National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for homogeneous charge compression

  1. Fuel effects in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelos, John P. (John Phillip)

    2009-01-01

    Homogenous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) combustion is a new method of burning fuel in internal combustion (IC) engines. In an HCCI engine, the fuel and air are premixed prior to combustion, like in a spark-ignition ...

  2. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  3. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  4. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition: Formulation Effect of a Diesel Fuel on the Initiation and the Combustion Potential of Olefin Impact in a Diesel Base Fuel D. Alseda1,2, X. Montagne1 and P. Dagaut2 1 -- Combustion en mode HCCI : impact de la formulation d'un carburant Diesel sur l'initiation et la combustion

  5. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Mehresh, Parag (Peoria, IL); Schuh, David (Peoria, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  6. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flowers, Daniel L. (San Leandro, CA)

    2005-08-02

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  8. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  9. Effect of ambient conditions and fuel properties on homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreae, Morgan M. (Morgan MacKenzie)

    2006-01-01

    Practical application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion must demonstrate robust responses to variations in environmental conditions. This work examines the impact of ambient conditions and fuel ...

  10. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

  11. Simultaneous dual mode combustion engine operating on spark ignition and homogenous charge compression ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiveland, Scott B.; Wiggers, Timothy E.

    2004-06-22

    An engine particularly suited to single speed operation environments, such as stationary power generators. The engine includes a plurality of combustion cylinders operable under homogenous charge compression ignition, and at least one combustion cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts. The cylinder operable on spark ignition concepts can be convertible to operate under homogenous charge compression ignition. The engine is started using the cylinders operable under spark ignition concepts.

  12. Two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine with pulsed air supplier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clarke, John M. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2003-08-05

    A two stroke homogenous charge compression ignition engine includes a volume pulsed air supplier, such as a piston driven pump, for efficient scavenging. The usage of a homogenous charge tends to decrease emissions. The use of a volume pulsed air supplier in conjunction with conventional poppet type intake and exhaust valves results in a relatively efficient scavenging mode for the engine. The engine preferably includes features that permit valving event timing, air pulse event timing and injection event timing to be varied relative to engine crankshaft angle. The principle use of the invention lies in improving diesel engines.

  13. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dec, John E. (Livermore, CA); Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  14. Design of a viable homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine : a computational study with detailed chemical kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yelvington, Paul E., 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine is a novel engine technology with the potential to substantially lower emissions from automotive sources. HCCI engines use lean-premixed combustion to achieve good ...

  15. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    4 Stratified charge compression ignition -ratios [9]. 2.2.2 Stratified charge compression ignition -to create areas of stratified charge. The effectiveness of

  16. Steady-State Multiplicity and Stability of Thermal Equilibria in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    internal exhaust gas recirculation from previous combustion cycle. It is shown that the thermal equilibria to the autoignition nature, HCCI engines sustain high compression ratio similar to Compression Ignition (CI) engines of the charge properties, namely, temperature, pressure, and composition at the In- take Valve Closing (IVC

  17. Analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines for Cogeneration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S; Martinez-Frias, J; Reistad, G

    2004-04-30

    This paper presents an evaluation of the applicability of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines (HCCI) for small-scale cogeneration (less than 1 MWe) in comparison to five previously analyzed prime movers. The five comparator prime movers include stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engines, lean burn SI engines, diesel engines, microturbines and fuel cells. The investigated option, HCCI engines, is a relatively new type of engine that has some fundamental differences with respect to other prime movers. Here, the prime movers are compared by calculating electric and heating efficiency, fuel consumption, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions and capital and fuel cost. Two cases are analyzed. In Case 1, the cogeneration facility requires combined power and heating. In Case 2, the requirement is for power and chilling. The results show that the HCCI engines closely approach the very high fuel utilization efficiency of diesel engines without the high emissions of NOx and the expensive diesel fuel. HCCI engines offer a new alternative for cogeneration that provides a unique combination of low cost, high efficiency, low emissions and flexibility in operating temperatures that can be optimally tuned for cogeneration systems. HCCI engines are the most efficient technology that meets the oncoming 2007 CARB NOx standards for cogeneration engines. The HCCI engine appears to be a good option for cogeneration systems and merits more detailed analysis and experimental demonstration.

  18. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: • Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion • Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced, • Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine, • Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust, • Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust, • Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust. • Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. 2. A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen.

  19. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an analysis of test results indicates that hydrogen enhanced natural gas HCCI (versus neat natural gas HCCI at comparable stoichiometry) had the following characteristics: (1) Substantially lower intake temperature needed for stable HCCI combustion; (2) Inconclusive impact on engine BMEP and power produced; (3) Small reduction in the thermal efficiency of the engine; (4) Moderate reduction in the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust; (5) Slight increase in NOx emissions in the exhaust; (6) Slight reduction in CO2 in the exhaust; and (7) Increased knocking at rich stoichiometry. The major accomplishments and findings from the project can be summarized as follows: (1) A model was calibrated for accurately predicting heat release rate and peak pressures for HCCI combustion when operating on hydrogen and natural gas blends. (2) A single cylinder research engine was thoroughly mapped to compare performance and emissions for micro-pilot natural gas compression ignition, and HCCI combustion for neat natural gas versus blends of natural gas and hydrogen. (3) The benefits of using hydrogen to extend, up to a limit, the stable operating window for HCCI combustion of natural gas at higher intake pressures, leaner air to fuel ratios or lower inlet temperatures was documented.

  20. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine: Basic Operating Characteristics and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-12

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  1. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  2. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  3. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  4. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  5. Homogeneous charge engines -- Basis of cyclic variations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitelaw, J.H.

    1997-06-30

    The objectives of the Grant required investigations of cyclic variations in a homogeneous-charge engine initially with gas combustion and the air from ranging from near quiescent to the incorporation of swirl and tumble by valve inserts. Later experiments were performed with unleaded gasoline. The measurements included local velocity and cylinder pressure through the four strokes of a single-cylinder engine, under motored and firing conditions and with examination of the flame kernel growth by combinations of photography and flame-ionization gauges. In all cases, the measurements of in-cylinder characteristics were linked to performance as measured in terms of speed and its variability, load and emissions. The experiments progressed to consider deviations from homogeneous charge and included consideration of stratified charge with local injection of a rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark gap so as to establish a flame kernel which would propagate securely into an overall weak mixture.

  6. RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    RATE OF STRAIN TENSOR STATISTICS IN COMPRESSIBLE HOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE G. Erlebacher 1 , S. Sarkar examined to determine the effect of compressibility on the growth of kinetic energy and of dissipation Mach number) decrease the growth rate of the kinetic energy. This reduction in the growth rate

  7. Edge-Based Image Compression with Homogeneous Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the Marr­Hildreth operator followed by hys- teresis thresholding. Their locations are stored in a lossless of potential interest for image compression. One of the classical edge detectors is based on the Marr

  8. Heat release effects on decaying homogeneous compressible turbulence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kurn Chul

    2009-05-15

    High Mach-number compressible flows with heat release are inherently more complicated than incompressible flows due to, among other reasons, the activation of the thermal energy mode. Such flow fields can experience significant fluctuations...

  9. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic models for fuels of practical interest to engine manufacturers and fuels developers are applied for high fidelity engine analysis of premixed charge compression ignition engines.

  10. A University Consortium on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, Dennis; Atreya, Arvind; Bowman, Craig; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Cheng, Wai; Davidson, David; Dibble, Robert; Edwards, Chris; Filipi, Zoran; Golden, David; Green, William; Hanson, Ronald; Hedrick, J Karl; Heywood, John; Im, Hong; Lavoie, George; Sick, Volker; Wooldridge, Margaret

    2007-03-31

    Over the course of this four year project, the consortium team members from UM, MIT, Stanford, and Berkeley along with contributors from Sandia National Labs and LLNL, have produced a wide range of results on gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The work spanned a wide range of activities including engine experiments, fundamental chemical kinetics experiments, and an array of analytical modeling techniques and simulations. Throughout the project a collaborative approach has produced a many significant new insights into HCCI engines and their behavior while at the same time we achieved our key consortium goal: to develop workable strategies for gasoline HCCI control and implementation. The major accomplishments in each task are summarized, followed by detailed discussion.

  11. A comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, D.E.; Kim, C.; Scull, N.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). Those data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder. Over the load and speed ranges tested, the unburned fuel emission were higher and the formaldehyde emission lower when comparing the stratified charge to the homogeneous charge operation. Time resolved data at the exhaust port for the two modes of operation are compared. The homogeneous charge operation had a uniform concentration of both unburned fuel and formaldehyde over the exhaust stroke. The stratified charge data shows large changes in the unburned fuel and moderate changes in the aldehyde concentrations during the exhaust stroke.

  12. Sandia Energy - Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News News & Events Research &...

  13. A Space-Charge-Neutralizing Plasma for Beam Drift Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2008-08-01

    Simultaneous radial focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams are being studied to heat matter to the warm dense matter, or strongly coupled plasma regime. Higher compression ratios can be achieved if the beam compression takes place in a plasma-filled drift region in which the space-charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated and the axial plasma density has been measured. A movable plasma probe array has been developed to measure the radial and axial plasma distribution inside and outside of a {approx} 10 cm long final focus solenoid (FFS). Measured data show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter {approx} 5 mm along the solenoid axis when the FFS is powered with an 8T field. Measured plasma density of {ge} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} meets the challenge of n{sub p}/Zn{sub b} > 1, where n{sub p} and n{sub b} are the plasma and ion beam density, respectively, and Z is the mean ion charge state of the plasma ions.

  14. Comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scull, N.; Kim, C.; Foster, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogenous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.

  15. Extending operating range of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine via cylinder deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2008-05-27

    An HCCI engine has the ability to operate over a large load range by utilizing a lower cetane distillate diesel fuel to increase ignition delay. This permits more stable operation at high loads by avoidance of premature combustion before top dead center. During low load conditions, a portion of the engines cylinders are deactivated so that the remaining cylinders can operate at a pseudo higher load while the overall engine exhibits behavior typical of a relatively low load.

  16. Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  17. Acceleration and Compression of Charged Particle Bunches Using Counter-Propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; A. Pukhov

    2000-10-17

    The nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating laser beams in a plasma results in the generation of large (enhanced) plasma wakes. The two beams need to be slightly detuned in frequency, and one of them has to be ultra-short (shorter than a plasma period). Thus produced wakes have a phase velocity close to the speed of light and can be used for acceleration and compression of charged bunches. The physical mechanism responsible for the enhanced wake generation is qualitatively described and compared with the conventional laser wakefield mechanism. The authors also demonstrate that, depending on the sign of the frequency difference between the lasers, the enhanced wake can be used as a ``snow-plow'' to accelerate and compress either positively or negatively charged bunches. This ability can be utilized in an electron-positron injector.

  18. A space-charge-neutralizing plasma for beam drift compression P.K. Roya,, P.A. Seidl a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    the space- charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasmaA space-charge-neutralizing plasma for beam drift compression P.K. Roya,Ã, P.A. Seidl a , A. Anders of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA c Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA d

  19. HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS AND MASS TRANSFER IN BIPHASIC IONIC LIQUID SYSTEMS WITH COMPRESSED CO2 AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahosseini, Azita

    with compressed CO2 and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) are reported for further studies to choose the best media (ionic liquid/compressed gas) for reactions. Due to significant impacts of mass transfer on the reaction because of the high viscosity of ionic...

  20. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    Ford Motor Company, “Diesel Engine Aftertreatment: How FordNational Laboratory, “Engine Combustion Network”, http://High Power Output without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low

  1. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    A four-cylinder 1.9L Volkswagen TDI engine is used for thisdeep-bowl pistons on the Volkswagen TDI engine are replacedV TDC (Eq. 4.4) For the Volkswagen TDI engine with modified

  2. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    Experimental study of biogas combustion characteristics andthe operation range of a biogas HCCI engine for powerOperating Conditions in a Biogas Fueled HCCI Engine for

  3. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    cylinder mode Carbon Monoxide (ppm) Combustion Timing,combustion timing, higher emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxideand carbon monoxide emissions increase with delays in combustion

  4. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    CFD for predicting direct injection HCCI engine combustionCombustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD”,CFD-Chemical Kinetics methodology to predict HCCI combustion

  5. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    fluid region near the center of the combustion chamber is the hottest and the fuel-fuels like gasoline) requires a great deal of computing time. The calculation of detailed fluid

  6. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced Natural Thermal Stratification against Retardedthe Development of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI EngineMeasurements of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine

  7. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    a HCCI engine for power generation”, Energy Conversion andbiogas HCCI engine for power generation , Applied Energy, inHCCI Engine for Power Generation, ASME IC Engine Conference,

  8. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance”,that this dual-mode approach can allow a 17% fuel economy

  9. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    HCCI Engine During a Drive Cycle,” SAE Paper 2005-01-0153,the EPA urban and highway drive cycles have shown that this

  10. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    CFD for predicting direct injection HCCI engine combustionAutomotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines”,Spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) can allow for

  11. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01

    TDC Top dead center TDI Turbocharged direct inject TTL TimeIntake Temperature in a Turbocharged Multi Cylinder Engine

  12. Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

  13. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-09-29

    The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

  14. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasche, G.P.

    1988-04-05

    A method for recovering energy in an inertial confinement fusion reactor having a reactor chamber and a sphere forming means positioned above an opening in the reactor chamber is described, comprising: embedding a fusion target fuel capsule having a predetermined yield in the center of a hollow solid lithium tube and subsequently embedding the hollow solid lithium tube in a liquid lithium medium; using the sphere forming means for forming the liquid lithium into a spherical shaped liquid lithium mass having a diameter smaller than the length of the hollow solid lithium tube with the hollow solid lithium tube being positioned along a diameter of the spherical shaped mass, providing the spherical shaped liquid lithium mass with the fusion fuel target capsule and hollow solid lithium tube therein as a freestanding liquid lithium shaped spherical shaped mass without any external means for maintaining the spherical shape by dropping the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass from the sphere forming means into the reactor chamber; producing a magnetic field in the reactor chamber; imploding the target capsule in the reactor chamber to produce fusion energy; absorbing fusion energy in the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass to convert substantially all the fusion energy to shock induced kinetic energy of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass which expands the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass; and compressing the magnetic field by expansion of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass and recovering useful energy.

  15. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, George P. (Arlington, VA)

    1988-01-01

    A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

  16. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1987-02-20

    A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

  17. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R. (Newport News, VA); Benson, Stephen V. (Yorktown, VA)

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  18. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  19. Simulating the Impact of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions of Particulates and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models implemented in Matlab/Simulink to simulate the effect of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated engine is capable of both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) over real transient driving cycles. Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results demonstrate that, in the simulated conventional vehicle, PCCI can significantly reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing the need for LNT and DPF regeneration. However, the opportunity for PCCI operation in the simulated HEV is limited because the engine typically experiences higher loads and multiple stop-start transients that are outside the allowable PCCI operating range. Thus developing ways of extending the PCCI operating range combined with improved control strategies for engine and emissions control management will be especially important for realizing the potential benefits of PCCI in HEVs.

  20. Turbulence Modeling for Compressible Shear Flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez Elizondo, Carlos Arturo 1981-

    2012-11-15

    by requiring consistency between model and direct numerical simulation asymptotic behavior in compressible homogeneous shear flow. The closure models are employed to compute high-speed mixing-layers and boundary layers in a differential Reynolds stress modeling...

  1. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  2. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  3. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  4. Compression embedding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T. (Los Alamos, NM); Handel, Theodore G. (Los Alamos, NM); Bradley, Jonathan N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  5. Charge Transport Across Insulating Self-Assembled Mono layers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (homogeneous), solar (photovoltaic), bio-inspired, charge transport, mesostructured materials, materials...

  6. When electric charge becomes also magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiago C. Adorno; Dmitry M. Gitman; Anatoly E. Shabad

    2015-07-08

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included, we find a static solution to the field equations with an electric charge as its source, which is comprised of homogeneous parallel magnetic and electric fields, and a radial spherically-nonsymmetric long-range magnetic field, whose magnetic charge is proportional to the electric charge and also depends on the homogeneous component of the solution.

  7. Homogenizing metamaterials, three times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Didier Felbacq

    2012-11-08

    The homogenization of a metamaterial made of a collection of scatterers periodically disposed is studied from three different points of view. Specifically tools for multiple scattering theory, functional analysis, differential geometry and optimization are used. Detailed numerical results are given and the connections between the different approaches are enlightened.

  8. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  9. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  10. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  11. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  12. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  13. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006deergustafson.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  14. HARMONIC MORPHISMS ON HOMOGENEOUS HADAMARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Sigmundur

    HARMONIC MORPHISMS ON HOMOGENEOUS HADAMARD MANIFOLDS JONAS NORDSTRÃ?M Master's thesis 2010:E14;#12;Abstract In this thesis we investigate the existence of complex-valued harmonic morphisms on Lie groups of their Lie algebra. This decomposi- tion allows us to define harmonic morphisms to Rn , n 2. Any homogeneous

  15. Reynolds and Favre-averaged rapid distortion theory for compressible, ideal-gas turbulence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavin, Tucker Alan

    2007-09-17

    Compressible ideal-gas turbulence subjected to homogeneous shear is investigated at the rapid distortion limit. Specific issues addressed are (i) the interaction between kinetic and internal energies and role of ...

  16. The electrically charged universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Düren

    2012-01-31

    The paper discusses the possibility of a universe that is not electrically neutral but has a net positive charge. It is claimed that such a universe contains a homogeneous distribution of protons that are not bound to galaxies and fill up the intergalactic space. This proton `gas' charges macroscopic objects like stars and planets, but it does not generate electrostatic or magnetic fields that affect the motion of these bodies significantly. However, the proton gas may contribute significantly to the total dark matter of the universe and its electrostatic potential may contribute to the dark energy and to the expansion of the universe.

  17. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  18. Homogeneous Random Measures and Strongly Supermedian Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick J.

    . Keywords and phrases: Homogeneous random measure, additive functional, Kuznets* *ov measure, potential

  19. Investigation of essential elements of stratified-charge combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    Laser Doppler velocimetry has been used to make cycle-resolved velocity and turbulence measurements in a homogeneous-charge, spark-ignition engine. The engine had a ported intake and disc-shaped chamber with a compression ratio of 8 to 1. It was operated at a speed of 1200 rpm and with a TDC swirl number of 4. A stoichiometric propane-air mixture was used, and ignition was near the wall. The velocity measurements were made at three spatial locations at the midpoint of the clearance height. Tests were made to determine whether the presence of the flame affected the accuracy of the velocity measurements. It was found that the ensemble-averaged mean velocity shows a small deviation, and the rms fluctuation intensity is significantly influenced, but the effects appear to be confined to the flame zone. Data rates were sufficiently high in the preflame and postflame regions to determine the velocity history in each cycle (cycle resolved) . The cycle resolved turbulence intensity was found to increase across the flame. The turbulence intensity in the burned gas was found to be homogeneous at the three spatial locations examined and to decay rapidly. There was little or no increase in turbulence intensity ahead of the flame.

  20. The Legend of Cosmological Homogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Oldershaw

    2008-05-17

    For more than a half century cosmologists have been guided by the assumption that matter is distributed homogeneously on sufficiently large scales. On the other hand, observations have consistently yielded evidence for inhomogeneity in the distribution of matter right up to the limits of most surveys. The apparent paradox can be understood in terms of the role that paradigms play in the evolution of science.

  1. Compressed Gas Cylinder Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of pressure from a compressed gas cylinder and pose a serious threat to life and property. To minimize risk cylinders to and from a designated work are

  2. Laser Compression of Tantalum /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chia-Hui

    2013-01-01

    of this container was filled with aerogel, which acts as aafter laser compression. Aerogel was designed to deceleratein this geometry. The aerogel did not introduce any

  3. Superization of Homogeneous Spin Manifolds and Geometry of Homogeneous Supermanifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Santi

    2009-05-24

    Let M_0=G_0/H be a (pseudo)-Riemannian homogeneous spin manifold, with reductive decomposition g_0=h+m and let S(M_0) be the spin bundle defined by the spin representation Ad:H->\\GL_R(S) of the stabilizer H. This article studies the superizations of M_0, i.e. its extensions to a homogeneous supermanifold M=G/H whose sheaf of superfunctions is isomorphic to Lambda(S^*(M_0)). Here G is the Lie supergroup associated with a certain extension of the Lie algebra of symmetry g_0 to an algebra of supersymmetry g=g_0+g_1=g_0+S via the Kostant-Koszul construction. Each algebra of supersymmetry naturally determines a flat connection nabla^{S} in the spin bundle S(M_0). Killing vectors together with generalized Killing spinors (i.e. nabla^{S}-parallel spinors) are interpreted as the values of appropriate geometric symmetries of M, namely even and odd Killing fields. An explicit formula for the Killing representation of the algebra of supersymmetry is obtained, generalizing some results of Koszul. The generalized spin connection nabla^{S} defines a superconnection on M, via the super-version of a theorem of Wang.

  4. Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis for Reaction Kinetics Studies: Probe Laser Measurement Pulsed laser powered homogeneous pyrolysis ( LPHP) is a technique which can be used to measure rate a number of researchers have shown that pulsed laser powered homogeneous pyrolysis (LPHP) can be used

  5. LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

  6. Scalable Communication Trace Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2010-05-17

    Characterizing the communication behavior of parallel programs through tracing can help understand an application’s characteristics, model its performance, and predict behavior on future systems. However, lossless communication traces can get prohibitively large, causing programmers to resort to variety of other techniques. In this paper, we present a novel approach to lossless communication trace compression. We augment the sequitur compression algorithm to employ it in communication trace compression of parallel programs. We present optimizations to reduce the memory overhead, reduce size of the trace files generated, and enable compression across multiple processes in a parallel program. The evaluation shows improved compression and reduced overhead over other approaches, with up to 3 orders of magnitude improvement for the NAS MG benchmark. We also observe that, unlike existing schemes, the trace files sizes and the memory overhead incurred are less sensitive to, if not independent of, the problem size for the NAS benchmarks.

  7. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  8. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  9. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  10. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA); Petrich, Loren I. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  11. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  12. THE KINEMATIC FORMULA IN RIEMANNIAN HOMOGENEOUS SPACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Ralph

    THE KINEMATIC FORMULA IN RIEMANNIAN HOMOGENEOUS SPACES Ralph Howard Department of Mathematics)IR (N). This generalizes the Chern-Federer kinematic formula to arbitrary homogeneous spaces with an invariant Riemannian metric and leads to new formulas even in the case of submanifolds of Euclidean space

  13. Isentropic Compression of Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Oona; J.C. Solem; L.R. Veeser, C.A. Ekdahl; P.J. Rodriquez; S.M. Younger; W. Lewis; W.D. Turley

    1997-08-01

    We are studying the transition of argon from an insulator to a conductor by compressing the frozen gas isentropically to pressures at which neighboring atomic orbitals overlap sufficiently to allow some electron motion between atoms. Argon and the other rare gases have closed electron shells and therefore remain montomic, even when they solidify. Their simple structure makes it likely that any measured change in conductivity is due to changes in the atomic structure, not in molecular configuration. As the crystal is compressed the band gap closes, allowing increased conductivity. We have begun research to determine the conductivity at high pressures, and it is our intention to determine the compression at which the crystal becomes a metal.

  14. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  15. Transition from cool flame to thermal flame in compression ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzaki, Kotaro; Goto, Yuichi; Tezaki, Atsumu

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism that initiates thermal flames in compression ignition has been studied. Experimentally, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was used with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane. Arrhenius plots of the heat release rate in the HCCI experiments showed that rates of heat release with DME, n-heptane, and n-decane exhibited a certain activation energy that is identical to that of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition reaction. The same feature was observed in diesel engine operation using ordinary diesel fuel with advanced ignition timing to make ignition occur after the end of fuel injection. These experimental results were reproduced in nondimensional simulations using kinetic mechanisms for DME, n-heptane, and n-decane, the last being developed by extending the n-heptane mechanism. Methanol addition, which suppresses low-temperature oxidation (LTO) and delays the ignition timing, had no effect on the activation energy obtained from the Arrhenius plot of heat release rate. Nevertheless, methanol addition lowered the heat release rates during the prethermal flame process. This is because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation during cool flame was reduced by adding methanol. The mechanism during the transition process from cool flame to thermal flame can be explained quantitatively using thermal explosion theory, in which the rate-determining reaction is H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, assuming that heat release in this period is caused by partial oxidation of DME and HCHO initiated with the reaction with OH produced though H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition. (author)

  16. A Saturation Algorithm for Homogeneous Binomial Ideals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Shashank K

    A Saturation Algorithm for Homogeneous Binomial Ideals Deepanjan Kesh and Shashank K Mehta Indian at computation in smaller rings is by Kesh and Mehta [7] which also requires the computation of one Gr

  17. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  18. Random Operator Compressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Ng; Meg Walters

    2014-09-19

    Let $A$ be a Hermitian operator of order $n$. We show that for $k\\leq n$ sufficiently large, the eigenvalues of a compression of $A$ to a $k$-dimensional subspace are almost the same for all subspaces. We prove this result using the methods introduced in a paper by Chatterjee and Ledoux on eigenvalues of principle submatrices. We show that by choosing an appropriate Markov chain, the methods of Chatterjee and Ledoux can be applied to give a more general result on operator compressions. As an additional application of this method, we prove concentration of measure of the length of the longest increasing subsequence of a random walk distributed under the invariant measure for the asymmetric exclusion process.

  19. Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Qin Xulei; Fei Baowei; Feng, Steve Si Jia

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the estimate of normalized glandular dose in mammography and breast CT imaging obtained using the actual glandular tissue distribution in the breast to that obtained using the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation. Methods: Twenty volumetric images of patient breasts were acquired with a dedicated breast CT prototype system and the voxels in the breast CT images were automatically classified into skin, adipose, and glandular tissue. The breasts in the classified images underwent simulated mechanical compression to mimic the conditions present during mammographic acquisition. The compressed thickness for each breast was set to that achieved during each patient's last screening cranio-caudal (CC) acquisition. The volumetric glandular density of each breast was computed using both the compressed and uncompressed classified images, and additional images were created in which all voxels representing adipose and glandular tissue were replaced by a homogeneous mixture of these two tissues in a proportion corresponding to each breast's volumetric glandular density. All four breast images (compressed and uncompressed; heterogeneous and homogeneous tissue) were input into Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the normalized glandular dose during mammography (compressed breasts) and dedicated breast CT (uncompressed breasts). For the mammography simulations the x-ray spectra used was that used during each patient's last screening CC acquisition. For the breast CT simulations, two x-ray spectra were used, corresponding to the x-ray spectra with the lowest and highest energies currently being used in dedicated breast CT prototype systems under clinical investigation. The resulting normalized glandular dose for the heterogeneous and homogeneous versions of each breast for each modality was compared. Results: For mammography, the normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue approximation was, on average, 27% higher than that estimated using the true heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test p= 0.00046). For dedicated breast CT, the overestimation of normalized glandular dose was, on average, 8% (49 kVp spectrum, p= 0.00045) and 4% (80 kVp spectrum, p= 0.000089). Only two cases in mammography and two cases in dedicated breast CT with a tube voltage of 49 kVp resulted in lower dose estimates for the homogeneous tissue approximation compared to the heterogeneous tissue distribution. Conclusions: The normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation results in a significant overestimation of dose to the imaged breast. This overestimation impacts the use of dose estimates in absolute terms, such as for risk estimates, and may impact some comparative studies, such as when modalities or techniques with different x-ray energies are used. The error introduced by the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in higher energy x-ray modalities, such as dedicated breast CT, although statistically significant, may not be of clinical concern. Further work is required to better characterize this overestimation and potentially develop new metrics or correction factors to better estimate the true glandular dose to breasts undergoing imaging with ionizing radiation.

  20. Compression Technology and Needs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLake Paiute Reservation | Department ofCompressed Hydrogen®

  1. Probing nuclear compressibility via fragmentation in Au+Au reactions at 35 AMeV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yogesh K. Vermani; Rajiv Chugh; Aman D. Sood

    2010-09-23

    The molecular dynamics study of fragmentation in peripheral $^{197}$Au +$^{197}$Au collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is presented to probe the nuclear matter compressibility in low density regime. The yields of different fragment species, rapidity spectra, and multiplicities of charged particles with charge $3\\leq Z \\leq 80$ are analyzed at different peripheral geometries employing a soft and a hard equations of state. Fragment productions is found to be quite insensitive towards the choice of nucleon-nucleon cross sections allowing us to constrain nuclear matter compressibility. Comparison of calculated charged particle multiplicities with the experimental data indicates preference for the \\emph{soft} nature of nuclear matter.

  2. Non-Uniform Entropy Compression for Uniform Energy Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    -non-homogeneity in the network. Bottleneck nodes trade computation energy for transmission energy, which extends and normalizesNon-Uniform Entropy Compression for Uniform Energy Distribution in Wireless Sensor Networks to increase the network's lifetime and to normalize the energy use per unit time, but they each have

  3. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-04

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  4. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  5. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  6. A Space-Charge-Neutralizing Plasma for Beam Drift Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated anda system of four cathodic arc plasma source (CAPS) system. AThe system of four cathodic arc plasma sources Two filtered

  7. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  8. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes deer11parks.pdf More...

  9. Mathematics Education in Iceland: Explaining the Non-homogeneity in a Homogenous System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Mathematics Education in Iceland: Explaining the Non-homogeneity in a Homogenous System Guðný Helga Gunnarsdóttir, Guðbjörg Pálsdóttir University of Iceland, School of Education & Bharath Sriraman The University of Montana Abstract: In this opening salvo to the Icelandic section, we synthesize some

  10. Mixing and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, E.; Endler, A.; Rizzato, F. B.; Serbeto, A.

    2013-12-15

    The present work revisits the subjects of mixing, saturation, and space-charge effects in free-electron lasers. Use is made of the compressibility factor, which proves to be a helpful tool in the related systems of charged beams confined by static magnetic fields. The compressibility allows to perform analytical estimates of the elapsed time until the onset of mixing, which in turn allows to estimate the saturated amplitude of the radiation field. In addition, the compressibility helps to pinpoint space-charge effects and the corresponding transition from Compton to Raman regimes.

  11. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Combustion Timing of Homogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    efficiency 2 . As a result, HCCI engines achieve fuel economy levels comparable to that of compression Engines Chia-Jui Chiang Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 e-mail: annastef@umich.edu The goal

  13. Homogenization of ferromagnetic materials by Franois Alouges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alouges, François

    the homogenzation theory for ferromagnetic materials. A new phenomenon arises, in particular to take into accountHomogenization of ferromagnetic materials by François Alouges Abstract In these notes we describe the geometric constraint that the magnetization is locally saturated. 1 Introduction Ferromagnetic materials

  14. R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen...

  15. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  16. Investigation of essential elements of stratified-charge combustion. Final technical report, October 1, 1985--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, F.V.

    1989-12-31

    Laser Doppler velocimetry has been used to make cycle-resolved velocity and turbulence measurements in a homogeneous-charge, spark-ignition engine. The engine had a ported intake and disc-shaped chamber with a compression ratio of 8 to 1. It was operated at a speed of 1200 rpm and with a TDC swirl number of 4. A stoichiometric propane-air mixture was used, and ignition was near the wall. The velocity measurements were made at three spatial locations at the midpoint of the clearance height. Tests were made to determine whether the presence of the flame affected the accuracy of the velocity measurements. It was found that the ensemble-averaged mean velocity shows a small deviation, and the rms fluctuation intensity is significantly influenced, but the effects appear to be confined to the flame zone. Data rates were sufficiently high in the preflame and postflame regions to determine the velocity history in each cycle (cycle resolved) . The cycle resolved turbulence intensity was found to increase across the flame. The turbulence intensity in the burned gas was found to be homogeneous at the three spatial locations examined and to decay rapidly. There was little or no increase in turbulence intensity ahead of the flame.

  17. Data Compression with Prime Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2005-11-16

    A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

  18. Understanding the Basics of Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Compressed air can be a manufacturing facilities' most expensive utility. Estimates and actual measurements of compressed air systems indicate ten to thirty-five percent of all compressed air generated is lost to leakage or improper use. Proper...

  19. HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSCGrid-based29 1.921HEPCharging HPSS Charging

  20. Coherent State on SUq(2) Homogeneous Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Aizawa; R. Chakrabarti

    2009-06-30

    The generalized coherent states for quantum groups introduced by Jurco and Stovicek are studied for the simplest example SU_q(2) in full detail. It is shown that the normalized SU_q(2) coherent states enjoy the property of completeness, and allow a resolution of the unity. This feature is expected to play a key role in application of these coherent states in physical models. The homogeneous space of SU_q(2), i.e. the q-sphere of Podles, is reproduced in complex coordinates by using the coherent states. Differential calculus in the complex form on the homogeneous space is developed. High spin limit of the SU_q(2) coherent states is also discussed.

  1. Compressed Air Storage Strategies; Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Review the plant's compressed air demand patterns to determine whether storage would be beneficial. * Examine the compressed...

  2. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  3. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  4. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gases are toxic, flammable, pyrophoric, or corrosive. Liquefied compressed gases (cryogenic liquids of exposure may be delayed. Cold "Burns": Rapidly escaping gas from a cylinder can cause destruction freezing

  5. DATA COMPRESSION USING WAVELETS: ERROR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-90-11

    algorithms that introduce differences between the original and compressed data in ... to choose an error metric that parallels the human visual system, so that image .... signal data along a communications channel, one sends integer codes that ...

  6. Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Currently, DOE's physical hydrogen storage R&D focuses on the development of high-pressure (10,000 psi) composite tanks, cryo-compressed tanks, conformable tanks, and other advanced concepts...

  7. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  8. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  9. Nonuniversal Effects in the Homogeneous Bose Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer; Shawn Hermans

    2000-12-04

    Effective field theory predicts that the leading nonuniversal effects in the homogeneous Bose gas arise from the effective range for S-wave scattering and from an effective three-body contact interaction. We calculate the leading nonuniversal contributions to the energy density and condensate fraction and compare the predictions with results from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations by Giorgini, Boronat, and Casulleras. We give a crude determination of the strength of the three-body contact interaction for various model potentials. Accurate determinations could be obtained from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the energy density with higher statistics.

  10. Robust Header Compression for Multimedia Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisslein, Martin

    JSQ Testbed #12;Motivation and Introduction · Wireless link is highly error-prone · Large round trip on lossy links with long round trip times #12;Metric for compression performance · Compression efficiency ­ Compressed header size versus original header size · Compression transparency ­ Decompressed headers has

  11. Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis: A Computational Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis: A Computational Analysis MARK T. SWIHART and ROBERT W pyrolysis technique for measuring unimolecular decomposition rate constants under unambiguously homogeneous. Introduction Pulsed laser powered homogeneous pyrolysis (LPHP) is a technique which may be used to measure

  12. Mesoscale harmonic analysis of homogenous dislocation nucleation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asad Hasan; Craig E. Maloney

    2012-05-08

    We perform atomistic computer simulations to study the mechanism of homogeneous dislocation nucleation in two dimensional (2D) hexagonal crystalline films during indentation with a circular nanoindenter. The nucleation process is governed by the vanishing of the energy associated with a single normal mode. This critical mode is largely confined to a single plane of adjacent atoms. For fixed film thickness, L, the spatial extent, \\xi, of the critical mode grows with indenter radius, R. For fixed R/L, the spatial extent \\xi, grows roughly as \\xi ~ L^0.4. We, furthermore, perform a mesoscale analysis to determine the lowest energy normal mode for mesoscale regions of varying radius, r_{meso}, centered on the critical mode's core. The energy, \\lambda_{meso}, of the lowest normal mode in the meso-region decays very rapidly with r_{meso} and \\lambda_{meso} ~= 0 for r_{meso} >~ \\xi. The lowest normal mode shows a spatial extent, \\xi_{meso}, which has a sublinear power-law increase with r_{meso} for r_{meso} mesoscale analysis gives good estimates for the energy and spatial extent of the critical mode \\emph{only} for r_{meso} >~ 1.5 \\xi. In this sense homogeneous dislocation nucleation should be understood as a quasi-local phenomenon.

  13. The Galaxy Distribution: Homogeneous, Fractal, or Neither

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. McCauley

    2000-01-13

    From the standpoint of theoretical physics we can treat Newtonian cosmology as a problem in nonlinear dynamics. The attempt to average the density, in search of a method of making contact between theory and observation, is replaced by the more systematic idea of coarsegraining. I also explain in this context why two previous attempts at the construction of hierarchical models of the universe are not useful in data analysis. The main ideas behind two older competing data analyses purporting to show evidence from galaxy statistics for either a homogeneous and isotropic universe in one case, and for a mono-fractal universe in the other, are presented and discussed. I also present the method and results of a newer data analysis that shows that visible matter provides no evidence that would allow us to claim that the cosmological principle holds, or that the universe is fractal (or multifractal). In other words, observational data provides us with no evidence that the universe is either homogeneous and isotropic, or monofractal.

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  15. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  18. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  19. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Twitter Attend local EV events Share your story Currently have 13 ChargePoint charging stations scattered throughout Vermont 2015 - 12 Freedom Stations & 10...

  20. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  2. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  3. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  4. Mechanical compression attenuates normal human bronchial epithelial wound healing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arold, Stephen P.; Malavia, Nikita; George, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Open Access Research Mechanical compression attenuatesto the application of mechanical compression in the presenceResults: We found that mechanical compression and scrape

  5. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (August 2013) SustainX will demonstrate an isothermal compressed air...

  6. Pulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicon waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, En-Kuang; Yuksek, Nuh S; Qian, Feng; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2007-01-01

    F. Qian, O. Boyraz, “Pulse Compression and Modelocking byPulse compression and modelocking by using TPA in silicona novel broadband pulse compression and modelocking scheme

  7. Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage: Performance and Cost Review Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed,...

  8. HOMOGENIZATION OF THE POISSON-NERNST-PLANCK EQUATIONS FOR ION TRANSPORT IN CHARGED POROUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    diffusivities and mobilities become tensors, related to the microstructure; (ii) the effective permittivity theories, based on the local-density and mean-field approximations. These results have broad applicability [60] and energy storage in batteries [55] and electrochemical supercapacitors [26]. Analogous

  9. Image Compression by Back Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    CHAPTER 9 Image Compression by Back Propagation: An Example of Extensional Programming* GARRISON W the case with the computatiolls associated with basic cognitive pro- cesses such as vision and audition techniques. The technique we employ is known as back propagation. developed by l1umelhart, Hinton

  10. Compressed Gas EHS-2200-WEB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compressed Gas Safety EHS-2200-WEB Register and launch through http://axess.stanford.edu Course title and STARS number: General Safety & Emergency Preparedness EHS-4200-WEB Chemical Safety for Laboratories EHS-1900-WEB Biosafety EHS-1500-WEB Radiation Safety Training EHS-5250 Laser Safety EHS-4820-WEB

  11. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safe Handling, Use and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safe Handling, Use and Storage 2012 Workplace Safety and Environmental Protection #12;i College/Unit: Workplace Safety and Environmental Protection Procedure Title: Compressed Gas................................................ 4 7 General Gas Cylinder Information

  12. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heide, Felix

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and ...

  13. Advanced Management of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This training is designed to help end users as well as industry solution providers learn...

  14. Metamaterials: $\\textit{supra}$-classical dynamic homogenization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihai Caleap; Bruce W Drinkwater

    2015-11-19

    Metamaterials are artificial composite structures designed for controlling waves or fields, and exhibit interaction phenomena that are unexpected on the basis of their chemical constituents. These phenomena are encoded in effective material parameters that can be electronic, magnetic, acoustic, or elastic, and must adequately represent the wave interaction behaviour in the composite within desired frequency ranges. In some cases -- for example, the low frequency regime -- there exist various efficient ways by which effective material parameters for wave propagation in metamaterials may be found. However, the general problem of predicting frequency-dependent dynamic effective constants has remained unsolved. Here, we obtain novel mathematical expressions for the effective parameters of two-dimensional metamaterial systems valid at higher frequencies and wavelengths than previously possible. By way of an example, random configurations of cylindrical scatterers are considered, in various physical contexts: sound waves in a compressible fluid, anti-plane elastic waves, and electromagnetic waves. Our results point towards a paradigm shift in our understanding of these effective properties, and metamaterial designs with functionalities beyond the low-frequency regime are now open for innovation.

  15. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Jay Olson

    2014-11-17

    In the context of a homogeneous universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions covering several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the universe.

  16. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity. Retrofit technologies that address the challenges of slow-speed integral compression are: (1) optimum turndown using a combination of speed and clearance with single-acting operation as a last resort; (2) if single-acting is required, implement infinite length nozzles to address nozzle pulsation and tunable side branch absorbers for 1x lateral pulsations; and (3) advanced valves, either the semi-active plate valve or the passive rotary valve, to extend valve life to three years with half the pressure drop. This next generation of slow-speed compression should attain 95% efficiency, a three-year valve life, and expanded turndown. New equipment technologies that address the challenges of large-horsepower, high-speed compression are: (1) optimum turndown with unit speed; (2) tapered nozzles to effectively reduce nozzle pulsation with half the pressure drop and minimization of mechanical cylinder stretch induced vibrations; (3) tunable side branch absorber or higher-order filter bottle to address lateral piping pulsations over the entire extended speed range with minimal pressure drop; and (4) semi-active plate valves or passive rotary valves to extend valve life with half the pressure drop. This next generation of large-horsepower, high-speed compression should attain 90% efficiency, a two-year valve life, 50% turndown, and less than 0.75 IPS vibration. This program has generated proof-of-concept technologies with the potential to meet these ambitious goals. Full development of these identified technologies is underway. The GMRC has committed to pursue the most promising enabling technologies for their industry.

  17. HOMOGENEOUS 1-BASED STRUCTURES AND INTERPRETABILITY IN RANDOM STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djordjevic, Vera

    HOMOGENEOUS 1-BASED STRUCTURES AND INTERPRETABILITY IN RANDOM STRUCTURES VERA KOPONEN Abstract. Let -structure which is homogeneous, simple and 1- based. The rst main result says that if M is, in addition, primitive, then it is strongly interpretable in a random structure. The second main result, which

  18. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Zolotorev, Max (Mountain View, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  19. Conservative regularization of compressible flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnaswami, Govind S; Thyagaraja, Anantanarayanan

    2015-01-01

    Ideal Eulerian flow may develop singularities in vorticity w. Navier-Stokes viscosity provides a dissipative regularization. We find a local, conservative regularization - lambda^2 w times curl(w) of compressible flow and compressible MHD: a three dimensional analogue of the KdV regularization of the one dimensional kinematic wave equation. The regulator lambda is a field subject to the constitutive relation lambda^2 rho = constant. Lambda is like a position-dependent mean-free path. Our regularization preserves Galilean, parity and time-reversal symmetries. We identify locally conserved energy, helicity, linear and angular momenta and boundary conditions ensuring their global conservation. Enstrophy is shown to remain bounded. A swirl velocity field is identified, which transports w/rho and B/rho generalizing the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Alfven theorems. A Hamiltonian and Poisson bracket formulation is given. The regularized equations are used to model a rotating vortex, channel flow, plane flow, a plane vortex ...

  20. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  1. Thermal concentrator homogenized with solar-shaped mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petiteau, David; Bellieud, Michel; Zerrad, Myriam; Amra, Claude

    2015-01-01

    We propose solar-shaped thermal concentrators designed with orthoradial layers and obtained in practice through the homogenization of an ideal thermal concentrator. Considering the spectral regime of the heat equation, we quantitatively evaluate at different pulsations the effectiveness of the homogenized concentrators by comparing the thermal flux existing in an ideal concentrator and the thermal flux in an homogenized concentrator. Dependence on the pulsation is shown to be negligible and plotting the effectiveness of the homogenized concentrators as a function of the number of orthoradial layers $N$, we determine the number of layers needed to achieve a certain effectiveness. Significantly high numbers $N$(ranging from a hundred to tens of thousands layers) are found highlighting the fact that achieving high effectiveness demands a high level of engineering of the homogenized concentrator.

  2. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    corporate leadership and innovation, demonstrating a willingness to adopt advanced technology. Sustainability Providing PEV charging can enhance corporate sustainability efforts,...

  5. Charge exchange system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  6. Thermite charge - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Trademark Office Marketing Summary: Linear Thermite Charge Abstract: The present invention provides for cutting operations using linear thermite charges; the charges cut one...

  7. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Management for Urban EV Charging Systems”, 2013 IEEEfor Large Scale Public EV Charging Facilities”, 2013 IEEESmart Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging and Grid Integration

  8. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  9. The random Schrödinger equation: homogenization in time-dependent potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Gu; Lenya Ryzhik

    2015-06-08

    We analyze the solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation with the low frequency initial data and a time-dependent weakly random potential. We prove a homogenization result for the low frequency component of the wave field. We also show that the dynamics generates a non-trivial energy in the high frequencies, which do not homogenize -- the high frequency component of the wave field remains random and the evolution of its energy is described by a kinetic equation. The transition from the homogenization of the low frequencies to the random limit of the high frequencies is illustrated by understanding the size of the small random fluctuations of the low frequency component.

  10. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  11. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  12. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  13. Volume 43, number 3 FEBS LETTERS August 1974 MODULATION OF THE ADENYLATE ENERGY CHARGE BY SUSTAINED METABOLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldbeter, Albert

    Volume 43, number 3 FEBS LETTERS August 1974 MODULATION OF THE ADENYLATE ENERGY CHARGE BY SUSTAINED in the homogeneous case and deter- mined the effect of sustained oscillations on the adenylate energy charge (AEC] . The physiological significance of these periodicities linked to the energy state of the cell [6] can be investigated

  14. A Compressed Air Reduction Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    > the mos t bene fie i a1. The> data displayed a wide variance of compressed air consumption rates which can be attributed to packing problems, since all other usage points are minimal and constant. The readings taken dlJring the "press running" mode... life, incorporates molybdenum disulfide lubrication, high tensile strength, excellent memory, seals from zero to 15,000 PSIG, and has an average life span of five to six times longer than the NCD pack in9. There is one ci i sadvantage to using...

  15. General Compression | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdistoWhiskeyFootprintGEXAGemini Solar Development CompanyCompression

  16. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  17. Harmonic Morphisms from Homogeneous Spaces -Some Existence Theory -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Sigmundur

    Harmonic Morphisms from Homogeneous Spaces - Some Existence Theory - Sigmundur Gudmundsson 2014 #12;Harmonic Morphisms Eigenfamilies - Constructions Orthogonal Harmonic Families - Constructions Low-Dimensional Classifications References Outline 1 Harmonic Morphisms Basics Geometric Motivation

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Homogeneous Crystal Nucleation in Polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Peng

    Using a realistic united-atom force field, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study homogeneous nucleation of the crystal phase at about 30% supercooling from the melts of n-pentacontahectane (C150) and a ...

  19. Tritium Technology Program TTP-1-3089 TPBAR Homogenized Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Edward F.

    2014-10-12

    Homogenized TPBAR number densities contained herein have been derived for unclassified core physics calculations. The use of this information may not provide accurate, conservative or representative results and must be evaluated for applicability to the specific problem.

  20. Effect of high pressure homogenization on skim milk proteins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yen-Hsiao

    1995-01-01

    standard with a known concentration. Homogenization inlet temperature significantly (P<.Ol) affected the percentage of the proteins in milk. The greatest changes in the distribution of proteins were observed between inlet temperatures of 40 and 75'C when...

  1. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  2. Optimization Online - Compressed Sensing Off the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sep 13, 2012 ... Compressed Sensing Off the Grid. Gongguo Tang(gtang5 ***at*** wisc.edu) Badri Narayan Bhaskar(bnbhaskar ***at*** wisc.edu) Parikshit ...

  3. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-02-01

    This case study explores the use of heavy-duty refuse trucks fueled by compressed natural gas highlighting three fleets from very different types of organizations.

  4. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. deer10reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge The Workplace Charging Challenge...

  6. LSP SIMULATIONS OF THE NEUTRALIZED DRIFT COMPRESSION , D.R. Welch, ATK-MR, Albuquerque, NM 87110, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    of a neutralizing plasma provided by an Al arc or MEVVA source. Given adequate neutralization of the beam charge, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA E.P. Gilson, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA Abstract the longitudinal compression of a singly-stripped K ion beam with a mean energy of 280 keV in a meter long plasma

  7. Testing homogeneity with the fossil record of galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan F. Heavens; Raul Jimenez; Roy Maartens

    2011-09-15

    The standard Friedmann model of cosmology is based on the Copernican Principle, i.e. the assumption of a homogeneous background on which structure forms via perturbations. Homogeneity underpins both general relativistic and modified gravity models and is central to the way in which we interpret observations of the CMB and the galaxy distribution. It is therefore important to probe homogeneity via observations. We describe a test based on the fossil record of distant galaxies: if we can reconstruct key intrinsic properties of galaxies as functions of proper time along their worldlines, we can compare such properties at the same proper time for our galaxy and others. We achieve this by computing the lookback time using radial Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, and the time along galaxy world line using stellar physics, allowing us to probe homogeneity, in principle anywhere inside the past light cone. Agreement in the results would be an important consistency test -- although it would not in itself prove homogeneity. Any significant deviation in the results however would signal a breakdown of homogeneity.

  8. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  9. Pulsed jet combustion generator for non-premixed charge engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA); Stewart, H. E. (Alameda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A device for introducing fuel into the head space of cylinder of non-premixed charge (diesel) engines is disclosed, which distributes fuel in atomized form in a plume, whose fluid dynamic properties are such that the compression heated air in the cylinder head space is entrained into the interior of the plume where it is mixed with and ignites the fuel in the plume interior, to thereby control combustion, particularly by use of a multiplicity of individually controllable devices per cylinder.

  10. Formation of compressed flat electron beams with high transverse-emittance ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, J.; Piot, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    Flat beams—beams with asymmetric transverse emittances—have important applications in novel light-source concepts and advanced-acceleration schemes and could possibly alleviate the need for damping rings in lepton colliders. Over the last decade, a flat beam generation technique based on the conversion of an angular-momentum-dominated beam was proposed and experimentally tested. In this paper we explore the production of compressed flat beams. We especially investigate and optimize the flat beam transformation for beams with substantial fractional energy spread. We use as a simulation example the photoinjector of Fermilab’s Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator. The optimizations of the flat beam generation and compression at Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator were done via start-to-end numerical simulations for bunch charges of 3.2 nC, 1.0 nC, and 20 pC at ?37??MeV. The optimized emittances of flat beams with different bunch charges were found to be 0.25???m (emittance ratio is ?400), 0.13????m, 15 nm before compression, and 0.41???m, 0.20???m, 16 nm after full compression, respectively, with peak currents as high as 5.5 kA for a 3.2?nC flat beam. These parameters are consistent with requirements needed to excite wakefields in asymmetric dielectric-lined waveguides or produce significant photon flux using small-gap micro-undulators.

  11. A New Approach for Fingerprint Image Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazieres, Bertrand

    1997-12-01

    The FBI has been collecting fingerprint cards since 1924 and now has over 200 million of them. Digitized with 8 bits of grayscale resolution at 500 dots per inch, it means 2000 terabytes of information. Also, without any compression, transmitting a 10 Mb card over a 9600 baud connection will need 3 hours. Hence we need a compression and a compression as close to lossless as possible: all fingerprint details must be kept. A lossless compression usually do not give a better compression ratio than 2:1, which is not sufficient. Compressing these images with the JPEG standard leads to artefacts which appear even at low compression rates. Therefore the FBI has chosen in 1993 a scheme of compression based on a wavelet transform, followed by a scalar quantization and an entropy coding : the so-called WSQ. This scheme allows to achieve compression ratios of 20:1 without any perceptible loss of quality. The publication of the FBI specifies a decoder, which means that many parameters can be changed in the encoding process: the type of analysis/reconstruction filters, the way the bit allocation is made, the number of Huffman tables used for the entropy coding. The first encoder used 9/7 filters for the wavelet transform and did the bit allocation using a high-rate bit assumption. Since the transform is made into 64 subbands, quite a lot of bands receive only a few bits even at an archival quality compression rate of 0.75 bit/pixel. Thus, after a brief overview of the standard, we will discuss a new approach for the bit-allocation that seems to make more sense where theory is concerned. Then we will talk about some implementation aspects, particularly for the new entropy coder and the features that allow other applications than fingerprint image compression. Finally, we will compare the performances of the new encoder to those of the first encoder.

  12. Simulations and experiments of intense ion beam compression in space and time.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S. S. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Seidl, P. A. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Roy, P. K. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Lidia, S. M. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Coleman, J. E. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Kaganovich, I. D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gilson, E. P. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Welch, Dale Robert; Sefkow, Adam B.; Davidson, R. C. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

    2008-12-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has achieved 60-fold longitudinal pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005)]. To focus a space-charge-dominated charge bunch to sufficiently high intensities for ion-beam-heated warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy studies, simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression to a coincident focal plane is required. Optimizing the compression under the appropriate constraints can deliver higher intensity per unit length of accelerator to the target, thereby facilitating the creation of more compact and cost-effective ion beam drivers. The experiments utilized a drift region filled with high-density plasma in order to neutralize the space charge and current of an {approx}300 keV K{sup +} beam and have separately achieved transverse and longitudinal focusing to a radius <2 mm and pulse duration <5 ns, respectively. Simulation predictions and recent experiments demonstrate that a strong solenoid (B{sub Z} < 100 kG) placed near the end of the drift region can transversely focus the beam to the longitudinal focal plane. This paper reports on simulation predictions and experimental progress toward realizing simultaneous transverse and longitudinal charge bunch focusing. The proposed NDCX-II facility would capitalize on the insights gained from NDCX simulations and measurements in order to provide a higher-energy (>2 MeV) ion beam user-facility for warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy-relevant target physics experiments.

  13. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge Initiative Arguably the most important infrastructure strategy to accelerate adoption of PEVs. Why are we doing Workplace Charging? * PEV Market Growth - Critical now...

  14. Sandia Energy - HCCI/SCCI Fundamentals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines can provide high, diesel-like efficiencies and very low emissions of NOx and particulate. In an HCCI engine, a...

  15. Sandia Energy - HCCI/SCCI Engine Fundamentals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines can provide high, diesel-like efficiencies and very low emissions of NOx and particulate. In an HCCI engine, a...

  16. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions.

  17. Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    is reached, the engine operates on propane fuel forpropane- fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition engine:while the engine operates steadily on propane as fuel (

  18. Managing transient behaviors of a dual mode spark ignition-- controlled auto ignition engine with a variable valve timing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoso, Halim G. (Halim Gustiono), 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has the potential of providing better fuel economy and emissions characteristics than current spark ignition engines. One implementation of this technology ...

  19. ANNOUNCEMENT Short-Term Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    , management, efficiency and environmental preservation. With increasing environmental awareness worldwide an up to date knowledge of the advances in these areas. SCOPE OF COURSE · Homogeneous charge compression

  20. Compression Progress, Pseudorandomness, & Hyperbolic Discounting Moshe Looks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    time t, h( t), may be encoded in a program p that generates the data h( t) as output by exploiting said generator (PRNG) using an unknown but accessible random seed, n bits long. Assuming that the PRNG is of high highly compressed), and en- tirely unpredictable (incompressible and not expected to yield to compression

  1. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  2. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  3. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  4. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  5. Secure Compressed Reading in Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Sheng; Chen, Minghua; Yan, Jianxin; Jaggi, Sidharth

    2012-01-01

    Smart Grids measure energy usage in real-time and tailor supply and delivery accordingly, in order to improve power transmission and distribution. For the grids to operate effectively, it is critical to collect readings from massively-installed smart meters to control centers in an efficient and secure manner. In this paper, we propose a secure compressed reading scheme to address this critical issue. We observe that our collected real-world meter data express strong temporal correlations, indicating they are sparse in certain domains. We adopt Compressed Sensing technique to exploit this sparsity and design an efficient meter data transmission scheme. Our scheme achieves substantial efficiency offered by compressed sensing, without the need to know beforehand in which domain the meter data are sparse. This is in contrast to traditional compressed-sensing based scheme where such sparse-domain information is required a priori. We then design specific dependable scheme to work with our compressed sensing based ...

  6. Compressed natural gas (CNG) measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, Z.D.; Goodson, F.D. [Daniel Flow Products, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The increased level of environmental awareness has raised concerns about pollution. One area of high attention is the internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine in and of itself is not a major pollution threat. However, the vast number of motor vehicles in use release large quantities of pollutants. Recent technological advances in ignition and engine controls coupled with unleaded fuels and catalytic converters have reduced vehicular emissions significantly. Alternate fuels have the potential to produce even greater reductions in emissions. The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been a significant alternative to accomplish the goal of cleaner combustion. Of the many alternative fuels under investigation, compressed natural gas (CNG) has demonstrated the lowest levels of emission. The only vehicle certified by the State of California as an Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) was powered by CNG. The California emissions tests of the ULEV-CNG vehicle revealed the following concentrations: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons 0.005 grams/mile Carbon Monoxide 0.300 grams/mile Nitrogen Oxides 0.040 grams/mile. Unfortunately, CNG vehicles will not gain significant popularity until compressed natural gas is readily available in convenient locations in urban areas and in proximity to the Interstate highway system. Approximately 150,000 gasoline filling stations exist in the United States while number of CNG stations is about 1000 and many of those CNG stations are limited to fleet service only. Discussion in this paper concentrates on CNG flow measurement for fuel dispensers. Since the regulatory changes and market demands affect the flow metering and dispenser station design those aspects are discussed. The CNG industry faces a number of challenges.

  7. Revealing the potential of Compressed Earth Blocks : a visual narration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabie, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) is a developed earth technology, in which unbaked brick is produced by compressing raw soil using manual, hydraulic, or mechanical compressing machines. Revealing the potential of an affordable ...

  8. Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral congenital melanocytic nevus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Malvehy J. Homogeneous blue pattern in an acral congenitalof a plantar combined blue nevus: a simulator of melanoma.Homogeneous blue pattern: A rare presentation in an acral

  9. New Homogeneous Chromophore/Catalyst Concepts for the Solar-Driven...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: New Homogeneous ChromophoreCatalyst Concepts for the Solar-Driven Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Homogeneous...

  10. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yifan; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wenxi; Fan, Ruirui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huanyu

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a sub detector of the DAMPE payload with an excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242um), which measures the incident direction of particles, as well as charge. The STK consists 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5m$^2$. The total readout channels of the STK are 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be dealt. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, which was initially verified by cosmic-ray measurements.

  11. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Gene K. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  12. A Computationally Based Approach to Homogenizing Advanced Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J

    2011-02-27

    We have developed a computationally based approach to optimizing the homogenization heat treatment of complex alloys. The Scheil module within the Thermo-Calc software is used to predict the as-cast segregation present within alloys, and DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformations) is used to model the homogenization kinetics as a function of time, temperature and microstructural scale. We will discuss this approach as it is applied to both Ni based superalloys as well as the more complex (computationally) case of alloys that solidify with more than one matrix phase as a result of segregation. Such is the case typically observed in martensitic steels. With these alloys it is doubly important to homogenize them correctly, especially at the laboratory scale, since they are austenitic at high temperature and thus constituent elements will diffuse slowly. The computationally designed heat treatment and the subsequent verification real castings are presented.

  13. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doyle, Glenn Michael (Lakewood, CO); Ideker, Virgene Linda (Arvada, CO); Siegwarth, James David (Boulder, CO)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  14. Rapid Compression Machine ? A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively Collaborate with Basic Energy Sciences Rapid Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

  15. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summary Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Executive Summary This is the executive summary of a report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air...

  16. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program: Final Report This is the final report on an evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge (CAC) training...

  17. Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured...

  18. Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Regulated Emissions from Diesel and Compressed Natural Gas Transit Buses Poster presentaiton at the 2007 Diesel...

  19. COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Compressed Air Energy Storage: The Bridge to Our Renewable Energy Future Mr. Al Cavallo Consultant Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a proven,...

  20. Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Title: Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Authors: Naumov, Ivan I. ;...

  1. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  2. Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned for the Safe Deployment of Vehicles Workshop Agenda: Compressed Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuels, Lesssons Learned...

  3. Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder These slides were presented at the Onboard...

  4. Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications Technical Assessment: Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage for Vehicular Applications Technical report...

  5. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  6. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications...

  7. Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen Storage Systems - Workshop Summary Report Research and Development Strategies for Compressed & Cryo-Hydrogen Storage Systems - Workshop...

  8. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications Technical report...

  9. Open Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed Hydrogen Storage at SAE-International Open Issues in the Development of Safety Standards for Compressed Hydrogen...

  10. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel...

  11. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

  12. H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II) H2A Delivery: Forecourt Compression & Storage Optimization (Part II) Presentation by Matthew Hooks of TIAX at the...

  13. Teleparallel Energy-Momentum Distribution of Spatially Homogeneous Rotating Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; M. Jamil Amir

    2007-12-08

    The energy-momentum distribution of spatially homogeneous rotating spacetimes in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity is investigated. For this purpose, we use the teleparallel version of Moller prescription. It is found that the components of energy-momentum density are finite and well-defined but are different from General Relativity. However, the energy-momentum density components become the same in both theories under certain assumptions. We also analyse these quantities for some special solutions of the spatially homogeneous rotating spacetimes.

  14. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  15. Photon: history, mass, charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B. Okun

    2006-02-13

    The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

  16. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    1990-01-01

    a small refrigerant charge. A new heat exchanger model based on tube-by-tube simulation was developed and integrated into the ORNL heat pump model. The model was capable of simulating the steady state response of a vapor compression air-to-air heat...

  17. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  18. GRADIENT THEORY FOR PLASTICITY VIA HOMOGENIZATION OF DISCRETE DISLOCATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garroni, Adriana

    GRADIENT THEORY FOR PLASTICITY VIA HOMOGENIZATION OF DISCRETE DISLOCATIONS ADRIANA GARRONI theory for plasticity from a model of discrete dislocations. We restrict our analysis to the case of a cylindrical symmetry for the crystal in exam, so that the mathematical formulation will involve a two

  19. Modal Analysis of Homogeneous Optical Waveguides by Boundary Integral Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modal Analysis of Homogeneous Optical Waveguides by Boundary Integral Method Lei Wang J. Allen Cox of the waveguide. Two dierent systems of boundary integral equations are derived for the numerical solutions of the discrete propagation constants; one of them is in the form of Fredholm integral equations of the second

  20. Homogenization of linear spatially periodic electronic Michel Lenczner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homogenization of linear spatially periodic electronic circuits Michel Lenczner January 20, 2006 Abstract: In this paper we establish a simplified model of general spatially periodic linear electronic is reported. 1 Introduction It is well known that when the size of an analog electronic network increases too

  1. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  2. Liquidity-Sensitive Automated Market Makers via Homogeneous Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stream of research in au- tomated market making is the design of liquidity-sensitive automated marketLiquidity-Sensitive Automated Market Makers via Homogeneous Risk Measures Abraham Othman and Tuomas. Automated market makers are algorithmic agents that pro- vide liquidity in electronic markets. A recent

  3. Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Homogeneous Catalysis Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with CÀH Activation (generated by dissolution[6] of Au2O3) react with methane at 1808C to selectively generate methanol (as a mixture of the ester and methanol) in high yield (Table 1, entries 1 and 2). As expected, the irreversible

  4. Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition C´edric Descamps, G propane pyrolysis is studied in a 1-D hot-wall CVD furnace. The gas-phase pyrolysis is modelled in previous reports [6]: total pressure equal to 2 kPa, temperature between 900 K and 1400 K, and pure propane

  5. Combining Homogenization and Registration Jan Modersitzki and Stefan Wirtz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modersitzki, Jan

    . The homogenization, for example, might be treated based on morphological operations, illumination models, and/or statistical approaches (Markov random fields). For the regis- tration part, there exists a variety on the maintenance of grayvalues and hence none of these measures allow for a correction of grayvalues

  6. Emergence of spacetime from topologically homogeneous causal networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Emergence of space­time from topologically homogeneous causal networks Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano a Accepted 5 April 2013 Available online 29 May 2013 Keywords: Special relativity Space­time emergence Causal networks a b s t r a c t In this paper we study the emergence of Minkowski space­time from a discrete

  7. INVARIANT, INTRA-CLASS RETRIEVAL IN HOMOGENEOUS IMAGE DATABASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan-Fang

    that can appear very similar to each other (what we call a "homogeneous" database, e.g., the FishBase containing thousands of fish images). The scheme comprises a global alignment and a local matching process. For example, scientific digital image libraries such as the FishBase [3] featuring thousands of images of fish

  8. Homogenized Maxwell's Equations; a Model for Varistor Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birnir, Björn

    Homogenized Maxwell's Equations; a Model for Varistor Ceramics Bj¨orn Birnir Niklas Wellander for a semiconducting ceramic material used in devices to pro- tect electrical equipment against overvoltages are associated with two types of failures in varistor ceramics. The upper bound corresponds two thermal heating

  9. Homogenized Maxwell's Equations; a Model for Varistor Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birnir, Björn

    Homogenized Maxwell's Equations; a Model for Varistor Ceramics BjË? orn Birnir Niklas Wellander for a semiconducting ceramic material used in devices to pro­ tect electrical equipment against overvoltages are associated with two types of failures in varistor ceramics. The upper bound corresponds two thermal heating

  10. The effect of temperature and homogenization pressure on enzymatic activity in cheese whey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Carmen, Maria Yanina

    1995-01-01

    Whey was homogenized by single and double stage homogenization at inlet temperatures of 12.8 and 35'C and at pressures up to 100 NTa. The proteolytic activity of the homogenized whey was determined by ninhydrin assay prior to homogenization...

  11. Single-Shot Femtosecond Electron Diffraction with Laser-Accelerated Electrons: Experimental Demonstration of Electron Pulse Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokita, Shigeki; Hashida, Masaki; Inoue, Shunsuke; Nishoji, Toshihiko; Otani, Kazuto; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-7501 (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    We report the first experimental demonstration of longitudinal compression of laser-accelerated electron pulses. Accelerated by a femtosecond laser pulse with an intensity of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, an electron pulse with an energy of around 350 keV and a relative momentum spread of about 10{sup -2} was compressed to a 500-fs pulse at a distance of about 50 cm from the electron source by using a magnetic pulse compressor. This pulse was used to generate a clear diffraction pattern of a gold crystal in a single shot. This method solves the space-charge problem in ultrafast electron diffraction.

  12. Method for compression of binary data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlin, G.J.

    1996-03-26

    The disclosed method for compression of a series of data bytes, based on LZSS-based compression methods, provides faster decompression of the stored data. The method involves the creation of a flag bit buffer in a random access memory device for temporary storage of flag bits generated during normal LZSS-based compression. The flag bit buffer stores the flag bits separately from their corresponding pointers and uncompressed data bytes until all input data has been read. Then, the flag bits are appended to the compressed output stream of data. Decompression can be performed much faster because bit manipulation is only required when reading the flag bits and not when reading uncompressed data bytes and pointers. Uncompressed data is read using byte length instructions and pointers are read using word instructions, thus reducing the time required for decompression. 5 figs.

  13. Robustness of Compressed Sensing in Sensor Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hern, Brett

    2008-05-22

    Compressed sensing is a new theory that is based on the fact that many natural images can be sparsely represented in an orthonormal wavelet basis. This theory holds valuable implications for wireless sensor networks because power and bandwidth...

  14. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  15. Method for compression of binary data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlin, Gary J. (Beech Island, SC)

    1996-01-01

    The disclosed method for compression of a series of data bytes, based on LZSS-based compression methods, provides faster decompression of the stored data. The method involves the creation of a flag bit buffer in a random access memory device for temporary storage of flag bits generated during normal LZSS-based compression. The flag bit buffer stores the flag bits separately from their corresponding pointers and uncompressed data bytes until all input data has been read. Then, the flag bits are appended to the compressed output stream of data. Decompression can be performed much faster because bit manipulation is only required when reading the flag bits and not when reading uncompressed data bytes and pointers. Uncompressed data is read using byte length instructions and pointers are read using word instructions, thus reducing the time required for decompression.

  16. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  17. Photon level chemical classification using digital compressive ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David S. Wilcox

    2012-11-09

    Oct 12, 2012 ... programmable binary optical filters designed to minimize the error in the chemical classification (or con- ...... troscopy, thus highlighting the power of compressive detection. ... Since the mirror switching time of our DMD.

  18. Compressing measurements in quantum dynamic parameter estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magesan, Easwar

    We present methods that can provide an exponential savings in the resources required to perform dynamic parameter estimation using quantum systems. The key idea is to merge classical compressive sensing techniques with ...

  19. Analysis of Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1992-01-01

    Arithmetic coding, in conjunction with a suitable probabilistic model, can pro- vide nearly optimal data compression. In this article we analyze the e ect that the model and the particular implementation of arithmetic ...

  20. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  1. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  2. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fast Charge - November 2012 WirelessInductive Charging Inductive charging, also known as wireless charging, uses an electromagnetic field to transfer electricity to a PEV without...

  4. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. Parametric internal waves in a compressible fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Kausik S; Bhattacharyay, A

    2007-01-01

    We describe the effect of vibration on a confined volume of fluid which is density stratified due to its compressibility. We show that internal gravity-acoustic waves can be parametrically destabilized by the vibration. The resulting instability is similar to the classic Faraday instability of surface waves, albeit modified by the compressible nature of the fluid. It may be possible to observe experimentally near a gas-liquid critical point.

  6. Exergy Analysis of Industrial Air Compression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bader, W. T.; Kissock, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    outdoor air temperature 50?F Average indoor air temperature 80?F Ambient air pressure 14.7 psia Compressed air pressure 115 psig = 129.7 psia Energy-Saving Recommendations Five recommendations to reduce operating costs of the compressed air system... were made. The first was to lower the activation setpoint pressure to 100 psig and standby setpoint pressure to 110 psig. This would reduce average plant air pressure from 115 to 105 psig, cutting energy costs and reducing wear and...

  7. Lossy compression of weak lensing data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.

    2011-07-12

    Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmicmore »rays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10-4. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.« less

  8. Nonlinear compressions in merging plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messer, S.; Case, A.; Wu, L.; Brockington, S.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the dynamics of merging supersonic plasma jets using an analytic model. The merging structures exhibit supersonic, nonlinear compressions which may steepen into full shocks. We estimate the distance necessary to form such shocks and the resulting jump conditions. These theoretical models are compared to experimental observations and simulated dynamics. We also use those models to extrapolate behavior of the jet-merging compressions in a Plasma Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion reactor.

  9. Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Galtier, E.; Milathianaki, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Kraus, R. G.; Eggert, J. H.; Fratanduono, D. E.; et al

    2015-09-04

    Pressure- and temperature-induced phase transitions have been studied for more than a century but very little is known about the non-equilibrium processes by which the atoms rearrange. Shock compression generates a nearly instantaneous propagating high-pressure/temperature condition while in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) probes the time-dependent atomic arrangement. Here we present in situ pump–probe XRD measurements on shock-compressed fused silica, revealing an amorphous to crystalline high-pressure stishovite phase transition. Using the size broadening of the diffraction peaks, the growth of nanocrystalline stishovite grains is resolved on the nanosecond timescale just after shock compression. At applied pressures above 18 GPa the nuclueationmore »of stishovite appears to be kinetically limited to 1.4±0.4 ns. The functional form of this grain growth suggests homogeneous nucleation and attachment as the growth mechanism. As a result, these are the first observations of crystalline grain growth in the shock front between low- and high-pressure states via XRD.« less

  10. Multiscale asymptotic homogenization analysis of thermo-diffusive composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bacigalupo; L. Morini; A. Piccolroaz

    2015-03-31

    In this paper an asymptotic homogenization method for the analysis of composite materials with periodic microstructure in presence of thermodiffusion is described. Appropriate down-scaling relations correlating the microscopic fields to the macroscopic displacements, temperature and mass concentration are introduced. The effects of the material inhomogeneities are described by perturbation functions derived from the solution of recursive cell problems. Exact expressions for the overall elastic and thermodiffusive constants of the equivalent first order thermodiffusive continuum are derived. The proposed approach is applied to the case of a two-dimensional bi-phase orthotropic layered material, where the effective elastic and thermodiffusive properties can be determined analytically. Considering this illustrative example and assuming periodic body forces, heat and mass sources acting on the medium, the solution performed by the first order homogenization approach is compared with the numerical results obtained by the heterogeneous model.

  11. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  12. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fukushima, Eiichi (Los Alamos, NM); Rath, Alan R. (San Diego, CA); Roeder, Stephen B. W. (La Mesa, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  13. Centrifugal cosmological repulsive force in a homogeneous universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko

    2011-03-21

    We study the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional worlds filled with radiation (3R-worlds). It is shown that the dynamics of these worlds with the additional fourth large-scale spatial dimension leads to an important effect. At 3R-worlds the forces of repulsion appear. The source of these forces is the thermal energy of the radiation that fills these worlds. In the four-dimensional space, these forces are centrifugal. They operate in an external for 3R-world spatial dimension and stretch it. In the three-dimensional comoving coordinate system the centrifugal forces shows themselves as forces of repulsion. Standard Einstein's equations do not describe these forces. Written generalized Einstein's equation describing the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, taking into consideration the centrifugal forces of repulsion. We propose a cosmological model of the universe, based on these equations. This model apply to explain the observation data.

  14. Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    1998-10-20

    A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

  15. Predicting the influence of long-range molecular interactions on macroscopic-scale diffusion by homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kekenes-Huskey, P. M.; Gillette, A. K.; McCammon, J. A.; Department of Chemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636

    2014-05-07

    The macroscopic diffusion constant for a charged diffuser is in part dependent on (1) the volume excluded by solute “obstacles” and (2) long-range interactions between those obstacles and the diffuser. Increasing excluded volume reduces transport of the diffuser, while long-range interactions can either increase or decrease diffusivity, depending on the nature of the potential. We previously demonstrated [P. M. Kekenes-Huskey et al., Biophys. J. 105, 2130 (2013)] using homogenization theory that the configuration of molecular-scale obstacles can both hinder diffusion and induce diffusional anisotropy for small ions. As the density of molecular obstacles increases, van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic interactions between obstacle and a diffuser become significant and can strongly influence the latter's diffusivity, which was neglected in our original model. Here, we extend this methodology to include a fixed (time-independent) potential of mean force, through homogenization of the Smoluchowski equation. We consider the diffusion of ions in crowded, hydrophilic environments at physiological ionic strengths and find that electrostatic and vdW interactions can enhance or depress effective diffusion rates for attractive or repulsive forces, respectively. Additionally, we show that the observed diffusion rate may be reduced independent of non-specific electrostatic and vdW interactions by treating obstacles that exhibit specific binding interactions as “buffers” that absorb free diffusers. Finally, we demonstrate that effective diffusion rates are sensitive to distribution of surface charge on a globular protein, Troponin C, suggesting that the use of molecular structures with atomistic-scale resolution can account for electrostatic influences on substrate transport. This approach offers new insight into the influence of molecular-scale, long-range interactions on transport of charged species, particularly for diffusion-influenced signaling events occurring in crowded cellular environments.

  16. Image Charge Differential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Image Charge Differential Amplifier FT 0 Crude Oil Time (s) 543210 Frequency (kHz) m/z m q B f organic molecules such as heavy crude oils. Heavy crudes are some of the most complex organic mixtures found in nature. As the crude oil industry grows in size and demand for crude oil increases, techniques

  17. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  18. Efficient Parallel Text Compression on GPUs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaoxi

    2012-02-14

    is the combination of LZ77 and arithmetic coding. The dictionary com- pressor produces a stream of literal symbols and phrase references, which encodes one symbol at a time by the range encoder, using a model to make a probability prediction of each bit. The GPU... with range coding. To speedup, we design and implement parallel range encoding on GPUs. Finally we copy the compressed data from device to host and output them to the compressed file. 10 CHAPTER IV PARALLEL FINDER AND MERGER A. Parallel Match Finder We...

  19. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1989-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter.

  20. Techniques for optically compressing light intensity ranges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, M.C.

    1989-03-28

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten uranium in an atomic vapor laser isotope separator (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. A number of different means for compressing the intensity range are disclosed. These include the use of photogray glass, the use of a pair of interference filters, and the utilization of a new liquid crystal notch filter in combination with an interference filter. 18 figs.

  1. Utilization of CO2 as cushion gas for porous media compressed air energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    of compressed air energy storage electric power systems.RH, Compressed Air Energy Storage: Theory, Resources, andmedia compressed air energy storage (PM-CAES): theory and

  2. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  3. On the estimation of the electromagnetic, elastodynamic and piezoelectric properties of homogenized composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The work in this thesis concerns the estimation of the electromagnetic, elastodynamic and piezoelectric properties of homogenized composite materials (HCMs). A composite may be considered homogeneous if wavelengths are ...

  4. Multiscale thermoelastic analysis of random heterogeneous materials Part I: Microstructure characterization and homogenization of material properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vel, Senthil

    characterization and homogenization of material properties Senthil S. Vel *, Andrew J. Goupee Department materials with random microstructure and understanding their thermomechanical properties. Realistic random mate- rial properties computed using the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) method. The material

  5. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing...

  6. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Olson, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M.; Bell, P.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D.; Collins, G.; Dixit, S.; Doppner, T.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S.; Grim, G.; Hatchett, S.; Jones, O.; Khan, S.; Kilkenny, J.; Kline, J.; Knauer, J.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O.; LePape, S.; Li, C. K.; Lindl, J.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Macphee, A.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Meyerhofer, D.; Moody, J.; Moses, E.; Nagel, S.R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M.; Ross, J. S.; Sangster, T. C.; Sepke, S.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W.; Spears, B.; Springer, P.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R.; Weber, S.; Wilson, D.; Zacharias, R.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2! higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.

  7. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A. B., E-mail: zylstra@mit.edu; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sinenian, N.; Sio, H. W. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Friedrich, S.; Bionta, R.; Atherton, J.; Barrios, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D{sup 3}He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D{sup 3}He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2× higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (?R) and the shell center-of-mass radius (R{sub cm}) from the downshift of the shock-produced D{sup 3}He protons. The observed ?R at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time (“short-coast”), while longer-coasting implosions have lower ?R. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (?800 ps) than in the short-coast (?400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel ?R.

  8. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hicks, D. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dewald, E. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meezan, N. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olson, R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Atherton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barrios, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Benedetti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berzak Hopkins, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Bradley, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Callahan, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Collins, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dixit, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edgell, D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenzer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grim, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hatchett, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khan, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kline, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knauer, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Kritcher, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kyrala, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Lindl, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Macphee, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2! higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infer the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time; this result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.

  9. The effect of shock dynamics on compressibility of ignition-scale National Ignition Facility implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Dewald, E. L.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Meezan, N. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; et al

    2014-11-03

    The effects of shock dynamics on compressibility of indirect-drive ignition-scale surrogate implosions, CH shells filled with D3He gas, have been studied using charged-particle spectroscopy. Spectral measurements of D3He protons produced at the shock-bang time probe the shock dynamics and in-flight characteristics of an implosion. The proton shock yield is found to vary by over an order of magnitude. A simple model relates the observed yield to incipient hot-spot adiabat, suggesting that implosions with rapid radiation-power increase during the main drive pulse may have a 2x higher hot-spot adiabat, potentially reducing compressibility. A self-consistent 1-D implosion model was used to infermore »the areal density (pR) and the shell center-of-mass radius (Rcm) from the downshift of the shock-produced D3He protons. The observed pR at shock-bang time is substantially higher for implosions, where the laser drive is on until near the compression bang time ('short-coast'), while longer-coasting implosions have lower pR. This corresponds to a much larger temporal difference between the shock- and compression-bang time in the long-coast implosions (~800 ps) than in the short-coast (~400 ps); this will be verified with a future direct bang-time diagnostic. This model-inferred differential bang time contradicts radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which predict constant 700–800 ps differential independent of coasting time. This result is potentially explained by uncertainties in modeling late-time ablation drive on the capsule. In an ignition experiment, an earlier shock-bang time resulting in an earlier onset of shell deceleration, potentially reducing compression and, thus, fuel pR.« less

  10. Development of a natural gas stratified charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sierens, R.; Verdonck, W.

    1985-01-01

    A water model has been used to determine the positions of separate inlet ports for a natural gas, stratified charge rotary engine. The flow inside the combustion chamber (mainly during the induction period) has been registered by a film camera. From these tests the best locations of the inlet ports have been obtained, a prototype of this engine has been built by Audi NSU and tested in the laboratories of the university of Gent. The results of these tests, for different stratification configurations, are given. These results are comparable with the best results obtained by Audi NSU for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine.

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV drivers and inform staff of charging policy.

  12. Periodic homogenization and material symmetry in linear elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariya Ptashnyk; Brian Seguin

    2015-05-07

    Here homogenization theory is used to establish a connection between the symmetries of a periodic elastic structure associated with the microscopic properties of an elastic material and the material symmetries of the effective, macroscopic elasticity tensor. Previous results of this type exist but here more general symmetries on the microscale are considered. Using an explicit example, we show that it is possible for a material to be fully anisotropic on the microscale and yet have a nontrivial material symmetry group on the macroscale. Another example demonstrates that not all material symmetries of the macroscopic elastic tensor are generated by symmetries of the periodic elastic structure.

  13. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy use in compressed air systems accounts for typically 10% of the total industrial electricity consumption. It also accounts for close to 99% of the CO2 footprint of an air compressor and approximately 80% of the life cycle costs of a...

  15. Compression Ring Wedged TF Coils (16)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Compression Ring Wedged TF Coils (16) Double Wall Vacuum Vessel Internal Shielding Control Coil W as an extension of the existing advanced tokamak program leading to an attractive magnetic fusion reactor (e among confinement, MHD self-heating, stability, edge physics and wave-particle interactions

  16. Compressed Sensing Off the Grid Gongguo Tang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recht, Ben

    Compressed Sensing Off the Grid Gongguo Tang , Badri Narayan Bhaskar , Parikshit Shah are not assumed to lie on a grid, but can assume any values in the normalized frequency domain [0, 1]. An atomic a discretization procedure to reduce the continuous parameter space to a finite set of grid points [1, 3, 22, 25

  17. Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure...

  18. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  19. Weak law of large numbers for some Markov chains along non homogeneous genealogies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Weak law of large numbers for some Markov chains along non homogeneous genealogies Vincent Bansaye goes to infinity. It is described by a discrete genealogy which may be time non-homogeneous and we pay of the trait of each individual along this genealogy and may also be time non- homogeneous. Such models

  20. Homogenization of a Conductive, Convective and Radiative Heat Transfer Problem in a Heterogeneous Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    motivations for this study, we focus on its application to the nuclear reactor industry and especially-cooled reactor. It is typically made of many prismatic blocks of graphite in which are inserted the nuclear fuel by an homogeneous averaged (or effective, or homogenized) one. The goal of homogenization theory [8], [10], [15

  1. Efficient Implementation Algorithm for a Homogenized Energy Model with Thermal Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient Implementation Algorithm for a Homogenized Energy Model with Thermal Relaxation Thomas R to implement the homogenized energy hysteresis model with thermal relaxation for both ferroelectric For Algorithm 1. Algorithm used to implement the homogenized energy model with negligible thermal relaxation

  2. Optically induced magnetization in homogeneous, undoped dielectric media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    frequencies is one half the electric dipole (ED) moment. As a consequence, magnetic dipole radiation generated dipole (ED). This is because only the electric field can generate linear charge acceleration and, and H2O at the fundamental input frequency. Excellent agreement is obtained with a classical magnetic

  3. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  4. Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the Martian magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the Martian magnetosphere J. S of largeamplitude "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations in the induced magnetosphere of Mars and discuss, and J. P. Eastwood (2011), Largeamplitude compressive "sawtooth" magnetic field oscillations

  5. Improving Compressed Air System Efficiency- Know What You Really Need 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrell, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Compressed air is often the most expensive utility in an industrial facility, and cost-effective efficiency opportunities in both the production and use of compressed air are often ignored by facility operators. Leaks, inappropriate uses...

  6. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    many facilities. Almost every industrial plant, from a small machine shop to an immense pulp and paper mill, has some type of compressed air system. In many cases, the compressed...

  7. Mechanical compression drives cancer cells toward invasive phenotype

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Janet M.

    Uncontrolled growth in a confined space generates mechanical compressive stress within tumors, but little is known about how such stress affects tumor cell behavior. Here we show that compressive stress stimulates migration ...

  8. 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas Applications 2015 - LNG Export, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Re-Exports & Long Term Natural Gas...

  9. CO? compression for capture-enabled power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suri, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate a new carbon dioxide compression technology - shock compression - applied specifically to capture-enabled power plants. Global warming has increased public interest in carbon ...

  10. Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Compressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ..............................................................................................................9 North Carolina CNG Case Study of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0006083. #12;2 6/2014 Introduction to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) What

  11. GPSZip : semantic representation and compression system for GPS using coresets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Cathy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    We present a semantic approach for compressing mobile sensor data and focus on GPS streams. Unlike popular text-compression methods, our approach takes advantage of the fact that agents (robotic, personal, or vehicular) ...

  12. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartmentAudits and6AuidtWorkplace Charging Summit

  13. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wörner, L.; Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans ; Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Couëdel, L.; Schwabe, M.; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Skvortsov, A.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2013-12-15

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between ?10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  14. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  15. Chemical Homogeneity in Collinder 261 and Implications for Chemical Tagging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. De Silva; K. C. Freeman; M. Asplund; J. Bland-Hawthorn; M. S. Bessell; R. Collet

    2006-11-28

    This paper presents abundances for 12 red giants of the old open cluster Collinder 261 based on spectra from VLT/UVES. Abundances were derived for Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zr and Ba. We find the cluster has a solar-level metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.03 dex. However some alpha elements were found to be enhanced. The star-to-star scatter was consistent with the expected measurement uncertainty for all elements. The observed rms scatter is as follows: Na = 0.07, Mg = 0.05, Si = 0.06, Ca = 0.05, Mn = 0.03, Fe = 0.02, Ni = 0.04, Zr = 0.12, and Ba = 0.03 dex. The intrinsic scatter was estimated to be less than 0.05 dex. Such high levels of homogeneity indicate that chemical information remains preserved in this old open cluster. We use the chemical homogeneity we have now established in Cr 261, Hyades and the HR1614 moving group to examine the uniqueness of the individual cluster abundance patterns, ie. chemical signatures. We demonstrate that the three studied clusters have unique chemical signatures, and discuss how other such signatures may be searched for in the future. Our findings support the prospect of chemically tagging disk stars to common formation sites in order to unravel the dissipative history of the Galactic disk.

  16. Summary of Compression Testing of U-10Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Burkes, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The mechanical properties of depleted uranium plus 10 weight percent molybdenum alloy have been evaluated by high temperature compression testing.

  17. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  18. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization Philip C. Efthimion a,, Erik P. Gilson a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    ]. In this longitudinal compression experiment, plasma was transported from a cathodic arc source to a meter distanceLong plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization Philip C. Efthimion a,Ã, Erik P. Gilson a Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543, USA b Lawrence Berkeley National

  19. Efficiency evaluation of the DISC (direct-injection stratified charge), DHC (dilute homogeneous charge), and DI Diesel engines (direct-injection diesel)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    The thermodynamic laws governing the Otto and diesel cycle engines and the possible approaches that might be taken to increase the delivered efficiency of the reciprocating piston engine are discussed. The generic aspects of current research are discussed and typical links between research and the technical barriers to the engines' development are shown. The advanced engines are discussed individually. After a brief description of each engine and its advantages, the major technical barriers to their development are discussed. Also included for each engine is a discussion of examples of the linkages between these barriers and current combustion and thermodynamic research. For each engine a list of questions is presented that have yet to be resolved and could not be resolved within the scope of this study. These questions partially indicate the limit to the state of knowledge regarding efficiency characteristics of the advanced engine concepts. The major technical barriers to each of the engines and their ranges of efficiency improvement are summarized.

  20. Stratified charge and homogeneous charge flowfields in natural gas fueled rotary engines. Interim report on task 2. 1. 7 combustion/stratification studies'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.

    1988-12-09

    Natural gas stratification and combustion in a rotary engine are studied with a three-dimensional model. The validated model could be employed as a useful tool in selection of optimum spark plug locations, number of spark plugs, spark timings, pocket geometry, and optimization studies of natural gas fired rotary engines.

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Available at energy.goveerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge Workplace Charging Challenge 5 Cumulative...

  2. Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Making a Cement Tray for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores Andrew Hansen, Ph, MS and Andrew Hansen, PhD. #12;A lever compression molding device for fabrication of Shape entitled "Making a Cement Upper Molding Surface for Compression Molding of Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores

  3. Efficient Resampling, Compression and Rendering of Metallic and Pearlescent Paint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    Efficient Resampling, Compression and Rendering of Metallic and Pearlescent Paint Martin Rump, Ralf}@cs.uni-bonn.de Abstract An interesting class of materials are metallic and pearlescent paints. They pose serious and pearlescent paint by compressing measured data. But until now the compression of the image based part is done

  4. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Analyzed the effects of higher hydrocarbon emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes

  5. Heating and Acceleration of Charged Particles by Weakly Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    understanding the heating of the solar wind, as well as thea typical proton in the solar wind experiences approximatelybeen extensively measured in the solar wind using in situ

  6. Modern Compressed Air Piping Selection and Design Can Have a Great Impact on Your Compressed Air Energy Dollars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ormer, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces new concepts in compressed air piping, sizing, and system design beyond the conventional pipe sizing charts and standard system layout guide lines. The author shows how compressed air velocity has a very significant impact...

  7. Fractional charges and Misner-Wheeler charge without charge effect in metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-12-08

    Optical space in metamaterials may be engineered to emulate four dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials mimics interaction of quantized electric charges. An electromagnetic wormhole is designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topology. Electromagnetic field configurations which exhibit fractional charges appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler charge without charge may be replicated.

  8. Effect of high pressure homogenization on lactic acid starter culture and the accelerated ripening of Cheddar cheese 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Ortiz, Monica Lizeth

    1998-01-01

    48 hours for 10 days. Homogenization increased endopeptidase, general aminopeptidase, and aminopeptidase A activity of the homogenized culture with greatest activity observed after homogenization at 90 MPa and nine cycles. Acid production was lowest...

  9. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Curran, Scott; Cho, Kukwon; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

  10. Bubble Evolution and Properties in Homogeneous Nucleation Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angélil, Raymond; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of naturally formed nano-bubbles in Lennard-Jones molecular dynamics simulations of liquid-to-vapor nucleation in the boiling and the cavitation regimes. The large computational volumes provide a realistic environment at unchanging average temperature and liquid pressure, which allows us to accurately measure properties of bubbles from their inception as stable, critically sized bubbles, to their continued growth into the constant speed regime. Bubble gas densities are up to 50$\\%$ lower than the equilibrium vapor densities at the liquid temperature, yet quite close to the gas equilibrium density at the lower gas temperatures measured in the simulations: The latent heat of transformation results in bubble gas temperatures up to 25$\\%$ below those of the surrounding bulk liquid. In the case of rapid bubble growth - typical for the cavitation regime - compression of the liquid outside the bubble leads to local temperature increases of up to 5$\\%$, likely significant enough to alter the...

  11. Renewal convergence rates and correlation decay for homogeneous pinning models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giambattista Giacomin

    2007-06-03

    A class of discrete renewal processes with super-exponentially decaying inter-arrival distributions coincides with the infinite volume limit of general homogeneous pinning models in their localized phase. Pinning models are statistical mechanics systems to which a lot of attention has been devoted both for their relevance for applications and because they are solvable models exhibiting a non-trivial phase transition. The spatial decay of correlations in these systems is directly mapped to the speed of convergence to equilibrium for the associated renewal processes. We show that close to criticality, under general assumptions, the correlation decay rate, or the renewal convergence rate, coincides with the inter-arrival decay rate. We also show that, in general, this is false away from criticality. Under a stronger assumption on the inter-arrival distribution we establish a local limit theorem, capturing thus the sharp asymptotic behavior of correlations.

  12. Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Krakoviack

    2010-12-05

    The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.

  13. Growth Kinetics of the Homogeneously Nucleated Water Droplets: Simulation Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; 10.1088/1742-6596/394/1/012023

    2012-01-01

    The growth of homogeneously nucleated droplets in water vapor at the fixed temperatures T=273, 283, 293, 303, 313, 323, 333, 343, 353, 363 and 373 K (the pressure $p=1$ atm.) is investigated on the basis of the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation data with the mW-model. The treatment of simulation results is performed by means of the statistical method within the mean-first-passage-time approach, where the reaction coordinate is associated with the largest droplet size. It is found that the water droplet growth is characterized by the next features: (i) the rescaled growth law is unified at all the considered temperatures and (ii) the droplet growth evolves with acceleration and follows the power law.

  14. The manufacture and performance of homogeneous microstructure SBR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Matthew A.; Stephenson, Keith; Weston, Rebecca

    2007-07-01

    In the early 1980's, British experience in the manufacture of mixed-oxide fast reactor fuel was used to develop a new thermal MOX manufacturing route called the Short Binder-less Route (SBR). Laboratory- scale development led to the manufacture of commercial PWR fuel in a small pilot plant, and the construction of the full-scale dual-line Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). SMP's first MOX assemblies are now under irradiation. SBR MOX is manufactured with 100% co-milled feedstock, leading to a microstructure dominated by a solid solution of (U,Pu)O{sub 2} at the nominal enrichment. A comprehensive fuel performance research programme has demonstrated the benign performance of SBR MOX up to 54 MWd/kgHM. In particular, the homogeneous microstructure is believed to be instrumental in the favourable fission gas retention and PCI resistance properties. (authors)

  15. Homogenization limit for a multiband effective mass model in heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morandi, O.

    2014-06-15

    We study the homogenization limit of a multiband model that describes the quantum mechanical motion of an electron in a quasi-periodic crystal. In this approach, the distance among the atoms that constitute the material (lattice parameter) is considered a small quantity. Our model include the description of materials with variable chemical composition, intergrowth compounds, and heterostructures. We derive the effective multiband evolution system in the framework of the kp approach. We study the well posedness of the mathematical problem. We compare the effective mass model with the standard kp models for uniform and non-uniforms crystals. We show that in the limit of vanishing lattice parameter, the particle density obtained by the effective mass model, converges to the exact probability density of the particle.

  16. Rotation Rate of Particle Pairs in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of particles in turbulent flow is important in many environmental and industrial applications. In this paper, the statistics of particle pair orientation is numerically studied in homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, with Taylor microscale Rynolds number of 300. It is shown that the Kolmogorov scaling fails to predict the observed probability density functions (PDFs) of the pair rotation rate and the higher order moments accurately. Therefore, a multifractal formalism is derived in order to include the intermittent behavior that is neglected in the Kolmogorov picture. The PDFs of finding the pairs at a given angular velocity for small relative separations, reveals extreme events with stretched tails and high kurtosis values. Additionally, The PDFs are found to be less intermittent and follow a complementary error function distribution for larger separations.

  17. Optimal thermalization in a shell model of homogeneous turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thalabard, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the turbulence-induced dissipation of the large scales in a statistically homogeneous flow using an "optimal closure," which one of us (BT) has recently exposed in the context of Hamiltonian dynamics. This statistical closure employs a Gaussian model for the turbulent scales, with corresponding vanishing third cumulant, and yet it captures an intrinsic damping. The key to this apparent paradox lies in a clear distinction between true ensemble averages and their proxies, most easily grasped when one works directly with the Liouville equation rather than the cumulant hierarchy. We focus on a simple problem for which the optimal closure can be fully and exactly worked out: the relaxation arbitrarily far-from-equilibrium of a single energy shell towards Gibbs equilibrium in an inviscid shell model of 3D turbulence. The predictions of the optimal closure are validated against DNS and contrasted with those derived from EDQNM closure.

  18. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Tao; Li, Na; Li, Qianwen; Xing, Zheng; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qian, Yitai, E-mail: ytqian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shen, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Highstar Battery Manufacturing CO., LTD (China)] [Jiangsu Highstar Battery Manufacturing CO., LTD (China)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ?. Highlights: ? We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ? The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ? Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ? The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  19. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  20. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the {open_quotes}small particle{close_quotes} mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible.

  1. The influence of inlet port design on the in-cylinder charge mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmadi-Befrui, B.; Brandstatter, W.; Kratochwill, H.; Troger, C.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the influence of intake port design on the in-cylinder flow structure during the intake and compression strokes, the mixing of the residual gas and a non-premixed intake charge, and the extent and pattern of charge inhomogenity near the time of combustion is described. The engine geometry is typical of the current lean-burn design and the study includes comparison of a helical (swirl) port and an idealized direct (no swirl) port designs. The results show marked dependence of the in-cylinder charge mixing characteristics on the intake port design. It is found that combinations of intake port design and manifold fuel injection timing produce favourable-stratified or irregularly-mixed charged distributions at the time of spark ignition. The consequences with respect to combustion characteristics are pointed out.

  2. Convective Heat Transport in Compressible Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akira Furukawa; Akira Onuki

    2002-02-01

    We present hydrodynamic equations of compressible fluids in gravity as a generalization of those in the Boussinesq approximation used for nearly incompressible fluids. They account for adiabatic processes taking place throughout the cell (the piston effect) and those taking place within plumes (the adiabatic temperature gradient effect). Performing two-dimensional numerical analysis, we reveal some unique features of plume generation and convection in transient and steady states of compressible fluids. As the critical point is approached, overall temperature changes induced by plume arrivals at the boundary walls are amplified, giving rise to overshoot behavior in transient states and significant noises of the temperature in steady states. The velocity field is suggested to assume a logarithmic profile within boundary layers. Random reversal of macroscopic shear flow is examined in a cell with unit aspect ratio. We also present a simple scaling theory for moderate Rayleigh numbers.

  3. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  4. Compression of ground-motion data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested.

  5. Training: Compressed Air Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsState ofSavings forTitleJuly 2012 Training WorkandCompressed

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:...

  7. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dreportoutcaci.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Charging Infrastructure Group E...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive...

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa...

  10. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  11. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles by 2023, which may substantially increase electricity usage and peak demand in high adoption areas. Understanding customer charging...

  12. Compression, Restoration, Re-sampling, Compressive Sensing: Fast Transforms in Digital Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslavsky, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Transform image processing methods are methods that work in domains of image transforms, such as Discrete Fourier, Discrete Cosine, Wavelet and alike. They are the basic tool in image compression, in image restoration, in image re-sampling and geometrical transformations and can be traced back to early 1970-ths. The paper presents a review of these methods with emphasis on their comparison and relationships, from the very first steps of transform image compression methods to adaptive and local adaptive transform domain filters for image restoration, to methods of precise image re-sampling and image reconstruction from sparse samples and up to "compressive sensing" approach that has gained popularity in last few years. The review has a tutorial character and purpose.

  13. Charge, from EM fields only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Collins

    2007-03-04

    Consider the electric field E about an electron. Its source has been thought a substance called charge, enclosed within a small volume that defines the size of the electron. Scattering experiments find no size at all. Charge is useful, but mysterious. This study concludes that charge is not real. Useful, but not real. Absent real charge, the electric field must look to a different source. We know another electric field, vxB, not sourced by charge. A simple model of the electron, using EM fields only, has been found that generates an electric field vxB very like E. Gauss' law finds the model contains charge, but div vxB cannot find the charge density. The model contains a permanent magnetic flux quantum, configured as a dipole. The dipolar B fields spin around the symmetry axis, accounting for angular momentum. Spin stabilizes the magnetic flux quantum, and creates the vxB electric field. Stability in this model is dynamic. Energy is exchanged between the dipolar magnetic moment and an encircling toroidal displacement current, at the Compton frequency, mc^2/h = 1.24x10^20 Hz. The electric field undulates at this rate, instead of being static like E associated with charge. Absent any real charge, we have to abandon the notion that size of a charged particle is that of a small sack full of charge. The only electric field is vxB, and its source is not charge. What is the size of an electron? Coulomb scattering finds it point-like, but its spinning B fields extend to infinity.

  14. Stable Charged Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigel, H. [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Quandt, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College , Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  15. Effects of Milan's Congestion Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnovale, Maria; Gibson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 44.5 [20] Transport for London,London, and Milan have congestion charges. In the US, the Department of Transportation

  16. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    technology provides PEV chargers that simultaneously connectall types, from public fast chargers that will relieve rangeto home and garage chargers used for everyday charging. As a

  17. Study of autoignition in a premixed charge, internal combustion engine using comprehensive chemical kinetics: experiments and predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimpelfeld, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is developed to predict autoignition in a premixed charge engine. Experimental data are obtained with spark ignition and premixed charge compression ignition. Seven fuels are examined: methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, methanol, ethylene, and propylene. Binary fuel mixtures are also examined, as are the effects of engine speed, equivalence ratio, load, and compression ratio. An initial temperature correction must be used to accurately predict the observed time of autoignition. Analysis of spark-ignited data show that the fuels fall into two groups, depending on the temperature correction ranging from 35 K to 80 K: methane, propane, n-butane, and methanol. Three fuels fall into the group with a temperature correction ranging from 110K and 140K: ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The rate of pressure rise during compression ignition is controlled by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The effects of compression ratio and load on the rate and load on the rate of pressure rise are also examined. The predicted rates of temperature rise during compression ignition are compared to the observed rates of temperature rise.

  18. Solar energy storage through the homogeneous electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide : photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathrum, Aaron John

    2011-01-01

    electricity from photovoltaic cells to convert CO 2 intoSolar Energy Anode Photovoltaic Cell Cathode PP Mesh SpacerCoupling a Photovoltaic Solar Cell with a Homogeneous

  19. Method of fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig Alan (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method for fabricating a homogeneous wire of inter-metallic alloy comprising the steps of providing a base-metal wire bundle comprising a metal, an alloy or a combination thereof; working the wire bundle through at least one die to obtain a desired dimension and to form a precursor wire; and, controllably heating the precursor wire such that a portion of the wire will become liquid while simultaneously maintaining its desired shape, whereby substantial homogenization of the wire occurs in the liquid state and additional homogenization occurs in the solid state resulting in a homogenous alloy product.

  20. International magnetic pulse compression workshop: (Proceedings)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

    1991-04-01

    A few individuals have tried to broaden the understanding of specific and salient pulsed-power topics. One such attempt is this documentation of a workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation), affording a truly international perspective by its participants under the initiative and leadership of Hugh Kirbie and Mark Newton of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and supported by other interested organizations. During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card--its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  1. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  2. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Dunlap, IL); Kilkenny, Jonathan P. (Peoria, IL); Fluga, Eric C. (Dunlap, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-04-03

    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.

  3. The Many Faces of a Compressed Air Audit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, H. L.

    2006-01-01

    of the production and compressed air-consuming end uses in the site. Consider: • 60% to 75% of the economic savings are projects in the demand side – improvements that not only save money, but also often improve quality and productivity – capital equipment..., have “in house”-developed audit teams or groups. Most of these personnel are well trained in basic compressed air theory as applied on the supply side, specifically with their specific type and brand of equipment. Compressed air systems...

  4. Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Weakly Compressible Fluid Interacting with Viscous Weakly Compressible Seabed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Weakly Compressible Fluid Interacting with Viscous Weakly@udel.edu, giorgio.bellotti@uniroma3.it 1. Objective Enhancement of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) Hydro/s) [2]. Study of the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion

  5. Holographic thermalization of charged operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Giordano; Nicolas E. Grandi; Guillermo A. Silva

    2014-12-26

    We study a light-like charged collapsing shell in AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime, investigating whether the corresponding Vaidya metric is supported by matter that satisfies the null energy condition. We find that, if the absolute value of the charge decreases during the collapse, energy conditions are fulfilled everywhere in spacetime. On the other hand, if the absolute value of the charge increases, the metric does not satisfy energy conditions in the IR region. Therefore, from the gauge/gravity perspective, this last case is only useful to study the thermalization of the UV degrees of freedom. For all these geometries, we probe the thermalization process with two point correlators of charged operators, finding that the thermalization time grows with the charge of the operator, as well as with the dimension of space.

  6. Guidelines for Selecting a Compressed Air System Service Provider

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    facilities in achieving greater reliability, improved quality control, and lower operating costs for their compressed air systems. The CAC encourages facilities to take a...

  7. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the...

  8. Low Bandwidth Video Compression with Variable Dimension Vector Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, R.; Fryer, R.J.; Cockshott, W.P.

    Lambert,R. Fryer,R.J. Cockshott,W.P. Mcgregor,D.R. Proceedings of the First Advanced Digital Video Compression Engineering Conference (Cambridge, UK)

  9. EA-1976: Emera CNG, LLC Compressed Natural Gas Project, Florida...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emera's CNG plant facilities to receive, dehydrate, and compress gas to fill pressure vessels with an open International Organization for Standardization (ISO) container frame...

  10. Multilayer compressive seal for sealing in high temperature devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung (Richland, WA); Stevenson, Jeffry W. (Richland, WA)

    2007-08-21

    A mica based compressive seal has been developed exhibiting superior thermal cycle stability when compared to other compressive seals known in the art. The seal is composed of compliant glass or metal interlayers and a sealing (gasket) member layer composed of mica that is infiltrated with a glass forming material, which effectively reduces leaks within the seal. The compressive seal shows approximately a 100-fold reduction in leak rates compared with previously developed hybrid seals after from 10 to about 40 thermal cycles under a compressive stress of from 50 psi to 100 psi at temperatures in the range from 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C.

  11. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  12. Fighting the curse of dimensionality: compressive sensing in exploration seismology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yilmaz, Ozgur

    1 Fighting the curse of dimensionality: compressive sensing in exploration seismology Felix J problems in seismic exploration to effectively fight the curse of dimensionality. Index Terms

  13. Compressible hydrodynamic flow of liquid crystals in 1-D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-08-17

    We consider the equation modeling the compressible hydrodynamic flow ... In this paper, we consider the one dimensional initial-boundary value problem for.

  14. Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant; Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air for your plant by periodically monitoring the compressor oper- ating hours and load duty cycle. * Use a systems approach while operating and maintaining a compressed air...

  15. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced CFD models for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion.

  16. Advanced CFD Models for High Efficiency Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for high efficiency compression-ignition engines can be used to show how turbulence-chemistry interactions influence autoignition and combustion. p-19raja.pdf More Documents &...

  17. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and...

  18. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  19. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith James Stanger

    2003-05-31

    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by {sup 31}P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]{sub 4}, [Rh(COD){sub 2}]{sup +}BF{sub 4}{sup -}, [Rh(COD)Cl]{sub 2}, and RhCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO{sub 2} are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh{sub 3}) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  20. Fuel cell separator with compressible sealing flanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mientek, A.P.

    1984-03-30

    A separator for separating adjacent fuel cells in a stack of such cells includes a flat, rectangular, gas-impermeable plate disposed between adjacent cells and having two opposite side margins thereof folded back over one side of the plate to form two first seal flanges and having the other side margins thereof folded back over the opposite side of the plate to form two second seal flanges, each of the seal flanges cooperating with the plate to define a channel in which is disposed a resiliently compressible stack of thin metal sheets. The two first seal flanges cooperate with the electrolyte matrix of one of the cells to form a gas-impermeable seal between an electrode of the one cell and one of two reactant gas manifolds. The second seal flanges cooperate with the electrolyte matrix of the other cell for forming a gas-impermeable seal between an electrode of the other cell and the other of the two reactant gas manifolds. The seal flanges cooperate with the associated compressible stacks of sheets for maintaining a spacing between the plate and the electrolyte matrices while accommodating variation of that spacing.

  1. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  2. Frequency extrapolation by nonconvex compressive sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chartrand, Rick; Sidky, Emil Y; Pan, Xiaochaun

    2010-12-03

    Tomographic imaging modalities sample subjects with a discrete, finite set of measurements, while the underlying object function is continuous. Because of this, inversion of the imaging model, even under ideal conditions, necessarily entails approximation. The error incurred by this approximation can be important when there is rapid variation in the object function or when the objects of interest are small. In this work, we investigate this issue with the Fourier transform (FT), which can be taken as the imaging model for magnetic resonance imaging (MRl) or some forms of wave imaging. Compressive sensing has been successful for inverting this data model when only a sparse set of samples are available. We apply the compressive sensing principle to a somewhat related problem of frequency extrapolation, where the object function is represented by a super-resolution grid with many more pixels than FT measurements. The image on the super-resolution grid is obtained through nonconvex minimization. The method fully utilizes the available FT samples, while controlling aliasing and ringing. The algorithm is demonstrated with continuous FT samples of the Shepp-Logan phantom with additional small, high-contrast objects.

  3. Application of the Hanbury BrownTwiss effect to scattering from quasi-homogeneous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Taco D.

    Application of the Hanbury Brown­Twiss effect to scattering from quasi-homogeneous media David: Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect Scattering Born approximation Quasi-homogeneous media Inverse scattering a b scattering media, is studied by the use of the Hanbury Brown­Twiss effect. In particular the two

  4. Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Performance Using a Three-Phase Homogeneous Model N-phase homogeneous model was developed to simulate the performance of the molten carbonate fuel cell MCFC cathode received June 18, 2002. Available electronically November 15, 2002. Molten carbonate fuel cells MCFCs

  5. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  6. Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    Thermal Decomposition of Dichlorosilane Investigated by Pulsed Laser Powered Homogeneous Pyrolysis powered homogeneous pyrolysis of dichlorosilane are reported. Pyrolyses at temperatures of 1350 to 1700 K in both static pyrolysis exper- iments and using a single-pulse shock tube. They conclud- ed

  7. Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    Homogenization in random media and effective medium theory for high frequency waves Guillaume Bal May 1, 2007 Abstract We consider the homogenization of the wave equation with high frequency initial density of high frequency waves propagating in highly heterogeneous media when the wavelength is much

  8. RECOVERING A TIME-HOMOGENEOUS STOCK PRICE PROCESS FROM PERPETUAL OPTION PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECOVERING A TIME-HOMOGENEOUS STOCK PRICE PROCESS FROM PERPETUAL OPTION PRICES ERIK EKSTR¨OM AND DAVID HOBSON Abstract. It is well-known how to determine the price of perpetual American options if the underlying stock price is a time-homogeneous diffusion. In the present paper we consider the inverse problem

  9. ONE-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-HOMOGENEOUS PACKED BED REACTOR MODELING INCLUDING NO-CO KINETICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Anand

    2011-08-31

    -homogeneous packed bed reactor model for this type of reactor setup built in collaboration with the Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department at the University of Kansas. A brief summary of the pseudo-homogeneous model is presented in order to properly develop...

  10. Fluorescence Lifetime of Emitters with Broad Homogeneous Linewidths Modified in Opal Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    Fluorescence Lifetime of Emitters with Broad Homogeneous Linewidths Modified in Opal Photonic, 2008 We have investigated the dynamics of spontaneous emission from dye molecules embedded in opal optical frequency and crystal lattice parameter of the polystyrene opals. Due to the broad homogeneous

  11. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  12. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    Williams, Compressed air energy storage: Theory, resources,for the compressed air energy storage technology by thefor compressed air energy storage power generation, Japan

  13. The roles of depth varying mechanical properties and permeability of the deep boundary condition in confined compression of articular cartilage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, John J.

    2011-01-01

    confined compression creep test of normal and proteoglycan-confined compression creep test of normal and proteoglycan-a stress-relaxation or creep test in confined compression,

  14. Lubrication by charged polymers , Suzanne Giasson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    .............................................................. Lubrication by charged polymers Uri lubricants between sliding charged surfaces8 . Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectro- lytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared

  15. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  16. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, K.

    2011-01-01

    electron spectrometer [24] before sending the e-beam to charge diagnostics,electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnosticselectron spectrom- eter was turned off to send e-beams to charge diagnostics.

  17. On-the-Fly Processing of Compressed Volume Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    On-the-Fly Processing of Compressed Volume Data a dissertation presented by Chuan-kai Yang in computer science Stony Brook University August 2002 #12; Copyright by Chuan-kai Yang 2002 #12; Abstract of the Dissertation On-the-Fly Processing of Compressed Volume Data by Chuan-kai Yang Doctor of Philosphy in Computer

  18. Novel Spark Plugs Improve Energy Efficiency of Compressed Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    use affects climate change. Vehicles operating on compressed natural gas reduce petroleum fuel use. A need exists for lightduty vehicle natural gas engine technologies to increase market penetration of compressed natural gas vehicles. These technologies must be costeffective and innovative while still

  19. Transmission Line Resistance Compression Networks for Microwave Rectifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Transmission Line Resistance Compression Networks for Microwave Rectifiers Taylor W. Barton, Joshua--This work presents a development of multi-way transmission-line resistance compression networks (TLRCNs) and their application to rf-to-dc conversion. We derive analytical expressions for the behavior of TLRCNs, and describe

  20. Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhongfei "Mark"

    Compressed Gas Cylinder Safety I. Background. Due to the nature of gas cylinders hazards of a ruptured cylinder. There are almost 200 different types of materials in gas cylinders, there are several general procedures to follow for safe storage and handling of a compressed gas cylinder: II

  1. Circle criterion observer for a compression system Bjrnar Bhagen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    .gravdahl@itk.ntnu.no Abstract-- Observers for a compression system using turbo compressors are derived for a model that captures speed. Results are validated by simulations. I. MOTIVATION Compression systems using turbo compressors, centrifugal or axial, are exposed to the phenomenons of surge and rotating stall. Surge is an axisymmtrical

  2. Pulse compression in plasma: generation of femtosecond pulses without CPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulse compression in plasma: generation of femtosecond pulses without CPA G. Shvets and N. J. Fisch Garching, Germany Abstract: Laser pulses can be e#ciently compressed to femto­ second duration when a smaller­ frequency short pulse collides with high frequency long pulse in rare plasma, absorbing most

  3. Compressed Sensing Environmental Mapping by an Autonomous Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    Compressed Sensing Environmental Mapping by an Autonomous Robot M. Horning, M. Lin, S. Srinivasan of compressed sens- ing for autonomous robots performing environmental mapping in order to reduce data collection, storage, and transmission requirements. A prototype robot sends data collected over adaptively

  4. Making a Lever Compression Molding Machine for Shape&Roll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    1 Making a Lever Compression Molding Machine for Shape&Roll Prosthetic Foot Cores Andrew Hansen, Ph on building the lever compression molding device shown above. The parts of the molding device are identified on pages 2-7. These pages will serve as useful reminders during the construction of the molding device. #12

  5. Recovery of partially occluded objects by applying compressive Fresnel holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    Recovery of partially occluded objects by applying compressive Fresnel holography Yair Rivenson,1, 2012; posted March 2, 2012 (Doc. ID 161160); published May 15, 2012 A compressive Fresnel holography, and is given by px. This may be regarded as a subsampling of the object's Fresnel field; hence the motivation

  6. Lower Bounds on Interactive Compressibility by Constant-Depth Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Lower Bounds on Interactive Compressibility by Constant-Depth Circuits Arkadev Chattopadhyay to prove the first lower bounds on general probabilistic multi-round instance compression. We show, and strengthens results of Dubrov and Ishai [DI06]. We also show that a similar lower bound holds for Majority. We

  7. Rarefactive and compressive soliton waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma with non-thermal electron and ion distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslami, Esmaeil Baraz, Rasoul

    2014-02-15

    Sagdeev's pseudo potential method is employed to study dust acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma containing negatively charged dusts with non-thermal electron and ion. The range of parameters for the existence of solitary waves using the analytical expression of the Sagdeev potential has been found. It is observed that, depending on the values of the plasma parameters like ion to electron temperature ratio ?, non-thermal parameters ? and ?, electron to ion density ratio ?, and the value of the Mach number M, both rarefactive and compressive solitary waves may exist.

  8. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    This report provides a review and an analysis of potential environmental justice areas that could be affected by the New York State Electric & Gas (NYSEG) compress air energy storage (CAES) project and identifies existing environmental burden conditions on the area and evaluates additional burden of any significant adverse environmental impact. The review assesses the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the area surrounding the proposed CAES facility in Schuyler County, New York. Schuyler County is one of 62 counties in New York. Schuyler County’s 2010 population of 18,343 makes it one of the least populated counties in the State (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). This report was prepared for WorleyParsons by ERM and describes the study area investigated, methods and criteria used to evaluate this area, and the findings and conclusions from the evaluation.

  9. Shock compression of low-density foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, N.C.

    1993-07-01

    Shock compression of very low density micro-cellular materials allows entirely new regimes of hot fluid states to be investigated experimentally. Using a two-stage light-gas gun to generate strong shocks, temperatures of several eV are readily achieved at densities of roughly 0.5--1 g/cm{sup 3} in large, uniform volumes. The conditions in these hot, expanded fluids are readily found using the Hugoniot jump conditions. We will briefly describe the basic methodology for sample preparation and experimental measurement of shock velocities. We present data for several materials over a range of initial densities. This paper will explore the applications of these methods for investigations of equations of state and phase diagrams, spectroscopy, and plasma physics. Finally, we discus the need for future work on these and related low-density materials.

  10. Combustion dynamics in steady compressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Berti; D. Vergni; A. Vulpiani

    2008-07-03

    We study the evolution of a reactive field advected by a one-dimensional compressible velocity field and subject to an ignition-type nonlinearity. In the limit of small molecular diffusivity the problem can be described by a spatially discretized system, and this allows for an efficient numerical simulation. If the initial field profile is supported in a region of size l < lc one has quenching, i.e., flame extinction, where lc is a characteristic length-scale depending on the system parameters (reacting time, molecular diffusivity and velocity field). We derive an expression for lc in terms of these parameters and relate our results to those obtained by other authors for different flow settings.

  11. Clifford Residues and Charge Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus S. Cohen

    2002-07-26

    We derive the quantization of action, particle number, and electric charge in a Lagrangian spin bundle over M equivalent M_# union D_J, Penrose's conformal compactification of Minkowsky space, with the world tubes of massive particles removed.

  12. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (Berkeley, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Garguilo, Michael G. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  13. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  14. Seismic pore space compressibility and Gassmann`s relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Rock Physics Lab.] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Rock Physics Lab.

    1995-11-01

    The pore space compressibility of a rock provides a robust, model-independent descriptor of porosity and pore fluid effects on effective moduli. The pore space compressibility is also the direct physical link between the dry and fluid-saturated moduli, and is therefore the basis of Gassmann`s equation for fluid substitution. For a fixed porosity, an increase in pore space compressibility increase the sensitivity of the modulus to fluid substitution. Two simple techniques, based on pore compressibility, are presented for graphically applying Gassmann`s relation for fluid substitution. In the first method, the pore compressibility is simply reweighted with a factor that depends only on the ratio of fluid to mineral bulk modulus. In the second technique, the rock moduli are rescaled using the Reuss average, which again depends only on the fluid and mineral moduli.

  15. Correlation and image compression for limited-bandwidth CCD.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Douglas G.

    2005-07-01

    As radars move to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with limited-bandwidth data downlinks, the amount of data stored and transmitted with each image becomes more significant. This document gives the results of a study to determine the effect of lossy compression in the image magnitude and phase on Coherent Change Detection (CCD). We examine 44 lossy compression types, plus lossless zlib compression, and test each compression method with over 600 CCD image pairs. We also derive theoretical predictions for the correlation for most of these compression schemes, which compare favorably with the experimental results. We recommend image transmission formats for limited-bandwidth programs having various requirements for CCD, including programs which cannot allow performance degradation and those which have stricter bandwidth requirements at the expense of CCD performance.

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery charging and discharging. Researchers first charged commercial-grade battery cells to 50% full in 30 minutes, mimicking real world conditions. Then, the battery cell...

  17. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Wednesday, 28 August 2013 00:00 Accentuating the...

  18. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  19. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E Breakout Report EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Charging Infrastructure Group E Breakout Report Breakout session presentation for the EV...

  20. Bringing Your Workplace Charging Story to Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    charging workshops * Other community events 10 Shannon.shea@ee.doe.gov http:energy.goveerevehiclesvehicle-technologies-office-ev-everywhere- workplace-charging-challenge 11...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Information VEIC's Mission Workplace Charging News June 23, 2014 VEIC now an EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Partner The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is...

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase...

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  4. AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is an analysis of bi-directional fast charging, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  5. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Volume 8 | Issue 3 | e58523 Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV)Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on aThis paper introduces novel vacuum/compression valves (VCVs)

  6. Measurement of Mechanical Compressive Properties and Densification Energy Requirement of Miscanthus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To design compression machinery in general, it is essential to determine the me- chanical properties percentage after compression is needed to design low-cost containerization methods for highly compressed

  7. Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Toolkit Region(s): Australia & North America Related Tools The BEST Experiences with Bioethanol Buses Sustainable Transport and Climate Process Business Case for Compressed Natural...

  8. Maximize LLC effective capacity to reduce system energy! Compressed Caching: Compressing and compacting cache blocks Limits of previous work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    Maximize LLC effective capacity to reduce system energy! Compressed Caching: Compressing and compacting cache blocks Limits of previous work: - Limited number of tags - Internal fragmentation - Energy system energy Limited # Tags Internal fragmentation Potentially 3.9X larger LLC VSC-2X achieves only 1.6X

  9. Two-stage crystallization of charged colloids at low supersaturations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Kratzer; Axel Arnold

    2014-10-31

    We report simulations on the homogeneous liquid-fcc nucleation of charged colloids for both low and high contact energy values. As a precursor for crystal formation, we observe increased local order at the position where the crystal will form, but no correlations with the local density. Thus, the nucleation is driven by order fluctuations rather than density fluctuations. Our results also show that the transition involves two stages in both cases, first a transition liquid-bcc, followed by a bcc-hcp/fcc transition. Both transitions have to overcome free energy barriers, so that a spherical bcc-like cluster is formed first, in which the final fcc-like structure is nucleated mainly at the surface of the crystallite. This means that the bcc-fcc phase transition is a heterogeneous nucleation, even though we start from a homogeneous bulk liquid. The height of the bcc-hcp/fcc free energy barrier strongly depends on the contact energies of the colloids. For low contact energy this barrier is low, so that the bcc-hcp/fcc transition happens spontaneously. For the higher contact energy, the second barrier is too high to be crossed spontaneously by the colloidal system. However, it was possible to ratchet the system over the second barrier and to transform the bcc nuclei into the stable hcp/fcc phase. The transitions are dominated by the first liquid-bcc transition and can be described by Classical Nucleation Theory using an effective surface tension.

  10. High efficiency coarse-grained customised dynamically reconfigurable architecture for digital image processing and compression technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xin

    2012-06-25

    Digital image processing and compression technologies have significant market potential, especially the JPEG2000 standard which offers outstanding codestream flexibility and high compression ratio. Strong demand for ...

  11. Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)-Powered Vehicles Lung Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Emissions From Heavy-Duty Compressed...

  12. Lossy compression of weak lensing data (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lossy compression of weak lensing data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lossy compression of weak lensing data You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  13. Lossy compression of weak lensing data (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lossy compression of weak lensing data Future orbiting observatories will survey...

  14. A METHOD FOR STATIC-FIELD COMPRESSION IN AN ELECTRON-RING ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laslett, L.Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Electron Rings Through Static Compression Fields, Lawrence289. N. C. Christofilos, Static Compression of' Relativisticcurrenl----.. I Fig. ::> Static compressor having a

  15. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston design on the practical load range of bio-fueled Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion.

  16. A Decision-Based Analysis of Compressed Air Usage Patterns in Automotive Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Chris; Zhang, Teresa; Rangarajan, Arvind; Dornfeld, David; Ziemba, Bill; Whitbeck, Rod

    2006-01-01

    Air Usage Patterns in Automotive Manufacturing Chris Y. Yuanper vehicle built from automotive manufacturing facilities,2004). Compressed Air in Automotive Manufacturing Compressed

  17. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  18. Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1 , Vadim Levit1 , Tal Grinshpoun2 , and Amnon Meisels1 1 games · EV charging · V2G · Distributed search 1 Introduction Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an important to be charged daily. When parked during office hours, EVs are expected to charge in a well-balanced pattern

  19. Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers R. J. KLINE AND M. D. McGEHEE Department charge transport and morphology is key to increasing the charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymers to provide insight into how the charge carriers move through a conjugated polymer film and provide a model

  20. Effect of homogenization pressure, lipid content, and emulsifier content on the rheological properties of yogurt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaar Sansur, Patricia Mary

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of high pressure homogenization lipid hics. content, and surfactant on the rheological properties of yogurt were evaluated. NFDM, cream, and a nontoxic emulsifier (Tween 20) were combined to obtain samples with of 0% and 2% fat...

  1. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR COMPUTING NONLINEAR EIGENPAIRS: PART II. NON ISO-HOMOGENEOUS CASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jianxin

    for solving the problems, we consider the following variational nonlinear eigenproblem (NEP): for given > 0 packages are available. When either F or G is nonlinear, (1.7) is a NEP. Recall that an NEP is homogeneous

  2. Analysis and optimization of heterogeneous materials using the variational asymptotic method for unit cell homogenization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Wenbin

    1 Analysis and optimization of heterogeneous materials using the variational asymptotic method material and void are mixed artifi- cially. Keywords: Topology optimization; Homogenization method; Unit of the effective properties of periodically heterogeneous materials, within a periodic base cell. The sensitivities

  3. Thermodynamics In Einstein equation, the energy momentum tensor of homogeneous, isotropic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    Thermodynamics In Einstein equation, the energy momentum tensor of homogeneous, isotropic fluid using the 1st law of thermodynamics, T = (U/S)V . Since U = V is expressed in terms of the temperature

  4. NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures Jeffrey M-NOx reactions is used to estimate maximum attainable formaldehyde (and methanol) yields

  5. Direct current dielectric barrier assistant discharge to get homogeneous plasma in capacitive coupled discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yinchang; Li, Yangfang; Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to get more homogeneous plasma in the geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma (CCP) discharge. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the auxiliary discharge system to improve the homogeneity of the geometrically asymmetric CCP discharge. The single Langmuir probe measurement shows that the DBD can increase the electron density in the low density volume, where the DBD electrodes are mounted, when the pressure is higher than 5?Pa. By this manner, we are able to improve the homogeneity of the plasma production and increase the overall density in the target volume. At last, the finite element simulation results show that the DC bias, applied to the DBD electrodes, can increase the homogeneity of the electron density in the CCP discharge. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment results.

  6. A novel approach to make homogeneous protease-stable monovalent streptavidin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, M.; Shao, J; Xiao, J.; Deng, W.; Yu, H.

    2015-06-11

    The interaction between the tetramer streptavidin and biotin is recognized as one of the strongest non-covalent associations. Owing to the tight and specific binding, the streptavidin-biotin system has been used widely for bimolecular labeling, purification, immobilization, and even for targeted delivery of therapeutics drugs. Here, we report a novel approach to make homogeneous monovalent tetramer streptavidin. The purified monovalent protein showed both thermal stability and protease stability. Unexpectedly, we found that two proteases, Proteinase K (PK) and Subtilisin (SU), can efficiently remove the His8-tag from the wild-type subunit without affecting the tetramer architecture of monovalent streptavidin, thus making it moremore »homogeneous. In addition, crystallization was performed to assure the homogeneity of the monovalent protein prepared. Overall, monovalent streptavidin shows increased homogeneity and will likely be valuable for many future applications in a wide range of research areas.« less

  7. Architectural Gear Ratio and Muscle Fiber Strain Homogeneity in Segmented Musculature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azizi, Manny

    axis of bending (vertebral column). In this study we use the relatively simple architecture homogeneity in segmented musculature. J. Exp. Zool. 307A:145­155. At the sarcomere level, all vertebrate

  8. Can compressed sensing beat the Nyquist sampling rate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslavsky, L

    2015-01-01

    Data saving capability of "Compressed sensing (sampling)" in signal discretization is disputed and found to be far below the theoretical upper bound defined by the signal sparsity. On a simple and intuitive example, it is demonstrated that, in a realistic scenario for signals that are believed to be sparse, one can achieve a substantially larger saving than compressing sensing can. It is also shown that frequent assertions in the literature that "Compressed sensing" can beat the Nyquist sampling approach are misleading substitution of terms and are rooted in misinterpretation of the sampling theory.

  9. Testing the gamma-ray burst variability/peak luminosity correlation on a Swift homogeneous sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Rizzuto; C. Guidorzi; P. Romano; S. Covino; S. Campana; M. Capalbi; G. Chincarini; G. Cusumano; D. Fugazza; V. Mangano; A. Moretti; M. Perri; G. Tagliaferri

    2007-04-19

    We test the gamma-ray burst correlation between temporal variability and peak luminosity of the $\\gamma$-ray profile on a homogeneous sample of 36 Swift/BAT GRBs with firm redshift determination. This is the first time that this correlation can be tested on a homogeneous data sample. The correlation is confirmed, as long as the 6 GRBs with low luminosity (tested on low-luminosity GRBs. Our results show that these GRBs are definite outliers.

  10. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  11. Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Kim; Sei-Hoon Moon

    2007-10-02

    We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings including black hole solutions in theories with more complicated field contents, by addressing the no hair theorem for black holes and the phenomenon of field expulsion exhibited by extremal black holes.

  12. Failure of silicon nitride under uniaxial compression at high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gei, Massimiliano

    nitride cylinders have been investigated under uniaxial compression at 1200 °C in air. Samples has been carried out in order to de- scribe the onset of the specific failure mode. The first failure

  13. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  14. Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

  15. MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD Andreja Kutnar* Graduate Student Department of Wood Science and Technology Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Frederick A. Kamke Professor John A. Nairn Professor Department of Wood Science

  16. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-11-01

    NREL will produce this sourcebook for DOE's Industrial Technologies Office as part of a series of documents on industrial energy equipment. The sourcebook is a reference for industrial compressed air system users, outlining opportunities to improve system efficiency.

  17. Grid adaptation for functional outputs of compressible flow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, David Anthony, 1973-

    2002-01-01

    An error correction and grid adaptive method is presented for improving the accuracy of functional outputs of compressible flow simulations. The procedure is based on an adjoint formulation in which the estimated error in ...

  18. Outphasing Energy Recovery Amplifier With Resistance Compression for Improved Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Joel L.

    We describe a new outphasing energy recovery amplifier (OPERA) which replaces the isolation resistor in the conventional matched combiner with a resistance-compressed rectifier for improved efficiency. The rectifier recovers ...

  19. Pre-In-Plant Training Webinar (Compressed Air)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pre-In-Plant training webinar for the Better Plants Program covers the basics of finding energy savings in Compressed Air systems and introduces the AIRMaster+ software tool.

  20. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge(R) Training Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    these fields was missing from the attendee record. 6 Number of participants reported by ORCMACRO, Calvert, MD on behalf of the Compressed Air Challenge. 7 As of January, 2004 the...

  1. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure for more information on briquettes). Because they are made from very dry wood, pellets have a very high/TS 14961. Pellets are usually wood

  2. Weak-strong clustering transition in renewing compressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajinkya Dhanagare; Stefano Musacchio; Dario Vincenzi

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of Lagrangian tracers transported by a time-correlated compressible renewing flow. We show that the preferential sampling of the phase space performed by tracers yields significant differences between the Lagrangian statistics and its Eulerian counterpart. In particular, the effective compressibility experienced by tracers has a non-trivial dependence on the time correlation of the flow. We examine the consequence of this phenomenon on the clustering of tracers, focusing on the transition from the weak- to the strong-clustering regime. We find that the critical compressibility at which the transition occurs is minimum when the time correlation of the flow is of the order of the typical eddy turnover time. Further, we demonstrate that the clustering properties in time-correlated compressible flows are non-universal and are strongly influenced by the spatio-temporal structure of the velocity field.

  3. High compressibility of a flexible metal–organic framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra-Crespo P.; Stavitski E.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2012-03-22

    The metal-organic framework NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(In) shows a very high amorphization resistance (>20 GPa) together with a large compressibility (K{sub 0} = 10.9 GPa).

  4. Nuclear-Matter Compressibility from Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlomo, S.; Youngblood, David H.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the status of the nuclear matter compressibility K(nm) obtained from experimental data of the strength distribution of the giant monopole resonance in nuclei and employing a least-squares fit to a semiempirical ...

  5. Data compression for the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahnen, M L; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Bretz, T; Buß, J; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First Geiger-mode Avalanche photodiode (G-APD) Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) has been operating on the Canary island of La Palma since October 2011. Operations were automated so that the system can be operated remotely. Manual interaction is required only when the observation schedule is modified due to weather conditions or in case of unexpected events such as a mechanical failure. Automatic operations enabled high data taking efficiency, which resulted in up to two terabytes of FITS files being recorded nightly and transferred from La Palma to the FACT archive at ISDC in Switzerland. Since long term storage of hundreds of terabytes of observations data is costly, data compression is mandatory. This paper discusses the design choices that were made to increase the compression ratio and speed of writing of the data with respect to existing compression algorithms. Following a more detailed motivation, the FACT compression algorithm along with the associated I/O layer is discussed. Eventually, the performances...

  6. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using compressed natural gas.

  7. Weak-strong clustering transition in renewing compressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhanagare, Ajinkya; Vincenzi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of Lagrangian tracers transported by a time-correlated compressible renewing flow. We show that the preferential sampling of the phase space performed by tracers yields significant differences between the Lagrangian statistics and its Eulerian counterpart. In particular, the effective compressibility experienced by tracers has a non-trivial dependence on the time correlation of the flow. We examine the consequence of this phenomenon on the clustering of tracers, focusing on the transition from the weak- to the strong-clustering regime. We find that the critical compressibility at which the transition occurs is minimum when the time correlation of the flow is of the order of the typical eddy turnover time. Further, we demonstrate that the clustering properties in time-correlated compressible flows are non-universal and are strongly influenced by the spatio-temporal structure of the velocity field.

  8. Starting low compression ratio rotary Wankel diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamo, R.; Yamada, T.Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid.

  9. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge Training Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    two-thirds (69%) of end-users claimed to have been aware of compressed air system efficien- cy measures prior to attending the CAC training. Of the sample, 41% reported that...

  10. Hot compression process for making edge seals for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunyak, Thomas J. (Blacksburg, VA); Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (South Greensburg, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A hot compression process for forming integral edge seals in anode and cade assemblies wherein the assemblies are made to a nominal size larger than a finished size, beads of AFLAS are applied to a band adjacent the peripheral margins on both sides of the assemblies, the assemblies are placed in a hot press and compressed for about five minutes with a force sufficient to permeate the peripheral margins with the AFLAS, cooled and cut to finished size.

  11. Compression induced delamination in a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earley, John W.

    1981-01-01

    December 1981 Major Subject: Civil Engineering COMPRESSION INDUCED DELAMINATION IN A UNIDIRECTIONAL GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE A Thesis by JOHN W. EARLEY Approved as to style and content by: (K. L. Jerina, Chairman) (R, A. Schape y', MemP ) W. L.... Bradley, Me er Il. 8 0 1d, O. pa t~tH d December 1981 ABSTRACT Compression Induced Delamination in a Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composite (December 1981) John William Earley, B. S. Aeronautical Engineering California Polytechnic State University...

  12. SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon Rueff; Lyle Roybal; Denis Vollmer

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant need to protect the nation’s energy infrastructures from malicious actors using cyber methods. Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems may be vulnerable due to the insufficient security implemented during the design and deployment of these control systems. This is particularly true in older legacy SCADA systems that are still commonly in use. The purpose of INL’s research on the SCADA Protocol Anomaly Detection Utilizing Compression (SPADUC) project was to determine if and how data compression techniques could be used to identify and protect SCADA systems from cyber attacks. Initially, the concept was centered on how to train a compression algorithm to recognize normal control system traffic versus hostile network traffic. Because large portions of the TCP/IP message traffic (called packets) are repetitive, the concept of using compression techniques to differentiate “non-normal” traffic was proposed. In this manner, malicious SCADA traffic could be identified at the packet level prior to completing its payload. Previous research has shown that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for compression analysis. This work investigated three different approaches to identify malicious SCADA network traffic using compression techniques. The preliminary analyses and results presented herein are clearly able to differentiate normal from malicious network traffic at the packet level at a very high confidence level for the conditions tested. Additionally, the master dictionary approach used in this research appears to initially provide a meaningful way to categorize and compare packets within a communication channel.

  13. Offline Compression for On-Chip RAM Nathan Cooprider John Regehr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regehr, John

    Offline Compression for On-Chip RAM Nathan Cooprider John Regehr School of Computing, University of Utah {coop,regehr}@cs.utah.edu Abstract We present offline RAM compression, an automated source of compressing each variable and then selec- tively compressing only those variables that present a good value

  14. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  15. Experimental results of a transmission line compression circuit for low impedance pulse power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassini, V

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results of a transmission line compression circuit for low impedance pulse power generation

  16. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  17. Selective document image data compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1998-05-19

    A method of storing information from filled-in form-documents comprises extracting the unique user information in the foreground from the document form information in the background. The contrast of the pixels is enhanced by a gamma correction on an image array, and then the color value of each of pixel is enhanced. The color pixels lying on edges of an image are converted to black and an adjacent pixel is converted to white. The distance between black pixels and other pixels in the array is determined, and a filled-edge array of pixels is created. User information is then converted to a two-color format by creating a first two-color image of the scanned image by converting all pixels darker than a threshold color value to black. All the pixels that are lighter than the threshold color value to white. Then a second two-color image of the filled-edge file is generated by converting all pixels darker than a second threshold value to black and all pixels lighter than the second threshold color value to white. The first two-color image and the second two-color image are then combined and filtered to smooth the edges of the image. The image may be compressed with a unique Huffman coding table for that image. The image file is also decimated to create a decimated-image file which can later be interpolated back to produce a reconstructed image file using a bilinear interpolation kernel. 10 figs.

  18. Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when picking up compressed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manley, Steven L.

    Compressed and Liquid Gas Usage Policy · Faculty must fill out and submit the gas usage form when for gases in the future. Effective July 1, 2011 College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Approved

  19. When Like Charges Attract: Interactions and Dynamics in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    When Like Charges Attract: Interactions and Dynamics in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions as protein folding, DNA complexation, and the stability of industrial suspensions. Since the goal highly charged colloidal spheres dispersed in simple electrolytes yield several surprises. Isolated pairs

  20. System using data compression and hashing adapted for use for multimedia encryption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-07-12

    A system and method is disclosed for multimedia encryption. Within the system of the present invention, a data compression module receives and compresses a media signal into a compressed data stream. A data acquisition module receives and selects a set of data from the compressed data stream. And, a hashing module receives and hashes the set of data into a keyword. The method of the present invention includes the steps of compressing a media signal into a compressed data stream; selecting a set of data from the compressed data stream; and hashing the set of data into a keyword.

  1. Developing fundamentally based models for autoignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijaya, Catherina D. (Catherina Dewi)

    2005-01-01

    There is renewed interest in autoignition, especially due to the recent development of the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, highly promising with its low Nox and particulate emissions and high efficiency. ...

  2. TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE FORMATION OF SHORT-CHAIN ACIDS IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to simulate a flame of propane doped by toluene and to show, as it was experimentally observed, an enhancement (temperatures below 1100 K) in an HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine alimented by a n-heptane/iso-octane

  3. Examination of the high load limit of an HCCI engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Nathan (Nathan Charles)

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. This work examines constrains imposed by nitric oxide (NOx) emission and by the need to maintain a ...

  4. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  5. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR)

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  6. Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Compressed Air Management Program: A Performance Assessment Approach to Improving Industrial Compressed Air System Operation and Maintenance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qualmann, R. L.; Zeller, W.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Compressed Air Management Program (CAMP) provides Pacific Gas and Electric's (PG&E's) large industrial customers with measurement-based performance assessments of their compressed air systems. Under this program, the customer's system...

  7. Generalized Pearson distributions for charged particles interacting with an electric and/or a magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rossani; A. M. Scarfone

    2009-03-05

    The linear Boltzmann equation for elastic and/or inelastic scattering is applied to derive the distribution function of a spatially homogeneous system of charged particles spreading in a host medium of two-level atoms and subjected to external electric and/or magnetic fields. We construct a Fokker-Planck approximation to the kinetic equations and derive the most general class of distributions for the given problem by discussing in detail some physically meaningful cases. The equivalence with the transport theory of electrons in a phonon background is also discussed.

  8. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elasticmore »wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.« less

  9. Real-Time SCADA Cyber Protection Using Compression Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Gordon H Rueff

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) has a critical mission to secure the energy infrastructure from cyber attack. Through DOE-OE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a method to detect malicious traffic on Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network using a data compression technique. SCADA network traffic is often repetitive with only minor differences between packets. Research performed at the INL showed that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for using compression analysis to identify abnormal network traffic. An open source implementation of a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression algorithm was used to compress and analyze surrogate SCADA traffic. Infected SCADA traffic was found to have statistically significant differences in compression when compared against normal SCADA traffic at the packet level. The initial analyses and results are clearly able to identify malicious network traffic from normal traffic at the packet level with a very high confidence level across multiple ports and traffic streams. Statistical differentiation between infected and normal traffic level was possible using a modified data compression technique at the 99% probability level for all data analyzed. However, the conditions tested were rather limited in scope and need to be expanded into more realistic simulations of hacking events using techniques and approaches that are better representative of a real-world attack on a SCADA system. Nonetheless, the use of compression techniques to identify malicious traffic on SCADA networks in real time appears to have significant merit for infrastructure protection.

  10. FADEC: Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    charging [1], [2] is a promising technol- ogy for charging electric vehicles (EV) while driving. The basic idea is to place charging coils under the charging pads on the road and attach charging coils to the EV the road and the coils in the EV can charge the EV battery. Dynamic charging is only possible with proper

  11. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  12. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  13. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    even more to do so, Berkeley Lab has announced that it will start offering workplace EV charging. The workplace charging is just one of several initiatives Berkeley Lab is...

  15. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07

    , have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard...

  16. SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES ELENA YUDOVINA AND GEORGE MICHAILIDIS Abstract. Electric vehicles represent a promising technology for reducing emissions and dependence. This pa- per studies decentralized policies that assign electric vehicles to a network of charging

  17. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium; The existence of negatively charged deuteride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorne, J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1990-11-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D{sup +} exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D{sup {minus}} and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D{sup +}. The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10{sup 30} atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD{sub x}). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD{sub x} serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions.

  18. Point matching: A new electronic method for homogenizing the phase characteristics of giant magnetoimpedance sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E. Costa Gusmão, L. A. P.; Barbosa, C. R. Hall; Leipner, Y.; Fortaleza, L. G. S.; Monteiro, E. Costa

    2014-08-15

    Recently, our research group at PUC-Rio discovered that magnetic transducers based on the impedance phase characteristics of GMI sensors have the potential to multiply by one hundred the sensitivity values when compared to magnitude-based GMI transducers. Those GMI sensors can be employed in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, which intensities are even lower than the environmental magnetic noise. A traditional solution for cancelling the electromagnetic noise and interference makes use of gradiometric configurations, but the performance is strongly tied to the homogeneity of the sensing elements. This paper presents a new method that uses electronic circuits to modify the equivalent impedance of the GMI samples, aiming at homogenizing their phase characteristics and, consequently, improving the performance of gradiometric configurations based on GMI samples. It is also shown a performance comparison between this new method and another homogenization method previously developed.

  19. Massive star evolution in close binaries:conditions for homogeneous chemical evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, H F; Maeder, A; Ekstrom, S; Eggenberger, P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of tidal interactions, before any mass transfer, on various properties of the stellar models. We study the conditions for obtaining homogeneous evolution triggered by tidal interactions, and for avoiding any Roche lobe overflow during the Main-Sequence phase. We consider the case of rotating stars computed with a strong coupling mediated by an interior magnetic field. In models without any tidal interaction (single stars and wide binaries), homogeneous evolution in solid body rotating models is obtained when two conditions are realized: the initial rotation must be high enough, the loss of angular momentum by stellar winds should be modest. This last point favors metal-poor fast rotating stars. In models with tidal interactions, homogeneous evolution is obtained when rotation imposed by synchronization is high enough (typically a time-averaged surface velocities during the Main-Sequence phase above 250 km s$^{-1}$), whatever the mass losses. In close binaries, mixing is stronger at h...

  20. Testing the homogeneity of the Universe using gamma-ray bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the homogeneity of the GRB distribution using a subsample of the Greiner GRB catalogue, which contains 314 objects with redshift $0Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy Legacy Survey (SHOALS). The real space two-point correlation function (2PCF) of GRBs, $\\xi(r),$ is calculated using a Landy-Szalay estimator. We perform a standard least-$\\chi^2$ fit to the measured 2PCFs of GRBs. We use the best-fit 2PCF to deduce a recently defined homogeneity scale. The homogeneity scale, $R_H$, is defined as the comoving radius of the sphere inside which the number of GRBs $N(