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Sample records for hollow spr ing

  1. SPR - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intensity loss is analyzed and can be used to quantitatively determine the molecular adsorption on the surface of the SPR active material. Most SPR experiments are performed using...

  2. "ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" "Sourcekey","WCESTP11","WCESTP11","WCESTP21","... 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly East Coast ...

  3. SPR Pro Forma Contract | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An exchange agreement for SPR oil involves return of the principal amount of similar quality crude oil to the SPR, plus payment of an in-kind premium determined according to the ...

  4. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T.; Giles, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  5. SPR - Historical Oil Sales and Exchanges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Historical Oil Sales and Exchanges SPR - Historical Oil Sales and Exchanges SPR - Historical Oil Sales and Exchanges (80.17 KB) More Documents & Publications Historical SPR Annual Reports to Congress 2009 SPR Report to Congress SPR Acquisition Procedures - Final Rulemaking

  6. SPR Crude Oil Acquisition Procedures | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Services Petroleum Reserves Strategic Petroleum Reserve SPR Crude Oil Acquisition Procedures SPR Crude Oil Acquisition Procedures Section 301(e)(2) of the Energy Policy ...

  7. Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil from the SPR | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services Petroleum Reserves Strategic Petroleum Reserve Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil from the SPR Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil from the SPR If hurricanes ...

  8. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013. The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of ...

  9. History of SPR Releases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of SPR Releases History of SPR Releases The Strategic Petroleum Reserve exists, first and foremost, as an emergency response tool the President can use should the United States be confronted with an economically-threatening disruption in oil supplies. A Presidentially-directed release has occurred three times under these conditions. First, in 1991, at the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, the United States joined its allies in assuring the adequacy of global oil supplies when war

  10. Ing Arvid Nesheim | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ing Arvid Nesheim Address: Hoymyrmarka 123A Place: Vollen Zip: 1391 Region: Norway Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone Number: 47 951 08 439 Website: www.anwsite.com...

  11. Subsidence at the Weeks Island SPR Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Weeks Island SPR site over the last 16+ years has been studied and analyzed. The subsidence rate is not constant with time and while the subsidence rate may have increased slightly during the past several years, recently the rate has increased more dramatically. The most recent increase comes at a time when the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage mine had been emptied of oil and was in the process of being refilled with brine. Damage to surface structures that has been observed during the past 12-18 months is attributed to the continued subsidence and dtierential subsidence across structures. The recent greater subsidence rates were unanticipated according to analysis results and will be used to aid further subsidence model development.

  12. Statutory Authority for an SPR Drawdown | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statutory Authority for an SPR Drawdown Statutory Authority for an SPR Drawdown The Energy Policy and Conservation Act's Statutory Authority for an SPR Drawdown: DEFINITIONS SEC. 3. As used in this Act: (8) The term "severe energy supply interruption" means a national energy supply shortage which the President determines - (A) is, or is likely to be, of significant scope and duration, and of an emergency nature; (B) may cause major adverse impact on national safety or the national

  13. SPR Quick Facts and FAQs | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Inventory | Crude Oil Storage by Site | Current Days of Import Protection in the SPR | International Energy Agency (IEA) Requirement | Average Price Paid for Oil in the Reserve | ...

  14. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013. Citation Details In-Document ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of ...

  15. ~SPR~PUCED AT TM NATIONAL ARCHIVES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SPR~PUCED AT TM NATIONAL ARCHIVES rl O -0 * *+,- 4 - Ic l L O F F ICIAL USE ONLY 'January 22, 1948 t ! -6 8w 4m - --;; 4 .: I. K b COPY N O , ATOMIC ENERGY C O M M ISSION DECISIO N O N AEC 15 SITE SELECTION - MONSANTO UNIT VI Note by the Secretary At its meeting on January 21, 1948, the Commission approved the recommendations of AEC 15, ROY B. SNAPP Secretary DISTRIBUTION COPY N O , Secretary Commissioners General Manager General Counsel Asst. General Manager Div. of Production Div. of M ilitary

  16. Biography U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study:...

  17. First Secretarial Visit to the Big Hill SPR Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz visited the Office of Fossil Energy’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve’s Big Hill site in Winnie, Texas. The visit is the first Secretarial appearance at an SPR field site in nine years, and it comes after a string of major SPR accomplishments in 2014.

  18. Hollow lensing duct

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  19. DOE Does Not Accept Initial SPR Bids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial SPR Bids DOE Does Not Accept Initial SPR Bids April 4, 2007 - 12:17pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy today said that it had reviewed, and deemed unacceptable, the bids that it had received in response to a solicitation to purchase up to four million barrels of crude oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The Office of Fossil Energy determined that the bids were too high and not a reasonable value for taxpayers. In keeping with

  20. SPR Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Trading for exchange of 8.7 million barrels of royalty oil produced from the Gulf Coast for crude oil meeting the quality specifications of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). ...

  1. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis. The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage ...

  2. SPR Quick Facts and FAQs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    net U.S. petroleum imports and the inventory level of the SPR. Average price paid for oil in the Reserve - 29.70 per barrel Investment to date - About 27.8 billion (7 billion...

  3. POCs for Emergency Requests of Oil from the SPR | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    POCs for Emergency Requests of Oil from the SPR POCs for Emergency Requests of Oil from the SPR SPR personnel are available to answer any questions you might have. Please contact them immediately in the event of an emergency which might lead you to request SPR assistance. Points of Contact for Emergency Supply Requests (38.79 KB) More Documents & Publications SPR Pro Forma Contract Small Business Program Manager Directory PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application

  4. 2010 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SPR Report to Congress 2010 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Oil Acquisitions and Receipts There were no acquisitions of crude oil for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during 2010. Expansion to One Billion Barrels During 2010, DOE completed environmental studies in support of a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) that was initiated in March 2008 to address major issues that had been identified through a public information process. The three issues

  5. 2011 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SPR Report to Congress 2011 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Drawdown 2011 - Libya Collective Action On June 23, 2011, President Obama authorized the sale and drawdown of 30 million barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve as the United States' share of a coordinated 60 million barrel release of oil from member countries of the IEA that had been announced the same day. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve conducted an online competitive sale that resulted in

  6. 2012 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SPR Report to Congress 2012 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Hurricane Isaac Exchange In August 2012, Hurricane Isaac hit the U.S. Gulf Coast and caused impacts to the commercial oil production, refining and distribution operations in the region. To address potential shortages of petroleum, the Secretary of Energy authorized the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to negotiate emergency exchanges of crude oil at the request of affected refiners. Ultimately, one company

  7. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  8. 2009 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SPR Report to Congress 2009 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Notable Achievements The Strategic Petroleum Reserve completed fill during 2009. The last cargo of crude oil (off-loaded December 25-27, 2009) topped off a fill program that began in 1977. Oil Acquisitions and Receipts The Strategic Petroleum Reserve received 24.8 million barrels of crude oil during 2009 through a combination of receipts from the Royalty-In-Kind (RIK) fill program with the Department of the

  9. Summary of 2011 SPR Sale | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Petroleum Reserves » Strategic Petroleum Reserve » Summary of 2011 SPR Sale Summary of 2011 SPR Sale On June 23, 2011, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced that the U.S. and its partners in the International Energy Agency decided to release a total of 60 million barrels of oil onto the world market over the next 30 days to offset the disruption in the oil supply caused by unrest in the Middle East. As part of this effort, the U.S. planned to release 30 million barrels of oil

  10. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  11. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  12. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  13. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  14. Energy Secretary Bodman Announces SPR Fill to be Complete in August |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SPR Fill to be Complete in August Energy Secretary Bodman Announces SPR Fill to be Complete in August June 10, 2005 - 2:29pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman announced today that the planned fill of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) will be complete in August, when the SPR reaches 700 million barrels of oil. President Bush directed the fill in November 2001 as a means to strengthen the nation's energy security in the wake of the 9/11

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: SPR Process Simulation, Analyses, and Development for Magnesium Joints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about SPR...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: SPR Process Simulation, Analyses, and Development for Magnesium Joints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about SPR...

  17. SPR Quick Facts and FAQs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quick Facts and FAQs SPR Quick Facts and FAQs Quick Facts The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is a U.S. Government complex of four sites with deep underground storage caverns created in salt domes along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts. The caverns have a design capacity of 714 million barrels and store emergency supplies of crude oil owned by the U.S. Government. Current inventory - Click to open inventory update window Current storage design capacity - 714 million barrels Crude Oil Storage by

  18. SPR-9 concept definition study: FY 1986 summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, C.E.

    1986-10-07

    This report summarizes the results of work undertaken to advance design of the SPR-9 MMW power reactor. Gas-cooled thermal reactors coupled with Brayton cycle power conversion appear feasible and have several attractive features for multi-megawatt space power systems. The high temperature capability of the reactor removes it as the limiting component on system performance. The low fuel inventories required make systems based on thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk. However, an advanced radiator design must be developed to reduce system mass. (JDH)

  19. Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Facility Pearl Hollow Landfil Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

  20. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  1. Hollow Nanoreactors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hollow Nanoreactors Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 2012pub.pdf (301 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Paul Alivisatos and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a new one-pot method for creating hollow nanocrystals. The geometrically novel particles can be used for highly controlled catalysis and drug delivery,

  2. Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-12-01

    Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

  3. Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy July 17, 2014 - 2:48pm Addthis Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Lauren Boyd Lauren Boyd Program Manager, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Benjamin Phillips

  4. DOE Will Not Enter Into Contracts for Continued SPR Fill | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Will Not Enter Into Contracts for Continued SPR Fill DOE Will Not Enter Into Contracts for Continued SPR Fill May 16, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced it will not sign contracts this year for the receipt and transportation of up to 13 million barrels of crude oil to the Nation's strategic petroleum reserve sites (SPR). The Department received bids on Tuesday in response to a solicitation issued in April for delivery of royalty oil

  5. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  6. SPR to Continue Royalty-in-Kind Fill Program | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    October 10, 2007 - 3:14pm Addthis Solicitation to Exchange Royalty Oil from Offshore U.S. ... for crude oil that meets the specifications of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). ...

  7. Secretary Bodman Signs Record of Decision on New SPR Site | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    be connected by pipeline to the Capline pipeline system and to refiners and marine ... four SPR sites, will ensure an adequate crude oil emergency reserve. "This project will be ...

  8. DOE-SPR-EIS-0075-SA-03 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS OF SITE-SPECIFIC AND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SPR-EIS-0075-SA-03 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS OF SITE-SPECIFIC AND PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENTS: OPERATIONAL AND ENGINEERING MODIFICATIONS AND REGULATORY REVIEW U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve 900 Commerce Road East New Orleans, Louisiana 70123 December 2014 SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS DETERMINATION The Department of Energy (DOE), Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Project Management Office, has prepared a Supplement Analysis (SA) to determine whether the site-wide and

  9. ENERGISE-ing Solutions to Scale Up Distributed Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGISE-ing Solutions to Scale Up Distributed Solar ENERGISE-ing Solutions to Scale Up Distributed Solar May 31, 2016 - 4:10pm Addthis ENERGISE-ing Solutions to Scale Up Distributed Solar Guohui Yuan Systems Integration Program Manager, SunShot Initiative Learn more about ENERGISE If a utility pole falls in a forest and no energy company employee is around to hear it, does it make a sound? Currently, the answer is no. For the most part, utility companies rely on customer calls to react to

  10. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  11. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  12. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  13. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is

  14. Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOLECKE,MARTIN A.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.

  15. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  16. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Ingersoll, David; Schmidt, Carrie; Flemming, Jeb

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  17. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an ...

  18. Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Facility Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  19. Three Companies Awarded Contracts for Royalty-in-Kind Exchanges for the SPR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Companies Awarded Contracts for Royalty-in-Kind Exchanges for the SPR Three Companies Awarded Contracts for Royalty-in-Kind Exchanges for the SPR November 8, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis Deliveries to Begin in January 2008 WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded contracts to Shell Trading Company, Sunoco Logistics, and BP North America for exchange of 12.3 million barrels of royalty oil produced from the Gulf Coast for crude oil meeting the

  20. DOE Does Not Accept SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases DOE Does Not Accept SPR Bids and Suspends Plans for Future Purchases May 2, 2007 - 12:45pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy has rejected all offers received from the second solicitation issued this spring that sought to purchase up to four million barrels of crude oil for the United States' crude oil reserve. Both solicitations resulted in no awards because the Department

  1. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  2. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  3. SPR-8 multi-mega watt space power system (MMW-SPS) concept description and concept refinement plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, C.E.

    1985-04-15

    The SPR-8 MMW-SPS concept can satisfy both continuous and burst mode power requirements. At 10 MWe continuous mode power for 5 yr and 75 MWe burst mode power for 200 sec, the SPR-8 concept can power radar systems for detecting ballistic missile launchings and for discriminating between warheads and decoys. When enemy action is detected the SPR-8 MMW-SPS can power a rail gun, free electron laser, or particle beam and destroy the missile in the boost phase or warheads in space flight. The SPR-8 concept is based on the SPR-6 system (ref. 1) for providing continuous mode power. The system uses a fast UN-fueled, lithium-cooled reactor. Heat is transferred from the lithium coolant to potassium in a shell and tube heat exchanger-boiler. Potassium vapor is expanded through a turbine in a saturated Rankine cycle. After passing through the turbine the potassium is condensed in a compact heat exchanger by transferring heat to the radiator working fluid. An advanced radiator design is envisioned. Much work will be required in radiator technology to achieve low mass and plan form. For completeness of the SPR-8 system concept, a charged liquid droplet radiator is assumed but other types should be considered. Mechanical pumps are used for simplicity, but other types should be considered. A block diagram of the SPR-8 system is given.

  4. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  5. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  6. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-04-15

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  7. Collimation Studies with Hollow Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Saewert, G.W.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Recent experimental studies at the Fermilab Tevatron collider have shown that magnetically confined hollow electron beams can act as a new kind of collimator for high-intensity beams in storage rings. In a hollow electron beam collimator, electrons enclose the circulating beam. Their electric charge kicks halo particles transversely. If their distribution is axially symmetric, the beam core is unaffected. This device is complementary to conventional two-stage collimation systems: the electron beam can be placed arbitrarily close to the circulating beam; and particle removal is smooth, so that the device is a diffusion enhancer rather than a hard aperture limitation. The concept was tested in the Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the existing electron lenses. We describe some of the technical aspects of hollow-beam scraping and the results of recent measurements.

  8. Testing of hollow clay tile masonry prisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.D.; Butala, M.B.

    1993-10-15

    This paper presents test results of 610-mm wide (24-in.) by 1219-mm high (48-in.) by 203-or 330-mm (8- or 13-in.) thick prisms constructed of hollow clay tiles. Three prisms were extracted fro existing hollow clay title walls and 69 were constructed in laboratories at The University of Tennessee and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Modulus of Elasticity, E, and compressive strength f{prime}{sub m} were calculated from the results.

  9. Biography U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study: mining engineer 1989- 1993 PhD work - geomechanical investigations on the stability of salt caverns for waste disposal. 2009 Habilitation - proof of stability and integrity of underground excavations in saliniferous formations with special regard to lab tests. 1989 - 2012 chief engineer at Clausthal University of

  10. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramanayake, Shan; Luebke, David R.

    2015-06-09

    The method relates to the fabrication of a polymer microspheres comprised of an asymmetric layer surrounding a hollow interior. The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the thickness of the dope layer is at least 10% and less than 50% of the diameter of the inner core. The nascent hollow microsphere is exposed to a gaseous environment, generating a vitrified hollow microsphere, which is subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath. Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an embodiment, the polymer is a polyimide or a polyamide-imide, and the non-solvent in the core fluid and the coagulation bath is water. The fabricated hollow microspheres are particularly suited as solvent supports for gas separation processes.

  11. Method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-10-07

    The method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet has the steps of a) compressing an unsintered powdered metal composite core into a jacket, b) punching a hollow cavity tip portion into the core, c) seating an insert, the insert having a hollow point tip and a tail protrusion, on top of the core such that the tail protrusion couples with the hollow cavity tip portion, and d) swaging the open tip of the jacket.

  12. Design optimization analysis of the new SPR III-M reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the finite element method analysis which was used to refine the SPR III-M reactor fuel assembly mechanical design to withstand the stresses and strains of pulse-mode operation, which induces thermal shock loading in the fuel assembly components. The original reactor design was analyzed for its structural response to separate pulses at increasingly severe levels. Subsequent calculations at one consistent pulse level examined several design modifications, which will result in a significant reduction in stress in the final design.

  13. Electrochemical Cell Design With A Hollow Gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio; Oweis, Salah; Chagnon, Guy; Staniewicz, Robert; Briscoe, Douglas

    2000-02-01

    An electrochemical cell having a spiral winding around a central core, wherein the central core is provided with longitudinal grooves on its outer surface to facilitate electrolyte filing and accommodate overpressure. The core itself improves dissipation of heat generated along the center of the cell, and the hollow core design allows the cell core to have a larger radius, permitting the "jelly roll" winding to begin at a larger radius and thereby facilitate the initial turns of the winding by decreasing the amount of bending required of the electrode laminate at the beginning of the winding operation. The hollow core also provides mechanical support end-to-end. A pair of washers are used at each end of the cell to sandwich current collection tabs in a manner that improves electrical and thermal conductivity while also providing structural integrity.

  14. Improved method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, A.; Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.

    An improved method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100..mu.. to about 500..mu.. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5 to 20..mu.. are described. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions.

  15. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  16. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, Allen; Koo, Jackson C.; Dressler, John L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

  17. A novel synthesis of micrometer silica hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan Wen; Ye Junwei [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Lin Yuan; Wang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-02-04

    Silica microcapsules (hollow spheres) were synthesized successfully by a novel CTAB-stabilized water/oil emulsion system mediated hydrothermal method. The addition of urea to a solution of aqueous phase was an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres, which leads to the formation of silica hollow spheres with smooth shell during hydrothermal process. The intact hollow spheres were obtained by washing the as-synthesized solid products with distilled water to remove the organic components. A large amount of silanol groups were retained in the hollow spheres by this facile route without calcination. The morphologies and optical properties of the product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, on the basis of a series of SEM observations, phenomenological elucidation of a mechanism for the growth of the silica hollow spheres has been presented.

  18. Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction</p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction Technology Marketing Summary Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also very expensive. The catalytic activity per gram of

  19. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Madeline T.

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  20. Preston-Potter Hollow, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Preston-Potter Hollow, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.4354808, -74.2296713 Show Map Loading map......

  1. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are important in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for...

  2. Characterization of hollow fiber supported Ionic liquid membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of hollow fiber supported Ionic liquid membranes using microfocus X-ray computed tomography This content will become publicly available on July 2, 2017 Prev ...

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  4. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  5. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  6. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  7. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  8. Stockpile coordination project. Harvard Energy Security Program. Final report. [Response of other oil importers to USA SPR policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarajan, S.; Hubbard, R.G.; Weiner, R.

    1983-10-01

    This report considers the response of other oil importers to the United States' SPR policy. The treatment models the behavior of public stockpiles in other countries as endogenous. Simple theoretical and more complex simulation models are used to compare a cooperative stockpile drawdown policy (among oil importers) to one in which each country acts in its own self-interest. Finally, a specific agreement is proposed that attempts to capture the benefits from cooperation.

  9. Sinkhole progression at the Weeks Island, Louisiana, Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    A sinkhole measuring 11 m (36 ft) across and 9 m (30 ft) deep was first observed in alluvium overlying the Weeks Island, Louisiana, salt dome in May 1992, but it was about a year old, based on initial surface appearance and subsequent reverse extrapolation of growth rates. A second and much smaller sinkhole was identified in early 1995, nearly three years later. Their position directly over the edges of the SPR oil storage chamber, a former room-and-pillar salt mine, caused apprehension. The association of sinkholes over mines is well established and this occurrence suggested that groundwater influx undoubtedly was causing salt dissolution at shallow depth, and associated collapse of soil at the surface. Leaks of groundwater into other salt mines in Louisiana and elsewhere led to flooding and eventual abandonment (Coates et al., 1981). Consequently, much attention has been and continues to be given to characterizing these sinkholes, and to mitigation. This paper summarizes current engineering geologic concepts, and briefly describes diagnostic and risk mitigation efforts being conducted by the US Department of Energy, operator of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (Bauer et al., 1994).

  10. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1979-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T.gtoreq.600.degree. C.). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  11. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  12. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  13. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on

  14. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  15. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, P.

    1997-09-09

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  16. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-05-30

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  17. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  18. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for use in x-ray lasers. ...

  19. EA-1610: Windy Hollow Wind Project, Laramie County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proponent request to interconnect their proposed Windy Hollow Wind Project in Laramie County, Wyoming, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system.

  20. Hollow-Fiber Membrane Compressed Air Drying System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the support of a NICE3 grant, a new hollow-fiber membrane for dehydrating gases has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. The membrane has 5 times higher water vapor permeation...

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bayou Choctaw salt dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Byrne, K.O.; Denzler, S.

    1993-09-01

    This report revises and updates the geologic site characterization report that was published in 1980. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major east-west trending shear zone, not mapped in the 1980 report. Excessive gas influx in Caverns 18 and 20 may be associated with this shear zone. Subsidence values at Bayou Choctaw are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging only about 10 mm/yr but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values often approximate measurement accuracy. Periodic, temporary flooding is a continuing concern because of the low site elevation (less than 10 ft), and this may intensify as future subsidence lowers the surface even further. Cavern 4 was re-sonared in 1992 and the profiles suggest that significant change has not occurred since 1980, thereby reducing the uncertainty of possible overburden collapse -- as occurred at Cavern 7 in 1954. Other potential integrity issues persist, such as the proximity of Cavern 20 to the dome edge, and the narrow web separating Caverns 15 and 17. Injection wells have been used for the disposal of brine but have been only marginally effective thus far; recompletions into more permeable lower Pleistocene gravels may be a practical way of increasing injection capacity and brinefield efficiency. Cavern storage space is limited on this already crowded dome, but 15 MMBBL could be gained by enlarging Cavern 19 and by constructing a new cavern beneath and slightly north of abandoned Cavern 13. Environmental issues center on the low site elevation: the backswamp environment combined with the potential for periodic flooding create conditions that will require continuing surveillance.

  2. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  3. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  4. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  5. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  6. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2,250 and 125 [mu]m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 [mu]m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing. 6 figs.

  7. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Arfon H.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    1985-01-01

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2250 and 125 .mu.m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 .mu.m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing.

  8. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  9. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  10. Hollow nanoparticle cathode materials for sodium electrochemical cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shevchenko, Elena; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher S.; Koo, Bonil

    2016-07-12

    A cathode comprises, in its discharged state, a layer of hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles disposed between two layers of carbon nanotubes, and preferably including a metallic current collector in contact with one of the layers of carbon nanotubes. Individual particles of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles comprise a crystalline shell of .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 including cation vacancies within the crystal structure of the shell (i.e., iron vacancies of anywhere between 3% to 90%, and preferably 44 to 77% of available octahedral iron sites). Sodium ions are intercalated within at least some of the cation vacancies within the crystalline shell of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles.

  11. Phase coherent transport in hollow InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.; Rosien, M.; Haas, F.; Rieger, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Lüth, H.; Grützmacher, D.; Schäpers, Th.; Demarina, N.

    2014-09-15

    Hollow InAs nanowires are produced from GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by wet chemical etching of the GaAs core. At room temperature, the resistivity of several nanowires is measured before and after removal of the GaAs core. The observed change in resistivity is explained by simulating the electronic states in both structures. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum transport in hollow InAs nanowires is studied. Flux periodic conductance oscillations are observed when the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the nanowire axis.

  12. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  13. Plasma processes inside dispenser hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-06-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma and neutral gas inside dispenser orificed hollow cathodes has been developed to quantify plasma processes that ultimately determine the life of the porous emitters inserted in these devices. The model self-consistently accounts for electron emission from the insert as well as for electron and ion flux losses from the plasma. Two cathodes, which are distinctively different in size and operating conditions, have been simulated numerically. It is found that the larger cathode, with outer tube diameter of 1.5 cm and orifice diameter of 0.3 cm, establishes an effective emission zone that spans approximately the full length of the emitter when operated at a discharge current of 25 A and a flow rate of 5.5 sccm. The net heating of the emitter is caused by ions that are produced by ionization of the neutral gas inside the tube and are then accelerated by the sheath along the emitter. The smaller cathode, with an outer diameter of 0.635 cm and an orifice diameter of 0.1 cm, does not exhibit the same operational characteristics. At a flow rate of 4.25 sccm and discharge current of 12 A, the smaller cathode requires 4.5 times the current density near the orifice and operates with more than 6 times the neutral particle density compared to the large cathode. As a result, the plasma particle density is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the large cathode. The plasma density in this small cathode is high enough such that the Debye length is sufficiently small to allow 'sheath funneling' into the pores of the emitter. By accessing areas deeper into the insert material, it is postulated that the overall emission of electrons is significantly enhanced. The maximum emission current density is found to be about 1 A/mm{sup 2} in the small cathode, which is about one order of magnitude higher than attained in the large cathode. The effective emission zone in the small cathode extends to about 15% of the emitter length only, and

  14. Hollow microspheres of silica glass and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downs, Raymond L.; Miller, Wayne J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing gel powder suitable for use as a starting material in the manufacture of hollow glass microspheres having a high concentration of silica. The powder is manufactured from a gel containing boron in the amount of about 1% to 20% (oxide equivalent mole percent), alkali metals, specifically potassium and sodium, in an amount exceeding 8% total, and the remainder silicon. Preferably, the ratio of potassium to sodium is greater than 1.5.

  15. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  16. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  17. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  18. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolik, Steven R.

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  19. Material development in the SI sub 3 N sub 4 system using glass encapsulated Hip'ing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP'ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  20. Laser-driven ion acceleration with hollow laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brabetz, C. Kester, O.; Busold, S.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T.; Deppert, O.; Jahn, D.; Roth, M.; Schumacher, D.

    2015-01-15

    The laser-driven acceleration of protons from thin foils irradiated by hollow high-intensity laser beams in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) is reported for the first time. The use of hollow beams aims at reducing the initial emission solid angle of the TNSA source, due to a flattening of the electron sheath at the target rear side. The experiments were conducted at the PHELIX laser facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH with laser intensities in the range from 10{sup 18} W cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2}. We observed an average reduction of the half opening angle by (3.07±0.42)° or (13.2±2.0)% when the targets have a thickness between 12 μm and 14 μm. In addition, the highest proton energies were achieved with the hollow laser beam in comparison to the typical Gaussian focal spot.

  1. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  2. Plans for Deployment of Hollow Electron Lenses at the LHC for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hollow electron lenses are considered as a possible means to improve the LHC beam collimation system, providing active control of halo diffusion rates and suppressing the ...

  3. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  4. Process for fabricating PBI hollow fiber asymmetric membranes for gas separation and liquid separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayaweera, Indira; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel; Jayaweera, Palitha; Bhamidi, Srinivas

    2016-04-26

    The invention provides methods for preparing an asymmetric hollow fiber, the asymmetric hollow fibers prepared by such methods, and uses of the asymmetric hollow fibers. One method involves passing a polymeric solution through an outer annular orifice of a tube-in-orifice spinneret, passing a bore fluid though an inner tube of the spinneret, dropping the polymeric solution and bore fluid through an atmosphere over a dropping distance, and quenching the polymeric solution and bore fluid in a bath to form an asymmetric hollow fiber.

  5. Micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers by coaxial electrospinning: Preparation and gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2011-11-15

    We report the preparation of micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers using a coaxial electrospinning technique and their gas sensing properties in terms of CO. The diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers can be controlled from 200 nm to several micrometers by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. A simple mathematical expression is presented to predict the change in diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers as a function of viscosity. The successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers is expected to bring extensive applications. To test a potential use of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers in chemical gas sensors, their sensing properties to CO are investigated at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Microstructures of as-prepared and calcined hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by the electrospinning technique with a coaxial needle. Dynamic response at various CO concentrations for the sensor fabricated with the hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers. Highlights: > Hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized using a coaxial electrospinning technique. > Their diameter can be controlled by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. > Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. > In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. > Successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers will bring extensive applications.

  6. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  7. Eddy current system for inspection of train hollow axles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chady, Tomasz; Psuj, Grzegorz; Sikora, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Spychalski, Ireneusz

    2014-02-18

    The structural integrity of wheelsets used in rolling stock is of great importance to the safety. In this paper, electromagnetic system with an eddy current transducer suitable for the inspection of hollow axles have been presented. The transducer was developed to detect surface braking defects having depth not smaller than 0.5 mm. Ultrasound technique can be utilized to inspect the whole axle, but it is not sufficiently sensitive to shallow defects located close to the surface. Therefore, the electromagnetic technique is proposed to detect surface breaking cracks that cannot be detected by ultrasonic technique.

  8. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  9. Hermatically sealed motor blower unit with stator inside hollow armature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelian, Khatchik O.

    1976-01-20

    13. A hermetically sealed motor blower unit comprising, in combination, a sealed housing having a thrust plate mounted therein and having a re-entrant wall forming a central cavity in said housing, a rotor within said housing, said rotor comprising an impeller, a hollow shaft embracing said cavity and a thrust collar adapted to cooperate with said thrust plate to support the axial thrust of said shaft, one or more journal bearings within said housing for supporting the radial load of said shaft and electric motor means for rotating said rotor, said motor means comprising a motor-stator located within said cavity and adapted to cooperate through a portion of said re-entrant wall with a motor-rotor mounted within said hollow shaft, the portion of said re-entrant wall located between said motor-stator and said motor-rotor being made relatively thin to reduce electrical losses, the bearing surfaces of said thrust plate, thrust collar and journal bearings being in communication with the discharge of said impeller, whereby fluid pumped by said impeller can flow directly to said bearing surfaces to lubricate them.

  10. Potential fluctuations and energetic ion production in hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-10-15

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  11. Quasi-static energy absorption of hollow microlattice structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, YL; Schaedler, TA; Jacobsen, AJ; Chen, X

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive modeling and numerical study focusing on the energy quasi-static crushing behavior and energy absorption characteristics of hollow tube microlattice structures. The peak stress and effective plateau stress of the hollow microlattice structures are deduced for different geometrical parameters which gives volume and mass densities of energy absorption, D-v and D-m, scale with the relative density, (rho) over bar, as D-v similar to (rho) over bar (1) (5) and D-m similar to (rho) over bar (0 5), respectively, fitting very well to the experimental results of both 60 degrees inclined and 90 degrees predominately microlattices. Then the strategies for energy absorption enhancement are proposed for the engineering design of microlattice structures. By introducing a gradient in the thickness or radius of the lattice members, the buckle propagation can be modulated resulting in an increase in energy absorption density that can exceed 40%. Liquid filler is another approach to improve energy absorption by strengthening the microtruss via circumference expansion, and the gain may be over 100% in terms of volume density. Insight into the correlations between microlattice architecture and energy absorption performance combined with the high degree of architecture control paves the way for designing high performance microlattice structures for a range of impact and impulse mitigation applications for vehicles and structures. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Facile approach to prepare hollow coreshell NiO microspherers for supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dandan; Xu, Pengcheng; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Song, Dalei; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Milin

    2013-07-15

    A facile lamellar template method (see image) has been developed for the preparation of uniform hollow coreshell structure NiO (HCSNiO) with a nanoarchitectured wall structure. The prepared NiO was found to be highly crystalline in uniform microstructures with high specific surface area and pore volume. The results indicated that ethanol interacted with trisodium citrate played an important role for the formation of hollow coreshell spheres. On the basis of the analysis of the composition and the morphology, a possible formation mechanism was investigated. NiO microspheres with hollow coreshell showed excellent capacitive properties. The exceptional cyclic, structural and electrochemical stability with ?95% coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promised good utility value of hollow coreshell NiO material in fabricating a wide range of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. - The hollow coreshell NiO was prepared with a facile lamellar template method. The prepared NiO show higher capacitance, lower ion diffusion resistance and better electroactive surface utilization for Faradaic reactions. - Highlights: Formation of hollow coreshell NiO via a novel and facile precipitation route. Exhibited uniform feature sizes and high surface area of hollow coreshell NiO. Synthesized NiO has high specific capacitance ( 448 F g{sup 1}) and very low ESR value. Increased 20% of long life cycles capability after 500 chargedischarge cycles.

  13. Preparation and characterization of optical-functional diblock copolymer brushes on hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Li-Min; Zhang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Kong, Li-Li; Li, Ling-Ling

    2010-09-15

    The optical-functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb complex diblock copolymer brushes grafted from hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization were investigated in this work. A sufficient amount of azo initiator was introduced onto hollow sphere surface firstly. Then the monomer methyl methacrylate was polymerized via surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization using azo group modified hollow sphere as initiator. Following, the poly(methyl methacrylate) modified hollow sphere was used as maroinitiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of Tb complex. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatographer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) had grafted from hollow sphere surface and the average diameter of hollow core was about 1 {mu}m. The optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb copolymer modified hollow sphere were also reported.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-01

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe12O19 spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 degrees C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Apparatus and process to enhance the uniform formation of hollow glass microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F

    2013-10-01

    A process and apparatus is provided for enhancing the formation of a uniform population of hollow glass microspheres. A burner head is used which directs incoming glass particles away from the cooler perimeter of the flame cone of the gas burner and distributes the glass particles in a uniform manner throughout the more evenly heated portions of the flame zone. As a result, as the glass particles are softened and expand by a released nucleating gas so as to form a hollow glass microsphere, the resulting hollow glass microspheres have a more uniform size and property distribution as a result of experiencing a more homogenous heat treatment process.

  16. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  17. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  18. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  19. Dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes and its recoil effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shuang; Chen, Qunzhi; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Kaile; Jiang, Zhe; Sun, Zhili; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-06-15

    A dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes (HEDBS), in which gas flow oriented parallel to the electric field, was proposed. Results showed that with this structure, air can be effectively ignited, forming atmospheric low temperature plasma, and the proposed HEDBS could achieve much higher electron density (5 × 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}). It was also found that the flow condition, including outlet diameter and flow rate, played a key role in the evolution of electron density. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic results showed that the concentration of reactive species had the same variation trend as the electron density. The simulated distribution of discharge gas flow indicated that the HEDBS had a strong recoil effect on discharge gas, and could efficiently promote generating electron density as well as reactive species.

  20. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Krogh, Michael L.; Davis, Steven C.; Decker, Derek E.; Rosenblum, Ben Z.; Sanders, David M.; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  1. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test stand Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test ...

  2. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  3. Hollow and Filled with Potential | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hollow and Filled with Potential Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: Email Us More Information » 04.30.16 Hollow and

  4. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol–gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. • The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. • The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  5. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  6. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-15

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  7. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  8. Stability of vacuum-ultraviolet radiometric transfer standards: Electron cyclotron resonance versus hollow cathode source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottwald, Alexander; Richter, Mathias; Ulm, Gerhard; Schuehle, Udo

    2005-02-01

    Established transfer standards such as Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources suffer from limited spectral range and, in particular, a limited lifetime and stability due to electrode erosion. The development of a vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-created plasma might overcome these limitations. To test such a source with regard to its usefulness as radiometric transfer standard, the emission intensity of a Ne plasma was monitored over an operation period of 180 days, with regard to stability and reproducibility in the 50-75 nm wavelength range. For comparison and calibration, a hollow cathode was used as transfer standard traceable to the electron storage ring BESSY II as primary standard. It was found that the ECR source exceeded the lifetime of the hollow cathode source by far, offering a more balanced spectral emission line variety with similar stability.

  9. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  10. Simulation of Hollow Electron Beam Collimation in the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozov, I.A.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2012-05-01

    The concept of augmenting the conventional collimation system of high-energy storage rings with a hollow electron beam was successfully demonstrated in experiments at the Tevatron. A reliable numerical model is required for understanding particle dynamics in the presence of a hollow beam collimator. Several models were developed to describe imperfections of the electron beam profile and alignment. The features of the imperfections are estimated from electron beam profile measurements. Numerical simulations of halo removal rates are compared with experimental data taken at the Tevatron.

  11. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C

    2015-04-28

    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  12. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chance, Ronald; Chen, Grace; Dai, Ying; Fan, Yanfang; Jones, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Jayashree; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William; Lively, Ryan; McCool, Benjamin; Pang, Simon; Realff, Matthew; Rezaei, Fateme; Searcy, Katherine; Sholl, David; Subramanian, Swernath; Pang, Simon

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  13. Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.

  14. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  15. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  16. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  17. Low-temperature solvothermal synthesis of EuS hollow microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Yong; Wang, Hong; Li, Peng; Fu, Yao Xing, Mingming; Jiang, Tao; Luo, Xixian

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Synthesis of EuS hollow microspheres at low-temperature via solvothermal method for the first time. - Highlights: We adopt an improved method to synthesise the (Phen)Eu(Et{sub 2}CNS{sub 2}){sub 3} in deionized water. We have successfully synthesised the EuS hollow microsphere at 230 C in acetonitrile. The price of acetonitrile is more inexpensive, so the price of preparation was reduced. - Abstract: EuS crystals are synthesized by low-temperature solvothermal decomposition of the single source precursor complex (Phen)Eu(Et{sub 2}CNS{sub 2}){sub 3} in acetonitrile. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, granulocyte diameter statistical analysis, surface energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and UVvis absorption spectroscopy are used to characterize the structure and properties of the obtained EuS crystals. The results show that the formed EuS crystals are uniform hollow microspheres with a typical cubic phase structure of rock salt and the average particle size of 2.01 ?m. The mechanisms for the thermal decomposition of the precursor complex and the formation of the EuS hollow microspheres are postulated based on the experimental observations and previous reports.

  18. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio; Previtali, Valentina; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen

    2014-05-08

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the European FP7 HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  19. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  20. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  1. STEM-ing the Tide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The MacArthur Foundation rolled out its latest class of “geniuses” – 23 Americans who stand out because of their creativity and enterprise.

  2. Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Yuying; Sun Fengqiang; Wu Tianxing; Wu Qingsong; Huang Zhong; Su Heng; Zhang Zihe

    2011-03-15

    CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO{sub 4} as cadmium source and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres. -- Graphical abstract: Taking polystyrene spheres dispersed in a precursor solution as templates, CdS hollow microspheres composed of nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a new photochemical route at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Photochemical method was first employed to prepare hollow microspheres. {yields} CdS hollow spheres were first prepared at room temperature using latex spheres. {yields} The polystyrene spheres used as templates were not modified with special groups. {yields}The CdS hollow microspheres showed high visible-light photocatalytic activities.

  3. Demonstration of a positron beam-driven hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gessner, Spencer; Adli, Erik; Allen, James M.; An, Weiming; Clarke, Christine I.; Clayton, Chris E.; Corde, Sebastien; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, Joel; Green, Selina Z.; et al

    2016-06-02

    Plasma wakefield accelerators have been used to accelerate electron and positron particle beams with gradients that are orders of magnitude larger than those achieved in conventional accelerators. In addition to being accelerated by the plasma wakefield, the beam particles also experience strong transverse forces that may disrupt the beam quality. Hollow plasma channels have been proposed as a technique for generating accelerating fields without transverse forces. In this study, we demonstrate a method for creating an extended hollow plasma channel and measure the wakefields created by an ultrarelativistic positron beam as it propagates through the channel. The plasma channel ismore » created by directing a high-intensity laser pulse with a spatially modulated profile into lithium vapour, which results in an annular region of ionization. A peak decelerating field of 230 MeV m-1 is inferred from changes in the beam energy spectrum, in good agreement with theory and particle-in-cell simulations.« less

  4. Beam loading in a laser-plasma accelerator using a near-hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-12-15

    Beam loading in laser-plasma accelerators using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined in the linear wake regime. It is shown that, by properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in this plasma channel geometry. Matched propagation of electron beams can be achieved by the focusing force provided by the channel density. For positron beams, matched propagation can be achieved in a hollow plasma channel with external focusing. The efficiency of energy transfer from the wake to a witness beam is calculated for single ultra-short bunches and bunch trains.

  5. Plans for Deployment of Hollow Electron Lenses at the LHC for Enhanced Beam Collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redaelli, S.; Bertarelli, A.; Bruce, R.; Perini, D.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-01

    Hollow electron lenses are considered as a possible means to improve the LHC beam collimation system, providing active control of halo diffusion rates and suppressing the population of transverse halos. After a very successful experience at the Tevatron, a conceptual design of a hollow e-lens optimized for the LHC was produced. Recent further studies have led to a mature preliminary technical design. In this paper, possible scenarios for the deployment of this technology at the LHC are elaborated in the context of the scheduled LHC long shutdowns until the full implementation of the HL-LHC upgrade in 2023. Possible setups of electron beam test stands at CERN and synergies with other relevant electron beam programmes are also discussed.

  6. In Situ Real-Time Radiographic Study of Thin Film Formation Inside Rotating Hollow Spheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Tom; Walton, Christopher C.; Dawedeit, Christoph; Biener, Monika M.; Kim, Sung Ho; Willey, Trevor M.; Xiao, Xianghui; van Buuren, Anthony; Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen

    2016-02-03

    The hollow spheres with uniform coatings on the inner surface have applications in optical devices, time- or site-controlled drug release, heat storage devices, and target fabrication for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The fabrication of uniform coatings, which is often critical for the application performance, requires precise understanding and control over the coating process and its parameters. We report on in situ real-time radiography experiments that provide critical spatiotemporal information about the distribution of fluids inside hollow spheres during uniaxial rotation. Furthermore, image analysis and computer fluid dynamics simulations were used to explore the effect of liquid viscosity and rotational velocitymore » on the film uniformity. The data were then used to demonstrate the fabrication of uniform sol–gel chemistry derived porous polymer films inside 2 mm inner diameter diamond shells.« less

  7. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  8. Method of manufacturing hollow members having uniform wall thickness through use of ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Paul R.; Downs, Raymond L.; Henderson, Timothy M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing a hollow structure of uniform wall thickness comprising the steps of selecting or forming a precursor having one wall surface of desired geometry, treating a portion of the precursor consisting of the one wall surface and a uniform depth of material beneath the wall surface to increase resistance to ablation, and then removing by ablation and discarding the remaining or untreated portion of the precursor.

  9. Hollow and Filled with Potential | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hollow and Filled with Potential Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051

  10. Hollow cathode theory and experiment. II. A two-dimensional theoretical model of the emitter region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2005-12-01

    Despite their long history and wide range of applicability that includes electric propulsion, detailed understanding of the driving physics inside orificed hollow cathodes remains elusive. The theoretical complexity associated with the multicomponent fluid inside the cathode, and the difficulty of accessing empirically this region, have limited our ability to design cathodes that perform better and last longer. A two-dimensional axisymmetric theoretical model of the multispecies fluid inside an orificed hollow cathode is presented. The level of detail attained by the model is allowed by its extended system of governing equations not solved for in the past within the hollow cathode. Such detail is motivated in part by the need to quantify the effect(s) of the plasma on the emitter life, and by the need to build the foundation for future modeling that will assess erosion of the keeper plate. Results from numerical simulations of a 1.2-cm-diam cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A and a gas flow rate of 5 SCCM show that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.45 A of ion current return back to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current is 33.8 A and the peak emitter temperature is found to be 1440 K. Comparisons with the measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma is possible near the orifice region. The model predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2034 K and peak voltage drops near the emitting surface not exceeding 8 V.

  11. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  12. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Paul; Bhandari, Dhaval; Narang, Kristi; McCloskey, Pat; Singh, Surinder; Ananthasayanam, Balajee; Howson, Paul; Lee, Julia; Wroczynski, Ron; Stewart, Frederick; Orme, Christopher; Klaehn, John; McNally, Joshua; Rownaghi, Ali; Lu, Liu; Koros, William; Goizueta, Roberto; Sethi, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  13. 2013 SPR Report to Congress

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6245), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to report annually to the President and the Congress on the activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This was the reported submitted for calendar year 2013.

  14. SPR Acquisition Procedures- Final Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Point of Contact:  Thomas McGarry, Director of Operatons and Readiness, Strategic Petroleum Reserve,  (202) 586-8197

  15. Further developments of capillary absorption spectrometers using small hollow-waveguide fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2014-05-01

    Our objective is to enhance quantification of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios to better than 1 relative isotope precision for sample sizes < 1 pico-mole. A newer variant Capillary Absorption Spectrometer (CAS) is described using a proprietary linear-taper hollow waveguide in conjunction with wavelength and frequency modulation techniques of tunable laser absorption spectrometry. Previous work used circular capillaries with uniform 1 mm ID to measure 13C/12C ratios with ? 20 pico-mole samples to ? 10 ppm (1 precision against standards) [1]. While performing fairly well, it generated residual modal noise due to multipath propagation in the hollow-waveguides (HWGs). This system has been utilized with laser ablation-catalytic combustion techniques to analyze small resolution (~ 25 ?m spot diameter) laser ablation events on solids. Using smaller ID capillary waveguides could improve detection limits and spatial resolutions. Reducing an IR compatible hollow waveguides inner diameter (ID) to < 300 ?m, reduces modal noise significantly for mid-IR operation, but feedback noise with high gain semiconductor lasers can become problematic. A proprietary linear-taper small waveguide (mean ID = 0.35 mm, L = 1 m) was tested to understand whether modal noise and optical feedback effects could be simultaneously reduced. We see better mode filtering and, significant reductions of feedback noise under favorable coupling of a multi-spatial mode QC laser to the smaller ID of the linear-tapered HWG. We demonstrate that better modal coupling operation is consistent with Liouvilles theorem, where greater suppression of feedback from spurious scatter within the HWG occurs by injecting the laser into the smaller ID port. Our progress on developing lighter weight, potentially fieldable alternatives to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS) with a small volume (? 0.1 cm3) CAS system will be discussed and compared to other competitive systems.

  16. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice

  17. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry at the Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) is located on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) property at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project. Until 1992, the primary mission of the Y-12 Plant was the production and fabrication of nuclear weapons components. Activities associated with these functions included production of lithium compounds, recovery of enriched uranium from scrap material, and fabrication of uranium and other materials into finished parts for assemblies. The Kerr Hollow Quarry was used for waste disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive and shock-sensitive chemicals and compressed gas cylinders. These materials were packaged in various containers and sank under the water in the quarry due to their great weight. Disposal activities were terminated in November, 1988 due to a determination by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation that the quarry was subject to regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1993. Methods of closure for the quarry were reviewed, and actions were initiated to close the quarry in accordance with closure requirements for interim status surface impoundments specified in Tennessee Rules 1200-1-11-.05(7) and 1200-1-11-.05(11). As part of these actions, efforts were made to characterize the physical and chemical nature of wastes that had been disposed of in the quarry, and to remove any containers or debris that were put into the quarry during waste disposal activities. Closure certification reports (Fraser et al. 1993 and Dames and Moore 1993) document closure activities in detail. This report contains the post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry site.

  19. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  20. Integration of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanke, Michael C.; Nordquist, Christopher D.

    2012-07-03

    The present invention is directed to the integration of a quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide on a chip to improve both the beam pattern and manufacturability. By coupling the QCL output into a single-mode rectangular waveguide the radiation mode structure can be known and the propagation, manipulation, and broadcast of the QCL radiation can then be entirely controlled by well-established rectangular waveguide techniques. By controlling the impedance of the interface, enhanced functions, such as creating amplifiers, efficient coupling to external cavities, and increasing power output from metal-metal THz QCLs, are also enabled.

  1. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  2. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  3. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  4. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  5. Production of cumulative jets by ablatively-driven implosion of hollow cones and wedges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, S. P.; Manka, C.; Miller, C.; Grun, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zabetakis, D.

    2008-05-15

    Cumulative plasma jets formed by hollow cones imploded via laser ablation of their outer surfaces were observed. The velocity, shape, and density of the jets are measured with monochromatic 0.65 keV x-ray imaging. Depending on cone geometry, cumulative jets with ion density {approx}2x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and propagation velocities >10 km/s are formed. Similar results are observed when jets are formed by imploding wedges. Such jets can be used to simulate hydrodynamics of astrophysical jets interacting with stellar or interstellar matter.

  6. Ethylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis for the synthesis of hollow BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-04-01

    Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing ethylene glycol (EG) and precursors at 1000 degrees C. The effects of EG concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and magnetic properties were investigated. The hollow spherical particles were found to consist of primary particles, and higher EG concentration led to a bigger primary particle size. EG concentration did not show much effect on the hollow particle size. Better crystallinity and higher magnetic coercivity were obtained with higher EG concentration, which is attributed to further crystallization with the heat produced from EG combustion. Saturation magnetization (emu/g) decreased with increasing EG concentration due to residual carbon from EG incomplete combustion, contributing as a non-magnetic phase to the particles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ultrabright multikilovolt x-ray source: saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith

    2004-02-17

    An apparatus and method for the generation of ultrabright multikilovolt x-rays from saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states is described. Conditions for x-ray amplification in this spectral region combine the production of cold, high-Z matter, with the direct, selective multiphoton excitation of hollow atoms from clusters using ultraviolet radiation and a nonlinear mode of confined, self-channeled propagation in plasmas. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of saturated amplification on several transition arrays of the hollow atom Xe(L) spectrum (.lambda..about.2.9 .ANG.). An estimate of the peak brightness achieved is .about.10.sup.29 .gamma..multidot.s.sup.-1.multidot.mm.sup.-2.multidot.mr.sup.-2 (0.1% Bandwidth).sup.-1, that is .about.10.sup.5 -fold higher than presently available synchotron technology.

  8. Criteria of radio-frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtsu, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Yujiro

    2013-01-21

    In order to achieve high-density capacitively coupled plasma, a radio-frequency (RF) ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge has been developed as a candidate for processing plasma sources. The plasma density in the hollow cathode discharge reaches a high magnitude of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge depends on the pressure and mass of the working gas. Criteria required for producing a RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge have been investigated for various gas pressures using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for high-density plasma production. The results reveal that the criteria for the occurrence of the hollow cathode effect are that the trench width should be approximately equal to the sum of the electron-neutral mean free paths and twice the sheath thickness of the RF powered electrode.

  9. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-08-15

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications.

  10. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-15

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I{sub 2}-I{sub 1}), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current I{sub b}?=?(I{sub 2}?+?I{sub 1}). The values of I{sub 1} and I{sub 2} depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. Solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  11. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Bai, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yunchao; Guo, Bingkun; Chen, Jihua; Veith, Gabriel M; Hensley, Dale K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goodenough, John B; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge is unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (> 1 mS cm-1) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities. In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, such kind of solid-like electrolytes demonstrates a robust performance against Li dendrite problems, well stabilizing the cell system from short circuiting in a long-time operation at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm-2. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na+, Mg2+ or Al3+ as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries.

  12. Evidence of nonclassical plasma transport in hollow cathodes for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2007-03-15

    Measurements, simplified analyses, and two-dimensional numerical simulations with a fluid plasma model show that classical resistivity cannot account for the elevated electron temperatures and steep plasma potential gradients measured in a 25-27.5 A electric propulsion hollow cathode. The cathode consisted of a 1.5 cm hollow tube with an {approx}0.28 cm diameter orifice and was operated with 5.5 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) of xenon flow using two different anode geometries: a segmented cone and a circular flat plate. The numerical simulations show that classical resistivity yields as much as four times colder electron temperatures compared to the measured values in the orifice and near-plume regions of the cathode. Classical transport and Ohm's law also predict exceedingly high electron-ion relative drift speeds compared to the electron thermal speed (>4). It is found that the addition of anomalous resistivity based on existing growth rate formulas for electron-ion streaming instabilities improves qualitatively the comparison between the numerical results and the time-averaged measurements. Simplified analyses that have been based largely on the axial measurements support the conclusion that additional resistivity is required in Ohm's law to explain the measurements. The combined results from the two-dimensional simulations and the analyses bound the range of enhanced resistivity to be 3-100 times the classical value.

  13. Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-03-15

    A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

  14. Facile Directed Assembly of Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules within Spontaneously Formed Catanionic Surfactant Vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mariya D.; Dergunov, Sergey; Richter, Andrew; Durbin, Jeffrey; Shmakov, Sergey; Jia, Ying; Kenbeilova, Saltanat; Orazbekuly, Yerbolat; Kengpeiil, Aigerim; Lindner, Erno; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Urban, Volker S; Weigand, Steven; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant vesicles containing monomers in the interior of the bilayer were used to template hollow polymer nanocapsules. This study investigated the formation of surfactant/monomer assemblies by two loading methods, concurrent loading and diffusion loading. The assembly process and the resulting aggregates were investigated with dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Acrylic monomers formed vesicles with a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants in a broad range of surfactant ratios. Regions with predominant formation of vesicles were broader for compositions containing acrylic monomers compared with blank surfactants. This observation supports the stabilization of the vesicular structure by acrylic monomers. Diffusion loading produced monomer-loaded vesicles unless vesicles were composed from surfactants at the ratios close to the boundary of a vesicular phase region on a phase diagram. Both concurrent-loaded and diffusion-loaded surfactant/monomer vesicles produced hollow polymer nanocapsules upon the polymerization of monomers in the bilayer followed by removal of surfactant scaffolds.

  15. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1 and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.

  16. Expansion solution of Laplace`s equation: Technique and application to hollow beam gun design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.H.; Taccetti, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a flexible algorithm for the general calculation of expansion solutions to Laplace`s equation. The limiting factor in application of the technique is shown to be series truncation error and not errors in calculating numerical derivatives. Application of the algorithm to the accurate computation of arbitrary magnetic fields in cylindrical geometry from on-axis or coil data will be presented. For an ideal current loop, magnetic field accuracies of better than 0.01% of the exact elliptic integral solution can be obtained out to approximately 70--80% of the loop radius. Accuracy improves dramatically for radii closer to the axis. Results also is shown for thin current disks, thin solenoids and thick coils. Other aspects of the technique is illustrated by application to the design of a coil system for a hollow beam electron gun. With some reasonable assumptions about the overlay of the electron trajectories and the magnetic flux contours, it is possible to generate an estimate for the on-axis profile of the gun magnetic field. The expansion technique can then be applied to calculate the off-axis field and its impact on the trajectories without assuming any particular coil system. The initial estimate can then be refined and retested. Finally, an optimization technique is used to develop a coil system which closely reproduces the refined field. The results of carrying out this set of calculations on a 150 kV, 20 A hollow electron gun design for an FEL experiment is reported.

  17. Controlling hollow relativistic electron beam orbits with an inductive current divider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Ottinger, P. F.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V.; Zier, J. C.

    2015-02-06

    A passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam is proposed using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I1), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I2). An envelope equation appropriate for a hollow electron beam is derived and applied to the current divider. The force on the beam trajectory is shown to be proportional to (I2-I1), while the average force on the envelope (the beam width) is proportional to the beam current Ib = (I2 + I1). The values of I1more » and I2 depend on the inductances in the return-current path geometries. Proper choice of the return-current geometries determines these inductances and offers control over the beam trajectory. As a result, solutions using realistic beam parameters show that, for appropriate choices of the return-current-path geometry, the inductive current divider can produce a beam that is both pinched and straightened so that it approaches a target at near-normal incidence with a beam diameter that is on the order of a few mm.« less

  18. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  19. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less

  20. Flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3} porous nanostructures: Selective synthesis and their photocatalysis property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiarui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gu, Cuiping; Fu, Gujun; Wang, Weizhi; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow microsphere-like hydrated tungsten oxide architectures were selectively synthesized by acidic precipitation of sodium tungstate solution at mild temperature. Several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermalgravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and BrunauerEmmettTeller N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption analyses, were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The experimental results show that the nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O architectures can be obtained by changing the concentration of sodium tungstate solution. The possible formation process based on the aggregationrecrystallization mechanism is proposed. The corresponding tungsten oxide three-dimensional architectures were obtained after calcination at 450 C. Finally, the obtained WO{sub 3} three-dimensional architectures were used as photocatalyst in the experiments. Compared with WO{sub 3} microflowers, the as-prepared WO{sub 3} hollow microspheres exhibit superior photocatalytic property on photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B due to their hollow porous hierarchical structures.

  1. Hollow structured carbon-supported nickel cobaltite nanoparticles as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction and evolution reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jie; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Deli; Wu, Zexing

    2016-01-05

    Here, the exploration of efficient electrocatalysts for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In this study, we developed 3D hollow-structured NiCo2O4/C nanoparticles with interconnected pores as bifunctional electrocatalysts, which are transformed from solid NiCo2 alloy nanoparticles through the Kirkendall effect. The unique hollow structure of NiCo2O4 nanoparticles increases the number of active sites and improves contact with the electrolyte to result in excellent ORR and OER performances. In addition, the hollow-structured NiCo2O4/C nanoparticles exhibit superior long-term stability for both the ORR and OER compared to commercial Pt/C.more » The template- and surfactant-free synthetic strategy could be used for the low-cost and large-scale synthesis of hollow-structured materials, which would facilitate the screening of high-efficiency catalysts for energy conversion.« less

  2. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study

  3. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Takato; Xu, Qiang; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Ti + Ni content. • The activity depends on the amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres. - Abstract: The present work reports influence of preparation conditions of hollow titania–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}). The as-prepared hollow titania–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Catalytic activities of the hollow spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution improve with the decrease of Ti + Ni content. From the results of FTIR spectra and elemental analysis, the amount of residual polystyrene (PS) templates is able to be reduced by increasing aging time for the preparation, and the catalytic activity of the hollow spheres increases when the amount of residual PS templates decreases. The carbon content in the hollow spheres prepared with aging time = 24 h is 17.3 wt.%, and the evolution of 62 mL hydrogen is finished in about 22 min in the presence of the hollow spheres from aqueous NaBH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} solution. The molar ratio of the hydrolytically generated hydrogen to the initial NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} in the presence of the hollow spheres is 2.7.

  4. Double-shelled plasmonic Ag-TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres toward visible light-active photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into solar fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Shichao; Wang, Meng; Li, Ping; Tu, Wenguang; Zhou, Yong; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Double-shelled hollow hybrid spheres consisting of plasmonic Ag and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were successfully synthesized through a simple reaction process. The analysis reveals that Ag nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly in the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle shell. The plasmonic Ag-TiO{sub 2} hollow sphere proves to greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity toward reduction of CO{sub 2} into renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH{sub 4}) in the presence of water vapor under visible-light irradiation. The possible formation mechanism of the hollow sphere and related plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic performance were also briefly discussed.

  5. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  6. Investigation of a high impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with hollow load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Heng; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang

    2012-09-15

    A novel high-impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with greatly restrained power deposition on the anode has been investigated. Methods to increase the MILO impedance and decrease the anode current are discussed. A MILO with impedance of 30 {Omega} and power conversion efficiency of 25% is presented by particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with the previous MILO in our lab, the anode current of the proposed MILO is reduced about 50%, the power conversion efficiency doubles, and the power deposition on anode is reduced nearly one half. Furthermore, considerations for reducing the power deposition on load have also been carried out in MILO design, and the load current is reduced to 4.6 kA, only 17% of the total anode current. Finally, a hollow load was introduced to reduce the power deposition density on the load, without decreasing the power conversion efficiency.

  7. Nitrogen Atom Energy Distributions in a Hollow-cathode Planar Sputtering Magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.N. Ruzic; M.J. Goeckner; Samuel A. Cohen; Zhehui Wang

    1999-06-01

    Energy distributions of N atoms in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N I 8216.3 , well-separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson's nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of {chi}w , was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with VFTRIM results, we propose that the energetic N atoms are generated from N2+ ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode.

  8. A Radically New Method for Hydrogen Storage in Hollow Glass Microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Shelby; Matthew M. Hall; Michael J. Snyder; Peter B. Wachtel

    2009-07-13

    The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate that hydrogen gas can be rapidly extracted from hollow glass microspheres (HGMS) using a photo-induced heating effect. The results of the project demonstrate that diffusion of hydrogen is readily induced by exposure to light from an IR lamp in transition metal-doped HGMS filled to as much as 5,000 psi with hydrogen gas, which contain approximately 2.2 wt% hydrogen. Doped HGMS in conjunction with optically induced outgassing provide a solution to the traditional limitation of HGMS i.e., the slow release of hydrogen from HGMS that are heated using a furnace. This information will also be invaluable in designing process changes for future production of HGMS able to hold higher pressures of hydrogen.

  9. Debris-less method and apparatus for forming apertures in hollow metallic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, C.L.; Chodelka, E.J.

    1980-06-24

    This invention is a method for forming an aperture in a wall of a hollow metallic article without introducing metallic debris therein. In a typical operation, an annular groove is formed in an exterior portion of the wall. The groove defines an annular wall segment, and the bottom of the groove is shaped to slope downwardly away from the segment to form a tapered annular web which connects the segment to the wall. Any suitable coupling is attached to the outer face of the segment, as by welding. Pull then is applied to the coupling to effect circumferential breakage of the web, thus forming a removable single-piece wall fragment consisting of the web and segment. The fragment and the coupling member attached thereto then are removed from the wall.

  10. Ionization-induced effects in the soliton dynamics of high-peak-power femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-07-15

    Ionization phenomena are shown to modify the soliton propagation dynamics of high-peak-power laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Based on the numerical solution of the pulse-evolution equation for a high-peak-power laser field in an ionizing gas medium in a hollow PCF, we demonstrate that hollow PCFs filled with gases having high ionization potentials I{sub p} can support soliton transmission regimes for gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses. In hollow PCFs filled with low-I{sub p} gases, on the other hand, the ionization-induced change in the refractive index of the gas leads to a blueshifting of soliton transients, pushing their spectrum beyond the point of zero group-velocity dispersion, thus preventing the formation of stable high-peak-power solitons.

  11. Soliton delivery of few-cycle optical gigawatt pulses in Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Song-Jin; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2010-08-15

    We study the delivery of few-cycle soliton-like pulses at 800 nm with gigawatt power or microjoule energy through a hollow-core kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber over 1 m with preserved temporal and spectral shape. We show that with optimized pressure of the argon filling, 5 fs input pulses are compressed up to 2.5 fs after 20 cm and restore their shape after 1 m propagation.

  12. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  13. Material development in the SI{sub 3}N{sub 4} system using glass encapsulated Hip`ing. Final report, Phase 2: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP`ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  14. Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V.K.; Patil, C.B.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO{sub 3} was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the volume or Nd(III ) concentration in the feed was increased. The liquid membrane had excellent stability as indicated by eight consecutive runs that gave consistent transport rates. The HFSLM data using Cyanex- 301 in n-dodecane as carrier extractant for the lanthanide-actinide separation with the feed solution 1 M NaNO{sub 3} at pH 3.5 and stripping solution 0.01 M EDTA at a pH 3.5 were promising. (authors)

  15. Dynamic Response of a Pulse-Heated, Thick-Walled, Hollow Sphere: Validation of Code Numerics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    2000-01-19

    Volumetric pulse heating of a thick-walled hollow sphere is numerically investigated. The primary objective is to validate a variety of LLNL 30 hydrocodes for modeling the dynamic behavior of fissile/fissionable metals subject to rapid ''fission-heating'' transients. The 30 codes tested include both DYNA3D and NIKE3D, as well as the ''ASCI'' code, ALE3D. The codes are compared ''head-to-head'' and are benchmarked against a 1D finite difference solution to the problem that is derived from basic principles. Three pulse-heating transients are examined with full-width-half-maximum pulse durations of 41{micro}s, 85{micro}s, and 140{micro}s, respectively. These three transients produce a significant range of dynamic responses in the thermo-elastic regime. We present results for dynamic radial displacements and stresses for each pulse, and also discuss which code features/options worked best for these types of calculations. In general, the code results are in excellent agreement for the simple system considered. Validation of code numerics in simple systems is a key first step toward future application of the codes in more complicated geometries (U).

  16. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  17. Fabrication of micro-hollow fiber by electrospinning process in near-critical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu; Machmudah, Siti; Okubayashi, Satoko; Fukuzato, Ryuichi

    2014-02-24

    Electrospinning is a simple technique that has gained much attention because of its capability and feasibility in the fabrication of large quantities of fibers from polymer with diameters ranging in nano-microscale. These fibers provided high surface area to volume ratios, and it was of considerable interest for many applications, such as nanoparticle carriers in controlled release, scaffolds in tissue engineering, wound dressings, military wear with chemical and biological toxin-resistance, nanofibrous membranes or filters, and electronic sensors. Recently there has been a great deal of progress in the potential applications of hollow fibers in microfluids, photonics, and energy storage. In this work, electrospinning was conducted under high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to reduce the viscosity of polymer solution. The experiments were conducted at 313 K and ∼8.0 MPa. Polymer solution containing 5 wt% polymers which prepared in dichloromethane (DCM) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) ratio 80:20 was used as a feed solution. The applied voltage was 15 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The morphology and structure of the fibers produced were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under pressurized CO{sub 2}, PVP electrospun was produced without bead formation with diameter ranges of 608.50 - 7943.19 nm. These behaviors hold the potential to considerably improve devolatilization electrospinning processes.

  18. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC PortoInstituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, da Faculdade de Cincias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5??10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3??10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3??10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8??10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  19. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore » attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  20. Lumen mass transfer in hollow-fiber membrane processes with constant external resistances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.

    1997-08-01

    Membrane processes have recently become an accepted unit operation for a wide variety of separations in industry and in environmental applications. Hollow-fiber membrane processes with a constant external resistance having a constant or variable shell concentration resulting from an operational mode of cocurrent or countercurrent are studied. By solving numerically the continuity mass-conservation equation with the corresponding boundary conditions, the lumen laminar mass-transfer coefficients for both cases are correlated. The correlations greatly improve the calculating accuracy of the overall mass-transfer coefficient and can be used to obtain the lumen mixed-cup concentration by an algebraic equation substituting the partial differential equation. A separation factor m{prime} is introduced to characterize the effect of the operational mode. Calculation results demonstrate that the lumen mass-transfer coefficient is independent of the real lumen and shell concentrations, but it is greatly influenced by m{prime}. The countercurrent mode, compared to the cocurrent mode, provides not only a higher mean driving force, but a higher lumen mass-transfer coefficient. This conclusion is novel and valid for the tube-shell heat or mass-transfer processes and is supported by the experimental data in the literature and the authors` gas membrane separation experiments.

  1. Facile synthesis and characterization of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: Shaomin.Liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed structural, morphology and the phase composition were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives an appropriate band gap value to utilize solar energy. -- Abstract: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully fabricated via a facile one-pot solvothermal method, utilizing polyethylene glycol as soft template. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the prepared nanospheres with cubic spinel and rhombohedra composite structure had a uniform diameter of about 370 nm, and the hollow structure could be further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques were also applied to characterize the elemental composition and chemical bonds in the hollow nanospheres. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres show attractive light absorption property for potential applications in electronics, optics, and catalysis.

  2. Comparison of stress-measuring techniques at the DNA-UTP site, Rodgers Hollow, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) is developing explosives technology through its Underground Technology Program (UTP). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has supported the DNA by conducting research to characterize the in situ stress and rock mass deformability at one of the UTP underground sites at Rodgers Hollow, near Louisville, Kentucky on the Fort Knox Military Reservation. The purpose of SNL`s testing was to determine the in situ stress using three different measurement techniques and, if possible, to estimate the rock mass modulus near the underground opening. The three stress-measuring techniques are (1) borehole deformation measurements using overcoring, (2) Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) complemented by laboratory ultrasonic and mechanical properties testing, and (3) the in situ flatjack technique using cancellation pressure. Rock mass modulus around the underground opening was estimated using the load deformation history of the flatjack and surrounding rock. Borehole deformation measurements using the overcoring technique probably represent the most reliable method for in situ stress determination in boreholes up to 50 ft (15 m) deep in competent rock around an isolated excavation. The technique is used extensively by the tunneling and mining industries. The ASR technique is also a core-based technique and is used in the petroleum and natural gas industries for characterization of in situ stress from deep boreholes. The flatjack technique has also been used in the tunneling and mining industries, and until recently has been limited to measurement of the stress immediately around the excavation. Results from the flatjack technique must be further analyzed to calculate the in situ stress in the far field.

  3. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  4. Ferrule and use thereof for cooling a melt spun hollow glass fiber as it emerges from a spinnerette

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the process of melt spinning thin walled, hollow fibers from relatively low melting glasses results if cooling of the emerging fiber is accomplished by use of a thin layer of gas to transfer heat from the fiber to a ferrule which fits closely to the spinnerette face and the individual fiber. The ferrule incorporates or is in contact with a heat sink and is slotted or segmented so that it may be brought into position around the moving fiber. Thinner walled, more uniform fibers may be spun when this method of cooling is employed.

  5. A one-pot synthetic approach to prepare palladium nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Lirong; Lu Xiaofeng; Bian Xiujie; Zhang Wanjin; Wang Ce

    2010-10-15

    A simple one-step method to fabricate hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres without any template was developed by using solvothermal treatment. Pd nanoparticles (2-5 nm) were well dispersed in the mesopores of the TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres via in-situ reduction. In our experiment, polyvinylpyrrolidone played an important role in the synthetic process as the reducing agent and the connective material between TiO{sub 2} and Pd nanoparticles. HF species generated from solvothermal reaction leaded to the formation of TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres and Ostwald ripening was another main factor that affected the size and structure of the hollow spheres. The as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite hollow spheres exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The sensitivity was about 226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} with a detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. These results made the hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2}/Pd composite a promising platform for fabricating new nonenzymic biosensors. - Graphical Abstract: A new one-step solvothermal method was developed to prepare Pd nanoparticles embedded hierarchically porous TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. Due to its unique nanostructure, the prepared TiO{sub 2}/Pd modified GC electrode exhibit a high sensitivity (226.72 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a relatively low reduction potential (-0.2 V), a fast response time (<3 s) and a relatively low detection limit of 3.81 {mu}M (S/N=3) towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  6. Guiding and collimation of laser-accelerated proton beams using thin foils followed with a hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, K. D.; Zhou, C. T.; Qiao, B.; He, X. T.

    2015-09-15

    It is proposed that guided and collimated proton acceleration by intense lasers can be achieved using an advanced target—a thin foil followed by a hollow plasma channel. For the advanced target, the laser-accelerated hot electrons can be confined in the hollow channel at the foil rear side, which leads to the formation of transversely localized, Gaussian-distributed sheath electric field and resultantly guiding of proton acceleration. Further, due to the hot electron flow along the channel wall, a strong focusing transverse electric field is induced, taking the place of the original defocusing one driven by hot electron pressure in the case of a purely thin foil target, which results in collimation of proton beams. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that collimated proton beams with energy about 20 MeV and nearly half-reduced divergence of 26° are produced at laser intensities 10{sup 20 }W/cm{sup 2} by using the advanced target.

  7. High-flux low-divergence positron beam generation from ultra-intense laser irradiated a tapered hollow target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian-Xun; Ma, Yan-Yun; Zhao, Jun; Yu, Tong-Pu Yang, Xiao-Hu; Gan, Long-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Bo; Yan, Jian-Feng; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Yuan; Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-10-15

    By using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate high-flux dense positrons generation by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse onto a tapered hollow target. By using a laser with an intensity of 4 × 10{sup 23 }W/cm{sup 2}, it is shown that the Breit-Wheeler process dominates the positron production during the laser-target interaction and a positron beam with a total number >10{sup 15} is obtained, which is increased by five orders of magnitude than in the previous work at the same laser intensity. Due to the focusing effect of the transverse electric fields formed in the hollow cone wall, the divergence angle of the positron beam effectively decreases to ∼15° with an effective temperature of ∼674 MeV. When the laser intensity is doubled, both the positron flux (>10{sup 16}) and temperature (963 MeV) increase, while the divergence angle gets smaller (∼13°). The obtained high-flux low-divergence positron beam may have diverse applications in science, medicine, and engineering.

  8. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  9. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  10. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, scar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.80.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  11. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test stand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, Vince

    2014-06-08

    The purpose of this guide is to help successive students handle WARP. It outlines the installation of WARP on personal computers as well as super-computers and clusters. It furthermore teaches the reader how to handle the WARP environment and run basic scripts. Lastly it outlines how to execute the current Hollow Electron Beam Lens scripts.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  13. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  14. SPR Crude Oil Sales and Exchanges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) gives authority to the President under specified conditions to direct the Secretary of Energy to conduct a public sale of oil from the...

  15. SPR Storage Sites | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sites.jpg Emergency crude oil is stored in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in salt ... the most flexible means for connecting to the Nation's commercial oil transport network. ...

  16. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  17. Historical SPR Annual Reports to Congress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Section 165 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6245), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to report annually to the President and the Congress on the activities of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  18. ~SPR~PUCED AT TM NATIONAL ARCHIVES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    t - Division of Production IV - *&When senar&from encsz,urzs, handle this. documel Division of Military A .ppli- cation Division of Engineerir: Division of Research Secretariat

  19. EERE 2002 Strategic Program Review (SPR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Strategic Program Review presents the result of recommendations of the National Energy Policy Development Group as stated in the National Energy Policy.

  20. Enhanced sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for tritium gas analysis using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, S.; Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    The precise compositional analysis of tritium-containing gases is of high interest for tritium accountancy in future fusion power plants. Raman spectroscopy provides a fast and contact-free gas analysis procedure with high precision, thus being an advantageous tool for the named purpose. In this paper, it is shown that the sensitivity achieved with conventional Raman systems (in 90 degrees or forward/backward configurations) can be enhanced by at least one order of magnitude by using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber as the Raman cell. This leads to the ability of detecting low partial pressures of tritium within short measurement intervals (< 0.5 mbar in < 0.5 s) opening the way for real-time applications.

  1. Graphitized hollow carbon spheres and yolk-structured carbon spheres fabricated by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Chi, Miaofang; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Liu, Rui; Chuang, Yen -Jun; Dai, Sheng; Pan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-18

    Hard-sphere-templating method has been widely used to synthesize hollow carbon spheres (HCSs), in which the spheres were firstly coated with a carbon precursor, followed by carbonization and core removal. The obtained HCSs are generally amorphous or weakly graphitized (with the help of graphitization catalysts). In this work, we report on the fabrication of graphitized HCSs and yolk–shell Au@HCS nanostructures using a modified templating method, in which smooth, uniform graphene layers were grown on SiO2 spheres or Au@SiO2 nanoparticles via metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane. Furthermore, our work not only provides a new method to fabricate high-quality, graphitized HCSsmore » but also demonstrates a reliable approach to grow quality graphene on oxide surfaces using CVD without the presence of metal catalysts.« less

  2. Computed and measured responses of a thick-walled hollow cylinder of salt subjected to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, H.S.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1989-06-01

    The present evaluations are based on comparisons of measurements on the hollow cylinders with predictions from three different constitutive models for rock salt. The three models are (1) an elastic power-law secondary creep (ESC) model, (2) a revision of the ESC (RESC) model with greatly reduced elastic moduli but unchanged creep parameters, and (3) a unified creep plasticity (UCP) model. The ESC model produced the predictions that differed from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ measurements by the factor-of-three or more. The modulus reductions in the RESC model are empirical adjustments that produced matching closures and closure rates with the WIPP measurements collected over less than five years. The UCP model yielded closures that were substantially higher than the ESC predictions but still less than the in situ measurements. At the same time, the UCP model produced closure rates in good agreement with the data. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Sam Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod; Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah

    2014-07-07

    Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer α emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical γ discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

  4. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  5. Role of electrostatic and magnetic electron confinement in a hollow-cathode glow discharge in a nonuniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metel, A. S. Grigoriev, S. N.; Volosova, M. A.; Bolbukov, V. P.; Melnik, Yu. A.

    2015-02-15

    Glow discharge with electron confinement in an electrostatic trap has been studied. The trap is formed by a cylindrical hollow cathode, as well as by a flat target on its bottom and a grid covering its output aperture, both being negatively biased relative to the cathode. At a gas pressure of 0.2–0.4 Pa, the fraction of ions sputtering the target (δ = 0.13) in the entire number of ions emitted by the uniform discharge plasma corresponds to the ratio of the target surface area to the total surface area of the cathode, grid, and target. When a nonuniform magnetic field with force lines passing through the target center (where the magnetic induction reaches 35 mT), as well as through the grid, hollow cathode, and target periphery (where the field lines are arc-shaped), is applied to the trap, its influence on the discharge depends on the magnetic induction B{sub 0} at the target edge. At B{sub 0} = 1 mT, the electrons emitted from the target periphery and drifting azimuthally in the arc-shaped field insignificantly contribute to gas ionization. Nevertheless, since fast electrons that are emitted from the cathode and oscillate inside it are forced by the magnetic field to come more frequently to the target, thereby intensifying gas ionization near the latter, the fraction δ doubles and the plasma density near the target becomes more than twice as high as that near the grid. At B{sub 0} = 6 mT, the contribution of electrons emitted from the target surface to gas ionization near the target grows up and δ increases two more times. At cathode-target voltages in the range of 0–3 kV, the current in the target circuit vanishes as the voltage between the anode and the cathode decreases to zero.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen in Cobalt Nitride and Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Spheres for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Xing; Liu, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Guilin; Li, Xiaonian; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jian-guo; Su, Dang S.

    2015-06-15

    The need for inexpensive and high-activity oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts has attracted considerable research interest over the past years. Here we report a novel hybrid that contains cobalt nitride/nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres (CoxN/NHCS) as a high-performance catalyst for ORR. The CoxN nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and confined in the hollow NHCS shell. The performance of the resulting CoxN/NHCS hybrid was comparable with that of a commercial Pt/C at the same catalyst loading toward ORR, but the mass activity of the former was 5.7 times better than that of the latter. The nitrogen in both CoxN and NHCS, especially CoxN, could weaken the adsorption of reaction intermediates (O and OOH), which follows the favourable reaction pathway on CoxN/NHCS according to the DFT-calculated Gibbs free energy diagrams. Our results demonstrated a new strategy for designing and developing inexpensive, non-precious metal electrocatalysts for next-generation fuels. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Basic Research Program (973 program, No. 2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21306169, 21101137, 21136001, 21176221 and 91334013). Dr. D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  7. Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like indium oxide: Controllable synthesis and application as H{sub 2}S cataluminescence sensing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Pingyang; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Lichun; Song, Hongjie; Su, Yingying; Lv, Yi

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controllable fabricated through a novel and simple hydrothermal process, and the former showed superior cataluminescence sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. Highlights: ► In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere were prepared via a hydrothermal route. ► The growth process of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere has been investigated. ► The sensor based on prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows good sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: In the present work, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like microstructure were achieved controllably by a hydrothermal process in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) system. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements were used to characterize the as-prepared indium oxide materials and the possible mechanism for the microstructures formation was briefly discussed. The cataluminescence gas sensor based on the as-prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was utilized to detect H{sub 2}S concentrations in flowing air. Comparative gas sensing results revealed that the sensor based on hierarchical hollow microsphere exhibited much higher sensing sensitivity in detecting H{sub 2}S gas than the sensor based on flower-like microstructure. The present gas sensor had a fast response time of 5 s and a recovery time of less than 25 s, furthermore, the cataluminescence intensity vs. H{sub 2}S concentration was linear in range of 2–20 μg mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.5 μg mL{sup −1}. The present highly sensitive, fast-responding, and low-cost In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gas sensor for H{sub 2}S would have many practical applications.

  8. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  9. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  10. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  11. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over hollow spindle-like ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded with Ag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Basic, Dalian Naval Academy, Dalian 116018 (China); Zhao, Qidong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Shi, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Zhengru [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? Hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spindle-shaped microparticles were prepared for Ag support. ? The hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials were used to degrade gaseous toluene. ? Complete degradation of toluene occurred on the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. -- Abstract: In this work, hollow spindle-like ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared based on the spindle-shaped ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with CTAB as the surfactant, which showed excellent photoelectric property and photocatalytic activity. The structural properties of these samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and UVVis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage measurement. The photocatalytic performances of the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were comparatively studied in the degradation of toluene under xenon lamp irradiation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. Benzaldehyde and benzoic acid species could be observed on the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface rather than Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. The results indicate that the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited higher photocatalytic efficiency.

  13. Double-layer composite film based on hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes and P25 as photoanode for enhanced efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Yue; Zhao, Li Wang, Shimin Li, Jing; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film is successfully fabricated. • The TiO{sub 2}-HB overlayer exhibited intense scattering ability. • The P25 particles underlayer can enlarge the contact area and increase the contact points between TiO{sub 2}-HB and FTO glass. • TiO{sub 2}-DLL film cells have the maximum conversion efficiency. - Abstract: A TiO{sub 2} double-layer composite film consisting of hollow TiO{sub 2} boxes (HB-TiO{sub 2}) as overlayer and commercial-grade TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P25) as underlayer is designed as the photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The hollow TiO{sub 2} box has been employed as light-scattering part to increase the optical length in the film and enhance light-harvesting. It was found that the double-layer film cell with lower absorbed dye achieved the highest conversion efficiency and reach up to a maximum value of 6.4%, which is 226% higher than that of pure HB-TiO{sub 2} film cell (η = 1.96%) and 57.2% higher than that of pure P25 particles film cell under identical film thickness at a constant irradiation of 100 mW cm{sup −2}. The enhanced efficiency of double-layer film can be attributed to its light-scattering capability.

  14. Hollow-fiber gas-membrane process for removal of NH{sub 3} from solution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Wang, S.

    1996-07-01

    A hollow-fiber supported gas membrane process for the separation of NH{sub 3} from aqueous solutions containing both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A lumen laminar flow and radial diffusion model was applied to calculate the membrane wall transfer coefficient from the data stripping a single volatile component, NH{sub 3} or CO{sub 2}, from their individual aqueous solutions. Influence of the type of membranes and operating conditions on mass-transfer rate were discussed, especially the influence of the membrane transfer coefficient on the film mass-transfer coefficient in the lumen. Appropriate configurations of the hollow-fiber modules for stripping of a single component were analyzed to optimize mass transfer. To predict the stripping of NH{sub 3} from a solution containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, a mathematical model incorporating local chemical equilibria and Nernst-Planck diffusion was developed to describe the mass transport. The models described the experimental data fairly well. The experimental results showed that the supported gas membrane process can be used to remove NH{sub 3} effectively from aqueous media containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  15. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B.; Imrich, Kenneth J.

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  16. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  17. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850 nm to 4000 nm: WAVENUMBERS AND LINE IDENTIFICATIONS FROM FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Mahadevan, Suvrath [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nave, Gillian [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10, 100 U I and U II near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm{sup -1} and 12, 000 cm{sup -1} (4000-850 nm) using archival Fourier transform spectrometer spectra from the National Solar Observatory. This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9-1.1 {mu}m, 1.2-1.35 {mu}m, 1.5-1.65 {mu}m, 2.0-2.4 {mu}m, and 3.0-4.0 {mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially available uranium hollow cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  18. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberger, H. Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  19. Comparative study of two- and three-dimensional modeling on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Keun Su; Park, Jin Myung; Choi, Sooseok; Kim, Jongin; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-02-15

    A comparative study between two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) modeling is carried out on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes, in order to evaluate the effects of arc root configuration characterized by either 2D annular or 3D highly localized attachment on the electrode surface. For this purpose, a more precise 3D transient model has been developed by taking account of 3D arc current distribution and arc root rotation. The 3D simulation results apparently reveal that the 3D arc root attachment brings about the inherent 3D and turbulence nature of plasma fields inside the torch. It is also found that the constricted arc column near the vortex chamber plays an important role in heating and acceleration of injected arc gases by concentrating arc currents on the axis of the hollow electrodes. The inherent 3D nature of arc discharge is well preserved inside the cathode region, while these 3D features slowly diminish behind the vortex chamber where the turbulent flow begins to be developed in the anode region. Based on the present simulation results, it is noted that the mixing effects of the strong turbulent flow on the heat and mass transfer are mainly responsible for the gradual relaxation of the 3D structures of plasma fields into the 2D axisymmetric ones that eventually appear in the anode region near the torch exit. From a detailed comparison of the 3D results with the 2D ones, the arc root configuration seems to have a significant effect on the heat transfer to the electrode surfaces interacting with the turbulent plasma flow. That is, in the 2D simulation based on an axisymmetric stationary model, the turbulence phenomena are fairly underestimated and the amount of heat transferred to the cold anode wall is calculated to be smaller than that obtained in the 3D simulation. For the validation of the numerical simulations, calculated plasma temperatures and axial velocities are compared with experimentally measured ones

  20. Understanding the dynamics of photoionization-induced nonlinear effects and solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, Mohammed F.; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-12-15

    We present the details of our previously formulated model [Saleh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011)] that governs pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by an ionizable gas. By using perturbative methods, we find that the photoionization process induces the opposite phenomenon of the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers, as was recently experimentally demonstrated [Hoelzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011)]. This process is only limited by ionization losses, and leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous blueshift in the frequency domain. By applying the Gagnon-Belanger gauge transformation, multipeak ''inverted gravitylike'' solitary waves are predicted. We also demonstrate that the pulse dynamics shows the ejection of solitons during propagation in such fibers, analogous to what happens in conventional solid-core fibers. Moreover, unconventional long-range nonlocal interactions between temporally distant solitons, unique of gas plasma systems, are predicted and studied. Finally, the effects of higher-order dispersion coefficients and the shock operator on the pulse dynamics are investigated, showing that the conversion efficiency of resonant radiation into the deep UV can be improved via plasma formation.

  1. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  2. Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,084,846 2,087,339 2,088,659 2,095,271 2,099,773 2,086,032

  3. SPR Process Simulation, Analyses, & Development for Mg Joints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Lee, Moo Yul

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  5. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity ...

  6. 2013 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    at Big Hill and 611,000 barrels of ullage was created in sour caverns at West Hackberry. Environment, Safety, and Health The Strategic Petroleum Reserve received the DOE Silver...

  7. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of ...

  8. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenberg, Eda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Kemal Okyay, Ali

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200?C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2?nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4?nm when the annealing duration increased from 30?min to 2?h (800?C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ?85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (??=?550?nm) with the increased Al content x (0???x???1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400?nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900?C for 2?h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.331.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95?eV, and it decreased to 3.90?eV for films annealed at 800?C for 30?min and 2?h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1?eV for GaN films annealed at 900?C for 2?h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25?eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not affect the bandgap of Al-rich films.

  9. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... WAT SON -DU HRIN G EVERGREEN KELLY HILL RED BRUSH WEILER SVILLE MEAD VI LLE LAM AR TINE ROSS LEET SDALE RPD-R ICHLAND -4 CROWS RUN WAT TSVILLE S GLADE R UN WIN ESBU RG HAT CH CORN ...

  10. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along δ ∼ –73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ∼2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  11. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MCKEESPORT COR AOPOLIS-MOON REDHAW ST. CLAIR SC ROGGSFIELD FRANKLIN -OAK FOREST RIMERSBURG RENNERD AL E GREENVILL E PAT MOS CRABTR EE BLAC K ASH ROYALT ON N BAKERSTOWN QUEEN ROU GH RUN LUCAS BLAC K H ILL CRESTON WAT TSVILLE WADSWORTH -NORT H OAKLAN D HOM EWORT H UNIT Y ESSELBRUN ALAMED A PAR K-CROOKED RU CHERRY GROVE FRENC HTOWN ST EWART RUN MILL C REEK GLENF IELD-MOU NT NEBO HICKORY E HARRISVILLE E LEST ER GRIGGS CORNERS EN GLAN D WEST VIL LE LAKE BAILEY LAKE OAKFORD BR UNSWICK N HOR ACE

  12. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a U S A OH PA MI NY Lake Erie Lake St. Claire Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Basin Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By

  13. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a U S A OH PA MI NY Lake Erie Lake St. Claire Total Total Total Number Liquid Gas BOE of Reserves Reserves Reserves Basin Fields (Mbbl) (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  14. Computer systems and methods for visualizStolte; Chris ing data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolte, Chris; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2013-01-29

    A method for forming a visual plot using a hierarchical structure of a dataset. The dataset comprises a measure and a dimension. The dimension consists of a plurality of levels. The plurality of levels form a dimension hierarchy. The visual plot is constructed based on a specification. A first level from the plurality of levels is represented by a first component of the visual plot. A second level from the plurality of levels is represented by a second component of the visual plot. The dataset is queried to retrieve data in accordance with the specification. The data includes all or a portion of the dimension and all or a portion of the measure. The visual plot is populated with the retrieved data in accordance with the specification.

  15. Protective interior wall and attach8ing means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Richard D.; Upham, Gerald A.; Anderson, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    An array of connected plates mounted on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel of a magnetic confinement reactor in order to provide a protective surface for energy deposition inside the vessel. All fasteners are concealed and protected beneath the plates, while the plates themselves share common mounting points. The entire array is installed with torqued nuts on threaded studs; provision also exists for thermal expansion by mounting each plate with two of its four mounts captured in an oversize grooved spool. A spool-washer mounting hardware allows one edge of a protective plate to be torqued while the other side remains loose, by simply inverting the spool-washer hardware.

  16. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  17. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (MMcf) (Mbbl) Appalachian 3354 79,141 9,550,156 1,670,834 2001 Proved Reserves for Entire Applachian Basin WV Appalachian Basin, OH-PA (Panel 2 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Gas

  18. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  19. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  20. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  2. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  3. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  4. SPR to Continue Royalty-in-Kind Fill Program | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil from Offshore U.S. Leases WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a solicitation seeking contracts to exchange up to 13 million barrels of royalty oil ...

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. Sections I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, R.G.

    1981-03-01

    This report comprises two sections: Bayou Choctaw cavern stability issues, and geological site characterization of Bayou Choctaw. (DLC)

  6. Microsoft Word - SPR Annual Report 2008 Final for Printing.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... at the Gulf Coast area refineries that remained on-line ... gasoline and diesel shortages in the Southeast United States. ... Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites' ...

  7. Microsoft Word - SPR_AnnualReport_2011_Dec2012_SelfPublished...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve Annual Report for Calendar Year 2011 Report to Congress December 2012 United States ... its crude oil to refineries in the United States by ...

  8. Construction of hexahedral elements mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw SPR site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Roberts, Barry L.

    2015-09-01

    The three-dimensional finite element mesh capturing realistic geometries of Bayou Choctaw site has been constructed using the sonar and seismic survey data obtained from the field. The mesh is consisting of hexahedral elements because the salt constitutive model is coded using hexahedral elements. Various ideas and techniques to construct finite element mesh capturing artificially and naturally formed geometries are provided. The techniques to reduce the number of elements as much as possible to save on computer run time with maintaining the computational accuracy is also introduced. The steps and methodologies could be applied to construct the meshes of Big Hill, Bryan Mound, and West Hackberry strategic petroleum reserve sites. The methodology could be applied to the complicated shape masses for not only various civil and geological structures but also biological applications such as artificial limbs.

  9. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  10. Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil Exchange from the SPR | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growing America's Energy Future Growing America's Energy Future The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts from a range of biomass resources. Abundant, renewable bioenergy can help secure America's energy future, reducing our dependence on foreign oil and ensuring American prosperity while protecting the environment. Bioenergy can also help mitigate growing concerns about climate change by having an impact in

  11. Statement from DOE's Chief Spokesperson Andrew Beck Regarding Delivery of SPR Oil to Marathon Petroleum Company

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - Today, September 8, 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy will deliver 250,000 barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Marathon Petroleum Company's Midwest refineries...

  12. Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Introduction of Legislation to Expand the SPR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "I commend Senator Thad Cochran and Congressmen Ralph Hall, Joe Barton, Nick Lampson, and Chip Pickering for introducing legislation today to increase the capacity of the Strategic Petroleum...

  13. Geomechanical testing of Bayou Choctaw 102B core for SPR analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, Mathew Duffy; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.; Barrow, Perry Carl; Flint, Gregory Mark

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the short-term mechanical and time-dependent (creep) behavior of salt from the Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. This report documents the test methodologies, and constitutive properties inferred from tests performed. These are used to extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Bayou Choctaw domal salt and provide a data set for numerical analyses. The resulting information will be used to support numerical analyses of the current state of the Bayou Choctaw Dome as it relates to its crude oil storage function as part of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Core obtained from Drill Hole BC-102B was tested under creep and quasi-static constant mean stress axisymmetric compression, and constant mean stress axisymmetric extension conditions. Creep tests were performed at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the axisymmetric tests were performed at ambient temperatures (72-78 degrees Fahrenheit). The testing performed indicates that the dilation criterion is pressure and stress state dependent. It was found that as the mean stress increases, the shear stress required to cause dilation increases. The results for this salt are reasonably consistent with those observed for other domal salts. Also it was observed that tests performed under extensile conditions required consistently lower shear stress to cause dilation for the same mean stress, which is consistent with other domal salts. Young's moduli ranged from 3.95 x 106 to 8.51 x 106 psi with an average of 6.44 x 106 psi, with Poisson's ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.43 with an average of 0.30. Creep testing indicates that the BC salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared with other bedded and domal salt steady-state behavior.

  14. Microsoft Word - SPR Annual Report 2008 Final for Printing.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Organization for Standardization 9001 Quality Management System ... 46 Integration of the International Organization for Standardization 14001 into the Environmental Management ...

  15. Summary of events and geotechnical factors leading to decommissioning of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) facility at Weeks Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, J.T.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1996-10-01

    A sinkhole discovered over the edge of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility at Weeks Island salt dome, Louisiana, led to decommissioning the site during 1995--1998, following extensive diagnostics in 1994. The sinkhole resulted from mine-induced fractures in the salt which took may years to develop, eventually causing fresh water to leak into the storage chamber and dissolve the overlying salt, thus causing overburden collapse into the void. Prior to initiating the oil removal, a freeze wall was constructed at depth around the sinkhole in 1995 to prevent water inflow; a freeze plug will remain in place until the mine is backfilled with brine in 1997--8, and stability is reached. Residual oil will be removed; environmental monitoring has been initiated and will continue until the facility is completely plugged and abandoned, and environmental surety is achieved.

  16. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 25 years. A Tangible Challenge Our understanding of how electrons move within an atom is, in general, based on the assumption that individual electrons are sensitive only to...

  17. CXD 4607, Disposition of Kerr Hollow Quarry Shredder Project...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quarry project consisted of using a remotely operated pontoon barge equipped with a crane and a heavy lift grapple, working in conjunction with the a submersible drone, to lift...

  18. Horse Hollow Expansion Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"searchmarkers":"","locations":"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.243193,"lon":-100.265633,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""...

  19. Non-nuclear Electron Transport Channels in Hollow Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2014-08-15

    Electron transport in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping electron orbitals. Strong correlation of electronic wave functions with the ionic cores couples the electron and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge transport. By contrast, unoccupied electronic states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-electron bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker electron-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to electronic interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge transport. Through electronic-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-electron conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent electronic properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their electronic properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron–acoustic-phonon interaction.

  20. Preparation and properties of hollow glass microspheres for use...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Examples are given of the application of the model to study the effects of various process parameters. Authors: Campbell, J.H. ; Grens, J.Z. ; Poco, J.F. Publication Date: ...

  1. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) Southeastern Power Administration was established in 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, Southeastern was transferred to the newly created United States Department of Energy. Southeastern, headquartered in Elberton, Georgia, is responsible for

  2. THE INFRARED SPECTRUM OF URANIUM HOLLOW CATHODE LAMPS FROM 850...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CATHODES; ELECTRODES; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; ELEMENTS; INFRARED RADIATION; INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; METALS; RADIATIONS; SPECTRA; SPECTROMETERS; ...

  3. Templated photocatalytic synthesis of well-defined Pt hollow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abstract not provided. Authors: Fan, Hongyou ; Bai, Feng ; Wu, Huimeng ; Xiao, Xiaoyin ; Haddadd, Raid ; Sun, Zaicheng Publication Date: 2011-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1109053 Report ...

  4. Horse Hollow II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Energy Purchaser Market Location Taylor County TX Coordinates 32.243826, -100.131898 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Horse Hollow III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Resources Developer NextEra Energy Resources Energy Purchaser Market Location Taylor County TX Coordinates 32.243125, -100.045245 Show Map Loading map......

  6. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for future theory development. Top: Absorption of a photon by an He- ion in the 1s2s2p 4Po ground state boosts a 1s electron into an empty 2p orbital, forming the triply excited...

  7. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (trillion Btu)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti- lation","Water Heat- ing","Light- ing","Cook- ing","Refrig- eration","Office Equip- ment","Com-...

  8. Revised: December, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (thousand Btusquare foot) " ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti- lation","Water Heat- ing","Light- ing","Cook- ing","Refrig- eration","Office Equip- ment","Com-...

  9. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Intensity (kWhsquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  11. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  12. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  13. Evaluation of the carbon content of aerosols from the burn- ing of biomass in the Brazilian Amazon using thermal, op- tical and thermal-optical analysis methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soto-Garcia, Lydia L.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Andreae, Tracey W.; taxo, Paulo Ar-; Maenhaut, Willy; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Chow, Judith C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2011-06-03

    Aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin as part of the project LBA-SMOCC-2002 (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Sampling was conducted during the late dry season, when the aerosol composition was dominated by biomass burning emissions, especially in the submicron fraction. A 13-stage Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) was used to collect particles with nominal aerodynamic diameters (D{sub p}) ranging from 0.03 to 0.10 m. Gravimetric analyses of the DLPI substrates and filters were performed to obtain aerosol mass concentrations. The concentrations of total, apparent elemental, and organic carbon (TC, EC{sub a}, and OC) were determined using thermal and thermal-optical analysis (TOA) methods. A light transmission method (LTM) was used to determine the concentration of equivalent black carbon (BC{sub e}) or the absorbing fraction at 880 nm for the size-resolved samples. During the dry period, due to the pervasive presence of fires in the region upwind of the sampling site, concentrations of fine aerosols (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m: average 59.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}) were higher than coarse aerosols (D{sub p} > 2.5 {mu}m: 4.1 {mu}g m{sup -3}). Carbonaceous matter, estimated as the sum of the particulate organic matter (i.e., OC x 1.8) plus BC{sub e}, comprised more than 90% to the total aerosol mass. Concentrations of EC{sub a} (estimated by thermal analysis with a correction for charring) and BCe (estimated by LTM) averaged 5.2 {+-} 1.3 and 3.1 {+-} 0.8 {mu}g m{sup -3}, respectively. The determination of EC was improved by extracting water-soluble organic material from the samples, which reduced the average light absorption {angstrom} exponent of particles in the size range of 0.1 to 1.0 {mu}m from > 2.0 to approximately 1.2. The size-resolved BC{sub e} measured by the LTM showed a clear maximum between 0.4 and 0.6 m in diameter. The concentrations of OC and BC{sub e} varied diurnally during the dry period, and this variation is related to diurnal changes in boundary layer thickness and in fire frequency.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Crude oil pipes at SPR Bryan Mound site near Freeport, TX. Crude oil pipes at SPR Bryan Mound site near Freeport, TX. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is the world's largest...

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 9,078 327 -144 - 24 - Alaskan 815 - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 3,398 - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - -236 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - -...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 10,017 195 101 - 41 - Alaskan 864 - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 4,256 - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 38 - 25 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - Imports...

  17. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4,975 - 9,988 96 45 - 16 - Alaskan 836 - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 4,138 - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - -35 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - Imports...

  18. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5,178 - 10,074 - 104 - 32 - Alaskan 864 - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 4,314 - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 52 - 25 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - Imports...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 10,066 211 76 - 44 - Alaskan 867 - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 4,412 - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 51 - 66 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - Imports...

  20. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Barry L.

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has an increasing reliance on mul t i - arm caliper surveys to assess the integrity of casing for cavern access wells and to determine priorities for casing remediation. Multi - arm caliper (MAC) surveys provide a view of well casing deformation by reporting radial measurements of the inner cas ing wall as the tool is drawn through the casing. Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In total, these surveys account for over 100 million individual measurements. The surveys were collected using diff ering survey vendors and survey hardware. This has resulted in a collection of disparate data sets which confound attempts to make well - to - well or time - dependent evaluations. In addition, the vendor supplied MAC interpretations often involve variables wh ich are not well defined or which may not be applicable to casings for cavern access wells. These factors reduce the usability of these detailed data sets. In order to address this issue and provide an independent analysis of multi - arm caliper survey data, Sandia National Labs has developed processing techniques and analysis variables which allow for the comparison of MAC survey data regardless of the source of the survey data. These techniques use the raw radial arm information and newly developed analysis variables to assess the casing status and provide a means for well - to - well and time - dependent analyses. Well - to - well and t ime - dependent investigation of the MAC survey data provide s information to prioritize well remediation activities and identify wells with integrity issues. This paper presents the challenges in using disparate MAC survey data, techniques developed to address these challenges and some o f the insights gained from these new techniques.

  1. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Strategic Petroleum Reserve, 1977-2011 End-of-Year Stocks in SPR Crude Oil Imports for SPR¹ SPR as Share of Domestic Stocks SPR Stocks as Days of Petroleum Net Imports² 158 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Imported by SPR and imported by others for SPR. 2 Derived by dividing end-of-year SPR stocks by annual average daily net imports of all petroleum. Note: SPR=Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Source: Table 5.17. 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 200 400 600

  2. History | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History of SPR Releases History of SPR Releases The following provides a brief description of the times when crude oil has been released from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Emergency Drawdowns: The SPR exists, first and foremost, as an emergency response tool the President can use should the United States be confronted with an economically-threatening disruption in oil supplies. 2005 Hurricane Katrina Sale | 1991 Operation Desert Storm Sale Crude Oil Test Sales: The SPR has also

  3. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  4. Hollow-cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-08-22

    Several different cold cathode configurations are disclosed for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures. 8 figs.

  5. Hollow - cathode electrode for high-power, high-pressure discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    Several different cold cathode configurations for a gas discharge device each having a plurality of grooves of selected spacing, depth and width to improve the emission of electrons in a gas discharge device. Each of the cold cathode configurations can be machined from a single piece of a selected material. Several of the configurations can be assembled with individual elements which is easily seen from the various figures.

  6. Hollow and Filled with Potential | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... and durability toward oxygen reduction." Nano Letters 14, 3570 (2014). DOI: 10.1021... ACS Nano 9, 2635 (2015). DOI: 10.1021nn506387w External link X. Wang, S. I. Choi, L. ...

  7. Investigation of Propagation Characteristics of Twisted Hollow Waveguides for Particle Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Joshua L

    2008-09-01

    A new class of accelerating structures employing a uniformly twisted waveguide is investigated. Twisted waveguides of various cross-sectional geometries are considered and analyzed. It is shown that such a twisted waveguide can support waves that travel at a speed slower than the speed of light c. The slow-wave properties of twisted structures are of interest because these slow-wave electromagnetic fields can be used in applications such as electron traveling wave tubes and linear particle accelerators. Since there is no exact closed form solution for the electromagnetic fields within a twisted waveguide or cavity, several previously proposed approximate methods are examined, and more effcient approaches are developed. It is found that the existing perturbation theory methods yield adequate results for slowly twisted structures; however, our efforts here are geared toward analyzing rapidly twisted structures using modifed finite difference methods specially suited for twisted structures. Although the method can handle general twisted structures, three particular cross sections are selected as representative cases for careful analysis. First, a slowly twisted rectangular cavity is analyzed as a reference case. This is because its shape is simple and perturbation theory already gives a good approximate solution for such slow twists rates. Secondly, a symmetrically notched circular cross section is investigated, since its longitudinal cross section is comparable to the well known disk-loaded cavity (used in many practical accelerator designs, including SLAC). Finally, a "dumbbell" shaped cross section is analyzed because of its similarity to the well-known TESLA-type accelerating cavity, which is of great importance because of its wide acceptance as a superconducting cavity. To validate the results of the developed theory and our extensive simulations, the newly developed numerical models are compared to commercial codes. Also, several prototypes are developed employing the three basic shapes discussed previously. Bench measurements are performed on the prototype cavities to evaluate dispersion by measuring the field distribution along these cavities. The measurement results are compared to the simulations and theoretical results, and good agreement is shown. Once validated, the developed models are used to design twisted accelerating structures with specific phase velocities and good accelerating performance.

  8. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Paula D.; Flores, Karen A.; Lord, David L.

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  9. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Electricity Consumption (kWh) by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    E3A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing...

  11. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E3A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti-...

  12. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption (Btu) by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti-...

  13. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (trillion Btu) District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  15. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (billion cubic feet) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  16. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (trillion Btu) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... than an HRP-certified individual is not ing: ing HRP duties is denied both escorted and ... Contractor means subcontractors at all tiers and any industrial, educational, commercial, ...

  18. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    E4A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003 Electricity Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti-...

  19. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    E4. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Electricity Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti-...

  20. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (million gallons) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (gallonssquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  1. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu) District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  2. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  3. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    cubic feet) Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  5. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (trillion Btu) Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  7. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  8. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  9. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    A. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003 Major Fuel Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation...

  10. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, ... ,"All Build- ings*","Build- ings with Water Heating","Type of Water Heating ...

  11. Revised: December, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ," Major Fuel Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot) " ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti- lation","Water Heat-...

  12. New Contracts Awarded for Continued Fill of Strategic Petroleum...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    awarded two new contracts to deliver crude oil to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) ... As with all recent oil delivery contracts to the SPR, the crude oil will come from ...

  13. Statement from DOE's Chief Spokesperson Andrew Beck Regarding...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SPR Oil to Marathon Petroleum Company Statement from DOE's Chief Spokesperson Andrew Beck Regarding Delivery of SPR Oil to Marathon Petroleum Company September 8, 2008 - 3:20pm ...

  14. Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Introduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Introduction of Legislation to Expand the SPR Statement from Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman on the Introduction of Legislation to Expand the SPR May 21, 2007 - 1:24pm ...

  15. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 323,237 Alaskan 315,420 - - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 1,553,569 - - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 14,017 - 8,944 - - - 684,544 Imports by SPR - - 0 -...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 307,111 Alaskan 236,595 - - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 1,204,402 - - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 14,017 - 18,059 - - - 693,659 Imports by SPR - - 0 -...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil 1,891 - 4,857 -1,791 313 -312 5,583 0 0 Commercial 1,891 - 4,857 - 313 -77 5,583 0 - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - - -236 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - -...

  18. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil 2,643 - 6,030 -1,704 -50 -37 6,957 0 0 Commercial 2,643 - 6,030 - -50 -2 6,957 0 - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - - -35 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - -...

  19. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 493 - 323,237 Alaskan 25,931 - - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 128,285 - - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - -1,086 - - - 684,544 Imports by SPR - - 0 - - -...

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Oil 2,918 - 6,124 -1,836 241 142 7,305 0 0 Commercial 2,918 - 6,073 - 241 76 7,305 0 - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 51 - - 66 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - -...

  1. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Oil 2,762 - 6,049 -1,796 163 97 7,082 0 0 Commercial 2,762 - 6,011 - 163 72 7,082 0 - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 38 - - 25 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - -...

  2. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 727 - 307,111 Alaskan 24,456 - - - - - - - - Lower 48 States 101,954 - - - - - - - - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - -7,067 - - - 693,659 Imports by SPR - - 0 - - -...

  3. Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Services » Petroleum Reserves » Strategic Petroleum Reserve » Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil Exchange from the SPR Guidance for Requesting Emergency Oil Exchange from the SPR If hurricanes or other unexpected physical conditions disrupt either crude oil imports or domestic production, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is ready to make replacement oil available to the extent approved by the President and/or the Secretary of Energy. This section provides SPR contacts and

  4. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This timeline explores the history of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, from conception through current events.

  5. Strategic petroleum reserve planning and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a government-owned stockpile of crude oil intended to serve as a buffer against possible oil market disruptions. The overall purpose of this project is to develop and apply improved models and tools for SPR management. Current project efforts emphasize developing new modeling tools to explicitly and flexibly portray oil market uncertainty and SPR planning risk.

  6. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Test Sale 2014 Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve Test Sale 2014 Report Strategic Petroleum Reserve Test Sale 2014 Report Strategic Petroleum Reserve Test Sale 2014 Report to Congress 2014 SPR Test Sale Final Report.pdf (1.56 MB) More Documents & Publications Before the House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power Historical SPR Annual Reports to Congress 2009 SPR Report to Congress

  8. QA Standard Contract Language

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy July 17, 2014 - 2:48pm Addthis Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Lauren Boyd Lauren Boyd Program Manager, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Benjamin Phillips

  9. Q-weak Experiment Determines Proton's Weak Charge | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy July 17, 2014 - 2:48pm Addthis Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Q&A: FORGE-ing Ahead to Clean, Low-Cost Geothermal Energy Lauren Boyd Lauren Boyd Program Manager, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Benjamin Phillips

  10. Cluster generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  11. SRNL LDRD - Developed Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developed Technologies Porous Wall Hollow Glass Microspheres Porous Wall Hollow Glass Microspheres Tiny Glass Spheres for Energy Storage, Medical Applications and Other Uses...

  12. freer_arm_2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been applied to TWP-ICE data, to resize particles classified as 'hollow - correctable.' ... Using combinations of these parameters, par- ticles are classified as accepted, hollow - ...

  13. Strategic Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reserves » Strategic Petroleum Reserve Strategic Petroleum Reserve Crude oil pipes at the Bryan Mound site, the largest of the four SPR storage sites - near Freeport, TX. Crude oil pipes at the Bryan Mound site, the largest of the four SPR storage sites - near Freeport, TX. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is the world's largest supply of emergency crude oil. The federally-owned oil stocks are stored in huge underground salt caverns along the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico. Decisions to

  14. Inspection Report: IG-0693 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    93 Inspection Report: IG-0693 June 17, 2005 Review of Security at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve The Office of Inspector General initiated an inspection of security at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SPR is the United States' emergency stockpile of crude oil and was established in response to the 1973- 1974 oil embargo. The reserve currently stores approximately 695 million barrels of oil in underground salt caverns located in Louisiana and Texas. The SPR

  15. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption (kWh) Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Energy Intensity (kWhsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti-...

  16. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption (kWh) by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti-...

  17. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Electricity Consumption (kWh) by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool- ing","Venti- lation","Water...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  19. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Electricity Consumption (kWh) Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Electricity Energy Intensity (kWhsquare foot) Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation...

  20. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dur- ing cooler weather when the air conditioner is not running, lower air exchange levels can ... Test- ing suggested that "smart" ventilation control systems may be able to provide ...

  1. WAPA General Power Contract Provisions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WAPA General Power Contract Provisions PDF icon WAPAGeneralPowerContractProvisions.pdf More Documents & Publications WAPA Purchase of Energy Contractor Template SPR Pro Forma ...

  2. Logistics Management Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Petroleum Reserves (OPR) manages the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and is responsible for establishing policies, goals, and priorities for the...

  3. FE Teams Earn Secretary of Energy Achievement Awards | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recently, a stent using this alloy was approved in Europe to treat obstructed blood flow ... Comprising the SPR team were: Jorge Aguinaga, Racheal P. Baldwin, Lansen C. Barrow, ...

  4. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT O F F I C E O F M AN AG E

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    gasoline usage in the United States by 20 percent in the next ... to expand the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), increase ... expansion of domestic refineries-all helpful actions ...

  5. DOE Takes Next Steps to Expand Strategic Petroleum Reserve to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be connected by pipeline to the Capline pipeline system and to refiners and marine ... at the existing three SPR sites, will ensure an adequate crude oil emergency reserve. ...

  6. USAJobs Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Logistics Management Specialist Job Summary: The Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Office of Petroleum Reserves (OPR) manages the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) and is...

  7. USAJobs Search | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Engineering and Analysis Division, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), New Orleans, LA. This position is also being announced for Status...

  8. Semiannual Report to Congress for the period ending March 31...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... related to problems with specific management processes. ... integrity, contingency planning, change control ... SPR has the largest stockpile of Government-owned emergency ...

  9. Follow-up Review of Security at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    authority, protective force performance test realism, Security Police Officers (SPO) ... that the protective force performance test realism had not improved and that SPR ...

  10. Quality Assurance Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) mission is to provide the United States with adequate strategic and economic protection against disruptions in oil supplies. Organizational Structure: This...

  11. Energy Department Announces Emergency Oil Loan In Response to Hurricane Isaac-Related Request

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Department has agreed to lend 1 million barrels of sweet crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve’s (SPR) Bayou Choctaw site in Louisiana.

  12. RIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: SPRO Business Operations General Support

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    General Support System PIA Template Version 3 - May, 2009 iiiiiiiiiiiiiii Department of Energy Privacy Impact ... The SPR GSS manages the common functionalities and storage ...

  13. EIS-0385: Record of Decision and Floodplain Statement of Findings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE has prepared an environmental impact statement (EIS) (DOEEIS-0385), DOE has decided to develop a new 160 MMB SPR storage facility at Richton (Mississippi), expand the storage...

  14. Slide 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Note: Almost equal growth in numbers of long (green) and short (red) financial traders. ... US Crude Oil Stocks (excluding SPR) Source: Energy Information Administration 200,000 ...

  15. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Computer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Ulm, Universitt - Fakultt fr Mathematik und Wirtschaftswissenschaften Universidad de la Repblica, Instituto de Matemtica y Estadstica "Prof. Ing. Rafael Laguardia" ...

  16. Biomass Feedstock Supply Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... C CO Buf f er C CO Pelletizer 010 R Q Pump SP CO S0 Mov ing pellets C CO Pellet storage C ... R Q Pump C CO Pelletizer SP CO S0 Mov ing pellets C CO Pellet storage SP CO S0 Mov ing to ...

  17. EIS-0034: Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Expansion of Reserve, Supplemental

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) developed this SEIS to address the environmental impacts of expanding the SPR to store 1,000 million barrels of oil. The final programmatic EIS (FEA-FES-76-2), addressed the environmental impacts of storing 500 million barrels of oil.

  18. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 0 859,881 Commercial 796,524 - 1,657,941 - 65,732 20,619 1,994,208 1 - 166,222 Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 14,017 - - 18,059 - - - 693,659 Imports by SPR - - 0...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -9,372 167,498 0 0 859,881 Commercial 56,732 - 145,712 - 9,403 -2,305 167,498 0 - 166,222 Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - - -7,067 - - - 693,659 Imports by SPR - - 0 - -...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 0 856,448 Commercial 1,008,273 - 2,193,947 - 59,537 26,301 2,584,837 1 - 171,904 Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 14,017 - - 8,944 - - - 684,544 Imports by SPR - - 0...

  1. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    562 0 856,883 Commercial 1,023,499 - 2,216,850 - 24,198 27,275 2,590,947 562 - 172,339 Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 18,889 - - 8,944 - - - 684,544 Imports by SPR - - 0...

  2. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Crude Oil 2,804 - 6,125 -1,796 66 99 7,098 2 0 Commercial 2,804 - 6,074 - 66 75 7,098 2 - Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 52 - - 25 - - - Imports by SPR - - 0 - - - - - -...

  3. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -1,149 215,660 0 0 856,448 Commercial 81,948 - 186,928 - -1,541 -63 215,660 0 - 171,904 Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) - - 0 - - -1,086 - - - 684,544 Imports by SPR - - 0 - -...

  4. DOE Announces Release of Long-Term Strategic Review of Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy announced today the release of the Long-Term Strategic Review of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The congressionally-mandated study provides an overview of the SPR and addresses key challenges that will impact the Reserve’s ability to carry out its energy security mission.

  5. SSAB National Stewardship Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading SPR Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading May 10, 2007 - 12:55pm Addthis Deliveries to Begin in August WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a contract to Shell Trading for exchange of 8.7 million barrels of royalty oil produced from the Gulf Coast for crude oil meeting the quality specifications of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The exchange oil will be delivered to two SPR sites, West Hackberry, Louisiana and

  6. An analysis of increasing the size of the strategic petroleum reserve to one billion barrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Emergency Policy and Evaluation requested that the Energy Information Administration complete an analysis of the proposed expansion in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from its currently planned size of 750 million barrels to 1000 million barrels. Because the SPR contains only 580 million barrels at this point in time, the benefits and costs of increasing the SPR from 600 to 750 million barrels were also estimated. This report documents the assumptions, methodology, and results of the analysis. 17 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SER, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the SPR impacts the environment. The SER provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits.

  8. Revised: December, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E4. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool-...

  9. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E4A. Electricity Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool-...

  10. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A57. Energy Conservation Features, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.7 All Buildings ................................... 4,806 4,357 4,223 2,604 1,178 264

  11. BWX TYmes, October 2003

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration conference in Washington, D.C., ... Diskless technology has several benefits in ... and factory floor systems. Network- ing, remote computers and remote ...

  12. B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The slanted rotor allows the turbine to self-start without any external devices. This passive-control system offers power generation without the noise, clutch- ing,...

  13. The

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... engineering of hydrogen technologies, Sandia is advancing hydrogen as an energy carrier, improv- ing fuel cells and hydrogen storage, as well as safety, codes and standards. ...

  14. SANDIA REPORT SAND93-1076

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... procedures were not per- ing bit-rate demands, formed in a standard repeated method ... Proper operational proce- The standard IDR optical termination panel dures, ...

  15. PSADEFS.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ASTM. The acronym for the American Society for Test- ing and Materials. Atmospheric Crude ... Example: (1) Unextracted paraffinic oils that would not meet the Viscosity Index test. ...

  16. Evince Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Evince Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Evince Technology Place: United Kingdom Sector: Efficiency, Wind energy Product: String representation "Evince has pion ... ing...

  17. Microsoft Word - doe_preamble_04.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Demmel, W. J. "Applied Numerical Linear Algebra". Society for Industrial and Applied ... Their work demonstrates that the use of standard upscal- ing procedures can be ...

  18. Sensor Technologies for a Smart Transmission System An EPRI White...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Re- searchers are also looking into the possibility of conduct- ing future inspections by unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs). The advantage of this approach is that the data ...

  19. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

  20. ch_1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, determined that a geological repository ... obtain- ing representative con- stituent samples from the large volumes of mixed ...

  1. Hydropower Vision Chapter 4: The Hydropower Vision: A Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... new professionals to enter the hydropower field. 4 350 ... compliance, financing terms, and revenue sources-may ... and varied, which makes search- ing and assimilating data ...

  2. ch_5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    44 Environmental Consequences 5.2.7 WATER RESOURCES This section presents potential water resource impacts from implement- ing the proposed waste processing alternatives described ...

  3. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum is an indispensable metal in modern manufactur- ing. Its lightweight, low density, corrosion resistance, and easy processing possibilities, coupled with its suitability ...

  4. ch_5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... by the application of water, use of soil additives, and ... and health impacts from atmospheric emissions from the waste ... compactors) and portable generators dur- ing construction ...

  5. 04100001inside-layout.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ing nearly eliminated atmospheric releases of radiation ... to contami- nated soil or water on the NTS, have moved off ... the emissions were nitrogen oxides from diesel generators. ...

  6. Untitled Document

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To achieve these goals, we have implemented an application that uses shared rendering. Shared rendering refers to a cooperative visualization and render- ing framework in which ...

  7. Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Upper Burbank Disposal Cell...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Demonstration that IicensrIng provisions were met. Information needed to forecast future ... Energy, Environmental Restoration D'iision, UMTRA Project Team, Albuquerque, New Mexico. ...

  8. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

  9. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  11. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  12. Biomedical Engineering Research at DOE National Labs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The joint approach of imaging methods and isotope tech- nologies is applied to medical science problems us- ing a team of physicists and research physicians devoted to development ...

  13. Principal Media Contact: DT Townsend Savannah River Nuclear Solutions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soon after the collision, more than 10 different agencies, companies and organizations, includ- ing the FBI, began to mobilize and descend upon the scene near an industrial plant ...

  14. Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications in Gas StorageSeparation Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Daqiang Yuan, Dan Zhao, Christine Inge Schilling, Oliver...

  15. Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row Cooling Devices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    data center cool- ing is achieved with computer room air conditioners (CRACs) or computer room air handlers (CRAHs). These CRAC and CRAH units are typically installed in data ...

  16. EIA's Energy in Brief: What is the role of coal in the United...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Power Monthly Quarterly Coal Report Monthly Energy ... data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. ... while coal-fired generation has generally declined. ...

  17. Weekly Coal Production by State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights ... Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation ...

  18. National Security Science | Los National Alamos Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Supercomputing Fellowship 21st Century Deterrence Revolutionizing Deepwater Drilling Ultraconductus: Innovative Electrical Conductors Th-ING: A Sustainable Energy Source ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the ...

  20. NOVEL FLOW DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brockwell, R.E.

    1963-11-26

    The design of hollow, porous-walled articles is presented. By this invention a hollow, porous-walled article is made by stacking thin, centrally apertured plates having grooves extending from their central aperture to their periphery. (AEC)

  1. T PamI J. I(. u!borekl

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    of two parts; one, fabrloetion of nowal uranium hollow extrusion billet8 iroa WOW lqote ... prodnoed and be able to quote a per-piece price for machin- hollow ext%idon blllete when ...

  2. Suspect Counterfeit Coordinators, April 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sandia Site OfficeNNSA Nora Armjio SCI Coordinator 505-845-9855 mnarmij@sandia.gov Adlolfo Bachicha SCI Coordinator 505-844-0133 aabachi@sandia.gov SPR Project...

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve Strategic Petroleum Reserve Crude oil pipes at the Bryan Mound site, the largest of the four SPR storage sites - near Freeport, TX. Crude oil pipes at ...

  4. Contracts Awarded for Acquisition of Crude Oil for the Strategic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    10,683,000 barrels of crude oil at a cost of 553 million for the Department's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Deliveries of the oil will be made from February to April ...

  5. Microsoft Word - Document1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Historical SPR Oil Sales and Exchanges Date Purpose Category Type Release Volume (MMbbl) ... Only 3.9 MMbbl were sold because of the lack of bids for one of the six types of crude oil ...

  6. Secretary Bodman Announces Sale of 11 Million Barrels of Crude Oil from the Nation's Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced that the Department of Energy has approved bids for the sale of 11 million barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)....

  7. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the Office of Fossil Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2014 and 2015 within the Office of Fossil Energy.  Note: This includes the following sites: SPR, NETL,...

  8. CX-012337: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Maintain/Repair SPR Radio Communications Network, 2014-2017 CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 06/11/2014 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  9. Microsoft Word - Letter Report Cover 9 26 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (SPR) has the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. ... the Richton site to use a 100-mile long pipeline to the Gulf of Mexico to dispose of ...

  10. Abstracts | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... We will test the feasibility of deriving particle size from the total photoelectron signal ... To test this idea we examined C8H17SH in a combined SPR4-point probe ...

  11. Analysis of Multi-Arm Caliper Data for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Over the last several years the SPR has collected a large number of modern MAC surveys. In ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  12. Profiles in Leadership: Bob Corbin, Deputy Assistant Secretary...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... We're in a period of change that presents several tremendous opportunities for the SPR. It was created in 1975 in the aftermath of the 1973 oil embargo to provide a reserve of ...

  13. Oil Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High School Oil Study Guide - High School Oil Study Guide - High School (602.29 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0165: DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 2009 SPR Report to Congress Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2012

  14. 2008 Seminars Archive | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Chemical Routes to the Nanocrystalline Thermoelectric Materials: AgPbmSbTem+2 and ... and (3) SPR imaging thermometry of the cooling of a hot-water droplet in air and cold ...

  15. DOE to Defer Strategic Petroleum Reserve RIK Deliveries | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    oil that had been scheduled for delivery to the nation's Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites (SPR) this summer. The deferred deliveries are part of a royalty-in-kind crude oil ...

  16. CX-013765: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus (All SPR Sites) CX(s) Applied: B2.2Date: 05/18/2015 Location(s): Multiple LocationsOffices(s): Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office

  17. Total Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  18. Enhanced multicolor fluorescence in bioimaging using deep-ultraviolet surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikawada, Masakazu; Ono, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2014-06-02

    Enhanced multicolor fluorescence has been achieved using deep-ultraviolet surface plasmon resonance (DUV-SPR) on an aluminum thin film using the Kretschmann configuration. The film thickness and the incident angle of the light were optimized by calculations using the Fresnel equations. The presence of a surface oxide layer was also considered in the calculations. Experimental measurements showed that DUV-SPR led to a strong enhancement of the fluorescence intensity from both quantum dots and dye-labeled cells.

  19. Inspection Report: INS-L-12-06 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Inspection Report: INS-L-12-06 September 26, 2012 Alleged Storage Capacity Concerns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve The Department of Energy's (Department) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) has the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The SPR crude oil inventory is stored in underground salt caverns that have an authorized storage capacity of approximately 727 million barrels (MMB). These caverns are susceptible to "creep," a geological force

  20. EIS-0075: Strategic Petroleum Reserve Phase III Development, Texoma and Seaway Group Salt Domes (West Hackberry and Bryan Mound Expansion, Big Hill Development) Cameron Parish, Louisiana, and Brazoria and Jefferson Counties, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Also see EIS-0021 and EIS-0029. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Office developed this EIS to assess the environmental impacts of expanding the existing SPR storage capacity from 538 million to 750 million barrels of storage and increasing the drawdown capability from 3.5 million to 4.5 million barrels per day. This EIS incorperates two previously issued EISs: DOE/EIS-0021, Seaway Group of Salt Domes, and DOE/EIS-0029, Texoma Group of Salt Domes.

  1. Spectral photoresponse of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures with CdSe ultra-thin quantum well insertions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valverde-Chvez, D. A.; Sutara, F.; Hernndez-Caldern, I.

    2014-05-15

    We present a study of the spectral photoresponse (SPR) of ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructures for different ZnSe film thickness with and without CdSe ultra-thin quantum well (UTQW) insertions. We observe a significant increase of the SPR of heterostructures containing 3 monolayer thick CdSe UTQW insertions; these results encourage their use in photodetectors and solar cells.

  2. DOE to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve DOE to Resume Filling Strategic Petroleum Reserve January 2, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that it plans to take advantage of the recent large decline in crude oil prices, and has issued a solicitation to purchase approximately 12 million barrels of crude oil for the nation's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to replenish SPR supplies sold following hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. In

  3. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report, provided annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the SPR. Included in this report is a description of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1992. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, ground water, and water discharges) are discussed within each section by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from any SPR activities during 1992. Environmental areas of concern, such as potential ground water contamination, are fully addressed in the applicable section by site. The SPR continues to maintain an overall excellent environmental record.

  4. 1989 Annual environmental report for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report, provided annually, summarizes monitoring data collected to assess Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) impacts on the environment. The report serves as a management tool for mitigating such impacts, thus serving the public interest by ensuring environmentally sound operation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Included is a description of each site's environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1989. The active permits and the results of the environmental monitoring program (i.e., air, surface water, groundwater, and waste discharges) are discussed by site. The quality assurance program is presented which includes results from laboratory and field audits and studies performed internally and by regulatory agencies. In general, no significant adverse environmental impact resulted from SPR activities during 1989, except for a brine release from a pipeline perforation south of the Bryan Mound site adversely affecting a small area of marsh vegetation which is recovering at this time. 22 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. The SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  6. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome some of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.

  7. Strategic Petroleum Reserve site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this Site Environmental Report (SER) is to characterize site environmental management performance, confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and highlight significant programs and efforts for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SER, provided annually in accordance with DOE order 5400.1, serves the public by summarizing monitoring data collected to assess how the SPR impacts the environment. The SER provides a balanced synopsis of non-radiological monitoring and regulatory compliance data and affirms that the SPR has been operating within acceptable regulatory limits. Included in this report is a describe of each site`s environment, an overview of the SPR environmental program, and a recapitulation of special environmental activities and events associated with each SPR site during 1997. Two of these highlights include decommissioning of the Weeks Island site, involving the disposition of 11.6 million m{sup 3} (73 million barrels) of crude oil inventory, as well as the degasification of over 12.6 million m{sup 3} (79.3 million barrels) of crude oil inventory at the Big Hill and Bryan Mound facilities.

  8. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy sensor and methods for using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Brian Benjamin; Nave, Stanley Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance ("SPR") probe with a detachable sensor head and system and methods for using the same in various applications is described. The SPR probe couples fiber optic cables directly to an SPR substrate that has a generally planar input surface and a generally curved reflecting surface, such as a substrate formed as a hemisphere. Forming the SPR probe in this manner allows the probe to be miniaturized and operate without the need for high precision, expensive and bulky collimating or focusing optics. Additionally, the curved reflecting surface of the substrate can be coated with one or multiple patches of sensing medium to allow the probe to detect for multiple analytes of interest or to provide multiple readings for comparison and higher precision. Specific applications for the probe are disclosed, including extremely high sensitive relative humidity and dewpoint detection for, e.g., moisture-sensitive environment such as volatile chemical reactions. The SPR probe disclosed operates with a large dynamic range and provides extremely high quality spectra despite being robust enough for field deployment and readily manufacturable.

  10. Fluidized-bed technology enabling the integration of high temperature solar receiver CSP systems with steam and advanced power cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakadjian, B.; Hu, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Flynn, T.; Santelmann, K.; Ma, Z.

    2015-06-05

    Solar Particle Receivers (SPR) are under development to drive concentrating solar plants (CSP) towards higher operating temperatures to support higher efficiency power conversion cycles. The novel high temperature SPR-based CSP system uses solid particles as the heat transfer medium (HTM) in place of the more conventional fluids such as molten salt or steam used in current state-of-the-art CSP plants. The solar particle receiver (SPR) is designed to heat the HTM to temperatures of 800 °C or higher which is well above the operating temperatures of nitrate-based molten salt thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The solid particles also help overcome somemore » of the other challenges associated with molten salt-based systems such as freezing, instability and degradation. The higher operating temperatures and use of low cost HTM and higher efficiency power cycles are geared towards reducing costs associated with CSP systems. This paper describes the SPR-based CSP system with a focus on the fluidized-bed (FB) heat exchanger and its integration with various power cycles. Furthermore, the SPR technology provides a potential pathway to achieving the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) target of $0.06/kWh that has been set by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative.« less

  11. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary environmental findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), located in Louisiana and Texas, and conducted in two segments from November 30 through December 11, 1987, and February 1 through 10, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SPR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involved the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SPR, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team has developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing specific environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the SPR Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. The Summary Report will reflect the final determinations of the SPR Survey and the other DOE site-specific Surveys. 200 refs., 50 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General report on inspection of analytical laboratories oversight at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-26

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy has overall programmatic responsibility for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The SPR Project Management Office (SPRPMO), located in New Orleans, Louisiana, and under the direction of the Project Manager, manages day-to-day project activities. The SPR currently has five underground crude oil storage facilities, and one marine terminal, on or near the Gulf Coasts of Texas and Louisiana. The purpose of this inspection was to review oversight of M and O and subcontractor laboratories performing analyses on samples taken for SPR environmental compliance and oil quality purposes. During this inspection, the M and O contractor operated on-site environmental laboratories at four of the SPR storage facilities, and oil quality laboratories at two of the facilities. The number of subcontractor laboratories varies depending on the need for analytical support. The objective of this inspection was to determine if the SPRPMO had implemented management systems to provide adequate oversight of M and O contractor analytical laboratory activities, as well as to ensure effective oversight of subcontractor analytical laboratories.

  13. Electric fluid pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  16. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  17. U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Ray; Eldredge, Lisa; DeLuca, Charles; Mihalik, Patrick; Maldonado, Julio; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith; Berndsen, Gerard

    2010-05-01

    This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

  18. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that withmore » a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.« less

  19. Quantum plasmonic sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Wenjiang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2015-11-04

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors can reach the quantum noise limit of the optical readout field in various configurations. We demonstrate that two-mode intensity squeezed states produce a further enhancement in sensitivity compared with a classical optical readout when the quantum noise is used to transduce an SPR sensor signal in the Kretschmann configuration. The quantum noise reduction between the twin beams when incident at an angle away from the plasmonic resonance, combined with quantum noise resulting from quantum anticorrelations when on resonance, results in an effective SPR-mediated modulation that yields a measured sensitivity 5 dB better than that with a classical optical readout in this configuration. Furthermore, the theoretical potential of this technique points to resolving particle concentrations with more accuracy than is possible via classical approaches to optical transduction.

  20. User instructions for programs NEDIT and NPRED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    NEDIT and NPRED are computer programs developed for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program to assist the SPR system designers and operators in scheduling the leaching and oil-filling of the SPR salt caverns. NEDIT is an interactive program which assists the user in creating or editing a data set; NPRED in turn uses this data set to perform the engineering calculations. Various activities are necessary to achieve a man-made cavern filled with a maximum quantity of oil in minimum time. NPRED predicts the time required for each such activity, thus providing a site oil-capacity schedule. Instructions for using the codes are presented and examples are shown. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  1. DOE Tour of Zero: The Hope Landing Lot 2 by Manatee County Habitat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 of 11 Volunteers are trained to construct thermal blanket walls using insulated concrete form (ICF) construction with hollow rigid foam insulation blocks that are filled with...

  2. Integrated reactor and centrifugal separator and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Birdwell, Jr., Joseph F (Knoxville, TN); Jennings, Harold L. (Clinton, TN); McFarlane, Joanna (Oak Ridge, TN); Tsouris, Constantino (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-01-17

    An apparatus for providing reaction of fluids and separation of products with increased residence time. The apparatus includes a stationary shell, a rotating hollow cylindrical component disposed in the stationary shell, a residence-time increasing device external to the stationary shell, a standpipe for introducing fluid into an interior cavity of the hollow cylindrical component from the residence-time increasing device, a first outlet in fluid flow communication with the interior cavity of the hollow cylindrical component for a less dense phase fluid, and a second outlet in fluid flow communication with the interior cavity of the hollow cylindrical component for a more dense phase fluid.

  3. ARM Instrumentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection Institute, Underwriters Laboratories, the National Fire Protection Association, or the National Electrical Code. Air terminals are constructed of solid or hollow copper ...

  4. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, Steve H.; Pigott, William R.

    1997-01-01

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

  5. Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

    1997-12-30

    A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area. 3 figs.

  6. Plains and Eastern Clean Line

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Involved in successfully permitting the following wind generation projects: Wolf Ridge (TX), Horse Hollow IV and V (TX), Blue Summit I and II (TX), Red Mesa (NM), Limon ...

  7. Combined raman and IR fiber-based sensor for gas detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, Jerry C; Chan, James W; Trebes, James E; Angel, Stanley M; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-06-24

    A double-pass fiber-optic based spectroscopic gas sensor delivers Raman excitation light and infrared light to a hollow structure, such as a hollow fiber waveguide, that contains a gas sample of interest. A retro-reflector is placed at the end of this hollow structure to send the light back through the waveguide where the light is detected at the same end as the light source. This double pass retro reflector design increases the interaction path length of the light and the gas sample, and also reduces the form factor of the hollow structure.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  9. Replacement-3 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is hereinafter called the Customer) in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, ... from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. ...

  10. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corporation (Woburn, MA), and Trimeric Corporation (Buda, TX) - will combine a graphene oxide (GO) membrane unit with the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membrane...

  11. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A new approach, called Adaptive-Jet-Cooling, leverages two distinct spray patters of hollow conical sprays and conventional multiple jets, eliminating key sources of NOx and PM. ...

  12. RSC Article Template (Version 3.2)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... hollow carbon nanospheres with metal nanoparticles located in the core might provide an ... the surfaces of smaller carbon nanoparticles, which turned out to be unstable and ...

  13. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new approach, called Adaptive-Jet-Cooling, leverages two distinct spray patters of hollow conical sprays and conventional multiple jets, eliminating key sources of NOx and PM.

  14. 2-M Probe Survey At Salt Wells Area (Skord, Et Al., 2011) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    50 stations using a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) lowered through a hollow steel temperature probe tipped with tungsten for easier ground penetration. Corrections were...

  15. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects...

  16. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... based on composite amine-functionalized oxide polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    based on composite amine-functionalized oxide polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. ...

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sector that consists of electricity-only and combined heat and power (CHP) plants whose primary ... The facilities are usually hollowed-out salt domes, geological ...

  20. Released: September, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E6. Electricity Consumption (kWh) Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Energy Intensity (kWhsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heat- ing","Cool-...