; Sergei, Tretiak

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of ligands on morphology, electronic structure, and optical response of the Cd33Se33 cluster, which already overlapps in size with the smallest synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Our Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate significant surface reorganization both for the bare cluster and for the cluster capped by amine and phosphine oxide ligand models. We observe strong surface-ligand interactions leading to substantial charge redistribution and polarization effects on the surface. This effect results in the appearance of hybridized states, where the electronic density is spread over the cluster and the ligands. Neither the ligand's nor hybridized molecular orbitals appear as trap states inside or near the band gap of the QD. Instead, being optically dark, dense hybridized states from the edges of the valence and the conduction bands could open new relaxation channels for high energy photoexcitations. Comparing quantum dots passivated by different ligands, we found that hybridized states are denser in at the edge of the conduction band of the cluster ligated with phosphine oxide molecules than that with primary amines. Such a different manifestation of ligand binding may potentially lead to the faster electron relaxation in dots passivated by phosphine oxide than by amine ligands, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  5. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  6. 31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4-Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4- Ligands Christian G. Canlas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, and David P. Weliky P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 12 metal-containing selenophosphates have

  7. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  8. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  9. Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...

  10. Carrier-free Raman manipulation of trapped neutral atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    René Reimann; Wolfgang Alt; Tobias Macha; Dieter Meschede; Natalie Thau; Seokchan Yoon; Lothar Ratschbacher

    2014-12-02

    We experimentally realize an enhanced Raman control scheme for neutral atoms that features an intrinsic suppression of the two-photon carrier transition, but retains the sidebands which couple to the external degrees of freedom of the trapped atoms. This is achieved by trapping the atom at the node of a blue detuned standing wave dipole trap, that acts as one field for the two-photon Raman coupling. The improved ratio between cooling and heating processes in this configuration enables a five times lower fundamental temperature limit for resolved sideband cooling. We apply this method to perform Raman cooling to the two-dimensional vibrational ground state and to coherently manipulate the atomic motion. The presented scheme requires minimal additional resources and can be applied to experiments with challenging optical access, as we demonstrate by our implementation for atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity.

  11. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  12. Twinning effect on photoluminescence spectra of ZnSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Chunrui Wu, Binhe; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Oh, Hongseok; Baek, Hyeonjun; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2014-11-07

    Bandgap engineering in a single material along the axial length of nanowires may be realized by arranging periodic twinning, whose twin plane is vertical to the axial length of nanowires. In this paper, we report the effect of twin on photoluminescence of ZnSe nanowires, which refers to the bandgap of it. The exciton-related emission peaks of transverse twinning ZnSe nanowires manifest a 10-meV-blue-shift in comparison with those of longitudinal twinning ZnSe nanowires. The blue-shift is attributed to quantum confinement effect, which is influenced severely by the proportion of wurtzite ZnSe layers in ZnSe nanowires.

  13. Spectral photoresponse of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures with CdSe ultra-thin quantum well insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valverde-Chávez, D. A.; Sutara, F.; Hernández-Calderón, I.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the spectral photoresponse (SPR) of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures for different ZnSe film thickness with and without CdSe ultra-thin quantum well (UTQW) insertions. We observe a significant increase of the SPR of heterostructures containing 3 monolayer thick CdSe UTQW insertions; these results encourage their use in photodetectors and solar cells.

  14. Heating rate and electrode charging measurements in a scalable, microfabricated, surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. C. Allcock; T. P. Harty; H. A. Janacek; N. M. Linke; C. J. Ballance; A. M. Steane; D. M. Lucas; R. L. Jarecki Jr.; S. D. Habermehl; M. G. Blain; D. Stick; D. L. Moehring

    2011-05-24

    We characterise the performance of a surface-electrode ion "chip" trap fabricated using established semiconductor integrated circuit and micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microfabrication processes which are in principle scalable to much larger ion trap arrays, as proposed for implementing ion trap quantum information processing. We measure rf ion micromotion parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the trap electrodes, and find that on-package capacitors reduce this to heating rate for a single trapped ion. The performance of this trap is found to be comparable with others of the same size scale.

  15. Fast transport of two ions in an anharmonic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; E. Torrontegui; D. Guéry-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2013-10-08

    We design fast trajectories of a trap to transport two ions using a shortcut-to-adiabaticity technique based on invariants. The effects of anharmonicity are analyzed first perturbatively, with an approximate, single relative-motion mode, description. Then we use classical calculations and full quantum calculations. This allows to identify discrete transport times that minimize excitation in the presence of anharmonicity. An even better strategy to suppress the effects of anharmonicity in a continuous range of transport times is to modify the trajectory using an effective trap frequency shifted with respect to the actual frequency by the coupling between relative and center of mass motions.

  16. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  17. X-ray irradiation induced changes in electron transport in stabilized a-Se photoconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walornyj, M.; Kasap, S. O.

    2013-12-07

    We have examined the effect of high-dose x-ray irradiation on electron transport in stabilized amorphous selenium (a-Se) x-ray photoconductive films (of the type used in x-ray image detectors) by measuring the electron lifetime ?{sub e} through interrupted-field time-of-flight experiments. X-ray induced effects have been examined through two types of experiments. In recovery experiments, the a-Se was preirradiated with and without an applied field (5 V/?m) during irradiation with sufficient dose (typically ?20 Gy at 21 °C) to significantly reduce the electron lifetime by ?50%, and then the recovery of the lifetime was monitored as a function of time at three different temperatures, 10 °C, 21 °C, and 35 °C. The lifetime recovery kinetics was exponential with a relaxation time ?{sub r} that is thermally activated with an activation energy of 1.66 eV. ?{sub r} is a few hours at 21 °C and only a few minutes at 35 °C. In experiments examining the irradiation induced effects, the a-Se film was repeatedly exposed to x-ray radiation and the changes in the drift mobility and lifetime were monitored as a function of accumulated dose D. There was no observable change in the drift mobility. At 21 °C, the concentration of x-ray induced deep traps (or capture centers), N{sub d}, increases linearly with D (N{sub d} ? D) whereas at 35 °C, the recovery process prevents a linear increase in N{sub d} with D, and N{sub d} saturates. In all cases, even under high dose irradiation (?50 Gy), the lifetime was recoverable to its original equilibrium (pre-exposure) value within a few relaxation times.

  18. CuInSe/sub 2/-based photoelectrochemical cells: their use in characterization of thin CuInSe/sub 2/ films, and as photovoltaic cells per se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahen, D.; Chen, Y.W.; Ireland, P.J.; Noufi, R.; Turner, J.A.; Rincon, C.; Bachmann, K.J.

    1984-05-01

    Photoelectrochemistry has been employed to characterize the p-CuInSe/sub 2/ component of the CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ on-metal and a nonaqueous electrolyte containing a redox couple not specifically adsorbed onto the semiconductor, we can test the films for photovoltaic activity and obtain effective electronic properties of them, before CdS deposition, in a nondestructive manner. Electrochemical decomposition of CuInSe/sub 2/ was investigated in acetonitrile solutions to determine the mechanism of decomposition (n and p) in the dark and under illumination. Electrochemical, solution chemical and surface analyses confirmed at the light-assisted decomposition of CuInSe/sub 2/ resulted in metal ions and elemental chalcogen. On the basis of the results from the electrochemical decomposition, and studies on the solid state chemistry of the (Cu/sub 2/Se)/sub x/(In/sub 2/Se/sub 3/)/sub 1-x/ system and surface analyses, the CuInSe/sub 2//polyiodide interface was stabilized and up to 11.7% conversion efficiencies were obtained.

  19. Thermoelectric transport of Se-rich Ag{sub 2}Se in normal phases and phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, Wenlong; Lv, Yanhong; Qiu, Pengfei; Shi, Xun E-mail: cld@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, Lidong E-mail: cld@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Tiansong

    2014-03-31

    Small amount of Se atoms are used to tune the carrier concentrations (n{sub H}) and electrical transport in Ag{sub 2}Se. Significant enhancements in power factor and thermoelectric figure of merit (zT) are observed in the compositions of Ag{sub 2}Se{sub 1.06} and Ag{sub 2}Se{sub 1.08}. The excessive Se atoms do not change the intrinsically electron-conducting character in Ag{sub 2}Se. The detailed analysis reveals the experiment optimum carrier concentration in Ag{sub 2}Se is around 5?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}. We also investigate the temperature of maximum zT and the thermoelectric transport during the first order phase transitions using the recently developed measurement system.

  20. Glass formation and the third harmonic generation of Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshak, A. H.; Klymovych, O. S.; Zmiy, O. F.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamuruyeva, O. V.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Chyský, J.; Bila, Jiri; Kamarudin, H.

    2014-10-14

    We have performed the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties namely the third harmonic generation (THG) of the glass-formation region in the Cu{sub 2}Se–GeSe{sub 2}–As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. The samples were synthesized by direct single-temperature method from high-purity elementary substances. We have found that the value of disorder parameter ? depends on the composition of the glassy alloys. The measurements show that increasing the Cu{sub 2}Se concentration leads to increased slope of the absorption edge, which may be explained by the decrease of the height of random potential relief for the electrons in the tails of the state density which border the band edges. A very sharp increase in the THG at low temperature was observed. Significant enhancement in THG was obtained with decreasing the energy gap, which agreed well with the nonlinear optical susceptibilities obtained from other glasses.

  1. Development of monolithic 3D ion traps microfabricated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    surface traps [1,2], 2) 3D Au coated alumina [3-5],3) 3D degenerate Silicon [6], 4) monolithic 3D Ga. 6) Electroplating to 5 µm thickness of Au. Concept Fabrication method Potential -25 V 25 V 0 V

  2. Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron beam ion sources and traps ,,invited... Reinard Beckera) Institut fu¨r Angewandte Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universita¨t, Frankfurt, Germany Presented on 7 September 1999 The electron beam method of stepwise ionization to highest charge states has found applications in electron beam ion

  3. Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves C.F. Driscoll, F. Anderegg, D 92093 USA Abstract. Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma. Keywords: add some here PACS: 52.27.Jt, 52.35.Fp, 52.35.Sb Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low

  4. Model of Flux Trapping in Cooling Down Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    The flux trapping that occurs in the process of cooling down of the superconducting cavity is studied. The critical fields $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ depend on a position when a material temperature is not uniform. In a region with $T\\simeq T_c$, $B_{c2}$ and $B_{c1}$ are strongly suppressed and can be smaller than the ambient magnetic field, $B_a$. A region with $B_{c2}\\le B_a$ is normal conducting, that with $B_{c1}\\le B_a B_a$ is in the Meissner state. As a material is cooled down, these three domains including the vortex state domain sweep and pass through the material. In this process, vortices contained in the vortex state domain are trapped by pinning centers distributing in the material. A number of trapped fluxes can be evaluated by using the analogy with the beam-target collision event, where beams and a target correspond to pinning centers and the vortex state domain, respectively. We find a number of trapped fluxes and thus the residual resistance are proportional to the ambient magnetic field and the...

  5. Electrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    nanoparticle show single electron tunneling coexisting with tunnel-barrier suppression. © 1997 AmericanElectrostatic trapping of single conducting nanoparticles between nanoelectrodes A. Bezryadina Received 4 June 1997; accepted for publication 8 July 1997 For molecular electronics, one needs the ability

  6. ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACOUSTIC WAVE TRAPPING IN ONE- DIMENSIONAL AXISYMMETRIC ARRAYS by M. MCIVER (Department of the wave numbers of Rayleigh-Bloch modes for an array of circular plates. An integral equation for the acoustic wave-field in the neighbourhood of such an array is obtained and solved with the use of a Galerkin

  7. A computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligare, Martin

    and multiplicities. The examples illustrate the effect of quantum statistics on the sharing of energy between weaklyA computational introduction to quantum statistics using harmonically trapped particles Martin the statistical definition of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics [Am. J. Phys. 65, 26 (1997)]. I

  8. Coronal Trapping of Energetic Flare Particles: Yohkoh/HXT Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    the energization of the solar corona. The most common interpretation for the production of the observed HXR fluxes Alexander Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department H1­12, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St in a search for spectral evidence of the coronal trapping of energetic particles during solar flares. Two

  9. An extension of the multiple-trapping model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkilev, V. P.

    2012-07-15

    The hopping charge transport in disordered semiconductors is considered. Using the concept of the transport energy level, macroscopic equations are derived that extend a multiple-trapping model to the case of semiconductors with both energy and spatial disorders. It is shown that, although both types of disorder can cause dispersive transport, the frequency dependence of conductivity is determined exclusively by the spatial disorder.

  10. Molecular hydrogen traps within silicon B. Hourahine a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert

    Molecular hydrogen traps within silicon B. Hourahine a,1 , R. Jones a,1 , S. ¨Oberg b,2 , P. R on the behaviour of molecular hydrogen within crystalline silicon, both as an isolated species, and within defects treated by either hydrogen plasma or soaked in hydrogen gas. The effect of Fermi­level position

  11. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  12. Light trapping in photonic crystals Ken Xingze Wang,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    improvement and cost reduction in practical solar cells.1,2 With the emergence of nanotechnology substantial bandwidths. Broader context Commercial solar cells use light trapping to maximize solar absorption optics. This limit could be surpassed in nanostructured solar cells, however, typically only for limited

  13. The TITAN in-trap decay spectroscopy facility at TRIUMF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. G. Leach; A. Grossheim; A. Lennarz; T. Brunner; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; A. T. Gallant; M. Good; R. Klawitter; A. A. Kwiatkowski; T. Ma; T. D. Macdonald; S. Seeraji; M. C. Simon; C. Andreoiu; J. Dilling; D. Frekers

    2014-11-22

    This article presents an upgraded in-trap decay spectroscopy apparatus which has been developed and constructed for use with TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). This device consists of an open-access electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT), which is surrounded radially by seven low-energy planar Si(Li) detectors. The environment of the EBIT allows for the detection of low-energy photons by providing backing-free storage of the radioactive ions, while guiding charged decay particles away from the trap centre via the strong (up to 6 T) magnetic field. In addition to excellent ion confinement and storage, the EBIT also provides a venue for performing decay spectroscopy on highly-charged radioactive ions. Recent technical advancements have been able to provide a significant increase in sensitivity for low-energy photon detection, towards the goal of measuring weak electron-capture branching ratios of the intermediate nuclei in the two-neutrino double beta ($2\

  14. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  15. Radiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field of study deals with the transport of near resonant light in such media. Using cold atoms, one can at the end of the 20th century that studies of light transport in optically thick clouds of cold atomsRadiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1 Robin Kaiser,1, and Dominique Delande

  16. Light trapping in plasmonic solar cells Albert Polman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    light management team #12;Light is poorly absorbed in a thin-film solar cell Solar spectrum absorbed Management #12;Light trapping in a thin-film solar cell Nature Mater. 9, 205 (2010) #12;Back contact thin-film solar cell Optimum = closest packed Experiments so far Pitch (nm) Wavelength(nm) Photocurrent

  17. A BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR TRAPPED PARTICLES IN A SURFACE POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vignal, Marie-Hélène

    A BOLTZMANN MODEL FOR TRAPPED PARTICLES IN A SURFACE POTENTIAL PIERRE DEGOND, C´ELINE PARZANI particles in a surface potential. The potential confines particles close to the surface increasing the charged particle model with some numerical simulations of a gas discharge on a satellite solar array. We

  18. Point defects in CdTexSe1-x crystals grown from a Te-rich solution for applications in detecting radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gul, R.; Roy, U. N.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Lee, W.; Yang, G.; Burger, A.; James, R. B.; et al

    2015-04-15

    We investigated cadmium telluride selenide (CdTeSe) crystals, newly grown by the Traveling Heater Method (THM), for the presence and abundance of point defects. Deep Level Transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS) was used to determine the energies of the traps, their capture cross sections, and densities. The bias across the detectors was varied from (1–30) V. Four types of point defects were identified, ranging from 10 meV to 0.35 eV. Two dominant traps at energies of 0.18 eV and 0.14 eV were studied in depth. Cd vacancies are found at lower concentrations than other point defects present in the material.

  19. Enhanced Loss of Magnetic Mirror Trapped Fast Electrons by a Shear Alfven Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhou

    2013-01-01

    35 3.2 Fast electron de-II: De-trapping 100 keV electrons 4.1 Generation of awaves and electron de-trapping . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5

  20. MEMS-based arrays of micro ion traps for quantum simulation scaling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkeland, Dana J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Blain, Matthew Glenn; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.

    2006-11-01

    In this late-start Tier I Seniors Council sponsored LDRD, we have designed, simulated, microfabricated, packaged, and tested ion traps to extend the current quantum simulation capabilities of macro-ion traps to tens of ions in one and two dimensions in monolithically microfabricated micrometer-scaled MEMS-based ion traps. Such traps are being microfabricated and packaged at Sandia's MESA facility in a unique tungsten MEMS process that has already made arrays of millions of micron-sized cylindrical ion traps for mass spectroscopy applications. We define and discuss the motivation for quantum simulation using the trapping of ions, show the results of efforts in designing, simulating, and microfabricating W based MEMS ion traps at Sandia's MESA facility, and describe is some detail our development of a custom based ion trap chip packaging technology that enables the implementation of these devices in quantum physics experiments.

  1. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  2. Design of superconducting transmission line integrated surface-electrode ion-traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, David Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated superconducting surface electrode ion traps with integrated microwave coplanar waveguides using direct-write optical lithography and a niobium on sapphire process. We then tested these traps in a closed cycle ...

  3. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction...

  4. Schemes of Quantum Computations with Trapped Ions J. F. Poyatos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poyatos, Juan F.

    - lems efficiently which are considered intractable on classical Turing machines [2]. Another reason electric and magnetic fields to create such traps. In the case of a single ion Paul trap a combination

  5. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

  6. www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. fr medicin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. för medicin 2015 inflammationsforskning hälsas välkommen som ny ledamot i FUU. Per Ladenvall vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin

  7. Mechanisms for Fluorescence Blinking and Charge Carrier Trapping in Single Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordones, Amy Ashbrook

    2012-01-01

    electron tunneling from the nanocrystal core to external trapelectron tunneling between the nanocrystal core and a static distribution of trap

  8. CdSe self-assembled quantum dots with ZnCdMgSe barriers emitting throughout the visible spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Paz, M. Noemi; Zhou Xuecong; Munoz, Martin; Lu Hong; Sohel, Mohammad; Tamargo, Maria C.; Jean-Mary, Fleumingue; Akins, Daniel L.

    2004-12-27

    Self-assembled quantum dots of CdSe with ZnCdMgSe barriers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. The optical and microstructural properties were investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Control and reproducibility of the quantum dot (QD) size leading to light emission throughout the entire visible spectrum range has been obtained by varying the CdSe deposition time. Longer CdSe deposition times result in a redshift of the PL peaks as a consequence of an increase of QD size. AFM studies demonstrate the presence of QDs in uncapped structures. A comparison of this QD system with CdSe/ZnSe shows that not only the strain but also the chemical properties of the system play an important role in QD formation.

  9. Hysteretic voltage gap of a multijunction trap G. Y. Hu and R. F. O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connell, Robert F.

    voltages for electrons to tunnel into and escape from a single-electron trap which consists of N gated) is the largest for an electron tunneling into the trap, while Vt(N,N m) is the largest for an electron escaping studied by many authors3­12 is the single-electron ``trap'' see Fig. 1 in Ref. 11 . Whereas numerous

  10. Quantum Insights in Gate Oxide Charge-Trapping Dynamics in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimov, Ivan

    , in this paper we investigate the trapping of a single electron in the gate oxide of a 25nm transistor including and scattering phenomena. Keywords--Reliability; Tunneling; Scattering; NBTI; RTN; Wigner Function; charge-trapping. The evolution of an initial electron packet subject to the action of device channel potential and the oxide trap

  11. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 489 Modeling of Charge Trapping Induced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 489 Modeling of Charge Trapping Induced a distributed tunneling model to investigate the threshold-voltage instability induced by charge trapping bias varies [1], and the latter effect has been attributed to the distributed bulk electron traps [2

  12. Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally sheared flow. Quarterly Journal;AcceptedArticle Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

  13. Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nano-optical Trapping of Rayleigh Particles and Escherichia coli Bacteria with Resonant Optical demonstrate a novel optical trapping scheme that allows us to hold living Escherichia coli bacteria bacteria are trapped simultaneously with their orientation fixed by the asymmetry of the antennas

  14. Passive trapped modes in the water wave problem for a floating structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passive trapped modes in the water wave problem for a floating structure C. J. Fitzgerald and P. Mc. These "passive trapped modes" are such that the net force on the structure exerted by the fluid oscillation to float freely. In the paper, methods are given for the construction of passive trapping structures

  15. DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE Submitted by Pamela K ENTITLED THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART RE OF DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE The relationship between basic solar-cell

  16. Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Motion of guiding center drift atoms in the electric and magnetic field of a Penning trap S. G discusses the motion of the weakly bound atoms in the electric and magnetic field of the plasma and trap in the magnetic and electric field of the trap. Because the binding is so weak, even a modest electric field

  17. Resonances and Chaos in the Collective Oscillations of a Trapped Bose Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resonances and Chaos in the Collective Oscillations of a Trapped Bose Condensate Luca Salasnich condensate in an anisotropic harmonic trap. We analytically calculate the values of the trap deformation­Einstein condensation (BEC) is the macroscopic occupation of the single­ particle ground­state of a system of bosons

  18. Subsurface Trapping of Oil Plumes in Stratification: Laboratory Investigations David Adalsteinsson,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camassa, Roberto

    Subsurface Trapping of Oil Plumes in Stratification: Laboratory Investigations David Adalsteinsson the Deepwater Horizon Gulf oil spill can be trapped as they rise through an ambient, strati ed uid. The addition and theory on trapping/escape of plumes containing an oil/water/surfactant mixture released into nonlinear

  19. Antiproton Confinement in a Penning-Ioffe Trap for Antihydrogen G. Gabrielse,1,* P. Larochelle,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrielse, Gerald

    here the stable confinement of p in a Penning trap, when the radial magnetic field of a quadru- pole A long-term goal for H experiments is confining H in a magnetic trap for precise laser spectroscopy [1 gradient needed to trap H atoms upon the uniform magnetic field used to store the p and e from which H

  20. Efficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    of poverty trap is synonymous to getting loan from the formal sector. The MFI discipline the borrower to saveEfficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap Dyotona Dasgupta, New Delhi 110016, India Keywords: Dynamic Contracts, Progressive Lending, Collateral, Poverty Trap

  1. ME/SE 740 Vision, Robotics & Planning Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    ME/SE 740 ­ Vision, Robotics & Planning Spring 2009 Professor Pierre Dupont, Room 408, 110 Cummington Street 353-9596 pierre@bu.edu Required Text: A Mathematical Introduction to ROBOTIC MANIPULATION://www.engin.umich.edu/group/ctm/basic/basic.html #12;ME/SE 740 ­ Vision, Robotics & Planning 1/22/20092 Course Topics: 1. Introduction: · Historical

  2. APS/DPP 111207-se 1 University Fusion Association Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckstrand for Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Fusion Energy Sciences Program Update www.ofes.fusion.doe.gov U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science #12;APS/DPP 111207-se 2 Topics · Budget status/DPP 111207-se 3 FY 2008 Fusion Energy Sciences Congressional Budget Request 144.6 146.3 20.8 311.7 FY 2007

  3. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01

    and W. D. Wuerch, Geothermal Gradient Map of Texas: Theto the SE. The geothermal gradient in the area is estimated

  4. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  5. Suppression of Heating Rates in Cryogenic Surface-Electrode Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Yufei Ge; Paul Antohi; David Leibrandt; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-11-16

    Dense arrays of trapped ions provide one way of scaling up ion trap quantum information processing. However, miniaturization of ion traps is currently limited by sharply increasing motional state decoherence at sub-100 um ion-electrode distances. We characterize heating rates in cryogenically cooled surface-electrode traps, with characteristic sizes in 75 um to 150 um range. Upon cooling to 6 K, the measured rates are suppressed by 7 orders of magnitude, two orders of magnitude below previously published data of similarly sized traps operated at room temperature. The observed noise depends strongly on fabrication process, which suggests further improvements are possible.

  6. Approved Module Information for SE4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Extended Integrative Option Module Code: SE4031

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Approved Module Information for SE4031, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Extended Integrative Option Module Code: SE4031 School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits: 30 Module Management Information Module Leader Name Trevor Oliver Email Address t

  7. Trapped Modes and Steered Dirac Cones in Platonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. C. McPhedran; A. B. Movchan; N. V. Movchan; M. Brun; M. J. A. Smith

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves obeying the biharmonic equation, propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly-periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the properties of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates with a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that the Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  8. Passive regeneration of catalyst coated knitted fiber diesel particulate traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Emig, G.; Gmehling, B.; Popovska, N.; Hoelemann, K.; Buck, A.

    1996-09-01

    Knitted fiber particulate traps facilitate deep-bed structures. These have excellent filtration properties, particularly for ultra-fine particulates. They are also suitable as substrate for catalytic processes. The two characteristics are: high total surface area of the filaments, and good mass transfer. These are prerequisites for intense catalytic activity. The deposited soot is uniformly distributed. Therefore, temperature peaks are avoided during regeneration. The tested coatings lower the regeneration temperature by about 200 C to burn-off temperatures below 350 C. Further improvements seem attainable. Thus, a purely passive regeneration appears feasible for most applications. The system is autonomous and cost effective. However, in extreme low load situations, e.g. city bus services, the necessary exhaust temperatures are not attained. Hence, burners or electrical heating is necessary for trap regeneration. Nevertheless, catalytic coating is attractive for substantially reducing the regeneration energy requirements.

  9. Update on microkinetic modeling of lean NOx trap chemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Richard S.; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Choi, Jae-Soon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Chakravarthy, V, Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-04-01

    Our previously developed microkinetic model for lean NOx trap (LNT) storage and regeneration has been updated to address some longstanding issues, in particular the formation of N2O during the regeneration phase at low temperatures. To this finalized mechanism has been added a relatively simple (12-step) scheme that accounts semi-quantitatively for the main features observed during sulfation and desulfation experiments, namely (a) the essentially complete trapping of SO2 at normal LNT operating temperatures, (b) the plug-like sulfation of both barium oxide (NOx storage) and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites, (c) the degradation of NOx storage behavior arising from sulfation, (d) the evolution of H2S and SO2 during high temperature desulfation (temperature programmed reduction) under H2, and (e) the complete restoration of NOx storage capacity achievable through the chosen desulfation procedure.

  10. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, D; Mitsch, R; Schneeweiss, P; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  11. Coherence properties of nanofiber-trapped cesium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Reitz; C. Sayrin; R. Mitsch; P. Schneeweiss; A. Rauschenbeutel

    2013-03-28

    We experimentally study the ground state coherence properties of cesium atoms in a nanofiber-based two-color dipole trap, localized 200 nm away from the fiber surface. Using microwave radiation to coherently drive the clock transition, we record Ramsey fringes as well as spin echo signals and infer a reversible dephasing time $T_2^\\ast=0.6$ ms and an irreversible dephasing time $T_2^\\prime=3.7$ ms. By theoretically modelling the signals, we find that, for our experimental parameters, $T_2^\\ast$ and $T_2^\\prime$ are limited by the finite initial temperature of the atomic ensemble and the heating rate, respectively. Our results represent a fundamental step towards establishing nanofiber-based traps for cold atoms as a building block in an optical fiber quantum network.

  12. Superradiance for atoms trapped along a photonic crystal waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goban, A; Hood, J D; Yu, S -P; Muniz, J A; Painter, O; Kimble, H J

    2015-01-01

    We report observations of superradiance for atoms trapped in the near field of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). By fabricating the PCW with a band edge near the D$_1$ transition of atomic cesium, strong interaction is achieved between trapped atoms and guided-mode photons. Following short-pulse excitation, we record the decay of guided-mode emission and find a superradiant emission rate scaling as $\\bar{\\Gamma}_{\\rm SR}\\propto\\bar{N}\\cdot\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}$ for average atom number $0.19 \\lesssim \\bar{N} \\lesssim 2.6$ atoms, where $\\Gamma_{\\rm 1D}/\\Gamma_0 =1.1\\pm0.1$ is the peak single-atom radiative decay rate into the PCW guided mode and $\\Gamma_{0}$ is the Einstein-$A$ coefficient for free space. These advances provide new tools for investigations of photon-mediated atom-atom interactions in the many-body regime.

  13. Dipole Excitation With A Paul Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Chutjian, A. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for the use of an auxiliary radiofrequency (rf) excitation voltage in combination with a high purity, high voltage rf generator to perform dipole excitation within a high precision Paul ion trap. These results show the effects of the excitation frequency over a continuous frequency range on the resultant mass spectra from the Paul trap with particular emphasis on ion ejection times, ion signal intensity, and peak shapes. Ion ejection times are found to decrease continuously with variations in dipole frequency about several resonant values and show remarkable symmetries. Signal intensities vary in a complex fashion with numerous resonant features and are driven to zero at specific frequency values. Observed intensity variations depict dipole excitations that target ions of all masses as well as individual masses. Substantial increases in mass resolution are obtained with resolving powers for nitrogen increasing from 114 to 325.

  14. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir, approaching a percolation threshold while non-barrier regions remain numerous. The maximum possible extent of LCT thus occurs at Pc,entrycrit near this threshold. Testing predictions of this simple algorithm against full-physics simulations of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration support the concept of critical capillary entry pressure. However, further research is needed to determine whether a single value of critical capillary entry pressure always applies and how that value can be determined a priori. Simulations of injection into high-resolution (cells 0.3 m on a side) 2D and 3D heterogeneous domains show two characteristic behaviors. At small gravity numbers (vertical flow velocity much less than horizontal flow velocity) the CO2 fills local traps as well as regions that would act as local barriers if CO2 were moving only due to buoyancy. When injection ceases, the CO2 migrates vertically to establish large saturations within local traps and residual saturation elsewhere. At large gravity numbers, the CO2 invades a smaller portion of the perforated interval. Within this smaller swept zone the local barriers are not invaded, but local traps are filled to large saturation during injection and remain during post-injection gravity-driven migration. The small gravity number behavior is expected in the region within 100 m of a vertical injection well at anticipated rates of injection for commercial GCS. Simulations of leakage scenarios (through-going region of large permeability imposed in overlying seal) indicate that LCT persists (i.e. CO2 remains held in a large fraction of the local iv traps) and the persistence is independent of injection rate during storage. Simulations of leakage for the limiting case of CO2 migrating vertically f

  15. Trapping of dust and dust acoustic waves in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhakara, H.R.; Tanna, V.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 424 (India)

    1996-08-01

    Trapping of negatively charged dust particles is observed in a hot cathode plasma discharge when a layer of dust is exposed to the plasma. The particles are visible in the scattered He{endash}Ne laser light. The trajectories of individual particles have been photographed. The dust particles are excluded from the sheath region of any object in the plasma. The intensity of scattered light as well as the potential on a floating Langmuir probe show coherent fluctuations in the frequency range 1{endash}15 Hz. After several hours of exposure to the plasma, the dust layer develops striations similar to those on sand dunes. Trapping of dust particles by the plasma and the possible identification of the observed low-frequency fluctuations with dust acoustic waves are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Facilitated diffusion on mobile DNA: configurational traps and sequence heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Brackley; M. E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo

    2012-12-07

    We present Brownian dynamics simulations of the facilitated diffusion of a protein, modelled as a sphere with a binding site on its surface, along DNA, modelled as a semi-flexible polymer. We consider both the effect of DNA organisation in 3D, and of sequence heterogeneity. We find that in a network of DNA loops, as are thought to be present in bacterial DNA, the search process is very sensitive to the spatial location of the target within such loops. Therefore, specific genes might be repressed or promoted by changing the local topology of the genome. On the other hand, sequence heterogeneity creates traps which normally slow down facilitated diffusion. When suitably positioned, though, these traps can, surprisingly, render the search process much more efficient.

  17. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay Kuznetsov; Oleg Motygin

    2014-10-22

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of $N \\geq 2$ bodies; every structure has the following properties: (i) a time-harmonic wave mode is trapped by it; (ii) some of its bodies (may be none) are motionless, whereas the rest of the bodies (may be none) are heaving at the same frequency as water. The construction of these structures is based on a generalization of the semi-inverse procedure applied earlier for obtaining trapping bodies that are motionless although float freely.

  18. Trapping and guiding surface plasmons in curved graphene landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnova, Daria; Wang, Zheng; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that graphene placed on top of structured substrates offers a novel approach for trapping and guiding surface plasmons. A monolayer graphene with a spatially varying curvature exhibits an effective trapping potential for graphene plasmons near curved areas such as bumps, humps and wells. We derive the governing equation for describing such localized channel plasmons guided by curved graphene and validate our theory by the first-principle numerical simulations. The proposed confinement mechanism enables plasmon guiding by the regions of maximal curvature, and it offers a versatile platform for manipulating light in planar landscapes. In addition, isolated deformations of graphene such as bumps are shown to support localized surface modes and resonances suggesting a new way to engineer plasmonic metasurfaces.

  19. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; U. Poschinger; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2011-05-09

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  20. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan, M L; Besga, B; Brennen, G; Molina-Terriza, G; Volz, T

    2015-01-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same...

  1. Ion Trap Array-Based Systems And Methods For Chemical Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitten, William B [Oak Ridge, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2005-08-23

    An ion trap-based system for chemical analysis includes an ion trap array. The ion trap array includes a plurality of ion traps arranged in a 2-dimensional array for initially confining ions. Each of the ion traps comprise a central electrode having an aperture, a first and second insulator each having an aperture sandwiching the central electrode, and first and second end cap electrodes each having an aperture sandwiching the first and second insulator. A structure for simultaneously directing a plurality of different species of ions out from the ion traps is provided. A spectrometer including a detector receives and identifies the ions. The trap array can be used with spectrometers including time-of-flight mass spectrometers and ion mobility spectrometers.

  2. Optimal electrode geometries for 2-dimensional ion arrays with bi-layer ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. N. Krauth; J. Alonso; J. P. Home

    2014-11-04

    We investigate electrode geometries required to produce periodic 2-dimensional ion-trap arrays with the ions placed between two planes of electrodes. We present a generalization of previous methods for traps containing a single electrode plane to this new geometry, and show that for a given ion-electrode distance and applied voltages, the inter-ion distance can be reduced by a factor of up to 3 relative to single-plane traps. This represents an increase by a factor of 9 in the trap density and a factor of 27 in the exchange coupling between the oscillatory motion of neighboring ions. The resulting traps are also considerably deeper for bi-layer structures than for single-plane traps. These results could offer a useful path towards 2-dimensional ion arrays for quantum simulation. We also discuss issues with the fabrication of such traps.

  3. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

    2010-09-15

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

  4. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  5. Optical Probing of metamagnetic phases in epitaxial EuSe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galgano, G. D.; Henriques, A. B.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2011-12-23

    EuSe is a wide gap magnetic semiconductors with a potential for applications in proof-of-concept spintronic devices. When the temperature is lowered, EuSe goes through sharp transitions between a variety of magnetic phases and is thus described as metamagnetic. The purpose of the present investigation is to correlate the magnetic order to the sharp dichroic doublet, discovered recently in high quality thin epitaxial layers of EuSe, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We report detailed measurements of the doublet positions and intensities as a function of magnetic field in low temperatures, covering several magnetic phases.

  6. Wolf Trap, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Trap, Virginia:

  7. Detection of Fusion Neutrons on the Multimirror Trap GOL-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdakov, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); England, A.C. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Koidan, V.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Kwon, M. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Postupaev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Rovenskikh, A.F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Sulyaev, Yu.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    Recently GOL-3 has been reconfigured to a multimirror trap with improved confinement and high ion temperature. A dense plasma is created with a life time in the millisecond range. BTI neutron bubble detectors, a stilbene scintillation crystal, a BC501A liquid scintillator, and a silver-activation counter have been used for measurements of the neutron emission from GOL-3. The results are in agreement with charge-exchange (CX), spectral broadening of the D{alpha} line, and diamagnetic measurements.

  8. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

    2015-01-07

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  9. Fast expansions and compressions of trapped-ion chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Palmero; S. Martínez-Garaot; J. Alonso; J. P. Home; J. G. Muga

    2015-02-03

    We investigate the dynamics under diabatic expansions/compressions of linear ion chains.Combining a dynamical normal-mode harmonic approximation with the invariant-based inverse-engineering technique, we design protocols that minimize the final motional excitation of the ions. This can substantially reduce the transition time between high and low trap-frequency operations, potentially contributing to the development of scalable quantum information processing.

  10. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasmine Brewer; Paul Romatschke

    2015-08-05

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  11. Non-hydrodynamic transport in trapped unitary Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    Many strongly coupled fluids are known to share similar hydrodynamic transport properties. In this work we argue that this similarity could extend beyond hydrodynamics to transient dynamics through the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes. We review non-hydrodynamic modes in kinetic theory and gauge/gravity duality and discuss their signatures in trapped Fermi gases close to unitarity. Reanalyzing previously published experimental data, we find hints of non-hydrodynamic modes in cold Fermi gases in two and three dimensions.

  12. Photon trap for neutralization of negative ions beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, S S; Ivanov, A A; Kotelnikov, I A

    2015-01-01

    For effectively neutralization of the powerful negative ions beams of hydrogen and deuterium the photon target is considered in long time. The attractiveness of the traditional approach (Fabry-Perot resonators) to their creation is limited to a number of stringent technical requirements and large economic costs. In this paper we propose a new concept of non-resonant photon trap (storage) for creation more technologically simple optical neutralizers.

  13. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakubský, Vít Krej?i?ík, David

    2014-10-15

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  14. Production trap improvements using high-efficiency internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delavan, D.P.; Wilson, T.T.

    1995-10-01

    Most of the Gas-Oil Separation Plants (GOSP) in Southern Area Producing of Saudi Aramco will be producing between 40% and 75% water cuts by the turn of the century. Many GOSPs will be producing more than twice the amount of water they were originally designed for. Consequently, modifications must be made to the GOSPs so that they will have the capacity to separate and clean up these large volumes of produced water. The most attractive option is to improve the separation efficiency of the High Pressure Production Traps (HPPT) where formation water is first removed from the wellhead fluid. These traps have historically removed very little water from the wellhead fluid. However, the following modifications have proven to significantly improve the separation efficiency of the traps: double the height of the weir, and raise the oil level from 40% to 65% full; install a new inlet device to minimize the formation of foam; install coalescing and foam-breaking internals to enhance oil/water coalescing and separation and to break the foam on top of the oil layer.

  15. WATER TRAPPING ON TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS REQUIRES SPECIAL CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jun; Abbot, Dorian S.; Liu, Yonggang; Hu, Yongyun

    2014-12-01

    Surface liquid water is essential for standard planetary habitability. Calculations of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets around M stars suggest that this peculiar orbital configuration lends itself to the trapping of large amounts of water in kilometers-thick ice on the night side, potentially removing all liquid water from the day side where photosynthesis is possible. We study this problem using a global climate model including coupled atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components as well as a continental ice sheet model driven by the climate model output. For a waterworld, we find that surface winds transport sea ice toward the day side and the ocean carries heat toward the night side. As a result, nightside sea ice remains O(10 m) thick and nightside water trapping is insignificant. If a planet has large continents on its night side, they can grow ice sheets O(1000 m) thick if the geothermal heat flux is similar to Earth's or smaller. Planets with a water complement similar to Earth's would therefore experience a large decrease in sea level when plate tectonics drives their continents onto the night side, but would not experience complete dayside dessiccation. Only planets with a geothermal heat flux lower than Earth's, much of their surface covered by continents, and a surface water reservoir O(10%) of Earth's would be susceptible to complete water trapping.

  16. Tolerance in the Ramsey interference of a trapped nanodiamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Wan; M. Scala; S. Bose; A. C. Frangeskou; ATM A. Rahman; G. W. Morley; P. F. Barker; M. S. Kim

    2015-09-02

    The scheme recently proposed in [M. Scala et al., Phys Rev Lett 111, 180403 (2013)], where a gravity-dependent phase shift is induced on the spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a trapped nanodiamond by the interaction between its magnetic moment and the quantized motion of the particle, provides a way to detect spatial quantum superpositions by means of spin measurements only. Here, the effect of unwanted coupling with other motional degrees of freedom is considered and we show that it does not affect the validity of the scheme. Both this coupling and the additional error source due to misalignment between the quantization axis of the NV center spin and the trapping axis are shown not to change the qualitative behavior of the system, so that a proof-of- principle experiment can be neatly performed. Our analysis, which shows that the scheme retains the important features of not requiring ground state cooling and of being resistant to thermal fluctuations, can be useful for the several schemes which have been proposed recently for testing macroscopic superpositions in trapped microsystems.

  17. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.

    2013-05-08

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  18. Dynamical traps and chaotic advection in a meandering jet flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Budyansky; M. Yu. Uleysky; S. V. Prants

    2012-02-02

    We continue our study of chaotic mixing and transport of passive particles in a simple model of a meandering jet flow [Prants, et al, Chaos {\\bf 16}, 033117 (2006)]. In the present paper we study and explain phenomenologically a connection between dynamical, topological, and statistical properties of chaotic mixing and transport in the model flow in terms of dynamical traps, singular zones in the phase space where particles may spend arbitrary long but finite time [Zaslavsky, Phys. D {\\bf 168--169}, 292 (2002)]. The transport of passive particles is described in terms of lengths and durations of zonal flights which are events between two successive changes of sign of zonal velocity. Some peculiarities of the respective probability density functions for short flights are proven to be caused by the so-called rotational-islands traps connected with the boundaries of resonant islands (including those of the vortex cores) filled with the particles moving in the same frame. Whereas, the statistics of long flights can be explained by the influence of the so-called ballistic-islands traps filled with the particles moving from a frame to frame.

  19. Enhanced thermoelectric power and electronic correlations in RuSe?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Aifeng; Tomic, A.; Wang, Limin; Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Dooryhee, E.; Billinge, S. J.L.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-03-03

    We report the electronic structure, electric and thermal transport properties of Ru??xIrxSe? (x ? 0.2). RuSe? is a semiconductor that crystallizes in a cubic pyrite unit cell. The Seebeck coefficient of RuSe? exceeds -200 µV/K around 730 K. Ir substitution results in the suppression of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient, suggesting the removal of the peaks in density of states near the Fermi level. Ru?.?Ir?.?Se? shows a semiconductor-metal crossover at about 30 K. The magnetic field restores the semiconducting behavior. Our results indicate the importance of the electronic correlations in enhanced thermoelectricity of RuSb?.

  20. Hot exciton transport in ZnSe quantum wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hui; Moehl, Sebastian; Wachter, Sven; Kalt, Heinz

    2002-02-01

    The in-plane transport of excitons in ZnSe quantum wells is investigated directly by microphotoluminescence in combination with a solid immersion lens. Due to the strong Froehlich coupling, the initial kinetic energy of the excitons is well...

  1. Optical Properties of CdSe Nanoparticle Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, T; Gerion, D; Zaitseva, N; Krol, D M; Leon, F R

    2003-11-24

    We report on three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of micron-size faceted crystals precipitated from solutions of CdSe nanocrystals. Such crystals have previously been suggested to be superlattices of CdSe quantum dots [1,2]. Possible applications for these materials include their use in optical and optoelectronic devices. The micron-size crystals were grown by slow evaporation from toluene solutions of CdSe nanocrystals in the range of 3-6 nm, produced by traditional wet-chemistry techniques. By using a confocal microscope with laser illumination, three-dimensional raster-scanning and synchronized hyper-spectral detection, we have generated spatial profiles of the fluorescence emission intensity and spectrum. The fluorescence data of the micro-crystals were compared with spectra of individual nanocrystals obtained from the same solution. The results do not support the assertion that these microcrystals consist of CdSe superlattices.

  2. Magneto-optical characterizations of FeTe???Se??? thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the two thin films. Compared with bulk crystals, FeTeSe thin film demonstrates not only higher Tc, but also much larger Jc, which is attractive for...

  3. Computando lo aspero Por que se cuelgan las computadoras?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueira, Santiago

    ejemplo 0 + 1 = 1. Tambi´en puedo al 1 sumarle 1 y obtener el 2: (0 + 1) + 1 = 2 recursi´on: una funci´on que se llama a s´i misma. Por ejemplo, a la funci´on suma se puede definir como: suma(m, n) = n si m´olo un peque~no n´umero de s´imbolos reciben atenci´on (en el ejemplo, 2). Hay una cantidad finita de s

  4. Synthesis and properties of new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassem, M.; ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque ; Le Coq, D.; Fourmentin, M.; Hindle, F.; Bokova, M.; Cuisset, A.; Masselin, P.; Bychkov, E.; ULCO, LPCA, EAC CNRS 4493 F-59140 Dunkerque

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Determination of the glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system. {yields} Characterization of macroscopic properties of the new CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. {yields} Far infrared transmission of chalcogenide glasses. {yields} Characterization of the total conductivity of CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} glasses. -- Abstract: The glass-forming region in the pseudo-ternary CdSe-AgI-As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} system was determined. Measurements including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), density, and X-ray diffraction were performed. The effect resulting from the addition of CdSe or AgI has been highlighted by examining three series of different base glasses. The characteristic temperatures of the glass samples, including glass transition (T{sub g}), crystallisation (T{sub x}), and melting (T{sub m}) temperatures are reported and used to calculate their {Delta}T = T{sub x} - T{sub g} and their Hruby, H{sub r} = (T{sub x} - T{sub g})/(T{sub m} - T{sub x}), criteria. Evolution of the total electrical conductivity {sigma} and the room temperature conductivity {sigma}{sub 298} was also studied. The terahertz transparency domain in the 50-600 cm{sup -1} region was pointed for different chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and the potential of the THz spectroscopy was suggested to obtain structural information on ChGs.

  5. Giant Piezoelectricity in Monolayer Group IV Monochalcogenides: SnSe, SnS, GeSe and GeS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    We predict enormous piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M=Sn or Ge, X=Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their characteristic piezoelectric coefficients are about two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique "puckered" D2h symmetry and weaker chemical bonds of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications, such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  6. Charge Transfer Fluorescence and 34 nm Exciton Diffusion Length in Polymers with Electron Acceptor End Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikowski, L.; Mauro, G.; Bird, M.; Karten, B.; Asaoka, S.; Wu, Q.; Cook, A. R.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are as large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. The efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.

  7. Charge transfer fluorescence and 34 nm exciton diffusion length in polymers with electron acceptor end traps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaikowski, Lori; Mauro, Gina; Bird, Matthew; Karten, Brianne; Asaoka, Sadayuki; Wu, Qin; Cook, Andrew R.; Miller, John R.

    2014-12-22

    Photoexcitation of conjugated poly-2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene) polyfluorenes with naphthylimide (NI) and anthraquinone (AQ) electron-acceptor end traps produces excitons that form charge transfer states at the end traps. Intramolecular singlet exciton transport to end traps was examined by steady state fluorescence for polyfluorenes of 17 to 127 repeat units in chloroform, dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and p-xylene. End traps capture excitons and form charge transfer (CT) states at all polymer lengths and in all solvents. The CT nature of the end-trapped states is confirmed by their fluorescence spectra, solvent and trap group dependence and DFT descriptions. Quantum yields of CT fluorescence are asmore »large as 46%. This strong CT emission is understood in terms of intensity borrowing. Energies of the CT states from onsets of the fluorescence spectra give the depths of the traps which vary with solvent polarity. For NI end traps the trap depths are 0.06 (p-xylene), 0.13 (THF) and 0.19 eV (CHCl3). For AQ, CT fluorescence could be observed only in p-xylene where the trap depth is 0.27 eV. Quantum yields, emission energies, charge transfer energies, solvent reorganization and vibrational energies were calculated. Fluorescence measurements on chains >100 repeat units indicate that end traps capture ~50% of the excitons, and that the exciton diffusion length LD =34 nm, which is much larger than diffusion lengths reported in polymer films or than previously known for diffusion along isolated chains. As a result, the efficiency of exciton capture depends on chain length, but not on trap depth, solvent polarity or which trap group is present.« less

  8. A Single-Ion Trap with Minimized Ion-Environment Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisbet-Jones, P B R; Jones, J M; Godun, R M; Baynham, C F A; Bongs, K; Doležal, M; Balling, P; Gill, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new single-ion endcap trap for high precision spectroscopy that has been designed to minimize ion-environment interactions. We describe the design in detail and then characterize the working trap using a single trapped 171 Yb ion. Excess micromotion has been eliminated to the resolution of the detection method and the trap exhibits an anomalous phonon heating rate of d /dt = 24 +30/-24 per second. The thermal properties of the trap structure have also been measured with an effective temperature rise at the ion's position of 0.14 +/- 0.14 K. The small perturbations to the ion caused by this trap make it suitable to be used for an optical frequency standard with fractional uncertainties below the 10^-18 level.

  9. Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tongcang Li; Simon Kheifets; Mark G. Raizen

    2011-01-07

    The apparent conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics remains one of the unresolved mysteries of the physical world. According to recent theories, this conflict results in gravity-induced quantum state reduction of "Schr\\"odinger cats", quantum superpositions of macroscopic observables. In recent years, great progress has been made in cooling micromechanical resonators towards their quantum mechanical ground state. This work is an important step towards the creation of Schr\\"odinger cats in the laboratory, and the study of their destruction by decoherence. A direct test of the gravity-induced state reduction scenario may therefore be within reach. However, a recent analysis shows that for all systems reported to date, quantum superpositions are destroyed by environmental decoherence long before gravitational state reduction takes effect. Here we report optical trapping of glass microspheres in vacuum with high oscillation frequencies, and cooling of the center-of-mass motion from room temperature to a minimum temperature of 1.5 mK. This new system eliminates the physical contact inherent to clamped cantilevers, and can allow ground-state cooling from room temperature. After cooling, the optical trap can be switched off, allowing a microsphere to undergo free-fall in vacuum. During free-fall, light scattering and other sources of environmental decoherence are absent, so this system is ideal for studying gravitational state reduction. A cooled optically trapped object in vacuum can also be used to search for non-Newtonian gravity forces at small scales, measure the impact of a single air molecule, and even produce Schr\\"odinger cats of living organisms.

  10. Excited-State Relaxation in PbSe Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, J. M.; Califano, M.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2008-01-01

    In solids the phonon-assisted, nonradiative decay from high-energy electronic excited states to low-energy electronic excited states is picosecond fast. It was hoped that electron and hole relaxation could be slowed down in quantum dots, due to the unavailability of phonons energy matched to the large energy-level spacings ('phonon-bottleneck'). However, excited-state relaxation was observed to be rather fast ({le}1 ps) in InP, CdSe, and ZnO dots, and explained by an efficient Auger mechanism, whereby the excess energy of electrons is nonradiatively transferred to holes, which can then rapidly decay by phonon emission, by virtue of the densely spaced valence-band levels. The recent emergence of PbSe as a novel quantum-dot material has rekindled the hope for a slow down of excited-state relaxation because hole relaxation was deemed to be ineffective on account of the widely spaced hole levels. The assumption of sparse hole energy levels in PbSe was based on an effective-mass argument based on the light effective mass of the hole. Surprisingly, fast intraband relaxation times of 1-7 ps were observed in PbSe quantum dots and have been considered contradictory with the Auger cooling mechanism because of the assumed sparsity of the hole energy levels. Our pseudopotential calculations, however, do not support the scenario of sparse hole levels in PbSe: Because of the existence of three valence-band maxima in the bulk PbSe band structure, hole energy levels are densely spaced, in contradiction with simple effective-mass models. The remaining question is whether the Auger decay channel is sufficiently fast to account for the fast intraband relaxation. Using the atomistic pseudopotential wave functions of Pb{sub 2046}Se{sub 2117} and Pb{sub 260}Se{sub 249} quantum dots, we explicitly calculated the electron-hole Coulomb integrals and the P {yields} S electron Auger relaxation rate. We find that the Auger mechanism can explain the experimentally observed P {yields} S intraband decay time scale without the need to invoke any exotic relaxation mechanisms.

  11. Dark state cooling of a trapped ion using microwave coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong Lu; Jian-Qi Zhang; Jin-Ming Cui; Dong-Yang Cao; Shuo Zhang; Yun-Feng Huang; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo

    2015-07-09

    We propose a new dark-state cooling method of trapped ion systems in the Lamb-Dicke limit. With application of microwave dressing the ion, we can obtain two electromagnetically induced transparency structures. The heating effects caused by the carrier and the blue sideband transition vanish due to the EIT effects and the final mean phonon numbers can be much less than the recoil limit. Our scheme is robust to fluctuations of microwave power and laser intensities which provides a broad cooling bandwidth to cool motional modes of a linear ion chain. Moreover, it is more suitable to cool four-level ions on a large-scale ion chip.

  12. Photovoltaic cell with light trapping for enhanced efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brener, Igal; Fofang, Nche Tumasang; Luk, Ting S.

    2015-11-19

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell is enhanced by light trapping using Mie-scattering nanostructures. In one embodiment, an array of nanocylinders is formed on the front surface of a silicon film to enhance forward scattering into the film, and an array of nanocylinders is formed on the back surface to enhance backscattering so that more light is absorbed within the silicon film. In an alternate embodiment, a mirror layer is formed on the back surface of the silicon film to reflect light within the film back toward the front-surface nanocylinder array.

  13. Nuclear spin qubits in a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Feng; Y. Y. Xu; F. Zhou; D. Suter

    2009-04-26

    Physical systems must fulfill a number of conditions to qualify as useful quantum bits (qubits) for quantum information processing, including ease of manipulation, long decoherence times, and high fidelity readout operations. Since these conditions are hard to satisfy with a single system, it may be necessary to combine different degrees of freedom. Here we discuss a possible system, based on electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in trapped ions. The nuclear spin yields long decoherence times, while the electronic spin, in a magnetic field gradient, provides efficient manipulation, and the optical transitions of the ions assure a selective and efficient initialization and readout.

  14. Cryogenic surface electrode ion traps with integrated superconducting microwave resonators for polar molecular ion spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antohi, Paul Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Trapped cold molecules open the possibility of studying ultracold chemistry and astrophysical processes in laboratory settings. Their rich internal structure also makes them suitable for quantum information manipulation ...

  15. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Effect of Trap Design, Chemical Lure, Carbon Dioxide Release Rate passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs

  16. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  17. Observation of cooperatively enhanced atomic dipole forces from NV centers in optically trapped nanodiamonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. L. Juan; C. Bradac; B. Besga; G. Brennen; G. Molina-Terriza; T. Volz

    2015-11-15

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970, optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads or single atoms. The optical trapping mechanism is based on the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the bulk polarizability of the material. These two different regimes of optical trapping have coexisted for decades without any direct link, resulting in two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings, the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms in the field of quantum optics. Here we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing artificial atoms, so-called nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths in the vicinity of the zero-phonon line transition of the color centers, we observe a significant modification ($10\\%$) of the overall trapping strength. Most remarkably, our experimental findings suggest that owing to the large number of artificial atoms, collective effects greatly contribute to the observed trapping strength modification. Our approach adds the powerful atomic-physics toolbox to the field of nano-manipulation.

  18. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeAngelis, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soilunseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversitya challenge for soil microbes and biofuels engineers alike.

  19. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-04-03

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  20. Bose-Einstein condensate in traps: A Diffusion Monte Carlo analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Bosons, we note that the energy of a single particle in a typical harmonic trap (e.g. 87 Rb) is (3/2)¯hho

  1. se de doctorat en informatique Comprendre le Web cach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    niveau à l'aide de telles descriptions. Abstract e hidden Web (also known as deep or invisible Web'informations, complexité Keywords: hidden Web, deep Web, databases, information extraction, complexity tel-00198150,versionèse de doctorat en informatique Comprendre le Web caché Understanding the Hidden Web Pierre

  2. MINIREVIEW / MINISYNTHE` SE The role of chromatin structure in regulating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebs, Jocelyn E.

    within many stress-induced promoters, such as stress re- sponse elements and heat shock elements, allow. Key words: chromatin, transcription, stress response, heat shock. Re´sume´ : Toutes les cellules, quMINIREVIEW / MINISYNTHE` SE The role of chromatin structure in regulating stress

  3. ctualmente se afronta una im-portante prdida de biodiversi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figuerola, Jordi

    a los medios de comunicación y sean cada vez más tratadas en la prensa científica, no son un fenómeno enfermedades con nuestras actividades por encima del nivel que se daba en siglos ante- riores. Por último y percepción pública sobre la necesidad de conservar el medio natural (¿no sería mejor ma- tar a todos los

  4. www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar Forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. fr medicin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar ­ Forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. för medicin 2015, forskare vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin hälsas välkommen som ny ledamot i FUU. Pauline ersätter informerade om hur antagningarna granskas vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin. De vanligaste bristerna

  5. Transformation toughening in an antiferroelectric ceramic *, S.E. Younga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Wei

    1 Transformation toughening in an antiferroelectric ceramic X. Tana, *, S.E. Younga , Y.H. Seob , J of the crystal symmetry, dielectric constant, field-induced polarization, and Raman spectrum on ceramic Pb0.99Nb0 is demonstrated in the antiferroelectric ceramic with both indentation fracture and R-curve experiments

  6. 2030 SE Marine Science Drive Newport, Oregon 973665-5296

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    2030 SE Marine Science Drive Newport, Oregon 973665-5296 Telephone 541-867-0100 Fax 541-867-0138 Web Page http://hmsc.oregonstate.edu Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Center 2006.....................................2 Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment Station...........................2 OSU-COMES Seafood Research

  7. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y., E-mail: zouym@fudan.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Applied Ion Beam Physics, Ministry of Education, 200433 Shanghai (China); Shanghai EBIT Lab, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-15

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10{sup ?10} Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10{sup ?4}. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe{sup 53+,} {sup 54+} has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  8. Dudley Ridge, a geomorphic trap - lacustrine gas in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugden, H.E.

    1986-04-01

    The Dudley Ridge gas field is about 6 mi southeast of Kettleman City, California. The abandoned field straddles the boundary between T23S, R19E, and T23S, R20E, MDBM, in Kings County, California. The Tulare Lake depression was formed during the Pleistocene. It is bounded by the Temblor Range on the west, the Sierra Nevada rise on the east, the north tilt of the San Joaquin Valley to the south, and a gentle rise in the San Joaquin Valley floor to the north. The depression is almost circular except for the west side where North Kettleman dome formed a peninsula. The prevailing longshore current was to the south due to Coriolis-directed winds. Dudley Ridge was formed as a spit, trailing south off the side of North Kettleman dome. The spit is sandy, silty clay, with sand lense onlaps. The geomorphic trap formed by the sand lenses serves as a trap for the methane gas being produced in the organic-rich lake-bed sediments.

  9. Decoherence-Assisted Single Electron Trapping at Room Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halawany, Ahmed El

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of single-electron tunneling through a nanowire (NW) made of a semiconductor quantum dot heterostructure at room temperature. We show that by applying a bias voltage across five quantum dots (QDs) and a gate voltage to the central QD to tune it in and out of resonance with respect to the other QDs it is possible to take advantage of a subtle combination of resonant tunneling, Coulomb blockade, Pauli exclusion principle, and decoherence effects to trap a single electron inside the central QD at room temperature. For calculating the decoherence-assisted quantum dynamics through the NW, we make use of a generalized master equation based on a Hamiltonian describing the tunneling of the electron among the QDs in the tight-binding approximation. We demonstrate that the decoherence, which is in the pico-second regime, is essential to trap the electron in the central QD with probability of 70% in 1 ps at room temperature. Our results can be used for future high-temperature single-photon source...

  10. Heating of trapped ultracold atoms by collapse dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Laloë; William J. Mullin; Philip Pearle

    2014-11-12

    {The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory alters the Schr\\"odinger equation. It describes wave function collapse as a dynamical process instead of an ill-defined postulate, thereby providing macroscopic uniqueness and solving the so-called measurement problem of standard quantum theory. CSL contains a parameter $\\lambda$ giving the collapse rate of an isolated nucleon in a superposition of two spatially separated states and, more generally, characterizing the collapse time for any physical situation. CSL is experimentally testable, since it predicts some behavior different from that predicted by standard quantum theory. One example is the narrowing of wave functions, which results in energy imparted to particles. Here we consider energy given to trapped ultra-cold atoms. Since these are the coldest samples under experimental investigation, it is worth inquiring how they are affected by the CSL heating mechanism. We examine the CSL heating of a BEC in contact with its thermal cloud. Of course, other mechanisms also provide heat and also particle loss. From varied data on optically trapped cesium BEC's, we present an energy audit for known heating and loss mechanisms. The result provides an upper limit on CSL heating and thereby an upper limit on the parameter $\\lambda$. We obtain $\\lambda\\lesssim 1(\\pm1)\\times 10^{-7}$sec$^{-1}$.}

  11. Fixed bed trapping for gaseous fluoride effluent control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otey, M.G.; Bayne, C.K.

    1980-06-14

    To comply with future air quality standards for gaseous fluoride emissions at the PGDP, studies are being made to evaluate the most feasible and efficient method of trapping fluorides from the effluents of the different processes. Although this work is in direct support of environmental projects, its results are applicable in other areas. Throughout the diffusion plants there are several areas where fluorides, either single or multiple species, are controlled and/or processed. The solid sorbent studies represent new, promising technology which could have significant impact on the gaseous diffusion plants. Scoping studies of solid sorbents and reaction conditions have been conducted. In a series of statistically designed experiments, the effects of total gas flow, temperature, and fluoride gas flow were studied for eight dry chemicals in a 1-in. diameter fixed bed designed to remove three separate fluoride gas species (hydrogen fluoride (HF), fluorine (F/sub 2/), and chlorine trifluoride (ClF/sub 3/)) from an air stream. The trapping materials selected for the test include two brands of four different material types: soda lime, oolitic calcium carbonate (CaCO/sub 3/), calcium oxide (CaO), and activated alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/). Additionally, loading factors and material utilization were determined to allow an economic comparison to be made between bed materials.

  12. Blueprint for a microwave ion trap quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Lekitsch; S. Weidt; A. G. Fowler; K. Mølmer; S. J. Devitt; C. Wunderlich; W. K. Hensinger

    2015-08-10

    A universal quantum computer will have fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and technologies. Therefore an increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working towards the realization of such a device. A large scale quantum computer is best constructed using a modular approach. We present the blueprint for an ion trap based scalable quantum computer module which makes it possible to create an arbitrarily large quantum computer architecture powered by long-wavelength radiation. This quantum computer module controls all operations as a stand-alone unit, is constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques and within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the module makes use of long-wavelength-radiation quantum gate technology and relies only on a vacuum environment and global laser and microwave fields. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture beyond one module we also present a new approach that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing connections between arbitrarily many modules for a large scale architecture. A high-error-threshold surface error correction code making use of such module interactions can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault-tolerant quantum logic operations. With only minor adjustments these modules are also suitable for alternative ion trap quantum computer architectures, such as schemes using photonic interconnects.

  13. A study of the regeneration process in diesel particulate traps using a copper fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, J.C.; Opris, C.N.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 C to 375 C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration. The higher peak trap temperatures were predominantly controlled by the effect of the exhaust flow rates on the energy transfer processes. The total regeneration time was faster for the controlled regeneration compared to the uncontrolled regeneration. All traps passed the controlled regeneration tests having maximum temperatures less than 900 C. During the uncontrolled regeneration tests, trap failure occurred at 135 and 139 g particulate matter loadings. The maximum temperatures were in excess of 1,150 C. The pressure drop across the trap was modeled using the one dimensional Darcy`s law which accounted for the pressure drop due to the ceramic wall and the particulate layer. The experimental results for the substrate correlate well with the empirical substrate pressure drop models available in the literature. The models also enable an estimate to be made regarding trap mass loading. These data along with the laboratory data have indicated that mass loadings greater than 110 g followed by high temperature operation and subsequent engine idling can result in trap failures during regeneration.

  14. Gravid Mosquito Trap P462 -Trap The ChemTica GMT operates on 4 size D cell batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan at dusk. Manual shutoff is required at dawn to prevent at dawn to prevent loss of trapped mosquitoes. Power is supplied by four D cell batteries. The upper case

  15. Quantum confined acceptors and donors in InSe nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudd, G. W.; Patanè, A. Makarovsky, O.; Eaves, L.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Fay, M. W.; Zólyomi, V.; Falko, V.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the radiative recombination of photo-excited carriers bound at native donors and acceptors in exfoliated nanoflakes of nominally undoped rhombohedral ?-polytype InSe. The binding energies of these states are found to increase with the decrease in flake thickness, L. We model their dependence on L using a two-dimensional hydrogenic model for impurities and show that they are strongly sensitive to the position of the impurities within the nanolayer.

  16. Does MoSE cope with inland tsunamis hazard?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Romanelli, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we use morphostructural zonation and pattern recognition techniques to identify a potential seismic source located inland very near Venice, and then we evaluate how a tsunami wave generated from this source can affect the MoSE gates if they are standing up (closed) during the tsunami event. From our simulation we get both peaks and troughs as first arrivals: the behavior of the barriers in these two situations could be a very important design matter.

  17. Perlick: Order (2013-SE-14001) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes havePUBLICofPatriciaOrder (2013-SE-14001)

  18. Perlick: Proposed Penalty (2013-SE-14001) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes havePUBLICofPatriciaOrder (2013-SE-14001)Proposed

  19. Metal contacts on ZnSe and GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duxstad, K J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the development of blue light emitting materials and devices. The focus has been on GaN and ZnSe, direct band gap semiconductors with bands gaps of 3.4 and 2.6 eV, respectively. To have efficient, reliable devices it is necessary to have thermally and electrically stable Ohmic contacts. This requires knowledge of the metal-semiconductor reaction behavior. To date few studies have investigated this behavior. Much information has accumulated over the years on the behavior of metals on Si and GaAs. This thesis provides new knowledge for the more ionic wide band gap semiconductors. The initial reaction temperatures, first phases formed, and phase stability of Pt, Pd, and Ni on both semiconductors were investigated. The reactions of these metals on ZnSe and GaN are discussed in detail and correlated with predicted behavior. In addition, comparisons are made between these highly ionic semiconductors and Si and GaAs. The trends observed here should also be applicable to other II-VI and III-Nitride semiconductor systems, while the information on phase formation and stability should be useful in the development of contacts for ZnSe and GaN devices.

  20. Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Cooling and Trapping Atoms Atoms are slowed and cooled by radiation pressure from laser light and then trapped in a bottle whose "walls" are magnetic fields. Cooled atoms are ideal for exploring basic. Atoms can now be cooled by shining laser light directly on them. The radiation pres sure exerted

  1. Vibrational cooling in a cold ion trap: Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cold C60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Vibrational cooling in a cold ion trap: Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of cold C August 2005 We demonstrate vibrational cooling of anions via collisions with a background gas in an ion cold C60 - anions, produced by electrospray ionization and cooled in the cold ion trap, have been

  2. Coherent population trapping resonance structure in paraffin-coated Rb vacuum cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coherent population trapping resonance structure in paraffin-coated Rb vacuum cells S. Gateva*, E of the CPT resonances are investigated in two different paraffin-coated Rb vapor cells from point of view: coherent population trapping, line shapes and line widths, coated cell, magnetometry 1. INTRODUCTION During

  3. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    microscopy," scanning tunneling electron microscopy," and synchrotron based tomography,t3 it is possibleSimulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first

  4. Laser Stabilization for Quantum Computing with Trapped Barium ions Corey Adams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blinov, Boris

    Laser Stabilization for Quantum Computing with Trapped Barium ions Corey Adams University of Rochester (Dated: November 11, 2009) ABSTRACT The goal of this project was to stabilize a laser cooling system used to trap and cool Ba+ ions used for quantum computation research. The lasers, at 650 and 985

  5. Simulating a Maxwellian plasma using an electron beam ion trap D. W. Savina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    Simulating a Maxwellian plasma using an electron beam ion trap D. W. Savina) Columbia Astrophysics for producing a Maxwell­Boltzmann electron energy distribution using an electron beam ion trap EBIT of DR to EIE lines in heliumlike ions is a well understood electron temperature diagnostic

  6. I. Top 20 TA Traps 83 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 85

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 83 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 85 III. TA Office I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere with the work of teaching. General

  7. I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131 III for TAs 152 #12;#12;I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere with the work

  8. I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131 III for TAs 152 #12;#12;Page 129 I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere

  9. Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells Stephen Foster1,* and Sajeev John1,2 1 demonstrate numerically a 2-D nanostructured design for light trapping in a low band-gap polymer solar cell, "Light harvesting improvement of organic solar cells with self- enhanced active layer designs," Opt

  10. ITER predictions using the GYRO verified and experimentally validated trapped gyro-Landau fluid transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    predictions using the GYRO verified and experimentally validated trapped gyro-Landau fluid transport model JITER predictions using the GYRO verified and experimentally validated trapped gyro-Landau fluid transport model This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text

  11. Nonergodic behavior of interacting bosons in harmonic traps Thomas Papenbrock and George F. Bertsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsch George F.

    Nonergodic behavior of interacting bosons in harmonic traps Thomas Papenbrock and George F. Bertsch of the ground-state occupation number. In the high-energy regime of classical physics we find nonergodic behavior for modest numbers of trapped particles. We give two conditions that assure the ergodic behavior

  12. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells Claiborne O McPheeters1 , Dongzhi elements are integrated for light trapping. Measurements and simulations of GaAs solar cells with less than in their performance. Keywords: quantum-well, quantum-dot, scattering, diffraction, thin-film, GaAs, InAs, photovoltaic

  13. Euler buckling-induced folding and rotation of red blood cells in an optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Euler buckling-induced folding and rotation of red blood cells in an optical trap A Ghosha 005, India Abstract. We investigate the physics of an optically-driven micromotor of biological origin. When a single, live red blood cell is placed in an optical trap, the normal biconcave disk shape

  14. Passive torque wrench and angular position detection using a single-beam optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Michelle

    Passive torque wrench and angular position detection using a single-beam optical trap James Inman,1 August 26, 2010 The recent advent of angular optical trapping techniques has allowed for rotational torsional measurements across a wide range of biological systems. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS

  15. Torque-generating malaria-infected red blood cells in an optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Torque-generating malaria-infected red blood cells in an optical trap J.A. Dharmadhikari, S. Roy, A 005, India # atmol1@tifr.res.in Abstract: We have used optical tweezers to trap normal and Plasmodium emerge from our experiments. Firstly, while the optical field modifies both types of RBCs in the same

  16. NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyerl, Albert

    NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP BY ASHISH M. DESAI determination of the neutron lifetime has an impact on particle physics and cosmology. We report progress towards a measurement of the neutron lifetime using an accordion-like storage trap. Ultracold neutrons

  17. Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demsy and Sajeev John

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demésy and Sajeev://jap.aip.org/authors Downloaded 12 Oct 2012 to 99.230.201.54. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demesya

  18. Ion Crystals Produced by Laser and Sympathetic Cooling in a Linear RF Ion Trap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2012-02-14

    A detailed investigation of ion crystals produced by laser and sympathetic cooling in a linear RF trap has been conducted. The laser cooling methods were examined and applied to the trapped ^24Mg^(positive) ions. The crystals produced by the laser...

  19. Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Procedures 2013 Texas A&M Forest Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Emerald Ash Borer Trapping Procedures 2013 Texas A&M Forest Service Goal: To survey ash habitats in selected counties in Texas to detect the presence of the emerald ash borer, EAB (Agrilus of a circular 250-acre (1/2 square mile) sampling area. The trap is to be hung from the lower branch of an ash

  20. 2007NaturePublishingGrouphttp://www.nature.com/naturemethods Higher-energy C-trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    line is attached, and the cell is pressurized with nitrogen (or any) gas (see Supplementary Fig. 1©2007NaturePublishingGrouphttp://www.nature.com/naturemethods Higher-energy C-trap dissociation collision cell is enclosed in a gas-tight shroud and aligned to the C-trap device. The collision cell

  1. Two-color magneto-optical trap with small magnetic field for ytterbium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawasaki, Akio

    We report a two-color magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ytterbium atoms where the slowing and trapping functions are separately performed by the singlet transition light (6s[superscript 2] [superscript 1]S[subscript 0] ? 6s6p ...

  2. Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells Lucio Claudio Keywords: Thin-film solar cells Light trapping Photonic structures Carrier collection Electro-optical simulations Surface recombination a b s t r a c t Efficient solar cells require both strong absorption

  3. Page 1 of 8 Procedure for Working on Plumbing Traps in Laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    activities involving the removal of drainage pipes and traps that potentially contain mercury, specific.office@utoronto.ca. 1.0 APPLICATION For All Work on Sanitary Plumbing Drains from Laboratories There is a small chance involving removal of drainage pipes and traps that have a higher likelihood of containing mercury

  4. CAPTURE OF FEMALE Hylotrupes bajulus AS INFLUENCED BY TRAP TYPE AND PHEROMONE BLEND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    .) (Cerambycidae). One, designated the ground trap, was the most efficient under both laboratory and natural may also attack the heartwood (White, 1954). Attacks often begin in the roof where larvae bore through of the pheromone lure, and determine the efficiency of pheromone mixtures for use in trapping strategies. METHODS

  5. 3D modeling of magnetic atom traps on type-II superconductor chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK E-mail: sokolovv@bgu.ac.il, leonid September 2014 Published 12 November 2014 Abstract Magnetic traps for cold atoms have become a powerful tool depth, shape, distance from the chip surface, etc) that are necessary when designing magnetic traps

  6. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures Piotr Kowalczewski. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, "Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns," Opt. Express 20, A224­A

  7. Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells Piotr A theoretical study of randomly rough interfaces to obtain light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells of thin-film solar cells. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 040.5350, 050.1950. Reducing

  8. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X of nanostructured TiO2 layers fabricated on thin-film solar cells to provide, simultaneously, both antireflection

  9. Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells M. van Lare,1 of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells", in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar

  10. Stability of standing matter waves in a trap A. E. Muryshev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amsterdam, Universiteit van

    Stability of standing matter waves in a trap A. E. Muryshev,1 H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell,2 of a kinkwise state, i.e., a standing matter wave with one nodal plane perpendicular to the axis function with nodal planes perpendicular to the symmetry axis of a trap. These states represent standing

  11. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  12. APdCu(Se2)(Se3) (A ) K and Rb): New Quaternary Copper Palladium Polyselenides with Unusual Metal-Selenium Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    APdCu(Se2)(Se3) (A ) K and Rb): New Quaternary Copper Palladium Polyselenides with Unusual Metal structurally characterized quaternary copper palladium polychalcogenides with a (Se2)2- and a (Se3)2- fragment ) K and Rb), which are the first quaternary copper palladium polychalcogenides obtained

  13. Resonant nonradiative energy transfer in CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal solids enhances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    to recycle trapped excitons into nanocrystals using nonradiative energy transfer. We present the time of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007). #97387 - $15.00 USD Received 12 Jun 2008

  14. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (2–5)?×?10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5?×?10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  15. Noise and microresonance of critical current in Josephson junction induced by Kondo trap states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansari, Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the impact of trap states in the oxide layer of a superconducting tunnel junctions, on the fluctuation of the Josephson critical current, thus on coherence in superconducting qubits. Two mechanisms are usually considered: the current blockage due to repulsion at the occupied trap states, and the noise from electrons hopping across a trap. We extend previous studies of noninteracting traps to the case where the traps have on-site electron repulsion inside one ballistic channel. The repulsion not only allows the appropriate temperature dependence of 1/f noise, but also is a control to the coupling between the computational qubit and the spurious two-level systems inside the oxide dielectric. We use second order perturbation theory which allows to obtain analytical formulae for the interacting bound states and spectral weights, limited to small and intermediate repulsions. Remarkably, it still reproduces the main features of the model as identified from the Numerical Renormalization Group. We present ...

  16. Production and characterization of a dual species magneto-optical trap of cesium and ytterbium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, S L; Freytag, R; Hopkins, S A; Hinds, E A; Tarbutt, M R; Cornish, S L

    2015-01-01

    We describe an apparatus designed to trap and cool a Yb and Cs mixture. The apparatus consists of a dual species effusive oven source, dual species Zeeman slower, magneto-optical traps in a single ultra-high vacuum science chamber, and the associated laser systems. The dual species Zeeman slower is used to load sequentially the two species into their respective traps. Its design is flexible and may be adapted for other experiments with different mixtures of atomic species. The apparatus provides excellent optical access and can apply large magnetic bias fields to the trapped atoms. The apparatus regularly produces 10${}^{8}$ Cs atoms at 13.3 $\\mu$K in an optical molasses, and 10${}^{9}$ Yb atoms cooled to 22 $\\mu$K in a narrowband magneto-optical trap.

  17. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  18. Adiabatic electron response and solitary wave generation by trapped particle nonlinearity in a hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The finite amplitude ion acoustic waves that trap electrons modify the structure of the evolving nonlinear soliton solutions. In the numerical simulations, self-consistently generated solitary waves are studied that emerge as a result of a current driven microinstability growing the ion acoustic mode in a collisionless Vlasov plasma. The growth saturates as a result of nonlinear effects governed by a combination of nonlinearities originating from the hydrodynamic model and kinetic particle trapping effects. The resulting solitary waves also coexist with a finite current and an electron plasma wave capable of perturbing the trapping potential. The results of multiscale simulation are analyzed and characterized following the kinetic prescription of undamped trapped particle mode in the form of phase space vortex solutions that are generalized form of Sagdeev's solitons and obey the solutions of a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, accounting for a stronger nonlinearity originating from the electron trapping.

  19. Simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic and fermionic chromium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chicireanu, R.; Pouderous, A.; Barbe, R.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.; Marechal, E.; Vernac, L.; Keller, J.-C.; Gorceix, O.

    2006-05-15

    We report on magneto-optical trapping of fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. A Zeeman-slowed atomic beam provides loading rates up to 3x10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. We present systematic characterization of the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We obtain up to 5x10{sup 5} atoms in the steady-state MOT. The atoms radiatively decay from the excited P state into metastable D states, and, due to the large dipolar magnetic moment of chromium atoms in these states, they can remain magnetically trapped in the quadrupole field gradient of the MOT. We study the accumulation of metastable {sup 53}Cr atoms in this magnetic trap. We also report on the simultaneous magneto-optical trapping of bosonic {sup 52}Cr and fermionic {sup 53}Cr atoms. Finally, we characterize the light-assisted collision losses in this Bose-Fermi cold mixture.

  20. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2012-01-01

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  1. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Goodman; I. Sivarajah; J. E. Wells; F. A. Narducci; W. W. Smith

    2012-08-31

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  2. Dirac-Born-Infeld Field Trapped in the Braneworld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Garcia-Salcedo; Dania Gonzalez; Tame Gonzalez; Claudia Moreno; Israel Quiros

    2010-12-22

    We apply the dynamical systems tools to study the (linear) cosmic dynamics of a Dirac-Born-Infeld-type field trapped in the braneworld. We focus,exclusively, in Randall-Sundrum and in Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati brane models. We analyze the existence and stability of asymptotic solutions for the AdS throat and the quadratic potential and a particular choice of the warp factor and of the potential for the DBI field ($f(\\phi)=1/V(\\phi)$). It is demonstrated, in particular, that in the ultra-relativistic approximation matter-scaling and scalar field-dominated solutions always arise. In the first scenario the empty universe is the past attractor, while in the second model the past attractor is the matter-dominated phase.

  3. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Novosselov, Igor V.; Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans; Sorensen, Christopher M.; Stipe, Christopher B.

    2014-06-16

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  4. Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

    2011-10-14

    This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

  5. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  6. Loopless non-trapping invasion percolation model for fracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large quantities of natural gas and oil from old, low permeability shales. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. The injected fluid introduces distributed damage that provides fracture permeability for the extraction of the gas and oil. In order to model this process, we utilize a loopless non-trapping invasion percolation previously introduced to model optimal polymers in a strongly disordered medium, and for determining minimum energy spanning trees on a lattice. We performed numerical simulations on a 2D square lattice and find significant differences from other percolation models. Additionally, we find that the growing fracture network satisfies both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. As with other invasion percolation models, our model displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly into a connected region. W...

  7. Gyrotactic trapping in laminar and turbulent Kolmogorov flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Santamaria; Filippo De Lillo; Massimo Cencini; Guido Boffetta

    2014-10-07

    Phytoplankton patchiness, namely the heterogeneous distribution of microalgae over multiple spatial scales, dramatically impacts marine ecology. A spectacular example of such heterogeneity occurs in thin phytoplankton layers (TPLs), where large numbers of photosynthetic microorganisms are found within a small depth interval. Some species of motile phytoplankton can form TPLs by gyrotactic trapping due to the interplay of their particular swimming style (directed motion biased against gravity) and the transport by a flow with shear along the direction of gravity. Here we consider gyrotactic swimmers in numerical simulations of the Kolmogorov shear flow, both in laminar and turbulent regimes. In the laminar case, we show that the swimmer motion is integrable and the formation of TPLs can be fully characterized by means of dynamical systems tools. We then study the effects of rotational Brownian motion or turbulent fluctuations (appearing when the Reynolds number is large enough) on TPLs. In both cases we show that TPLs become transient, and we characterize their persistence.

  8. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  9. Graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianfa; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in optoelectronic devices and has been intensively studied for solar cells and photodetectors. Graphene has recently emerged as a powerful plasmonic material. It shows significantly less losses compared to traditional plasmonic materials such as gold and silver and its plasmons can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy with chemical or electrical doping. Here we propose the usage of graphene plasmonics for light trapping in optoelectronic devices and show that the excitation of localized plasmons in doped, nanostructured graphene can enhance optical absorption in its surrounding media including both bulky and two-dimensional materials by tens of times, which may lead to a new generation of highly efficient, spectrally selective photodetectors in mid-infrared and THz ranges. The proposed concept could even revolutionize the field of plasmonic solar cells if graphene plasmons in the visible and near-infrared are realized.

  10. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  11. Entropic Trapping of Particles at Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galen T. Pickett

    2015-05-22

    I consider the possibility that Gaussian random walk statistics are sufficient to trap nanoscopic additives at either a polymer interface or surface. When an additive particle goes to the free surface, two portions of the polymer surface energy behave quite differently. The purely enthalpic contribution increases the overall free energy when the additive protrudes above the level of the polymer matrix. The entropic part of the surface energy arising from constraints that segments near a surface can't cross it, is partly relaxed when the additive moves to the free surface. These two portions of the polymer surface energy determine the equilibrium wetting angle formed between the additive and the polymer matrix, the measurement of which in an experiment would allow an independent determination of each piece of the polymer surface energy.

  12. Computational Modeling of Blood Flow in the TrapEase Inferior Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M A; Henshaw, W D; Wang, S L

    2008-02-04

    To evaluate the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase vena cava filter using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics, including simulated thrombi of multiple shapes, sizes, and trapping positions. The study was performed to identify potential areas of recirculation and stagnation and areas in which trapped thrombi may influence intrafilter thrombosis. Computer models of the TrapEase filter, thrombi (volumes ranging from 0.25mL to 2mL, 3 different shapes), and a 23mm diameter cava were constructed. The hemodynamics of steady-state flow at Reynolds number 600 was examined for the unoccluded and partially occluded filter. Axial velocity contours and wall shear stresses were computed. Flow in the unoccluded TrapEase filter experienced minimal disruption, except near the superior and inferior tips where low velocity flow was observed. For spherical thrombi in the superior trapping position, stagnant and recirculating flow was observed downstream of the thrombus; the volume of stagnant flow and the peak wall shear stress increased monotonically with thrombus volume. For inferiorly trapped spherical thrombi, marked disruption to the flow was observed along the cava wall ipsilateral to the thrombus and in the interior of the filter. Spherically shaped thrombus produced a lower peak wall shear stress than conically shaped thrombus and a larger peak stress than ellipsoidal thrombus. We have designed and constructed a computer model of the flow hemodynamics of the TrapEase IVC filter with varying shapes, sizes, and positions of thrombi. The computer model offers several advantages over in vitro techniques including: improved resolution, ease of evaluating different thrombus sizes and shapes, and easy adaptation for new filter designs and flow parameters. Results from the model also support a previously reported finding from photochromic experiments that suggest the inferior trapping position of the TrapEase IVC filter leads to an intra-filter region of recirculating/stagnant flow with very low shear stress that may be thrombogenic.

  13. Modification of the Carbon and Beryllium Walls in JET by Erosion, Redeposition and Deuterium Trapping after the 1991 Discharge Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification of the Carbon and Beryllium Walls in JET by Erosion, Redeposition and Deuterium Trapping after the 1991 Discharge Period

  14. Comparison between JET Profile Data and the Predictions of a Transport Model Based on ITG and Trapped Electron Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison between JET Profile Data and the Predictions of a Transport Model Based on ITG and Trapped Electron Modes

  15. Bi-Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Phok, Sovannary; Parilla, Philip Anthony

    2013-08-20

    A Bi--Se doped with Cu, p-type semiconductor, preferably used as an absorber material in a photovoltaic device. Preferably the semiconductor has at least 20 molar percent Cu. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor comprises at least 28 molar percent of Cu. In one embodiment, the semiconductor comprises a molar percentage of Cu and Bi whereby the molar percentage of Cu divided by the molar percentage of Bi is greater than 1.2. In a preferred embodiment, the semiconductor is manufactured as a thin film having a thickness less than 600 nm.

  16. Sunshine Lighting: Order (2014-SE-54008) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutory Authority forPerk | DepartmentOrder (2014-SE-54008)

  17. Victory: Order (2015-SE-42033) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryinEnable LowNewsEnergyOrder (2015-SE-42033) Victory:

  18. Victory: Proposed Penalty (2015-SE-42033) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryinEnable LowNewsEnergyOrder (2015-SE-42033)

  19. Trap assisted creation of giant molecules and Rydberg-mediated coherent charge transfer in a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesanovsky, I; Zoller, P

    2008-01-01

    We study two ions confined in a Penning trap. We show that electronically highly excited states exist in which an electron is delocalized among the two ions forming a giant molecule of several micrometer size. At energies close to the top of the Coulomb barrier these molecular states can be regarded as superpositions of Rydberg states of individual ions. We illuminate the possibility to observe coherent charge transfer between the ions. Beyond a critical principal quantum number the electron can coherently tunnel through the Coulomb barrier to an adjacent doubly charged ion. The tunneling occurs on timescales on which the dynamics of the nuclei can be considered frozen and radiative decay can be neglected.

  20. Trap assisted creation of giant molecules and Rydberg-mediated coherent charge transfer in a Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Lesanovsky; M. Mueller; P. Zoller

    2008-09-18

    We study two ions confined in a Penning trap. We show that electronically highly excited states exist in which an electron is delocalized among the two ions forming a giant molecule of several micrometer size. At energies close to the top of the Coulomb barrier these molecular states can be regarded as superpositions of Rydberg states of individual ions. We illuminate the possibility to observe coherent charge transfer between the ions. Beyond a critical principal quantum number the electron can coherently tunnel through the Coulomb barrier to an adjacent doubly charged ion. The tunneling occurs on timescales on which the dynamics of the nuclei can be considered frozen and radiative decay can be neglected.

  1. Sympathetic cooling of trapped Cd B. B. Blinov,* L. Deslauriers, P. Lee, M. J. Madsen, R. Miller, and C. Monroe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped Cd¿ isotopes B. B. Blinov,* L. Deslauriers, P. Lee, M. J. Madsen, R 48109-1120 Received 6 December 2001; published 10 April 2002 We sympathetically cool a trapped 112 Cd ion by directly Doppler cooling a 114 Cd ion in the same trap. This is the first demonstration

  2. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY 2001 233 Interface Traps at High Doping Drain Extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Li Ming

    to induce the thermal-trap-tunneling process of electron transition from the conduction band to the valence the conduction band, and the arrow NT indicates the net process of electron tunneling from traps to the valenceIEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 5, MAY 2001 233 Interface Traps at High Doping Drain

  3. 846 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 Simulation of Oxide Trapping Noise in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    846 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 50, NO. 3, MARCH 2003 Simulation of Oxide Trapping--Carrier trapping via tunneling into the gate oxide was implemented into a partial differential equation -based are calculated using the carrier tunneling rates between trap centers in the oxide and those at the interface

  4. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # SangHyuk Lee, Yael Roichman, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # Sang­Hyuk Lee, Yael Roichman 10003 (Dated: July 18, 2005) Holographic optical traps use the forces exerted by computer methods for optimizing holographic optical traps' e#ciency and accuracy, and an optimal statistical

  5. Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, NY 10003 (Dated: December 25, 2011) We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on optical traps holographic optical tweezers. The traps' lateral stiffness turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts

  6. Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, NY 10003 (Dated: November 12, 2005) We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on optical traps holographic optical tweezers. The traps' lateral stiffness turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts

  7. Insensitivity of the rate of ion motional heating to trap-electrode material over a large temperature range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiaverini, John

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single ...

  8. Simulations of the rf heating rates in a linear quadrupole ion trap Vladimir L. Ryjkov,* XianZhen Zhao,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuessler, Hans

    Simulations of the rf heating rates in a linear quadrupole ion trap Vladimir L. Ryjkov,* Xian, trapping voltage, and the number of ions is studied. The dependence of rf heating rate on temperature shows. The rf heating rate is shown to increase very sharply with the amplitude of the trapping voltage

  9. 1.0 Espa,cos de Banach de se,c"oes de um fibrado vetorial. Definiremos nesta se,c"ao v'arios espa,cos vetoriais de se,c"oes de um fibr*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tausk, Daniel Victor

    1.0 Espa,cos de Banach de se,c"oes de um fibrado vetorial. Definiremos nesta se,c"ao v'arios espa,cos vetoriais de se,c"oes de um fibr* *ado vetorial sobre uma variedade compacta (possivelmente com bordo). Definiremos normas nestes esp* *a,cos mediante as quais eles se tornar"ao espa,cos de

  10. Porous materials with pre-designed single-molecule traps for CO2 selective adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, JR; Yu, JM; Lu, WG; Sun, LB; Sculley, J; Balbuena, PB; Zhou, HC

    2013-02-26

    Despite tremendous efforts, precise control in the synthesis of porous materials with pre-designed pore properties for desired applications remains challenging. Newly emerged porous metal-organic materials, such as metal-organic polyhedra and metal-organic frameworks, are amenable to design and property tuning, enabling precise control of functionality by accurate design of structures at the molecular level. Here we propose and validate, both experimentally and computationally, a precisely designed cavity, termed a 'single-molecule trap', with the desired size and properties suitable for trapping target CO2 molecules. Such a single-molecule trap can strengthen CO2-host interactions without evoking chemical bonding, thus showing potential for CO2 capture. Molecular single-molecule traps in the form of metal-organic polyhedra are designed, synthesised and tested for selective adsorption of CO2 over N-2 and CH4, demonstrating the trapping effect. Building these pre-designed single-molecule traps into extended frameworks yields metal-organic frameworks with efficient mass transfer, whereas the CO2 selective adsorption nature of single-molecule traps is preserved.

  11. Mean first passage time for a small rotating trap inside a reflective disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin C. Tzou; Theodore Kolokolnikov

    2014-11-16

    We compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) for a Brownian particle inside a two-dimensional disk with reflective boundaries and a small interior trap that is rotating at a constant angular velocity. The inherent symmetry of the problem allows for a detailed analytic study of the situation. For a given angular velocity, we determine the optimal radius of rotation that minimizes the average MFPT over the disk. Several distinct regimes are observed, depending on the ratio between the angular velocity $\\omega$ and the trap size $\\varepsilon$, and several intricate transitions are analyzed using the tools of asymptotic analysis and Fourier series. For $\\omega \\sim \\mathcal{O}(1)$, we compute a critical value $\\omega_c>0$ such that the optimal trap location is at the origin whenever $\\omega \\omega_c $. In the regime $1 \\ll \\omega \\ll \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path approaches the boundary of the disk. However as $\\omega$ is further increased to $\\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$, the optimal trap path "jumps" closer to the origin. Finally for $\\omega \\gg \\mathcal{O}(\\varepsilon^{-1})$ the optimal trap path subdivides the disk into two regions of equal area. This simple geometry provides a good test case for future studies of MFPT with more complex trap motion.

  12. Unconformity related traps and production, Lower Cretaceous through Mississippian Strata, central and northern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolson, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Unconformities provide a useful means of equating stratigraphic traps between basins. Systematic mapping can define new concepts through analogy, often from geographically separate areas. Lower Cretaceous through Mississippian surfaces in the central and northern Rockies provide examples. Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian surfaces formed at least four paleodrainage basins separated by the Transcontinental arch. Tyler Formation valley fills (Montana, North Dakota) have produced more than 100 million BOE. Analogous targets in Utah remain untested, but the Mid-Continent Morrow trend continues to yield new reserves. Permian and Triassic paleodrainages filled primarily with seals and form regional traps. A breached Madison trap (Mississippian, Colorado), more than 350 million BOE (Permian Minnelusa, Wyoming), more than 8 billion BOE (from the White Rim Sandstone tar deposits Permian Utah), and eastern Williston basin (Mississippian) are examples. Minor basal valley fill trapping also occurs. Transgressive carbonate facies changes have trapped more than 40 million BOE (Permian Phosphoria Formation, Wyoming). Additional deep gas potential exists. Jurassic unconformities control seal distribution over Nugget Sandstone (Jurassic) reservoirs and partially control Mississippian porosity on the Sweetgrass arch (Montana). Minor paleohill trapping also occurs. Lower Cretaceous surfaces have trapped nearly 2 billion BOE hydrocarbons in 10 paleodrainage networks. Undrilled paleodrainage basins remain deep gas targets. The systematic examination of Rocky Mountain unconformities has been understudied. New exploration concepts and reserve additions await the creative interpreter.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amine Jaouadi; Naceur Gaaloul; Bruno Viaris De Lesegno; Mourad Telmini; Laurence Pruvost; Eric Charron

    2010-09-10

    We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order $\\ell$ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasi-homogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a "finger" or of a "hockey puck" in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  14. Trapped-ion quantum logic gates based on oscillating magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Ospelkaus; C. E. Langer; J. M. Amini; K. R. Brown; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland

    2008-05-14

    Oscillating magnetic fields and field gradients can be used to implement single-qubit rotations and entangling multi-qubit quantum gates for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP). With fields generated by currents in microfabricated surface-electrode traps, it should be possible to achieve gate speeds that are comparable to those of optically induced gates for realistic distances between the ion crystal and the electrode surface. Magnetic-field-mediated gates have the potential to significantly reduce the overhead in laser beam control and motional state initialization compared to current QIP experiments with trapped ions and will eliminate spontaneous scattering, a fundamental source of decoherence in laser-mediated gates.

  15. Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brizard, Alain J

    2014-01-01

    The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates $(p_{\\|},s)$ to the action-angle coordinates $(J,\\zeta)$ for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped-particles in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.

  16. Generation and decay of entanglement in exciton/polariton trapped systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiroga, L.; Tejedor, C.

    2011-12-23

    The entanglement evolution of interacting trapped solid-state bosons, i.e. excitons or polaritons, is theoretically studied. From an initially separable state the quasi-particle interactions generate boson entanglement which is degraded as dissipation takes place. Based on exact solutions of a Markovian Master equation at T = 0 K, we discuss how dissipation affects the quantum entanglement dynamics of coupled solid-state boson systems. The single trap Wigner function is also calculated and its relationship to the trapped boson entanglement is discussed.

  17. Light Trapping for Thin Silicon Solar Cells by Femtosecond Laser Texturing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B. G.; Lin, Y. T.; Sher, M. J.; Mazur, E.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Femtosecond laser texturing is used to create nano- to micron-scale surface roughness that strongly enhances light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells. Light trapping is crucial for thin solar cells where a single light-pass through the absorber is insufficient to capture the weakly absorbed red and near-infrared photons, especially with an indirect-gap semiconductor absorber layer such as crystalline Si which is less than 20 um thick. We achieve enhancement of the optical absorption from light-trapping that approaches the Yablonovitch limit.

  18. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  19. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  20. Radial transport of energetic ions in the presence of trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Wang, W.; Ethier, S.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-11-15

    The nature of transport of hot ions is studied in the presence of microturbulence generated by the trapped electron mode in a Tokamak using massively parallel, first principle based global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation, and with the help of a passive tracer method. Passing and trapped hot ions are observed to exhibit inverse and inverse square scaling with energy, while those with isotropic pitch distribution are found to exhibit inverse dependence on energy. For all types of hot ions, namely, isotropic, passing, and trapped, the radial transport appears to be subdiffusive for the parameters considered.

  1. Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

    2005-02-17

    cooling method for the studies of large ultra-cold molecular ions in a quadrupole ion trap has been conducted. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the rf heating mecha- nisms in the ion trap. The dependence of rf heating rates on the ion... temperature, trapping parameters, and the number of ions is obtained. New rf heating mechanism affecting ultra-cold ion clouds exposed to laser radiation is described. The saturation spectroscopy setup of the hyperfine spectra of the molecular io- dine has...

  2. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  3. Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Duthoit, François-Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates (s,p{sub ||}) to the action-angle coordinates (?, J) for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped/passing-particle guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.

  4. Wavelength-Scale Imaging of Trapped Ions using a Phase Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Jechow; E. W. Streed; B. G. Norton; M. J. Petrasiunas; D. Kielpinski

    2011-01-24

    A microfabricated phase Fresnel lens was used to image ytterbium ions trapped in a radio frequency Paul trap. The ions were laser cooled close to the Doppler limit on the 369.5 nm transition, reducing the ion motion so that each ion formed a near point source. By detecting the ion fluorescence on the same transition, near diffraction limited imaging with spot sizes of below 440 nm (FWHM) was achieved. This is the first demonstration of imaging trapped ions with a resolution on the order of the transition wavelength.

  5. Geometric Tracking Control of a Quadrotor UAV on SE(3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taeyoung; McClamroch, N Harris

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new results for the tracking control of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The UAV has four input degrees of freedom, namely the magnitudes of the four rotor thrusts, that are used to control the six translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and to achieve asymptotic tracking of four outputs, namely, three position variables for the vehicle center of mass and the direction of one vehicle body-fixed axis. A globally defined model of the quadrotor UAV rigid body dynamics is introduced as a basis for the analysis. A nonlinear tracking controller is developed on the special Euclidean group SE(3) and it is shown to have desirable closed loop properties that are almost global. Several numerical examples, including an example in which the quadrotor recovers from being initially upside down, illustrate the versatility of the controller.

  6. Fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xi Tao; Hua Ni, Zhen, E-mail: zhni@seu.edu.cn; Yan Nan, Hai; Hui Wang, Wen [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)] [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of MEMS of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Yan Liao, Chun [Physics Department, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials and Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China)] [Physics Department, National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials and Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Zhang, Yan; Wei Zhao, Wei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Fabrication of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Fabrication of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2013-11-11

    We studied systematically the fluorescence quenching of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on graphene and its multilayers, as well as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Raman intensity of QDs was used as a quantitatively measurement of its concentration in order to achieve a reliable quenching factor (QF). It was found that the QF of graphene (?13.1) and its multilayers is much larger than rGO (?4.4), while GO (?1.5) has the lowest quenching efficiency, which suggests that the graphitic structure is an important factor for quenching the fluorescence of QDs. It was also revealed that the QF of graphene is not strongly dependent on its thicknesses.

  7. Simple method for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium using a single beam optical dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Adonis Silva; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple scheme to reach Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of metastable triplet helium atoms using a single beam optical dipole trap with moderate power of less than 3 W. Our scheme is based on RF-induced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole magnetic trap and transfer to a single beam optical dipole trap that is located below the magnetic trap center. We transfer 1x10^6 atoms into the optical dipole trap, with an initial temperature of 14 \\mu K, and observe efficient forced evaporative cooling both in a hybrid trap, in which the quadrupole magnetic trap operates just below the levitation gradient, and in the pure optical dipole trap, reaching the onset of BEC with 2x10^5 atoms and a pure BEC of 5x10^4 atoms. Our work shows that a single beam hybrid trap can be applied for a light atom, for which evaporative cooling in the quadrupole magnetic trap is strongly limited by Majorana spin-flips, and the very small levitation gradient limits the axial confinement in the hybrid trap.

  8. Simple method for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium using a single beam optical dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adonis Silva Flores; Hari Prasad Mishra; Wim Vassen; Steven Knoop

    2015-10-06

    We demonstrate a simple scheme to reach Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of metastable triplet helium atoms using a single beam optical dipole trap with moderate power of less than 3 W. Our scheme is based on RF-induced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole magnetic trap and transfer to a single beam optical dipole trap that is located below the magnetic trap center. We transfer 1x10^6 atoms into the optical dipole trap, with an initial temperature of 14 \\mu K, and observe efficient forced evaporative cooling both in a hybrid trap, in which the quadrupole magnetic trap operates just below the levitation gradient, and in the pure optical dipole trap, reaching the onset of BEC with 2x10^5 atoms and a pure BEC of 5x10^4 atoms. Our work shows that a single beam hybrid trap can be applied for a light atom, for which evaporative cooling in the quadrupole magnetic trap is strongly limited by Majorana spin-flips, and the very small levitation gradient limits the axial confinement in the hybrid trap.

  9. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  10. Eolian paleotopographic highs as stratigraphic traps: origin and distinction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eschner, T.B.; Kocurek, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations occur where eolian paleotopographic highs are preserved beneath transgressive marine deposits. Paleotopographic highs can represent erosional remnants of an unconformity, or partly preserved eolian dunes, or combinations of both. Paleotopography reflects the extent of modification undergone by eolian units prior to or during transgression. Modification varies between extremes of (1) destruction - where eolian deposits are deeply eroded and the former dunal profile is lost, and (2) preservation - where dunes and interdune areas are preserved nearly intact. The extent of modification that occurs during transgression is controlled primarily by (1) the energy of the transgressing sea, (2) the speed of transgression, and (3) the abundance of sand-stabilizing early cements or plants. High-energy seas destroy dunes through persistent erosion by tides and waves and by initiating dune collapse and mass flowage of dune sands. Preservation occurs where quiescent seas flood interdune areas and create shallow to periodically emergent marine environments, such as interdune sabkhas or tidal flats. Gradual filling of interdune areas with shallow marine sediments can fortify and preserve adjacent dunes. These varied processes that interact between marine and eolian environments to create different types of topography are exemplified in ancient eolian-marine sequences of the Western Interior of North America, and preserved Holocene dunes of coastal Australia. Different types of eolian highs can be recognized by analysis of bounding surfaces in outcrop or core. An understanding of eolian-marine processes and environments that create topography allows for prediction of areas of potential stratigraphic traps.

  11. Fast quantum algorithm for EC3 problem with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hefeng Wang; Lian-Ao Wu

    2014-12-09

    Adiabatic quantum computing~(AQC) is based on the adiabatic principle, where a quantum system remains in an instantaneous eigenstate of the driving Hamiltonian. The final state of the Hamiltonian encodes solution to the problem of interest. While AQC has distinct advantages, recent researches have shown that quantumness such as quantum coherence in adiabatic processes may be lost entirely due to the system-bath interaction when the evolution time is long, and consequently the expected quantum speedup dose not show up. Here we propose a fast-signal assisted adiabatic quantum algorithm. We find that by applying a sequence of fast random or regular signals during the evolution process, the runtime can be reduced greatly, yet advantages of the adiabatic algorithm remain intact. Significantly, we present a \\emph{randomized} Trotter formula and show that the driving Hamiltonian and the sequence of fast signals can be implemented simultaneously. We apply the algorithm for solving the $3$-bit exact cover problem~(EC$3$) and put forward an approach for implementing the problem with trapped ions.

  12. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  13. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  14. Testing quantum physics in space using optically trapped nanospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer Kaltenbaek

    2013-07-26

    Recent developments in space technology like micro-propulsion systems for drag-free control, thermal shielding, ultra-stable laser sources and stable optical cavities set an ideal platform for quantum optomechanical experiments with optically trapped dielectric spheres. Here, we will provide an overview of the results of recent studies aiming at the realization of the space mission MAQRO to test the foundations of quantum physics in a parameter regime orders of magnitude beyond existing experiments. In particular, we will discuss DECIDE, which is an experiment to prepare and then study a Schr\\"odinger-cat-type state, where a dielectric nanosphere of around 100nm radius is prepared in a superposition of being in two clearly distinct positions at the same time. This superposition leads to double-slit-type interference, and the visibility of the interference pattern will be compared to the predictions of quantum theory. This approach allows for testing for possible deviations from quantum theory as our test objects approach macroscopic dimensions. With DECIDE, it will be possible to distinctly test several prominent theoretical models that predict such deviations, for example: the Di\\'osi-Pensrose model, the continuous-spontaneous-localization model of Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle, and the model of K\\'arolyh\\'azy.

  15. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannes Roßnagel; Karl Nicolas Tolazzi; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2015-04-09

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion crystals.

  16. An evaluation of inductance loop detector lead length and optimal speed trap distance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamm, Robert Alan

    1994-01-01

    component of freeway management systems is the inductance loop detector. This research effort evaluated the use of inductance loop detectors in a freeway management situation to determine maximum permissible lead lengths and an optimal speed trap distance...

  17. High-Q superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators for integration into molecule ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaughan, Adam Nykoruk

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, quantum information experiments with trapped ions have demonstrated essential steps towards quantum computing and quantum simulation. Large fields are required to achieve strong coupling to the ions ...

  18. Ohmic and step noise from a single trapping center hybridized with a Fermi sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogerio de Sousa; K. Birgitta Whaley; Frank K. Wilhelm; Jan von Delft

    2005-10-27

    We show that single electron tunneling devices such as the Cooper-pair box or double quantum dot can be sensitive to the zero-point fluctuation of a single trapping center hybridized with a Fermi sea. If the trap energy level is close to the Fermi sea and has line-width \\gamma > k_B T, its noise spectrum has an Ohmic Johnson-Nyquist form, whereas for \\gamma < k_B T the noise has a Lorentzian form expected from the semiclassical limit. Trap levels above the Fermi level are shown to lead to steps in the noise spectrum that can be used to probe their energetics, allowing the identification of individual trapping centers coupled to the device.

  19. Decoherence and Quantum Interference assisted electron trapping in a quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed El Halawany; Michael N. Leuenberger

    2013-08-08

    We present a theoretical model for the dynamics of an electron that gets trapped by means of decoherence and quantum interference in the central quantum dot (QD) of a semiconductor nanoring (NR) made of five QDs, between 100 K and 300 K. The electron's dynamics is described by a master equation with a Hamiltonian based on the tight-binding model, taking into account electron-LO phonon interaction (ELOPI). Based on this configuration, the probability to trap an electron with no decoherence is almost 27%. In contrast, the probability to trap an electron with decoherence is 70% at 100 K, 63% at 200 K and 58% at 300 K. Our model provides a novel method of trapping an electron at room temperature.

  20. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 103106 (2012) Practical axial optical trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 103106 (2012) Practical axial optical trapping A. H. Mack,1- fer a number of practical advantages: first, a range of meth- ods is available to tether large numbers

  1. Origins of hole traps in hydrogenated nanocrystalline and amorphous silicon revealed through machine learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Tim

    Genetic programming is used to identify the structural features most strongly associated with hole traps in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon with very low crystalline volume fraction. The genetic programming algorithm ...

  2. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Motte, D; Rehák, M; Blanco, A Rodriguez; Lekitsch, B; Giri, G S; Neilinger, P; Oelsner, G; Il'ichev, E; Grajcar, M; Hensinger, W K

    2015-01-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system; a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. [1] we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping setup into a dilution fridge with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  3. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. De Motte; A. R. Grounds; M. Rehák; A. Rodriguez Blanco; B. Lekitsch; G. S. Giri; P. Neilinger; G. Oelsner; E. Il'ichev; M. Grajcar; W. K. Hensinger

    2015-10-25

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system; a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. [1] we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping setup into a dilution fridge with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  4. Cracks in Martensite Plates as Hydrogen Traps in a Bearing Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Song, Eun Ju; Han, Do Kyeong; Suh, Dong-Woo; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-12-03

    It is demonstrated that a macroscopically homogeneous distribution of tiny cracks introduced into a martensitic bearing steel sample can provide powerful hydrogen traps. The phenomenon has been investigated through thermal desorption spectroscopy...

  5. Connecting Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless and BEC Phase Transitions by Tuning Interactions in a Trapped Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Richard J.; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, Martin; Man, Jay; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P.; Viebahn, Konrad G.?H.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2015-05-26

    We study the critical point for the emergence of coherence in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional Bose gas with tunable interactions. Over a wide range of interaction strengths we find excellent agreement with the classical-field predictions...

  6. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craver, Helen C.

    2009-05-15

    Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise p...

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Semiconductor Ion Traps for Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    the cleanroom to fabricate ion traps in collaboration with Keith Schwab. His frequent fabrication advice memories of my time spent at LPS not just from the draining but strangely satisfying cleanroom work

  8. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  9. Engineering optical traps for new environments and applications in the measurement of biological adhesives and motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appleyard, David Collins

    2009-01-01

    Optical traps have played a central role in the exploration of biological systems through the examination of molecular motors, biopolymers, and many other interactions at the nano and micro length scales. This thesis seeks ...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON TRAPPING A GUN PLASMA IN TORMAC P-l

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincosy, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    P.A. Pincosy, A Toroidal Plasma Gun, 11 LBL-9507, (1979),RESULTS ON TRAPPING A GUN PLASMA IN TORMAC P-~1* P. A.further work on the higher gun p13sma energy may lead to

  11. Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup

    2013-09-15

    We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

  12. Quantum Reactive Scattering of Ultracold NHX 3 Radicals in a Magnetic Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are strongly suppressed in a (magnetically trapped) spin- polarized gas [20] with the dynamics evolving on a single nonreactive potential. To our knowledge, this assumption has not yet been validated by explicit

  13. Beyond the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation: Ground State and Low Energy Excitations for Trapped Bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Polls; A. Fabrocini

    2000-11-09

    The results of a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a system of Bose hard spheres trapped in a spherical harmonic potential are analyzed to study the validity regime of the standard GP equation.

  14. High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon, T.; Guerandel, S.; Clercq, E. de; Holleville, D.; Dimarcq, N.; Clairon, A. [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2005-05-20

    We report the observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes using a double lambda scheme creating coherent population trapping in an atomic ensemble combined with pulsed optical radiations. The observation was made in a Cs vapor mixed with N{sub 2} buffer gas in a closed cell. The double lambda scheme is created with lin perpendicular lin polarized laser beams leading to higher contrast than the usual simple lambda scheme. The pulsed trapping technique leads to narrow fringe widths scaling as 1/(2T) with high contrasts which are no longer limited by the saturation effect. This technique operates in a different way from the classical Ramsey sequence: the signal is done by applying a long trapping pulse to prepare the atomic state superposition, and fringe detection is accomplished by optical transmission during a short second trapping pulse without any perturbation of the dark state.

  15. Generation and Trapping of Gravity Waves from Convection with Comparison to Parameterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, M. Joan

    Generation and Trapping of Gravity Waves from Convection with Comparison to Parameterization M (GCMs) add realism by describing wave generation by tropospheric convection. Because the convection in GCMs is itself a parameterized process, these convectively generated wave parameterizations necessarily

  16. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  17. Insensitivity of Ion Motional Heating Rate to Trap Material over a Large Temperature Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Chiaverini; J. M. Sage

    2013-10-30

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single apparatus. Using the sideband-ratio technique after resolved-sideband cooling of single ions to the motional ground state, we find low-temperature heating rates more than two orders of magnitude below the room-temperature values and approximately equal to the lowest measured heating rates in similarly-sized cryogenic traps. We find similar behavior in the two very different electrode materials, suggesting that the anomalous heating process is dominated by non-material-specific surface contaminants. Through precise control of the temperature of cryopumping surfaces, we also identify conditions under which elastic collisions with the background gas can lead to an apparent steady heating rate, despite rare collisions.

  18. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. D. Bruzewicz; J. M. Sage; J. Chiaverini

    2014-12-16

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  19. Ion trap transducers for quantum electromechanical oscillators W. K. Hensinger,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    Ion trap transducers for quantum electromechanical oscillators W. K. Hensinger,1 D. W. Utami,2 H A quantum electromechanical system QEMS is a device where the quantum nature of either the electronic or me

  20. Cessation of the 22–25 June 2006 Coastally Trapped Wind Reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahn, David A.; Parish, Thomas R.

    2010-07-01

    Coastally trapped wind reversals (CTWRs) occur periodically in the marine boundary layer off the western coast of the United States and dramatically change the low-level wind regime and coastal weather. Southerly flow becomes established...

  1. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  2. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  3. Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.

  4. A 674 nm external cavity diode laser for a ??Sr? ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thon, Susanna M. (Susanna Mitrani)

    2005-01-01

    Atomic ion traps are a promising candidate for scalable quantum information processing. In this thesis, a 674 nm extended cavity diode laser is built to address an optical quantum bit in ??Sr? with the goal of testing such ...

  5. Depletion, quantum jumps, and temperature measurements of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerme, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and construction of two laser systems to probe the 674nm transition of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul trap. The first laser system made use of a molecular transition in Iodine to stabilize the ...

  6. An optical-fiber interface to a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The trapped-ion quantum computer is an atom-based implementation of a quantum computer that has successfully demonstrated numerous quantum algorithms and the potential for scalability. Fundamental to its operation is the ...

  7. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  8. All-Optical BEC in a 1.06 micron dipole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. J. Arnold; M. D. Barrett

    2011-05-10

    We report the all-optical production of a Rb87 Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a simple 1.06 micron dipole trap experiment. We load a single beam dipole trap directly from a magneto-optic trap (MOT) using an optimized loading sequence. After evaporation in the single beam, a second crossed beam is used for compression. The intensity in both beams is then reduced for evaporation to BEC. We obtain a BEC with 3.5E4 atoms after 3 seconds of total evaporation time. We also give a detailed account of the thermal distribution in cross beam traps. This account highlights the possible difficulties in using shorter wavelength lasers to condense all optically.

  9. Quantification of trap densities at dielectric/III–V semiconductor interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stemmer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    III–V semiconductor interfaces Roman Engel-Herbert, a?model is used to determine interface trap densities ?D it ?2 / In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As interfaces with different D it and

  10. RESOLVENT ESTIMATES FOR NORMALLY HYPERBOLIC TRAPPED JARED WUNSCH AND MACIEJ ZWORSKI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Jared

    an example to keep in mind is given by P(z) = -h2 + V (x) - 1 - z , V C c (Rn ; R) , with the classical)) . The incoming and outgoing tails, ±, and the trapped set, K, are defined by ± = {(x, ) : M, |t (x, )| M. In Theorem 1 the trapped set is smooth and has the maximal dimension. We assume that the flow is r

  11. Generation of spin-motion entanglement in a trapped ion using long-wavelength radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Lake; S. Weidt; J. Randall; E. Standing; S. C. Webster; W. K. Hensinger

    2014-11-13

    Applying a magnetic field gradient to a trapped ion allows long-wavelength microwave radiation to produce a mechanical force on the ion's motion when internal transitions are driven. We demonstrate such a coupling using a single trapped \\Yb{171}~ion, and use it to produce entanglement between the spin and motional state, an essential step towards using such a field gradient to implement multi-qubit operations.

  12. I. Top 20 TA Traps 123 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 123 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 125 III.0.0 143 IX. Useful Information for TAs 147 #12;#12;Page 123 I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do

  13. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Retzker; M. B. Plenio

    2006-07-27

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in [Jonathan etal, PRA 62, 042307]. Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  14. Fast transitionless expansions of Gaussian anharmonic traps for cold atoms: bang-singular-bang control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Jing Lu; Xi Chen; J. Alonso; J. G. Muga

    2014-01-07

    Combining invariant-based inverse engineering, perturbation theory, and Optimal Control Theory, we design fast, transitionless expansions of cold neutral atoms or ions in Gaussian anharmonic traps. Bounding the possible trap frequencies and using a "bang-singular-bang" control we find fast processes for a continuum of durations up to a minimum time that corresponds to a purely bang-bang (stepwise frequency constant) control.

  15. Computation of the Field in an Axial Gap, Trapped-Flux Type Superconducting Electric Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zejun; Ainslie, Mark D.; Campbell, Archie M.; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-11-04

    Abstract—The Bulk Superconductivity Group at the University of Cambridge is currently investigating the use of high temper- ature superconductors in wire and bulk form to increase the electrical and magnetic loading of an axial gap, trapped flux... electric machines are an importantapplication of superconducting materials in both bulk and wire forms. Bulk high temperature superconductors, in partic- ular, are capable of trapping magnetic fields greater than 17 T below 30 K [1], [2], as well as up to 3...

  16. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S.; Blaum, K.; Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Hessberger, F. P.; Ramirez, E. Minaya; Nesterenko, D.; and others

    2013-03-19

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  17. Spatiotemporal Monte Carlo transport methods in x-ray semiconductor detectors: Application to pulse-height spectroscopy in a-Se

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang Yuan; Badal, Andreu; Allec, Nicholas; Karim, Karim S.; Badano, Aldo

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) method for the coupled transport of ionizing particles and charge carriers in amorphous selenium (a-Se) semiconductor x-ray detectors, and model the effect of statistical variations on the detected signal. Methods: A detailed transport code was developed for modeling the signal formation process in semiconductor x-ray detectors. The charge transport routines include three-dimensional spatial and temporal models of electron-hole pair transport taking into account recombination and trapping. Many electron-hole pairs are created simultaneously in bursts from energy deposition events. Carrier transport processes include drift due to external field and Coulombic interactions, and diffusion due to Brownian motion. Results: Pulse-height spectra (PHS) have been simulated with different transport conditions for a range of monoenergetic incident x-ray energies and mammography radiation beam qualities. Two methods for calculating Swank factors from simulated PHS are shown, one using the entire PHS distribution, and the other using the photopeak. The latter ignores contributions from Compton scattering and K-fluorescence. Comparisons differ by approximately 2% between experimental measurements and simulations. Conclusions: The a-Se x-ray detector PHS responses simulated in this work include three-dimensional spatial and temporal transport of electron-hole pairs. These PHS were used to calculate the Swank factor and compare it with experimental measurements. The Swank factor was shown to be a function of x-ray energy and applied electric field. Trapping and recombination models are all shown to affect the Swank factor.

  18. Extraction of Trap Depth in Flash Cell Having Arch-Active Structure Daewoong Kang, Seungwon Yang, Byung-Gook Park, Jong Duk Lee, and Hyungcheol Shin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    the trap depth in tunnel oxide of arch cell. # 2009 The Japan Society of Applied Physics DOI: 10.1143/APEX trap.1­7) Due to the capture and emission of an electron by an oxide trap, the drain current changes noise and this equation, the trap depth in the tunnel oxide of the arch cell was extracted for the first

  19. Noise and microresonance of critical current in Josephson junction induced by Kondo trap states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad H. Ansari; Frank K. Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    We analyze the impact of trap states in the oxide layer of a superconducting tunnel junctions, on the fluctuation of the Josephson critical current, thus on coherence in superconducting qubits. Two mechanisms are usually considered: the current blockage due to repulsion at the occupied trap states, and the noise from electrons hopping across a trap. We extend previous studies of noninteracting traps to the case where the traps have on-site electron repulsion inside one ballistic channel. The repulsion not only allows the appropriate temperature dependence of 1/f noise, but also is a control to the coupling between the computational qubit and the spurious two-level systems inside the oxide dielectric. We use second order perturbation theory which allows to obtain analytical formulae for the interacting bound states and spectral weights, limited to small and intermediate repulsions. Remarkably, it still reproduces the main features of the model as identified from the Numerical Renormalization Group. We present analytical formulations for the subgap bound state energies, the singlet-doublet phase boundary, and the spectral weights. We show that interactions can reverse the supercurrent across the trap. We finally work out the spectrum of junction resonators for qubits in the presence of on-site repulsive electrons and analyze its dependence on microscopic parameters that may be controlled by fabrication.

  20. Transport of ions in a segmented linear Paul trap in printed-circuit-board technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Huber; T. Deuschle; W. Schnitzler; R. Reichle; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2007-11-19

    We describe the construction and operation of a segmented linear Paul trap, fabricated in printed-circuit-board technology with an electrode segment width of 500 microns. We prove the applicability of this technology to reliable ion trapping and report the observation of Doppler cooled ion crystals of Ca-40 with this kind of traps. Measured trap frequencies agree with numerical simulations at the level of a few percent from which we infer a high fabrication accuracy of the segmented trap. To demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for trapped ion experiments we study the fast transport of a single ion. Our experimental results show a success rate of 99.0(1)% for a transport distance of 2x2mm in a round-trip time of T=20us, which corresponds to 4 axial oscillations only. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the excitation of oscillations caused by fast ion transports with error-function voltage ramps: For a slightly slower transport (a round-trip shuttle within T=30us) we observe non-adiabatic motional excitation of 0.89(15)meV.

  1. Location Of Hole And Electron Traps On Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercado, Candy C.; Knorr, Fritz J.; McHale, Jeanne L.; Usmani, Shirin M.; Ichimura, Andrew S.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-05-17

    The defect photoluminescence from TiO2 nanoparticles in the anatase phase is reported for nanosheets which expose predominantly (001) surfaces, and compared to that from conventional anatase nanoparticles which expose mostly (101) surfaces. Also reported is the weak defect photoluminescence of TiO2 nanotubes, which we find using electron back-scattered diffraction to consist of walls which expose (110) and (100) facets. The nanotubes exhibit photoluminescence that is blue-shifted and much weaker than that from conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. Despite the preponderance of (001) surfaces in the nanosheet samples, they exhibit photoluminescence similar to that of conventional nanoparticles. We assign the broad visible photoluminescence of anatase nanoparticles to two overlapping distributions: hole trap emission associated with oxygen vacancies on (101) exposed surfaces, which peaks in the green, and a broader emission extending into the red which results from electron traps on under-coordinated titanium atoms, which are prevalent on (001) facets. The results of this study suggest how morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles could be optimized to control the distribution and activity of surface traps. Our results also shed light on the mechanism by which the TiCl4 surface treatment heals traps on anatase and mixed-phase TiO2 films, and reveals distinct differences in the trap-state distributions of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes. The molecular basis for electron and hole traps and their spatial separation on different facets is discussed.

  2. Effect of dislocation trapping on deuterium diffusion in deformed, single-crystal Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuser, B.J.; King, J.S.

    1998-06-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to characterize deuterium trapping at dislocations in deformed, single-crystal Pd during in situ gas evolution experiments. Two methods of deformation were employed--cold rolling and hydride cycling--which create different dislocation arrangements or substructures in Pd. The reduction of the trapped deuterium concentration at dislocations during evolution was directly monitored with SANS. Exponential decay rates of the trapped concentration were observed for both sample types, as is expected in a bulk diffusion process modified by the dislocation trapping interaction. The deuterium concentration reduction proceeded 1.2 to 1.4 times faster in the cold-rolled sample material than in the cycled material. This is attributed to the presence of a smaller number of dislocation trapping sites in the cold-rolled material. The binding energy of deuterium at dislocations was determined by applying a diffusion-based model. A binding energy of 0.20 eV was found to characterize the trapping interaction in both cold-rolled and hydride-cycled Pd.

  3. Photoluminescence study of the substitution of Cd by Zn during the growth by atomic layer epitaxy of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernández-Calderón, I.; Salcedo-Reyes, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the substitution of Cd atoms by Zn atoms during the growth of alternate ZnSe and CdSe compound monolayers (ML) by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) as a function of substrate temperature. Samples contained two quantum wells (QWs), each one made of alternate CdSe and ZnSe monolayers with total thickness of 12 ML but different growth parameters. The QWs were studied by low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We show that the Cd content of underlying CdSe layers is affected by the exposure of the quantum well film to the Zn flux during the growth of ZnSe monolayers. The amount of Cd of the quantum well film decreases with higher exposures to the Zn flux. A brief discussion about the difficulties to grow the Zn{sub 0.5}Cd{sub 0.5}Se ordered alloy (CuAu-I type) by ALE is presented.

  4. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Crocker

    2010-03-31

    Lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs) represent a promising technology for the abatement of NO{sub x} under lean conditions. Although LNTs are starting to find commercial application, the issue of catalyst durability remains problematic. LNT susceptibility to sulfur poisoning is the single most important factor determining effective catalyst lifetime. The NO{sub x} storage element of the catalyst has a greater affinity for SO{sub 3} than it does for NO{sub 2}, and the resulting sulfate is more stable than the stored nitrate. Although this sulfate can be removed from the catalyst by means of high temperature treatment under rich conditions, the required conditions give rise to deactivation mechanisms such as precious metal sintering, total surface area loss, and solid state reactions between the various oxides present. The principle objective of this project was to improve understanding of the mechanisms of lean NO{sub x} trap aging, and to understand the effect of washcoat composition on catalyst aging characteristics. The approach utilized involved detailed characterization of model catalysts prior to and after aging, in tandem with measurement of catalyst performance in NO{sub x} storage and reduction. In this manner, NO{sub x} storage and reduction characteristics were correlated with the evolution of catalyst physico-chemical properties upon aging. Rather than using poorly characterized proprietary catalysts, or simple model catalysts of the Pt/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} type (representing the first generation of LNTs), Pt/Rh/BaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were employed which also incorporated CeO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, representing a model system which more accurately reflects current LNT formulations. Catalysts were prepared in which the concentration of each of the main components was systematically varied: Pt (50, 75 or 100 g/ft{sup 3}), Rh (10 or 20 g/ft{sup 3}), BaO (15, 30 or 45 g/L), and either CeO{sub 2} (0, 50 or 100 g/L) or CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} (0, 50 or 100 g/L). A high surface area La-stabilized alumina was used to support the BaO phase. Catalysts were obtained by washcoating onto standard cordierite substrates, the total washcoat loading being set at 260 g/L. La-stabilized alumina was used as the balance. Subsequent to de-greening, the NO{sub x} storage and reduction characteristics of the catalysts were evaluated on a bench reactor, after which the catalysts were aged on a bench reactor to the equivalent of ca. 75,000 miles of road aging using a published accelerated aging protocol. The aged catalysts were then subjected to the same evaluation proecdure used for the de-greened catalysts. In addition to the use of standard physico-chemical analytical techniques for studying the fresh and aged model catalysts, use was made of advanced analytical tools for characterizing their NO{sub x} storage/reduction and sulfation/desulfation characteristics, such as Spatially resolved capillary-inlet Mass Spectrometry (SpaciMS) and in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS).

  5. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  6. Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottinger, Nathan A; Toops, Todd J; Pihl, Josh A; Roop, Justin T; Choi, Jae-Soon; Partridge Jr, William P

    2012-01-01

    Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

  7. Crab trapping causes population decline and demographic changes in diamondback terrapins over two decades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorcas, M.E., J.D. Willson and J.W. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are thought to be declining throughout their range. Although many factors have been proposed to contribute to terrapin declines, including increased predation of nests and adults, habitat loss and degradation, road mortality, commercial harvest for food, and mortality as bycatch in crab traps, few studies have provided evidence linking these agents to population declines. Because male and small female terrapins are most susceptible to mortality in crab traps, population declines should coincide with shifts in the age and size distributions of the population and a shift to a more female-biased sex ratio. We used twenty-one years of mark-recapture data (>2800 captures of 1399 individuals) from a declining diamondback terrapin population in South Carolina to test the prediction that the decline is the result of mortality in crab traps. Since the 1980s, the modal size of both male and female terrapins has increased substantially and the proportion that are females is higher than in earlier samples. Additionally, the population now contains more old and fewer young individuals than before. The changes in demography and sex ratio we observed suggest that this terrapin population has declined as a result of selective mortality of smaller individuals in crab traps. The use of bycatch-reduction devices on crab traps may help prevent terrapins from entering the traps, but current models are too large to prevent mortality of males and many females in this population. Future research should focus on design and testing of effective bycatch-reduction devices for specific regions and other methods to prevent terrapin mortality in crab traps.

  8. STRUCTURAL AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SYNTHESIZED CuInSe2 NANOPARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    is one of the promising light absorbing materials for hetero-junction solar cells and is used as a photon absorber in thin-film solar cells [1]. The conversion efficiency of 19.9% has been reported by multisource for formation of CIS compounds. The device performance of CIGS is strongly dependent on both doping and traps

  9. Intersubband absorption in CdSe/Zn{sub x}Cd{sub y}Mg{sub 1-x-y}Se self-assembled quantum dot multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, A.; Lu, H.; Charles, W.; Yokomizo, I.; Tamargo, M. C.; Franz, K. J.; Gmachl, C.; Zhang, S. K.; Zhou, X.; Alfano, R. R.; Liu, H. C.

    2007-02-12

    The authors report the observation of intersubband absorption in multilayers of CdSe/Zn{sub x}Cd{sub y}Mg{sub 1-x-y}Se self-assembled quantum dots. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates. For samples with the CdSe dot layers doped with Cl and with the deposited CdSe equivalent layer thickness between 5.2 and 6.9 ML, peak absorption between 2.5 and 3.5 {mu}m was observed. These materials are promising for intersubband devices operating in the mid- and near-infrared ranges.

  10. Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-24

    A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

  11. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-10

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  12. Dislocation-related trap levels in nitride-based light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna

    2014-05-26

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was performed on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to determine the effect of the dislocation density on the deep intragap electronic levels. The LEDs were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN templates with a high dislocation density of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup ?2} and a low dislocation density of 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?2}. Three trapping levels for electrons were revealed, named A, A1, and B, with energies E{sub A}???0.04?eV, E{sub A1}???0.13?eV, and E{sub B}???0.54?eV, respectively. The trapping level A has a much higher concentration in the LEDs grown on the template with a high density of dislocations. The logarithmic dependence of the peak amplitude on the bias pulse width for traps A and A1 identifies the defects responsible for these traps as associated with linearly arranged defects. We conclude that traps A and A1 are dislocation-related intragap energy levels.

  13. Capture and isolation of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Samuel M; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    We recently used a compact Penning trap to capture and isolate highly-charged ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Isolated charge states of highly-stripped argon and neon ions with total charge $Q \\geq 10$, extracted at energies of up to $4\\times 10^3\\,Q$ eV, are captured in a trap with well depths of $\\,\\approx (4\\, {\\rm to}\\, 12)\\,Q$ eV. Here we discuss in detail the process to optimize velocity-tuning, capture, and storage of highly-charged ions in a unitary Penning trap designed to provide easy radial access for atomic or laser beams in charge exchange or spectroscopic experiments, such as those of interest for proposed studies of one-electron ions in Rydberg states or optical transitions of metastable states in multiply-charged ions. Under near-optimal conditions, ions captured and isolated in such rare-earth Penning traps can be characterized by an initial energy distribution that is $\\approx$ 60 times narrower than typically...

  14. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  15. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust.

  16. Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

  17. Secretary Chu to Lead Delegation to SE4All, CEM Conferences in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Lead Delegation to SE4All, CEM Conferences in London Secretary Chu to Lead Delegation to SE4All, CEM Conferences in London April 9, 2012 - 10:13am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Later...

  18. Cooling the motion of a trapped atom with a cavity field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Giovanna Morigi

    2012-11-07

    We theoretically analyze the cooling dynamics of an atom which is tightly trapped inside a high-finesse optical resonator. Cooling is achieved by suitably tailored scattering processes, in which the atomic dipole transition either scatters a cavity photon into the electromagnetic field external to the resonator, or performs a stimulated emission into the cavity mode, which then dissipates via the cavity mirrors. We identify the parameter regimes in which the atom center-of-mass motion can be cooled into the ground state of the external trap. We predict, in particular, that for high cooperativities interference effects mediated by the atomic transition may lead to higher efficiencies. The dynamics is compared with the cooling dynamics of a trapped atom inside a resonator studied in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143001, (2005)] where the atom, instead of the cavity, is driven by a laser field.

  19. Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salem, R; Chabé, J; Hadad, B; Keil, M; Milton, K A; Folman, R

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of magnetic traps for ultracold atoms based on current-carrying wires with sub-micron dimensions. We analyze the physical limitations of these conducting wires, as well as how such miniaturized magnetic traps are affected by the nearby surface due to tunneling to the surface, surface thermal noise, electron scattering within the wire, and the Casimir-Polder force. We show that wires with cross sections as small as a few tens of nanometers should enable robust operating conditions for coherent atom optics (e.g. tunneling barriers for interferometry). In particular, trap sizes on the order of the deBroglie wavelength become accessible, based solely on static magnetic fields, thereby bringing the atomchip a step closer to fulfilling its promise of a compact device for complex and accurate quantum optics with ultracold atoms.

  20. Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Salem; Y. Japha; J. Chabé; B. Hadad; M. Keil; K. A. Milton; R. Folman

    2009-10-14

    We present an analysis of magnetic traps for ultracold atoms based on current-carrying wires with sub-micron dimensions. We analyze the physical limitations of these conducting wires, as well as how such miniaturized magnetic traps are affected by the nearby surface due to tunneling to the surface, surface thermal noise, electron scattering within the wire, and the Casimir-Polder force. We show that wires with cross sections as small as a few tens of nanometers should enable robust operating conditions for coherent atom optics (e.g. tunneling barriers for interferometry). In particular, trap sizes on the order of the deBroglie wavelength become accessible, based solely on static magnetic fields, thereby bringing the atomchip a step closer to fulfilling its promise of a compact device for complex and accurate quantum optics with ultracold atoms.