Sample records for hollow glass microspheres

  1. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  2. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  3. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  4. Apparatus and process to enhance the uniform formation of hollow glass microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus is provided for enhancing the formation of a uniform population of hollow glass microspheres. A burner head is used which directs incoming glass particles away from the cooler perimeter of the flame cone of the gas burner and distributes the glass particles in a uniform manner throughout the more evenly heated portions of the flame zone. As a result, as the glass particles are softened and expand by a released nucleating gas so as to form a hollow glass microsphere, the resulting hollow glass microspheres have a more uniform size and property distribution as a result of experiencing a more homogenous heat treatment process.

  5. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres as a medium or substrate for storage and formation of novel materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G; Serkiz, Steven M.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Heung, Leung K.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous wall hollow glass microspheres are provided as a template for formation of nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, In addition, the carbon nanotubes in combination with the porous wall hollow glass microsphere provides an additional reaction template with respect to carbon nanotubes.

  6. Evaluation of the Thermal Performance for a Wire Mesh/Hollow Glass Microsphere Composite Structure as a Conduction Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mckenna, Sean

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation exploring the use of wire mesh/hollow glass microsphere combination for use as thermal insulation was conducted with the aim to conclude whether or not it represents a superior insulation technology to those...

  7. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Henning, S.A.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800--1200{mu} diameter and 100--300{mu} wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  8. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Henning, Sten A. (Dalby, SE)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  9. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  10. Double Direct Templating of Periodically Nanostructured ZnS Hollow Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Double Direct Templating of Periodically Nanostructured ZnS Hollow Microspheres Alejandro Wolosiuk 61801 Received July 22, 2005; E-mail: pbraun@uiuc.edu Hollow capsules are both technologically and scientifically interesting. "Smart" nano- and microcontainers could lead new catalysts, structures

  11. Polymeric microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  12. Facile approach to prepare hollow core–shell NiO microspherers for supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dandan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Pengcheng [College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Jing, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Dalei; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A facile lamellar template method (see image) has been developed for the preparation of uniform hollow core–shell structure NiO (HCS–NiO) with a nanoarchitectured wall structure. The prepared NiO was found to be highly crystalline in uniform microstructures with high specific surface area and pore volume. The results indicated that ethanol interacted with trisodium citrate played an important role for the formation of hollow core–shell spheres. On the basis of the analysis of the composition and the morphology, a possible formation mechanism was investigated. NiO microspheres with hollow core–shell showed excellent capacitive properties. The exceptional cyclic, structural and electrochemical stability with ?95% coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promised good utility value of hollow core–shell NiO material in fabricating a wide range of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. - The hollow core–shell NiO was prepared with a facile lamellar template method. The prepared NiO show higher capacitance, lower ion diffusion resistance and better electroactive surface utilization for Faradaic reactions. - Highlights: • Formation of hollow core–shell NiO via a novel and facile precipitation route. • Exhibited uniform feature sizes and high surface area of hollow core–shell NiO. • Synthesized NiO has high specific capacitance ( 448 F g{sup 1}) and very low ESR value. • Increased 20% of long life cycles capability after 500 charge–discharge cycles.

  13. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo, E-mail: zhaojinb@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Wu, Lili, E-mail: wulili@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Zou, Ke, E-mail: zouk2005@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  14. Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Yuying [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Fengqiang, E-mail: fengqiangsun@yahoo.c [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in GuangDong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wu Tianxing; Wu Qingsong; Huang Zhong; Su Heng; Zhang Zihe [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO{sub 4} as cadmium source and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres. -- Graphical abstract: Taking polystyrene spheres dispersed in a precursor solution as templates, CdS hollow microspheres composed of nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a new photochemical route at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Photochemical method was first employed to prepare hollow microspheres. {yields} CdS hollow spheres were first prepared at room temperature using latex spheres. {yields} The polystyrene spheres used as templates were not modified with special groups. {yields}The CdS hollow microspheres showed high visible-light photocatalytic activities.

  15. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  16. Loss and modal properties of Ag/AgI hollow glass waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mode transmission is obtained when the thickness of the glass wall is large. These smaller bores, thick wall hollow and industrial applications involving the delivery of CO2 laser radiation, but they have also proven use- ful popular structures is the hollow glass waveguide (HGW) comprised of a silica tube with an inner coating

  17. Deposition and characterization of metal sulfide dielectric coatings for hollow glass waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by chemical bath deposition for solar energy related applications," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 52 coatings for Ag/dielectric hollow glass waveguides," in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications for hollow glass waveguides," in Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Applications III, Proc. SPIE 4957, 97

  18. Experimental characterization and numerical simulations of a syntactic-foam/glass-bre composite sandwich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corigliano, Alberto

    Experimental characterization and numerical simulations of a syntactic-foam/glass-®bre composite core. Such core consists of a syntactic foam made by hollow glass microspheres embedded in an epoxy. Keywords: A. Glass ®bre; Composite sandwich; Syntactic foam; Mechanical tests; Numerical simulations (FE) 1

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-fe2o3 hollow micro-spheres Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kwon-Il Choi, Hae-Ryong Kim, Jong-Heun Lee Department of Materials... Hollow spheres Gas sensing kinetics a b s t r a c t Hierarchical and ... Source: Lee, Jong-Heun -...

  20. Controlled permeation of hydrogen through glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halvorson, T. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Shelby, J.E. Jr. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). Glass Science Lab.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storing hydrogen inside of hollow glass spheres requires that the gas permeate through the glass walls. Hydrogen permeation through glass is relatively slow and the time to charge a sphere or bed of spheres is dependent on many factors. Permeation processes are strongly temperature dependent with behavior that follows an Arrhenius function., Rate is also dependent on the pressure drop driving force across a membrane wall and inversely proportional to thickness. Once filled, glass spheres will immediately begin to leak once the pressure driving force is reversed. Practical systems would take advantage of the fact that keeping the glass at ambient temperatures can minimize outboard leakage even with significant internal pressures. If hydrogen could be loaded and unloaded from glass microspheres with significantly less energy and particularly at near ambient temperature, some of the key barriers to commercializing this storage concept would be broken and further system engineering efforts may make this approach cost-effective. There were two key objectives for this effort. The first was to evaluate the application of hollow glass microspheres for merchant hydrogen storage and distribution and then determine the hydrogen permeation performance required for practical commercial use. The second objective was to identify, through a series of fundamental experiments, a low energy, low temperature field effect that could significantly enhance hydrogen permeation through glass without application of heat. If such an effect could be found, hollow glass microspheres could be much more attractive for hydrogen storage or possibly gas separation applications.

  1. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 2012, IN PRESS DOI: 10.1007/S10853-012-6927-8 Viscoelastic properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    properties of hollow glass particle filled vinyl ester matrix syntactic foams: effect of temperature compositions of syntactic foams. Storage modulus, loss modulus, and glass transition temperature (Tg@poly.edu Abstract Viscoelastic properties of hollow particle reinforced composites called syntactic foams

  2. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  3. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM); Schmidt, Carrie (Los Lunas, NM); Flemming, Jeb (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  4. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P. (Belleville, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  5. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  6. Journal of Materials Science, 2012, 47(14): p. 5596-5604 Thermal expansion behavior of hollow glass particle/vinyl ester composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    with the addition of glass microballoons for the twelve compositions of syntactic foams characterized using glass particle/vinyl ester composites Vasanth Chakravarthy Shunmugasamy, Dinesh Pinisetty and Nikhil filled composites (syntactic foams), the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be controlled by two

  7. Ca(OH)[sub 2]-treated ceramic microsphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal wells with lost circulation problems are treated with a lightweight, high temperature (i.e. 350 C) cement slurry which incorporates pressure resistant hollow microspheres into the slurry wherein the spheres have been pretreated with an alkali compound such as Ca(OH)[sub 2] for up to 20 hours and at 100--300 C. Preferably, the alkali solution is a saturated aqueous solution and the treatment is for 10 hours. 2 figs.

  8. Ca(OH)[sub 2]-treated ceramic microsphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1990-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal wells with lost circulation problems are treated with a lightweight, high temperature (i.e. 350 C) cement slurry which incorporates pressure resistant hollow microspheres into the slurry wherein the spheres have been pretreated with an alkali compound such as Ca(OH)[sub 2] for up to 20 hours and at 100--300 C. Preferably, the alkali solution is a saturated aqueous solution and the treatment is for 10 hours. 2 figs.

  9. Ca(OH).sub.2 -treated ceramic microsphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal wells with lost circulation problems are treated with a lightweight, high temperature (i.e. 350.degree. C.) cement slurry which incorporates pressure resistant hollow microspheres into the slurry wherein the spheres have been pretreated with an alkali compound such as Ca(OH).sub.2 for up to 20 hours and at 100.degree.-300.degree. C. Preferably, the alkali solution is a saturated aqueous solution and the treatment is for 10 hours.

  10. Ca(OH).sub.2 -treated ceramic microsphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal wells with lost circulation problems are treated with a lightweight, high temperature (i.e. 350.degree. C.) cement slurry which incorporates pressure resistant hollow microspheres into the slurry wherein the spheres have been pretreated with an alkali compound such as Ca(OH).sub.2 for up to 20 hours and at 100.degree.-300.degree. C. Preferably, the alkali solution is a saturated aqueous solution and the treatment is for 10 hours.

  11. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  12. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres are disclosed which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonstick gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  13. Organic aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  14. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska, Kris [PI] [PI; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  15. Hollow lensing duct

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Mitchell, Scott (Tracy, CA); Lang, John (Pleasanton, CA); Maderas, Dennis (Pleasanton, CA); Speth, Joel (San Ramon, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  16. Open-cell glass crystalline porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Sharonova, Olga M. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana A. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Zykova, Irina D. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Revenko, Yurii A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Lubtsev, Rem I. (Saint-Petersburg, RU); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Macheret, Yevgeny (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An open-cell glass crystalline porous material made from hollow microspheres which are cenospheres obtained from fly ash, having an open-cell porosity of up to 90 vol. % is produced. The cenospheres are separated into fractions based on one or more of grain size, density, magnetic or non-magnetic, and perforated or non-perforated. Selected fractions are molded and agglomerated by sintering with a binder at a temperature below the softening temperature, or without a binder at a temperature about, or above, the softening temperature but below the temperature of liquidity. The porous material produced has an apparent density of 0.3-0.6 g/cm.sup.3, a compressive strength in the range of 1.2-3.5 MPa, and two types of openings: through-flow wall pores in the cenospheres of 0.1-30 micrometers, and interglobular voids between the cenospheres of 20-100 micrometers. The porous material of the invention has properties useful as porous matrices for immobilization of liquid radioactive waste, heat-resistant traps and filters, supports for catalysts, adsorbents and ion-exchangers.

  17. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  18. Depth Profile Analysis of New Materials in Hollow Cathode Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Gencheva, V.; Popova, L.; Panchev, B. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Michaylova, V. [Technical University of Sofia, 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szytula, A.; Gondek, L.; Dohnalik, T.M. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics - Jagellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this review the possibility of hollow cathode discharge for depth profile analysis is demonstrated for several new materials: planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange process in glasses, SnO2 thin films for gas sensors modified by hexamethildisilazane after rapid thermal annealing, W- and WC- CVD layers deposited on Co-metalloceramics and WO3- CVD thin films deposited on glass. The results are compared with different standard techniques.

  19. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  20. Composites: Part B 41 (2010) 8693 86 Analysis of flexural properties of hollow-particle filled composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    Composites: Part B 41 (2010) 86­93 86 Analysis of flexural properties of hollow-particle filled composites G. Tagliavia, M. Porfiri1 , and N. Gupta Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering properties of vinyl ester-glass hollow-particle filled composites, which are used in marine applications

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lai Qiongyu, E-mail: laiqy5@hotmail.co [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu Xiaoyun [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  2. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  3. Modeling scattered intensity from microspheres in evanescent field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Suhani Kiran

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of the total scattered light intensity on microsphere size accounts for the scattered intensity distribution in a polydisperse microsphere sample. Understanding this variation in the scattered light with microsphere size will allow improved characterization...

  4. Beta dose distribution for randomly packed microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urashkin, Alexander

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    dosetothemembranefortreatmentorablationofsynoviumtoreducejointeffusion.In ovarian cancer, the microspheres are introduced into the abdominal cavity to deliver radiationtocancercells.Microspheresarealsoeffectiveincontrollinggrowthinbenign 5 cystic brain lesions, craniopharyngioma, and possibly pancreatic and hepatic...

  5. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50-800 kg/m.sup.3 (0.05-0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization.

  6. Compression molding of aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerogel composite material produced by compression molding of aerogel microspheres (powders) mixed together with a small percentage of polymer binder to form monolithic shapes in a cost-effective manner is disclosed. The aerogel composites are formed by mixing aerogel microspheres with a polymer binder, placing the mixture in a mold and heating under pressure, which results in a composite with a density of 50--800 kg/m{sup 3} (0.05--0.80 g/cc). The thermal conductivity of the thus formed aerogel composite is below that of air, but higher than the thermal conductivity of monolithic aerogels. The resulting aerogel composites are attractive for applications such as thermal insulation since fabrication thereof does not require large and expensive processing equipment. In addition to thermal insulation, the aerogel composites may be utilized for filtration, ICF target, double layer capacitors, and capacitive deionization. 4 figs.

  7. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa) Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (USA) Universitaire Vaudois (Switzerland))

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  8. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  9. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  10. Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 12, No. 2 (2001) 169-188 169 Mechanical behaviour of a syntactic foam/glass fibre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corigliano, Alberto

    of a syntactic foam/glass fibre composite sandwich: experimental results* Enrico Papa 1 and Alberto Corigliano 1 interconnecting the skins; the core is filled with a polymer matrix/glass microspheres syntactic foam; additional behaviour of this composite sandwich. Key words: mechanical tests; syntactic foam; glass fibre; composite

  11. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  12. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kong, F.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  13. Organic aerogel microspheres and fabrication method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kong, Fung-Ming (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogel microspheres which can be used in capacitors, batteries, thermal insulation, adsorption/filtration media, and chromatographic packings, having diameters ranging from about 1 micron to about 3 mm. The microspheres can be pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogel microspheres. This method involves stirring the aqueous organic phase in mineral oil at elevated temperature until the dispersed organic phase polymerizes and forms nonsticky gel spheres. The size of the microspheres depends on the collision rate of the liquid droplets and the reaction rate of the monomers from which the aqueous solution is formed. The collision rate is governed by the volume ratio of the aqueous solution to the mineral oil and the shear rate, while the reaction rate is governed by the chemical formulation and the curing temperature.

  14. activated carbon hollow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes Materials Science Websites Summary: Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable...

  15. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Yin, Yadong (Moreno Valley, CA); Erdonmez, Can Kerem (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  16. Casimir micro-sphere diclusters and three-body effects in fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaime Varela; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; Alexander P. McCauley; Steven G. Johnson

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 060401 (2010)] predicted that Casimir forces induced by the material-dispersion properties of certain dielectrics can give rise to stable configurations of objects. This phenomenon was illustrated via a dicluster configuration of non-touching objects consisting of two spheres immersed in a fluid and suspended against gravity above a plate. Here, we examine these predictions from the perspective of a practical experiment and consider the influence of non-additive, three-body, and nonzero-temperature effects on the stability of the two spheres. We conclude that the presence of Brownian motion reduces the set of experimentally realizable silicon/teflon spherical diclusters to those consisting of layered micro-spheres, such as the hollow- core (spherical shells) considered here.

  17. Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerogel hollow microspheres Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SiO2 Aerogel Templated, Porous TiO2... : High-area photoanodes consisting of silica aerogels, overcoated by atomic-layer-deposited ... Source: Hupp, Joseph T.- Materials Research...

  19. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L. (Knoxville, TN); Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  20. Fuel temperature determination for ICF microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, D.B.; Giovanielli, D.V.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The common heuristic expression for estimating thermonuclear burn in ICF microspheres far from bootstrap heating is often used for inversion to obtain peak temperatures from experimental data. It contains an ad hoc or fitted parameter and lacks some parameters of obvious influence in actual systems. We present an alternative expression, which may be usefully inverted and does not suffer these defects.

  1. Method of detecting luminescent target ions with modified magnetic microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shkrob, Ilya A; Kaminski, Michael D

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides methods of using modified magnetic microspheres to extract target ions from a sample in order to detect their presence in a microfluidic environment. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules on the surface that allow the target ions in the sample to form complexes with specific ligand molecules on the microsphere surface. In one or more embodiments, the microspheres are modified with molecules that sequester the target ions from the sample, but specific ligand molecules in solution subsequently re-extract the target ions from the microspheres into the solution, where the complexes form independent of the microsphere surface. Once the complexes form, they are exposed to an excitation wavelength light source suitable for exciting the target ion to emit a luminescent signal pattern. Detection of the luminescent signal pattern allows for determination of the presence of the target ions in the sample.

  2. Resorcinol-formaldehyde and carbon aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alviso, C.T.; Pekela, R.W.; Gross, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lu, X.; Caps, R.; Fricke, J [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are a unique class of materials possessing an open-cell structure with ultrafine cells/pores (<100nm), high surface area (400--1100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10nm. Although monolithic aerogels are ideal candidates for many applications (e.g. transparent window insulation), current processing methods have limited their introduction into the commercial marketplace. Our research focuses on the formation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel microspheres which offer an attractive alternative to monolith production. An inverse emulsion polymerization is used to produce these spherical gel particles which undergo solvent exchange followed by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. This process yields aerogel microspheres (10--80{mu} diameter) which can be used as loosely packed powders, compression molded into near-net shapes using a polymer binder, or used as additives in conventional foaming operations to produce new aerogel composites with superior thermal properties. The emulsification procedure, thermal characterization, mechanical properties, and potential applications of RF aerogel microspheres will be discussed.

  3. Hollow Nanostructures DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602403

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.

    of these approaches is that the hollow nanospheres are mainly composed of discrete nano- particles, making themHollow Nanostructures DOI: 10.1002/anie.200602403 Synthesis of Platinum Nanocages by Using. KGaA, Weinheim Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 8126 ­8130 #12;Hollow nanospheres are of interest

  4. Loading rubidium atoms into a hollow core fiber .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Yiwen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??We demonstrate a procedure for cooling, trapping, and transferring rubidium atoms into a hollow core photonic band gap fiber. The atoms are first collected in… (more)

  5. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquar, G; Leif, R

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds have been used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres were produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-supported hollow fiber Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16. M. Skorobogatiy, A. Dupuis, "Ferroelectric all-polymer hollow Bragg fibers for terahertz... , "New cobweb-structure hollow Bragg optical ... Source: Skorobogatiy, Maksim...

  7. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  8. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  9. Apparatus for washing particulate material. [Removal of silicone oil from microspheres by trichloroethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rivera, A.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Justice, G.V.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport of nuclear fuel microspheres through a wash liquid is facilitated by feeding a slurry containing the microspheres into the wash liquid via a column having a vibrating tubular screen located under its lower end.

  10. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  11. RESEARCH PAPER Phase transition induced formation of hollow structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    such as stabilized nano- particles and an oxidation species are usually required to participate in the void formationRESEARCH PAPER Phase transition induced formation of hollow structures in colloidal lanthanide 2009 Ă? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Formation of colloidal hollow structures

  12. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  13. Optogalvanic effect in a hollow cathode discharge with nonlaser sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, C.T.; Keller, R.A.; Zalewski, E.F.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several atomic emission sources were investigated for their potential to induce optogalvanic signals in hollow cathode lamps. The sources included an inductively coupled argon plasma, a H/sub 2/--O/sub 2/ flame, a high-temperature furnace, electrodeless microwave discharge lamps, and hollow cathode lamps. Successful results were obtained with argon emission from the inductively coupled plasma focused into an argon-filled hollow cathode tube and with atomic emission from one hollow cathode discharge focused into a hollow cathode tube containing the same element. Very low level optogalvanic signals were observed from the other sources but could not be unambiguously ascribed to emission from a specific element. A problem encountered was the presence of a background signal due to photoelectric emission and possibly radiative heating of the cathode.

  14. Mixed uranium dicarbide and uranium dioxide microspheres and process of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fuel microspheres are made by sintering microspheres containing uranium dioxide and uncombined carbon in a 1 mole percent carbon monoxide/99 mole percent argon atmosphere at 1550.degree. C. and then sintering the microspheres in a 3 mole percent carbon monoxide/97 mole percent argon atmosphere at the same temperature.

  15. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  16. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; /Fermilab; Assmann, R.; /CERN; Kabantsev, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  17. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  18. Loading rubidium atoms into a hollow core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Yiwen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a procedure for cooling, trapping, and transferring rubidium atoms into a hollow core photonic band gap fiber. The atoms are first collected in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and then cooled using polarization ...

  19. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a...

  20. EA-1610: Windy Hollow Wind Project, Laramie County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proponent request to interconnect their proposed Windy Hollow Wind Project in Laramie County, Wyoming, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system.

  1. Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applicatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B Schwenzer, J Xiao, Z Nie, LV Saraf, Z Yang, and J Liu.2012."Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications."Nano Letters 12(7):37833787....

  2. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    that combines these previous two methods to characterize the diffusivity of a packed bed of microspheres of depleted uranium (DU) metal, which have a nominal diameter of 250 micrometers. The new apparatus is designated as the Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA...

  3. BIOCOMPATIBLE FLUORESCENT MICROSPHERES: SAFE PARTICLES FOR MATERIAL PENETRATION STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    farquar, G; Leif, R

    2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocompatible polymers with hydrolyzable chemical bonds are being used to produce safe, non-toxic fluorescent microspheres for material penetration studies. The selection of polymeric materials depends on both biocompatibility and processability, with tailored fluorescent properties depending on specific applications. Microspheres are composed of USFDA-approved biodegradable polymers and non-toxic fluorophores and are therefore suitable for tests where human exposure is possible. Micropheres are being produced which contain unique fluorophores to enable discrimination from background aerosol particles. Characteristics that affect dispersion and adhesion can be modified depending on use. Several different microsphere preparation methods are possible, including the use of a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG), a Sono-Tek atomizer, an emulsion technique, and inkjet printhead. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented and discussed in greater detail along with fluorescent and charge properties of the aerosols. Applications for the fluorescent microspheres include challenges for biodefense system testing, calibrants for biofluorescence sensors, and particles for air dispersion model validation studies.

  4. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, Peter (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN); Hutchens, Richard E. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stinton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  5. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  6. Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Brown, Gilbert M

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions comprise (a) microspheres with an average diameter between 200 nanometers (nm) and 10 micrometers (.mu.m); (b) mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres, wherein the mesopores have an average diameter between 1 nm and 50 nm and the microspheres have a surface area between 50 m.sup.2/g and 500 m.sup.2/g, and wherein the composition has an electrical conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-7 S/cm at 25.degree. C. and 60 MPa. The methods of making comprise forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least one method selected from the group consisting of: (i) annealing in a reducing atmosphere, (ii) doping with an aliovalent element, and (iii) coating with a coating composition.

  7. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.

    1985-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2,250 and 125 [mu]m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 [mu]m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing. 6 figs.

  8. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Arfon H. (Salt Lake City, UT); Cutler, Raymond A. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2250 and 125 .mu.m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 .mu.m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing.

  9. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beavers, J.E. [MS Technology, Inc. (United States)

    1995-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  10. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass: Glass Industry Technology Roadmap; April 2002 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future...

  11. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of...

  12. Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes. Hollow Core-Shell Structured Porous Si-C Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery Anodes. Abstract:...

  13. Experimental and computational investigations of therapeutic drug release from biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (plg) microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berchane, Nader Samir

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to tailor release-rate profiles from polymeric microspheres remains one of the leading challenges in controlled drug delivery. Microsphere size, which has a significant effect on drug release rate, can potentially be varied to design a...

  14. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  15. Hollow-waveguide delivery systems for high-power, industrial CO2 lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In addition, these expensive systems are cumbersome in terms of their ability to gain access to remote at the ends of a hollow fiber. Hollow metallic2,3 and dielectric waveguides4 with air cooling have been used, however, are considerably higher, and therefore hollow fibers need to be upgraded with special cooling

  16. NANO EXPRESS Open Access Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    NANO EXPRESS Open Access Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell

  17. Irradiation of Dye-Doped Microspheres with a Strongly Focused Laser Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Irradiation of Dye-Doped Microspheres with a Strongly Focused Laser Beam Results in Alignment upon Optical Trapping Garth J. Simpson, Thorsten Wohland, and Richard N. Zare* Department of Chemistry Received December 12, 2001 ABSTRACT The irradiation of dye-doped polystyrene microspheres with an argon ion

  18. EPR studies on fluorocarbon microspheres. Dynamic polarization of fluorine nuclei and adsorbed He3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1033 EPR studies on fluorocarbon microspheres. Dynamic polarization of fluorine nuclei and adsorbed centres paramagné- tiques électroniques dans les microbilles de fluorocarbone. Ces centres sont des.8 1018/cc) of electronic paramagnetic centres in microspheres of fluorocarbon. These centres are peroxy

  19. Hollow hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    hemispherical titanium dioxide aggregates fabricated by coaxial electrospray for dye-sensitized solar cell nanocrystallites were prepared by a coaxial electrospray method and applied to dye- sensitized solar cells (DSCs-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). [DOI: 10.1117/1.JNP.6.063519] Keywords dye-sensitized solar cells; hollow

  20. JOINT-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIP TO DEVELOP A HOLLOW SPHERE DUAL-GRADIENT DRILLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William C. Maurer; Colin Ruan; Greg Deskins

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI) formed a joint-industry partnership to fund the development of a hollow sphere dual-gradient drilling (DGD) system. Phase I consisted of collecting, compiling, analyzing, and distributing information and data regarding a new DGD system for use by the oil and gas industry. Near the end of Phase I, DOE provided funding to the project that was used to conduct a series of critical follow-on tests investigating sphere separation in weighted waterbase and oilbase muds. Drilling costs in deep water are high because seawater pressure on the ocean floor creates a situation where many strings of casing are required due to the relatively close spacing between fracture and pore pressure curves. Approximately $100 million have been spent during the past five years on DGD systems that place pumps on the seafloor to reduce these drilling problems by reducing the annulus fluid pressure at the bottom of the riser. BP estimates that a DGD system can save $9 million per well in the Thunderhorse Field and Conoco estimates it can save $5 to $15 million per well in its deepwater operations. Unfortunately, previous DGD development projects have been unsuccessful due to the high costs ($20 to $50 million) and reliability problems with seafloor pump systems. MTI has been developing a simple DGD system concept that would pump hollow glass spheres into the bottom of the riser to reduce density of the mud in the riser. This eliminates the requirement for seafloor pumps and replaces them with low cost mud pumps, shale shakers, and other oilfield equipment that can be operated on the rig by conventional crews. A $1.8 million Phase I joint-industry project funded by five service companies and three operators showed that hollow spheres could be pumped well, but difficulties were encountered in separating the spheres from a polymer mud supplied by Halliburton due to the high viscosity of this mud at the low shear rates encountered on oilfield shale shaker screens. As a result, an excessive amount of this polymer mud flowed across the screen with the beads instead of through the screen. At the completion of the Phase I project, it was concluded that the hollow sphere system would not work effectively with the polymer mud tested. ExxonMobil and Shell engineers proposed that additional sphere separation tests needed to be conducted with weighted oilfield waterbase and oilbase muds to determine if the DGD system would work with these muds. The DOE agreed to provide a $200,000 grant for these tests. The DOE-funded tests, described in this report, showed that the spheres could be pumped with conventional oilfield centrifugal and triplex mud pumps and separated effectively from both oilfield waterbase and oilbase muds using conventional oilfield shale shakers and hydrocyclones. As a result of the success of these DOE tests, this DGD system is ready for full-scale field testing, first on land wells and later in the offshore environment. Maurer Technology Inc. is currently proposing a Phase II project to oil companies to further develop this DGD concept. This project would be funded by four to eight operators. If Phase II tests are successful, Noble plans to commercialize this system with a service company partner that will market and operate the DGD system on Noble's and other drilling contractors' rigs.

  1. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  2. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  3. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  4. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  5. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  6. Bond strength of steel hollow sections using carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahanara, Kaniz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This research was a step forward in developing bond strength of CFRP strengthened steel hollow sections under tension loads. The studies have revealed the ultimate… (more)

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric hollow fiber Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light through their hollow (gaseous) cores... decays exponentially into the cladding, the radiation field from a ... Source: Skorobogatiy, Maksim - Dpartement de Gnie Physique,...

  8. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum oxide microspheres Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum oxide microspheres Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ORNL 2010-G00656jcn UT-B IDs...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - acting risperidone microspheres Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gel J. E. St. Dennis,a Qingkai Meng... through the incorporation of uniform carbon micro- spheres. The carbon particles act as nodes in the gel... carbon microspheres to...

  11. Porous TiO2 microspheres with tunable properties for photocatalytic air purification Alberto Naldoni a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    , continuous operation, facile scale-up process from small to large production, and thorough control overPorous TiO2 microspheres with tunable properties for photocatalytic air purification Alberto

  12. Micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers by coaxial electrospinning: Preparation and gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Choi, Sun-Woo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sub, E-mail: sangsub@inha.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the preparation of micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers using a coaxial electrospinning technique and their gas sensing properties in terms of CO. The diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers can be controlled from 200 nm to several micrometers by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. A simple mathematical expression is presented to predict the change in diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers as a function of viscosity. The successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers is expected to bring extensive applications. To test a potential use of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers in chemical gas sensors, their sensing properties to CO are investigated at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Microstructures of as-prepared and calcined hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by the electrospinning technique with a coaxial needle. Dynamic response at various CO concentrations for the sensor fabricated with the hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers. Highlights: > Hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized using a coaxial electrospinning technique. > Their diameter can be controlled by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. > Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. > In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. > Successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers will bring extensive applications.

  13. Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres: Solvothermal synthesis and lithium ion storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhen, E-mail: fzfscn@mail.ahnu.edu.cn; Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Fan, Fan; Wang, Chenyan; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres via solvothermal reaction. • The formation process was investigated in detail. • The obtained hierarchical SnS microspheres exhibit superior capacity (1650 mAh g{sup ?1}) when used as lithium battery for the hierarchical microsphere structure. - Abstract: Hierarchical SnS microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a mild solvothermal process using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as surfactant in this work. The morphology and composition of the microspheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of reaction parameters, such as sulfur sources, reaction temperature and the concentration of PVP, on the final morphology of the products are investigated. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, the growth mechanism has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the 3D hierarchitectured SnS microspheres were investigated by using nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. Lithium ion storage performances of the synthesized materials as anodes for Lithium-ion battery were investigated in detail and it exhibits excellent electrochemical properties.

  14. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  15. Metallic glass composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  16. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  17. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andA Hollow-Ion Resonance of

  18. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andA Hollow-Ion Resonance ofA

  19. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andA Hollow-Ion Resonance ofAA

  20. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andA Hollow-Ion Resonance

  1. Baiting Hollow, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: EnergyAustin EnergyBacliff, Texas: Energy ResourcesBaiting Hollow, New

  2. Shady Hollow, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search|Sewaren, NewShadow Flicker Jump to:Hollow,

  3. Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,OrleansPassadumkeag, Maine:Pawnee is aInformation PeapackHollow

  4. Horse Hollow III Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIII Wind Farm Facility Horse Hollow III

  5. Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:PhotonHolyName HousingIII Wind Farm Facility Horse Hollow IIIWind

  6. Anomalous thermal relaxation in carbon nanoclusters Alexander V. Savin1,2,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The experimental demonstrations employed two types of absorbing particles, i carbon nano- clusters produced by laser ablation and ii hollow glass carbon-coated microspheres. Being inspired by the experimental of carbon clusters, in this let- ter, we study how the thermal relaxation of the carbon nano- clusters

  7. Fracture and debonding in lithium-ion batteries with electrodes of hollow coreeshell nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    . In particular, silicon anodes of such coreeshell nano- structures have been cycled thousands of times failure modes in a coated-hollow electrode particle. -ion batteries Fracture Debonding Silicon a b s t r a c t In a novel design of lithium-ion batteries, hollow

  8. Europium-Doped TiO2 Hollow Nanoshells: Two-Photon Imaging of Cell Binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Europium-Doped TiO2 Hollow Nanoshells: Two-Photon Imaging of Cell Binding Sergio Sandoval,,,§ Jian Laboratory, § Moores Cancer Center, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Department of Nano method to fabricate luminescent monodisperse 200 nm europium-doped hollow TiO2 nanoshell (NS) particles

  9. Hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for reduction of perchlorate and other oxidized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerenberg, Robert

    Hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for reduction of perchlorate and other. For drinking water treatment, an electron donor must be added. Hydrogen is an ideal electron donor, as it is non-toxic, inexpensive, and sparsely soluble. We tested a hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane

  10. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  11. Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports Guillaume 420, 650-653 (2002). 7. C. M. Smith et al., "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre yong@its.caltech.edu. Abstract: We demonstrate a new class of hollow-core Bragg fibers

  12. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  13. Glass matrix armor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  14. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  15. Pulsed hollow-cathode ion lasers: pumping and lasing parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinchenko, S P; Ivanov, I G

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal discharge conditions have been experimentally found for ion lasers excited in the hollow-cathode discharge plasma by microsecond current pulses by pumping working atoms in secondkind collisions with ions and metastable buffer-gas atoms. Measurements of the output power of krypton ion and zinc-, cadmium-, mercury-, thallium-, copper-, and gallium-vapour lasers in tubes with cathodes of different diameters showed that the pulse power reaches several tens of watts, and the average power obtained with cathodes 2 cm in diameter and a length of 40 cm or more approaches 1 W. Lasing in most media is observed simultaneously at several lines (the multi-wavelength regime). Lasing on a three-component (He - Kr - Hg) mixture is realised in the multi-wavelength regime at blue, red, and IR lines.

  16. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  17. Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

  18. Collimation with hollow electron beams a proposed design for the LHC upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancari, G; Valishev, A; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B; Moens, V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo removal in high-power hadron beams. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are investigating the applicability of this technique to the Large Hadron Collider and a conceptual design is being developed. We review some of the main topics related to this study: motivation; halo removal processes; development of hollow electron guns; effects on the proton beam core; and integration in the LHC machine.

  19. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  20. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Krogh, Michael L. (Lee's Summit, MO); Davis, Steven C. (Lee's Summit, MO); Decker, Derek E. (Discovery Bay, CA); Rosenblum, Ben Z. (Overland Park, KS); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  1. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Michael D. (West Alexandria, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

    1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  2. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  3. Research on Heat Resisting Character of Hollow Building Blocks in Energy Saving Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; He, J.; Gao, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By establishing a mathematical model with the finite difference method, the three-dimensional temperature fields of a new type of asymmetrical hollow building blocks in an energy saving wall are solved in this paper. The three forms of heat...

  4. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    angle cleaving or anti- reflection coatings to minimize laser feedback effects, and effectively transmit deeper into the infrared. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow fiber technology geared

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - autotrophic hollow-fiber membrane-aerated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 2005 Borchardt Conference: A Seminar on Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment February 23-25, Ann Arbor, MI Summary: . (1992) Use of sealed end hollow...

  6. analog-conjugated hollow gold: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with both trans and gauche conformations bound to the gold clusters at top, bridge and hollow bonding sites. Comparing our results with the experimental data of Hihath et al....

  7. Hollow cylinder dynamic pressurization and radial flow through permeability tests for cementitous materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Christopher Andrew

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    pressurization test is a potential solution for measuring concrete permeability. The hollow cylinder dynamic pressurization (HDP) test is compared with the radial flow through (RFT) test and the solid cylinder dynamic pressurization (SDP) test to assess...

  8. A theoretical temperature distribution model for asymmetric and isotropic hollow-fiber bioreactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Ki Yun

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A THEOhZTICAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR ASYMMETRIC AND ISOTROPIC HOLLOW-FIBER BIOREACTORS A Thesis KI YUN NAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A THEORETICAL TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR ASYMMETRIC AND ISOTROPIC HOLLOW-FIBER BIOREACTORS A Thesis KI YUN NAM Approved as to style snd content by: D. T. Hanson (Chairman...

  9. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  10. Environment of deposition of the Permian Lyons Sandstone at Black Hollow Field, Weld County, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, David Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF THE PERMIAN LYONS SANDSTONE AT BLACK HOLLOW FIELD, WELD COUNTY, COLORADO A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL FRANK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Geology ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF THE PERMIAN LYONS SANDSTONE AT BLACK HOLLOW FIELD, WELD COUNTY, COLORADO A Thesis by DAVID MICHAEL FRANK Approved as to style and content by: R. R. Berg...

  11. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  12. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  13. Fabrication of precision glass shells by joining glass rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gac, Frank D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO); Haggerty, John S. (Lincoln, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making uniform spherical shells. The present invention allows niform hollow spheres to be made by first making a void in a body of material. The material is heated so that the viscosity is sufficiently low so that the surface tension will transform the void into a bubble. The bubble is allowed to rise in the body until it is spherical. The excess material is removed from around the void to form a spherical shell with a uniform outside diameter.

  14. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  15. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  16. Glass rupture disk

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  17. Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCostAnalysis GeothermalEnergy GeothermalGetGlass and

  18. Cr, N-Codoped TiO2 Mesoporous Microspheres for Li-ion Rechargeable Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Guo, Bingkun [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cr,N-codoped TiO2 mesoporous microspheres synthesized using hydrothermal and subsequent nitridation treatment, exhibited higher solubility of nitrogen, and improved electrical conductivity than N-doped TiO2, as anode for Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, which led to improving charge-discharge capacity at 0.1 C and twice higher rate capability compared to that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 mesoporous microsphere at 10 C

  19. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  20. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  1. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  2. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover bodies (without needles) Container: Sturdy and leakproof with Hazardous Glass label. Either: Plastic resistant, leakproof plastic carboy with green sharps label. Do not fill these containers completely. Leave

  3. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  4. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  5. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glass, adding ions to impart specific properties, enables them to manage the degradation rate of the glass, creating attractive and compliant scaffold materials. A variety...

  6. Hollow silica and silica-boron nano/microparticles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound to detect small tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Hollow silica and silica-boron nano/microparticles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound to detect small Accepted 18 March 2012 Available online 11 April 2012 Keywords: Ultrasound Nano Silica Shells Imaging detection, gas filled hollow boron-doped silica particles have been developed, which can be used

  7. HYDROGEN-BASED, HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTOR FOR REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE AND OTHER OXIDIZED CONTAMINANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerenberg, Robert

    HYDROGEN-BASED, HOLLOW-FIBER MEMBRANE BIOFILM REACTOR FOR REDUCTION OF PERCHLORATE AND OTHER be added. Hydrogen is an ideal electron donor, as it is non-toxic, inexpensive, and sparsely soluble. We tested a hydrogen-based, hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for reduction of perchlorate

  8. Far-field characterization of the thermal dynamics in lasing microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, J M; Capuj, N E; Berencen, Y; Pitanti, A; Garrido, B; Tredicucci, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work reports the dynamical thermal behavior of lasing microspheres placed on a dielectric substrate while they are homogeneously heated-up by the top-pump laser used to excite the active medium. The lasing modes are collected in the far-field and their temporal spectral traces show characteristic lifetimes of about 2 ms. The latter values scale with the microsphere radius and are independent of the pump power in the studied range. Finite-Element Method simulations reproduce the experimental results, revealing that the thermal dynamics is dominated by the heat dissipated towards the substrate through the medium surrounding the contact point. The characteristic system scale regarding thermal transport is of few hundreds of nanometers, thus enabling an effective toy model for investigating heat conduction in non-continuum gaseous media and near-field radiative energy transfer.

  9. Production of small uranium dioxide microspheres for cermet nuclear fuel using the internal gelation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Robert T [ORNL] [ORNL; Collins, Jack Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL] [ORNL; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL] [ORNL; Patton, Kaara K [ORNL] [ORNL; Hickman, Robert [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL] [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a uranium dioxide (UO2)/tungsten cermet fuel for potential use as the nuclear cryogenic propulsion stage (NCPS). The first generation NCPS is expected to be made from dense UO2 microspheres with diameters between 75 and 150 m. Previously, the internal gelation process and a hood-scale apparatus with a vibrating nozzle were used to form gel spheres, which became UO2 kernels with diameters between 350 and 850 m. For the NASA spheres, the vibrating nozzle was replaced with a custom designed, two-fluid nozzle to produce gel spheres in the desired smaller size range. This paper describes the operational methodology used to make 3 kg of uranium oxide microspheres.

  10. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwissler, J.G.; Adams, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular glasses are prime candidate materials for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solar concentrator reflecting panels. These materials are brittle, however, and susceptible to mechanical failure from slow crack growth caused by a stress corrosion mechanism. The results are detailed of one part of a program established to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize the behavior of these and commercially available materials. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials are developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region I may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  11. Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

  12. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  13. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  14. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  15. Hollow structures with bilayer graphene walls Peter J.F. Harris *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    Hollow structures with bilayer graphene walls Peter J.F. Harris * Centre for Advanced Microscopy, J.J. Thomson Physical Laboratory, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AF, UK A R T I C L E I N F A B S T R A C T The formation of three-dimensional shell-like structures with bilayer graphene walls

  16. Laser-cooled atoms inside a hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bajcsy, M.

    We describe the loading of laser-cooled rubidium atoms into a single-mode hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber. Inside the fiber, the atoms are confined by a far-detuned optical trap and probed by a weak resonant beam. We ...

  17. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 20 FEBRUARY 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NMAT3872 Platinumcobalt bimetallic nanoparticles in hollow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    % after 2 h, which substantially exceeds the best results reported in the literature. Moreover, the synthetic method can be generalized to other bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in hollow carbon spheres. T he production of liquid fuels directly from biomass is of major interest to reduce dependence

  18. Glide of hollow fibers at the bridging stage of fracture in ceramic nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    . Consider a model fibrous nanocomposite consisting of ceramic matrix and unidirectional continuous nanoGlide of hollow fibers at the bridging stage of fracture in ceramic nanocomposites M.Yu. Gutkin in ceramic nanocomposites. An elementary event of such glide is treated through generation and slip

  19. ENGINEERINGNEWS Overlooking Panther Hollow is the George A. Roberts Engineering Hall. Completed a little

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    22 ENGINEERINGNEWS Overlooking Panther Hollow is the George A. Roberts Engineering Hall. Completed for Nano-enabled Device and Energy Technologies. In addition to labs and classrooms, the towering building is thriv l i l f S d b i d Elias Towe, the director of the Center for Nano-Enabled Device and Energy

  20. Is condensation the cause of plasma leakage in microporous hollow ber membrane oxygenators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, William J.

    , the analysis predicts that the gas heats up to the temperature of blood ¯ow outside of the ®bers after passingIs condensation the cause of plasma leakage in microporous hollow ®ber membrane oxygenators Laura W of the oxygenator. Condensation of water vapor on the pore walls is thought to be a possible precursor to plasma

  1. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe, E-mail: tangzhe1983@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyq@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Li, Guangci, E-mail: liguangci1984@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Hu, Xiaofu, E-mail: hjj19850922@126.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China); Liu, Chenguang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? The ?-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ? Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ? Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ? A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized ?-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup ?} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the ?-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  2. The Use of Hollow Plastic Balls as Energy Conservation Devices in Heated Open Tanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, T. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of heat losses from open liquid filled tanks is as old as industry itself. This paper will present the advantages of using an insulating blanket of hollow plastic spheres as a mechanism to conserve this type of industrial energy loss...

  3. Ellipsoidal and parabolic glass capillaries as condensers for x-ray microscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Xianghui; Duewer, Fred; Feser, Michael; Huang, Carson; Lyon, Alan; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun Wenbing

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-bounce ellipsoidal and paraboloidal glass capillary focusing optics have been fabricated for use as condenser lenses for both synchrotron and tabletop x-ray microscopes in the x-ray energy range of 2.5-18 keV. The condenser numerical apertures (NAs) of these devices are designed to match the NA of x-ray zone plate objectives, which gives them a great advantage over zone plate condensers in laboratory microscopes. The fabricated condensers have slope errors as low as 20 {mu}rad rms. These capillaries provide a uniform hollow-cone illumination with almost full focusing efficiency, which is much higher than what is available with zone plate condensers. Sub-50 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy was achieved by utilizing this high-efficiency condenser in a laboratory microscope based on a rotating anode generator.

  4. Traces on ion yields and electron spectra of Ar inner-shell hollow states with Free-Electron Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallis, A O G; Emmanouilidou, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the formation by Free-Electron-Laser radiation of Ar hollow states with two or three inner-shell holes. We find that even charged Ar ion states can be more populated than odd charged Ar ion states. This depends on the pulse intensity and the number of energetically accessible inner- shell holes. Fully accounting for fine structure, we demonstrate that one electron spectra bare the imprints of Ar hollow states with two inner-shell holes. Moreover, we show how the Auger spectra of these hollow states can be extracted from two-electron coincidence spectra.

  5. Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vienne, G; Jakobsen, C; Deyerl, H J; Jensen, J B; Sorensen, T; Hansen, T P; Huang, Y; Terrel, M; Lee, R K; Mortensen, N A; Broeng, J; Simonsen, H; Bjarklev, A; Yariv, A

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new class of hollow-core Bragg fibers that are composed of concentric cylindrical silica rings separated by nanoscale support bridges. We theoretically predict and experimentally observe hollow-core confinement over an octave frequency range. The bandwidth of bandgap guiding in this new class of Bragg fibers exceeds that of other hollow-core fibers reported in the literature. With only three rings of silica cladding layers, these Bragg fibers achieve propagation loss of the order of 1 dB/m.

  6. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyáš et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  7. Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGet Assistance GetGiant ProteaseGlass and Glass Products

  8. Preparation of porous nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide microspheres and a study of their photocatalytic, antibacterial and electrochemical activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S. [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)] [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chu, W., E-mail: chuwei65@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)] [College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Liu, X. [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)] [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tong, D.G., E-mail: tongdongge@163.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres were prepared for the first time via plasma technique. The sample exhibited better photocatalytic activity, photoinduced inactivation activity and better electrochemical activity than those of TiO{sub 2} microspheres and P25. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres were prepared via nitrogen plasma technique. ? Plasma treatment did not affect the porous structure of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres. ? With the plasma treatment, the N contents in the samples increased. ? Their photocatalytic, antibacterial and electrochemical activities were studied. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO{sub 2}) microspheres with porous structure were prepared via the nitrogen-assisted glow discharge plasma technique at room temperature for the first time. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the plasma treatment did not affect the porous structure of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres. With the plasma treatment, the N contents in the samples increased. During the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under simulative sunlight irradiation, the sample after plasma treatment for 60 min (N-TiO{sub 2}-60) exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than those of the TiO{sub 2} microspheres, P25 and other N-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres. Furthermore, the N-TiO{sub 2}-60 showed excellent antibacterial activities towards Escherichia coli under visible irradiation. These should be attributed to the enhancement of the visible light region absorption for TiO{sub 2} after N-doping. Electrochemical data demonstrated that the N-doping not only enhanced the electrochemical activity of TiO{sub 2}, but also improved the reversibility of Li insertion/extraction reactions and the rate behavior of TiO{sub 2} during charge–discharge cycles.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study of the Reaction H+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study in the first place and providing me with this incredible opportunity! You guys rock! 2 #12;Introduction Work

  10. * Correspondence to Zhao@lmt.ens-cachan.fr 1 Impact behaviour of hollow sphere agglomerates with density gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    performed (sound wave speed (around 500 m as higher speed direct impact Hopkinson bar tests and Taylor tests are performed on such hollow sphere. They showed that the wave propagation consists of a complex coupling of elastic and viscoplastic part

  11. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  12. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  13. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  14. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  15. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  16. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  17. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J.A. Lercher, “Hydrogen Storage in Microspheres - FinalHydrogen Program Review Hydrogen Storage”, U.S. DepartmentAn overview of hydrogen storage methods”, in Hydro- gen

  18. Beam loading in a laser-plasma accelerator using a near-hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam loading in laser-plasma accelerators using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined in the linear wake regime. It is shown that, by properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in this plasma channel geometry. Matched propagation of electron beams can be achieved by the focusing force provided by the channel density. For positron beams, matched propagation can be achieved in a hollow plasma channel with external focusing. The efficiency of energy transfer from the wake to a witness beam is calculated for single ultra-short bunches and bunch trains.

  19. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  20. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M. (Ann Arbor, MI); Kool, Lawrence B. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  1. Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

  2. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  3. DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  4. Identifying the Bose glass phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Pugatch; N. Bar-gill; N. Katz; E. Rowen; N. Davidson

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing disorder into the Bose-Hubbard model at integer fillings leads to a Bose glass phase, along with the Mott insulator and superfluid phases. We suggest a new order parameter: the determinant of the one body density matrix, which is nonzero only within the Mott-insulator phase. Alongside the superfluid fraction, it is then possible to distinguish the three phases. The Bose glass phase is the only phase which has vanishing determinant and superfluid fraction. The vanishing of the determinant in the Bose glass phase occurs due to the partial fragmentation of the condensate into localized fragments, each with zero superfluid response, which implies the presence of unoccupied sites and hence the presence of lines of zeros in the one body density matrix. In the superfluid phase, the determinant vanish for another reason - due to the macroscopic occupation of a single particle state. Finally, we suggest the enhancement of the three body decay rate in the Bose glass phase, as an experimental indicator for the presence of localized fragments.

  5. Magnetically directed poly(lactic acid) [sup 90]Y-microspheres: Novel agents for targeted intracavitary radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haefeli, U.O.; Sweeney, S.M.; Beresford, B.A.; Sim, E.H.; Macklis, R.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Joint Center for Radiation Therapy)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy [beta]-emitting radioisotopes like Yttrium-90 have a radiotoxic range of about one centimeter. For cancer treatment they must be brought near the tumor cells and kept there for as long as they are radioactive. The authors developed as carriers for the ionic form of [sup 90]Y a matrix-type polymeric drug delivery system, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres. This radiopharmaceutical could be selectively delivered to the target site after incorporating 10% Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] which made the magnetic microspheres (MMS) responsive to an external magnetic field. Furthermore, MMS are biodegradable and slowly hydrolyze into physiologic lactic acid after the radioactivity is completely decayed. Previously prepared 10--40 [mu]m MMS were radiochemically loaded to high specific activity with [sup 90]Y at a pH of 5.7. Stability studies showed that approximately 95% of added [sup 90]Y is retained within the PLA matrix after 28 days (> 10 half-lives) at 37 C in serum, and electron microscopy showed that the microspheres retained their characteristic morphologic appearance for the same time period. Cytotoxicity studies with SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells growing in monolayer showed that the radiocytotoxicity of the microspheres could be directed magnetically to either kill or spare specific cell populations, thus making them of great interest for targeted intracavitary tumor therapy. The authors are currently optimizing this system for use in the treatment of neoplastic meningitis.

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases by Irinotecan-Eluting Microspheres in a Salvage Patient Population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huppert, Peter, E-mail: huppert@klinikum-darmstadt.de [Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Wenzel, Thorsten [Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Department of Medical Oncology (Germany); Wietholtz, Hubertus [Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Department of Gastroenterology (Germany)

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    PurposeThis prospective study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of TACE using irinotecan loaded superabsorbent polymer (SAP) microspheres for treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CCLM) in a salvage setting of patients.MethodsA total of 71 TACE procedures were performed in 29 patients with liver only or liver-dominant CCLM. In all patients, systemic chemotherapy before TACE had failed. Two hundred milligrams of irinotecan were loaded into 50–100 mg of SAP microspheres (HepaSphere™ Microspheres) considering tumor size and vascularization. TACE was performed selectively with respect to tumor distribution. Response was evaluated following RECIST and EASL criteria, respectively. Median follow-up after last TACE was 8 (range 1–54) months. All patients had died at time of analysis.ResultsAll TACE procedures were performed successfully; 35–400 mg (mean 168.3 mg) of irinotecan loaded in 13–100 mg (mean 48.3 mg) SAP microspheres were injected during individual sessions. No major complications occurred. Three, 6, and 12 months after first TACE complete and partial response was present in 72, 32 %, 0 of patients by EASL criteria and stable disease was seen in 86, 48, and 8 % with no complete and no partial response by RECIST criteria. Median overall survival after first TACE was 8 months, and median time to progression was 5 months. Median overall survival was longer in patients with limited (<25 %) compared with extensive (>50 %) intrahepatic disease (21 vs. 5 months, p < 0.005).ConclusionsTACE using irinotecan loaded SAP microspheres is safe and effective in terms of tumor necrosis. Survival benefit in a salvage setting seems to be limited in patients with advanced intrahepatic tumor load.

  7. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  8. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  9. A green chemical approach to the synthesis of photoluminescent ZnO hollow spheres with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrinoiu, Greta; Tudose, Madalina; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria ['Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Birjega, Ruxandra [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. BOX Mg-27, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Budrugeac, Petru [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering, ICPE-CA, Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, 030138 Bucharest (Romania); Ene, Ramona ['Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Carp, Oana, E-mail: ocarp@icf.ro ['Ilie Murgulescu' Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Splaiul Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO hollow spheres have been synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly template assisted route. Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres were used as template, impregnated with Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O to obtain zinc-containing precursor spheres and thermally treatment at 600 Degree-Sign C, yielding hollow ZnO spherical shells. The precursor spheres and hollow shells were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The hollow spherical shells with diameters of {approx}150 nm and wall thickness of {approx}20 nm, are polycrystalline, with a mean crystallite size of 22 nm, exhibiting interesting emission features, with a wide multi-peak band covering blue and green regions of the visible spectrum. The photocatalytic activities (under UV and visible light irradiations) of the ZnO spherical shells evaluated for the phenol degradation reaction in aqueous solutions are outstanding, a total phenol conversion being registered in the case of UV irradiation experiments. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction initiated by the photoexcitation of the semiconductor (ZnO), leads to the formation of electron-hole, while part of the electron-hole pairs recombine, some holes combine with water to form {center_dot}OH radicals and some electrons convert oxygen to super oxide radical ({center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green synthesis of ZnO hollow spheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Starch-derived carbonaceous spheres as spherical hard template. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with notable visible photoluminescence properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO hollow spheres with photocatalytical activity in degradation/mineralization of phenol.

  10. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  11. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  12. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  13. Uniform Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} hierarchical microspheres: A novel adsorbent for methylene blue adsorptive removal from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wei; Gao, Pin; Xie, Jimin, E-mail: xiejm391@sohu.com; Zong, Sekai; Cui, Henglv; Yue, Xuejie

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the solution phase method without any surfactants or templates, the hierarchical of Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were synthesized by freeze drying. The size and surface area of the microspheres are ca. 1–2 µm and 76.61 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}, respectively. A possible formation mechanism is presented based on the experimental results. Methylene blue was chosen to investigate the adsorption capacity of the as-prepared adsorbent. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as pH, initial dye concentration, and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the dye removal increased with the increasing in the initial concentration of the dye and also increased in the amount of microspheres used and initial pH. Adsorption data fitted well with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic analysis presented the exothermic, spontaneous and more ordered arrangement process. The microspheres could be employed effective for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: The single-crystalline hierarchical Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} spheres can be prepared for the first time by using a template-free process through freeze-drying. Meanwhile, the hierarchical spheres exhibited high adsorption capacity to methylene blue. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres were successfully synthesized through a freeze drying process. • A possible formation mechanism of hierarchical microspheres was presented. • The Cu{sub 2}Cl(OH){sub 3} microspheres have high methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Methylene blue adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. • The adsorption mechanism of microspheres onto dye was proposed in detail.

  14. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  15. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E., E-mail: james.e.polk@jpl.nasa.gov; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Capece, Angela M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe plasma density peaks further upstream.

  16. Post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry at the Y-12 plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) is located on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) property at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project. Until 1992, the primary mission of the Y-12 Plant was the production and fabrication of nuclear weapons components. Activities associated with these functions included production of lithium compounds, recovery of enriched uranium from scrap material, and fabrication of uranium and other materials into finished parts for assemblies. The Kerr Hollow Quarry was used for waste disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive and shock-sensitive chemicals and compressed gas cylinders. These materials were packaged in various containers and sank under the water in the quarry due to their great weight. Disposal activities were terminated in November, 1988 due to a determination by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation that the quarry was subject to regulations under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1993. Methods of closure for the quarry were reviewed, and actions were initiated to close the quarry in accordance with closure requirements for interim status surface impoundments specified in Tennessee Rules 1200-1-11-.05(7) and 1200-1-11-.05(11). As part of these actions, efforts were made to characterize the physical and chemical nature of wastes that had been disposed of in the quarry, and to remove any containers or debris that were put into the quarry during waste disposal activities. Closure certification reports (Fraser et al. 1993 and Dames and Moore 1993) document closure activities in detail. This report contains the post-closure permit application for the Kerr Hollow Quarry site.

  17. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?°C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?°C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?°C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  18. Radioembolization of Symptomatic, Unresectable Neuroendocrine Hepatic Metastases Using Yttrium-90 Microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paprottka, Philipp M., E-mail: philipp.paprottka@med.uni-muenchen.de; Hoffmann, Ralf-T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany); Haug, Alexander [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Sommer, Wieland H.; Raessler, Franziska; Trumm, Christoph G.; Schmidt, Gerwin P.; Ashoori, Nima; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Jakobs, Tobias F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology (Germany)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate safety, efficacy, and symptom-control of radioembolization in patients with unresectable liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETLMs). Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients (mean age of 62 years) with treatment-refractory NETLMs underwent radioembolization using yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres. Posttreatment tumor response was assessed by cross-sectional imaging using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and tumor-marker levels. Laboratory and clinical toxicities and clinical symptoms were monitored. Results: The median activity delivered was 1.63 GBq (range 0.63-2.36). Imaging follow-up using RECIST at 3-month follow-up demonstrated partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease in 22.5, 75.0, and 2.5% of patients, respectively. In 97.5% of patients, the liver lesions appeared hypovascular or partially necrotic. The mean follow-up was 16.2 months with 40 patients (95.2%) remaining alive. The median decrease in tumor-marker levels at 3 months was 54.8% (chromogranin A) and 37.3% (serotonin), respectively. There were no acute or delayed toxicities greater than grade 2 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE (v3.0)]. No radiation-induced liver disease was noted. Improvement of clinical symptoms 3 months after treatment was observed in 36 of 38 symptomatic patients. Conclusion: Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-microspheres is a safe and effective treatment option in patients with otherwise treatment-refractory NETLMs. Antitumoral effect is supported by good local tumor control, decreased tumor-marker levels, and improved clinical symptoms. Further investigation is warranted to define the role of radioembolization in the treatment paradigm for NETLMs.

  19. Current status of the GLASS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Honeck, H.C. (Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970's. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

  20. Current status of the GLASS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Honeck, H.C. [Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970`s. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

  1. Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Travis E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States) [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

  2. Integration of a terahertz quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the integration of a quantum cascade laser with a hollow waveguide on a chip to improve both the beam pattern and manufacturability. By coupling the QCL output into a single-mode rectangular waveguide the radiation mode structure can be known and the propagation, manipulation, and broadcast of the QCL radiation can then be entirely controlled by well-established rectangular waveguide techniques. By controlling the impedance of the interface, enhanced functions, such as creating amplifiers, efficient coupling to external cavities, and increasing power output from metal-metal THz QCLs, are also enabled.

  3. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  4. Low loss hollow optical-waveguide connection from atmospheric pressure to ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Tani, F.; Hölzer, P.; Travers, J. C. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Russell, P. St. J. [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Günther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for optically accessing ultra-high vacuum environments, via a photonic-crystal fiber with a long small hollow core, is described. The small core and the long bore enable a pressure ratio of over 10{sup 8} to be maintained between two environments, while permitting efficient and unimpeded delivery of light, including ultrashort optical pulses. This delivery can be either passive or can encompass nonlinear optical processes such as optical pulse compression, deep UV generation, supercontinuum generation, or other useful phenomena.

  5. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  6. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  7. Ultrabright multikilovolt x-ray source: saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for the generation of ultrabright multikilovolt x-rays from saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states is described. Conditions for x-ray amplification in this spectral region combine the production of cold, high-Z matter, with the direct, selective multiphoton excitation of hollow atoms from clusters using ultraviolet radiation and a nonlinear mode of confined, self-channeled propagation in plasmas. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of saturated amplification on several transition arrays of the hollow atom Xe(L) spectrum (.lambda..about.2.9 .ANG.). An estimate of the peak brightness achieved is .about.10.sup.29 .gamma..multidot.s.sup.-1.multidot.mm.sup.-2.multidot.mr.sup.-2 (0.1% Bandwidth).sup.-1, that is .about.10.sup.5 -fold higher than presently available synchotron technology.

  8. Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    for short glass plate. Wear gloves. 3. Place long glass plate on 2 foam rectangles. Set up spacers and short32 Denaturing Urea PAGE - Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates 1. Clean glass plates and comb pipette, add 5 drops of dichlorodimethylsilane (Aldrich D6,082-6) to 5 mls of acetone in diposable glass

  9. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  10. Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Components of Crystalline Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor crystalline solar cells encapsulant front glass Reference: Schulze, S.-H.; Pander, M.; Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin

  11. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  12. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high-energy physics applications.

  13. Facile synthesis of hollow nano-spheres and hemispheres of cobalt by polyol reduction This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Facile synthesis of hollow nano-spheres and hemispheres of cobalt by polyol reduction This article.1088/0957-4484/21/37/375602 Facile synthesis of hollow nano-spheres and hemispheres of cobalt by polyol reduction Haitao Yang1 2010 Published 17 August 2010 Online at stacks.iop.org/Nano/21/375602 Abstract The hydrophilic hollow

  14. Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

  15. Facile Directed Assembly of Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules within Spontaneously Formed Catanionic Surfactant Vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mariya D. [Saint Louis University, Missouri] [Saint Louis University, Missouri; Dergunov, Sergey [Saint Louis University, Missouri] [Saint Louis University, Missouri; Richter, Andrew [Valparaiso University, Indiana] [Valparaiso University, Indiana; Durbin, Jeffrey [ORNL] [ORNL; Shmakov, Sergey [Saint Louis University, Missouri] [Saint Louis University, Missouri; Jia, Ying [Saint Louis University, Missouri] [Saint Louis University, Missouri; Kenbeilova, Saltanat [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan] [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan; Orazbekuly, Yerbolat [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan] [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan; Kengpeiil, Aigerim [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan] [Kazakh National Technical University, Kazakhstan; Lindner, Erno [ORNL] [ORNL; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL] [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL] [ORNL; Weigand, Steven [DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, Illinois] [DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, Illinois; Pinkhassik, Eugene [Saint Louis University, Missouri] [Saint Louis University, Missouri

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfactant vesicles containing monomers in the interior of the bilayer were used to template hollow polymer nanocapsules. This study investigated the formation of surfactant/monomer assemblies by two loading methods, concurrent loading and diffusion loading. The assembly process and the resulting aggregates were investigated with dynamic light scattering, small angle neutron scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Acrylic monomers formed vesicles with a mixture of cationic and anionic surfactants in a broad range of surfactant ratios. Regions with predominant formation of vesicles were broader for compositions containing acrylic monomers compared with blank surfactants. This observation supports the stabilization of the vesicular structure by acrylic monomers. Diffusion loading produced monomer-loaded vesicles unless vesicles were composed from surfactants at the ratios close to the boundary of a vesicular phase region on a phase diagram. Both concurrent-loaded and diffusion-loaded surfactant/monomer vesicles produced hollow polymer nanocapsules upon the polymerization of monomers in the bilayer followed by removal of surfactant scaffolds.

  16. Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Submitted Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Thin sheet concrete presented in this work explored the possibilities of prestressing thin sheet glass concrete products

  17. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  18. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  19. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  20. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

  1. Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fig. 9-1 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of metal (radiopaque). #12;Fig. 9-2 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-3 Metal frame of eyeglasses (radiopaque). The eyeglass lens is made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-4 Cotton roll

  2. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  3. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  4. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  5. Heat capacity at the glass transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

  6. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  7. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  8. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  9. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  10. Hartsook Hollow.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiffli, Brandon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Keeper of an enchanted garden on a wealthy estate, a landscaper is chosen to compete against members of an ungracious family in a contest to… (more)

  11. andesitic glass comparison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 59 Glass Forming...

  12. ajakirja stained glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  13. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  14. Synthesis of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/hollow-shell structures with excellent adsorption performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Jie, E-mail: candj@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Photonics Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao Qinghe [Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Photonics Devices and Materials, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Qian Yitai [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/hollow-shell structures with cube-shaped and dumbbell-shaped morphologies have been synthesized trough a facile and low-cost method. The microscopy analyses indicate that the core-shell microcubes have an average edge length of 2.5 {mu}m with a shell thickness of about 150 nm, and the core-shell microdumbbells were formed with a length of about 3 {mu}m and shell thickness of about 160 nm. The possible formation mechanism was discussed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy observations. The novel homogeneous core/hollow-shell structures were found to exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment. - Graphical abstract: A simple method is described for fabrication of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/hollow-shell structures and the as-prepared materials showed a good ability to remove an organic pollutant in waste water. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} homogeneous core/hollow-shell structures were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and high yield method was employed to fabricate such novel structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The products showed a good ability to remove an organic pollutant in waste water.

  15. cro-fluidic applications as well as nanostructured percolation media. The hollow funnels can also serve as nanocrucibles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    cro-fluidic applications as well as nanostructured percolation media. The hollow funnels can also, for instance, as potential micro/nano arrays for solid-state synthesis. Experimental The deposition experiments 2000, 404, 243. [8] R. C. Mani, X. Li, M. K. Sunkara, K. Rajan, Nano Lett. 2003, 3, 671. [9] J. Libera

  16. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  17. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  19. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  20. Investigation of a high impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with hollow load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Heng; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang [College of Opto-electric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high-impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with greatly restrained power deposition on the anode has been investigated. Methods to increase the MILO impedance and decrease the anode current are discussed. A MILO with impedance of 30 {Omega} and power conversion efficiency of 25% is presented by particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with the previous MILO in our lab, the anode current of the proposed MILO is reduced about 50%, the power conversion efficiency doubles, and the power deposition on anode is reduced nearly one half. Furthermore, considerations for reducing the power deposition on load have also been carried out in MILO design, and the load current is reduced to 4.6 kA, only 17% of the total anode current. Finally, a hollow load was introduced to reduce the power deposition density on the load, without decreasing the power conversion efficiency.

  1. Shallow gas in Arkoma basin - Pine Hollow and South Ashland fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woncik, J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pine Hollow and South Ashland fields located in Pittsburg and Coal Counties, Oklahoma, established a combined reserve exceeding 200 bcf of gas. The Hartshorne Sandstone of early Desmoinesian (Pennsylvanian) age is the producing zone at a depth of 4000 ft (1200 m). Gas, probably of biogenic origin, migrated into the reservoir shortly after deposition. Subsequent folding and faulting of the Ashland anticline resulted in repositioning of the gas in a downthrown fault trap. The upthrown anticline portion of the Hartshorne is water-bearing. Moderate well costs and high individual reserves have resulted in excellent economics. Competitive bidding on federal leases has resulted in a high bid exceeding $1 million for one tract in the South Ashland field.

  2. Pinning quantum phase transition of photons in a hollow-core fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MingXia Huo; Dimitris G. Angelakis

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a pinning quantum phase transition for photons could be observed in a hollow-core one-dimensional fiber loaded with a cold atomic gas. Utilizing the strong light confinement in the fiber, a range of different strongly correlated polaritonic and photonic states, corresponding to both strong and weak interactions can be created and probed. The key ingredient is the creation of a tunable effective lattice potential acting on the interacting polaritonic gas which is possible by slightly modulating the atomic density. We analyze the relevant phase diagram corresponding to the realizable Bose-Hubbard (weak) and sine-Gordon (strong) interacting regimes and conclude by describing the measurement process. The latter consists of mapping the stationary excitations to propagating light pulses whose correlations can be efficiently probed once they exit the fiber using available optical technologies

  3. Debris-less method and apparatus for forming apertures in hollow metallic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, C.L.; Chodelka, E.J.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for forming an aperture in a wall of a hollow metallic article without introducing metallic debris therein. In a typical operation, an annular groove is formed in an exterior portion of the wall. The groove defines an annular wall segment, and the bottom of the groove is shaped to slope downwardly away from the segment to form a tapered annular web which connects the segment to the wall. Any suitable coupling is attached to the outer face of the segment, as by welding. Pull then is applied to the coupling to effect circumferential breakage of the web, thus forming a removable single-piece wall fragment consisting of the web and segment. The fragment and the coupling member attached thereto then are removed from the wall.

  4. Soft-x-ray hollow fiber optics with inner metal coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, Yuji; Oyama, Tadaaki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass capillary with an inner metal coating is proposed to be used as soft-x-ray fiber optics in medical applications. Based on the results of theoretical calculations, nickel was chosen as the coating material for x rays radiated from a conventional x-ray tube. A nickel-coated capillary was fabricated by electroless deposition, and focusing and collimating effects were observed from measurements of the transmission efficiency of soft x rays. The transmission of a nickel-coated capillary with an inner diameter of 0.53 mm and a length of 300 mm was 10%, which is approximately double that of an uncoated glass capillary.

  5. Dynamics and rheology of active glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. F. F. Farage; J. M. Brader

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of mode-coupling theory, we present a simple model for describing dense assemblies of active (self-propelled) spherical colloidal particles. For isotropic suspensions, we demonstrate that the glass transition is shifted to higher volume fraction by the addition of activity, in agreement with recent Brownian dynamics simulations. Activity-induced changes in the static structure factor of the fluid are predicted. The mechanical response of an active glass to applied strain is shown to be softer than the corresponding passive glass; both the nonergodicity parameter and the yield stress reduce with increasing activity.

  6. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

  7. Fabrication of CeO2 by sol-gel process based on microfluidic technology as an analog preparation of ceramic nuclear fuel microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bin Ye; Jilang Miao; Jiaolong Li; Zichen Zhao; Zhenqi Chang; Christophe A. Serra

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidics integrated with sol-gel processes is introduced in preparing monodispersed MOX nuclear fuel microspheres using nonactive cerium as a surrogate for uranium or plutonium. The detailed information about microfluidic devices and sol-gel processes are provided. The effects of viscosity and flow rate of continuous and dispersed phase on size and size distribution of CeO2 microspheres have been investigated. A comprehensive characterization of the CeO2 microspheres has been conducted, including XRD pattern, SEM, density, size and size distribution. The size of prepared monodisperse particles can be controlled precisely in range of 10{\\mu}m to 1000{\\mu}m and the particle CV is below 3%.

  8. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  9. Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

  10. Neutron Brillouin scattering in a metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suck, J.B. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Festkoerperphysik); Egelstaff, P.A. (Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Robinson, R.A.; Sivia, D.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Taylor, A.D. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion of collective modes in a metallic glass (Mg{sub 70}Zn{sub 30}) measured earlier at the thermal neutron time-of-flight spectrometer IN4 of the HFR of the ILL could be extended towards lower momentum transfers down to the first pseudo-Brillouin zone for the first time. This extension to momentum transfer not accessible up to now was possible using the highly resolving time-of-flight spectrometer HET of the new spallation source ISIS. In the region of overlap the two parts of the dispersion determined with different samples of the same metallic glass on different instruments agree very well. Also the earlier discrepancies with the dispersion determined for this metallic glass from a computer simulation could be nearly completely eliminated due to a more recent and more complete investigations of this glass.

  11. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  12. Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

  13. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

  14. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  15. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  16. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  17. MECS 2006 - Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature CombustionGlass MECS 2006 - Glass Manufacturing

  18. ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate of the absorption spectrum of silicate glasses and determination of absolute concentrations of ferric, ferrous of silicate glass. 2. Experimental The same glass samples were used in this work as were described in [3, 4

  19. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  20. Hysteretic Optimization For Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Goncalves; S. Boettcher

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently proposed Hysteretic Optimization (HO) procedure is applied to the 1D Ising spin chain with long range interactions. To study its effectiveness, the quality of ground state energies found as a function of the distance dependence exponent, $\\sigma$, is assessed. It is found that the transition from an infinite-range to a long-range interaction at $\\sigma=0.5$ is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the performance . The transition is signaled by a change in the scaling behavior of the average avalanche size observed during the hysteresis process. This indicates that HO requires the system to be infinite-range, with a high degree of interconnectivity between variables leading to large avalanches, in order to function properly. An analysis of the way auto-correlations evolve during the optimization procedure confirm that the search of phase space is less efficient, with the system becoming effectively stuck in suboptimal configurations much earlier. These observations explain the poor performance that HO obtained for the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on finite-dimensional lattices, and suggest that its usefulness might be limited in many combinatorial optimization problems.

  1. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  2. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  3. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

  4. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

  5. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, S. B., E-mail: sbhanse@sandia.gov, E-mail: anatolyf@hotmail.com [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Faenov, A. Ya., E-mail: sbhanse@sandia.gov, E-mail: anatolyf@hotmail.com [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)] [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Evans, R. G. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG (United Kingdom)] [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S. [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany)] [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany); Uschmann, I. [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany) [Helmholtzinstitut Jena, Jena D-07743 (Germany); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronic, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien Platz 1, Jena, D-07743 (Germany); and others

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations.

  6. Behavior of nanoparticle clouds around a magnetized microsphere under magnetic and flow fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cécilia Magnet; Pavel Kuzhir; Georges Bossis; Alain Meunier; Sebastien Nave; Andrey Zubarev; Claire Lomenech; Victor Bashtovoi

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When a micron-sized magnetizable particle is introduced into a suspension of nanosized magnetic particles, the nanoparticles accumulate around the microparticle and form thick anisotropic clouds extended in the direction of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon promotes colloidal stabilization of bimodal magnetic suspensions and allows efficient magnetic separation of nanoparticles used in bioanalysis and water purification. In the present work, size and shape of nanoparticle clouds under the simultaneous action of an external uniform magnetic field and the flow have been studied in details. In experiments, dilute suspension of iron oxide nanoclusters (of a mean diameter of 60 nm) was pushed through a thin slit channel with the nickel microspheres (of a mean diameter of 50$\\mu$m) attached to the channel wall. The behavior of nanocluster clouds was observed in the steady state using an optical microscope. In the presence of strong enough flow, the size of the clouds monotonically decreases with increasing flow speed in both longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields. This is qualitatively explained by enhancement of hydrodynamic forces washing the nanoclusters away from the clouds. In the longitudinal field, the flow induces asymmetry of the front and the back clouds. To explain the flow and the field effects on the clouds, we have developed a simple model based on the balance of the stresses and particle fluxes on the cloud surface. This model, applied to the case of the magnetic field parallel to the flow, captures reasonably well the flow effect on the size and shape of the cloud and reveals that the only dimensionless parameter governing the cloud size is the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces - the Mason number. At strong magnetic interactions considered in the present work (dipolar coupling parameter $\\alpha \\geq 2$), the Brownian motion seems not to affect the cloud behavior.

  7. Device and method for imploding a microsphere with a fast liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, hydrogen boron or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy and momentum into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. Fast liners disposed in the high-density target plasma are explosively or ablatively driven to implosion by a heated annular plasma surrounding the fast liner generated by an annular relativistic electron beam. An azimuthal magnetic field produced by axial current flow in the annular plasma, causes the energy in the heated annular plasma to converge on the fast liner to drive the fast liner to implode a microsphere.

  8. Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds D. Li, A. Scully, and T. M. G. Chu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Mechanical property evaluation of porous 13-93 Bioactive Glass and GL1550 Borate Glass 3D scaffolds-glass (A) and GL1550 borate bioactive-glass (B) powders, at different sintering temperatures, and with (failure, Pb) of scaffolds made from 13-93 bioactive- glass and GL1550 bioactive-glass powders are compared

  9. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

  10. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  11. Magnetic behavior of erbium-zinc-borate glasses and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pascuta, P.; Bosca, M.; Pop, V. [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Technical University, 28 Memorandumului, 400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, R. [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine University, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tetean, R. [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogalniceanu, Faculty of Physics, 400084 Cluj Napoca (Romania); Radulescu, D. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu, 8 Victor Babes, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses of the system (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub x}?(B{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub (60?x)}?(ZnO){sub 40} (3 ? x ? 15 mol%) were prepared by conventional melt quenching and subsequently converted to glass ceramics by heat treatment of glass samples at 860 °C for 2 h. The magnetic behaviour of the studied glasses and glass ceramics were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and a Faraday-type magnetic balance. Magnetic data show that erbium ions are involved in negative superexchange interactions in all the investigated samples, being antiferromagnetically coupled. For all studied samples the experimental values obtained for the effective magnetic moments are lower than the value corresponding to free Er{sup 3+} ions and decrease with the increasing of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The decrease is more pronounced in heat treated samples than untreated ones.

  12. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M., E-mail: sathishphy79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GOVT first grade College, Doddaballapur-561203 (India); Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, India (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  13. Experimental study of a Ne-H{sub 2} Penning Recombination Laser in a helical hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pramatarov, P.M.; Stefanova, M.S.; Petrov, G.M. [Georgy Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Penning recombination lasers (PRL), as first proposed in, operate in non-equilibrium recombination plasma where the upper laser level (ULL) is populated by the recombination flux and the lower laser level (LLL) is depopulated by Penning reactions. The lack of chemical activity and degradation of the laser mixture, lasing in the visible spectral region and high output power obtained attract the attention to the Ne-H{sub 2} PRL operating on the NeI 585.3 nm line (the 2p{sub 1}-1s{sub 2} transition). Despite the most powerful PRL are pumped by electron beams of relativistic energies, it is of practical interest to realize PRL pumped in a hollow cathode discharge where beam of high energy primary electrons exists. In this study a detailed experimental investigation of a Ne-H{sub 2} PRL operating in a helical hollow cathode discharge is carried out. The obtained data are compared with the results of the theoretical model. The laser tube design is similar to that used in our previous work. The cathode is made of Mo band 10 mm wide, helically wound with a 15 mm pitch to form a cylindrical hollow. Five laser tubes with different cathode diameters (5.5-12 mm) and lengths (110-280 mm) are investigated.

  14. Ultralow-threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yantang, E-mail: g@fzu.edu.cn; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Peijin [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China)] [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China); Guo, Changlei [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China) [College of Physics and Information Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fu Zhou, 350108 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation on ultralow threshold laser and blue shift cooperative luminescence (CL) in a Yb{sup 3+} doped silica microsphere (YDSM) with continuous-wave 976 nm laser diode pumping is reported. The experimental results show that the YDSM emits laser oscillation with ultralow threshold of 2.62 ?W, and the laser spectrum is modulated by the microsphere morphology characteristics. In addition, blue emission of YDSM is also observed with the increase of pump power, which is supposed to be generated by CL of excited Yb ion-pairs with the absorption of 976 nm photons and Si-O vibration phonons, and the process is explained with an energy level diagram. This property of the blue shift CL with phonons absorption in the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity makes it attractive for the application of laser cooling based on anti-Stokes fluorescence emission, if the Yb{sup 3+}doped microcavity made from with low phonon energy host materials.

  15. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  16. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  17. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  18. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  19. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  20. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  1. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC Porto—Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Física, da Faculdade de Cięncias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5?×?10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3?×?10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8?×?10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  2. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  3. Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, F.P.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

  4. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  5. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 ?m and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 ?m. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 ?m are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 ?m but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 ?m are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be required to answer this question. We recommend construction of a full scale

  6. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  7. Towards modeling gadolinium-lead-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, S., E-mail: Simona.Rada@phys.utcluj.ro [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ristoiu, T. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rada, M. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Coroiu, I. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Maties, V. [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Mechatronic, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culea, E. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physics, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectra of gadolinium-lead-borate glasses of the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(100 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] system, where x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35 and 50 mol.%, have been recorded to explore the role of content of gadolinium ions behaving as glass modifier. The FTIR spectroscopy data for the xGd{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(1 - x)[3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO] glasses show the structural role of lead ions as a network-formers and of the gadolinium ions network modifiers. Adding of the rare earth ion up to 35 mol.% into the glass matrix, the IR bands characteristic to the studied glasses become sharper and more pronounced. Structural changes, as recognized by analyzing band shapes of IR spectra, revealed that Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a change from the continuous borate network to the continuous lead-borate network interconnected through Pb-O-B and B-O-B bridges and the transformation of some tetrahedral [BO{sub 4}] units into trigonal [BO{sub 3}] units. Then, gadolinium ions have affinity towards [BO{sub 3}] structural units which contain non-bridging oxygens necessary for the charge compensation because the more electronegative [BO{sub 3}] structural units were implied in the formation of B-O-Gd bonds and the transformation of glass network into a glass ceramic. We propose a possible structural model of building blocks for the formation of continuous random 3B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.PbO network glass used by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations show that lead atoms occupy three different sites in the proposed model. The first is coordinated with six oxygen atoms forming distorted octahedral geometries. The second lead atom has an octahedral oxygen environment and the five longer Pb-O bonds are considered as participating in the metal coordination scheme. The third lead atom has ionic character. In agreement with the results offered by the experimental FTIR data, the theoretical IR data confirm that our proposed structure is highly possible.

  8. Development of a Procedure to Evaluate the Shear Modulus of Laminated Glass Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brackin, Michael S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laminated glass is comprised of multiple glass plates coupled together in a sandwich construction through the use of a polymorphous interlayer that acts as a bonding agent between the glass plates. Laminated glass offers several advantages over...

  9. Heavy Metals in Glass Beads Used in Pavement Markings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Pavement markings are vital for safely navigating roadways. The nighttime visibility of pavement markings is enhanced by addition of retroreflective glass beads, most of which are made from recycled glass. Concern has been raised over the presence...

  10. Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

    Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

  11. Structure and magnetic properties of vanadiumsodium silicate glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekki, Abdelkarim

    Structure and magnetic properties of vanadium­sodium silicate glasses A. Mekki a,*, G.D. Khattak Received 4 April 2002 Abstract Vanadium­sodium silicate glasses with the chemical composition [ðV2O5�x(Na2O) atoms in the silicate glasses. The fraction of NBO, determined from these spectra is found to increase

  12. Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov School of Optics and hydroxyl), and induced (color centers) absorption of multicomponent silicate glasses in UV, visible-photon ionization was detected in alkaline-silicate glasses exposed to high-power laser radiation in nano

  13. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  14. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen M Hocky; Ludovic Berthier; David R. Reichman

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  15. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  16. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  17. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  18. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  19. Blocking effect of crystal–glass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiangrong [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Baturin, Ivan [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Science, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystal–glass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. • The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • Crystallite impedance decreases while crystal–glass interface impedance increases. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystal–glass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface in the temperature range of 250–450 °C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystal–glass interface area.

  20. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the interior. According to ASTM, the residual surface compression of tempered glass is defined to have a value of 10, 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) while heat-strengthened glass has residual compressive stresses greater than 3, 500 psi (24. 13 MPa) but less than 10..., 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) (ASTM, 1989). These residual surface compressive stresses must be overcome by mechanical stresses before the glass surfaces experience tension. Hence heat-strengthened and tempered glass are considerably stronger than annealed...

  1. Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate, photoinduced phenomena, and laser-induced damage of silicate glasses. The discussion will be concentrated devices, such as alkaline-silicate, sodium-calcium-silicate, borosilicate, and lead- silicate glasses

  2. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  3. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  4. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  5. The Spectrum of the Th-Ar Hollow-Cathode Lamp Used with the 2dcoude Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Allende Prieto

    2001-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have produced an atlas of the Th-Ar hollow-cathode lamp used with the 2dcoude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The atlas covers from 3611.9 to 10596.4 A at a resolving power of 52,000. We have determined the wavelenghts of 1483 emission lines in the spectrum with a median precision of 0.00023 A. A web-based interface is offered for interactive visualization of segments of the atlas or spectral orders.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  7. GENERATION OF A 5A, 10kV HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM BY A PIERCE GUN J.J. BARROSO, P.J. CASTRO, J.O. ROSSI, J.A.N. GONALVES, and H. PATIRE JR.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GENERATION OF A 5A, 10kV HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM BY A PIERCE GUN J.J. BARROSO, P.J. CASTRO, J.O. ROSSI, the monotron is the simplest microwave generator, whose principle of operation relies on transit-time effects to accelerate and inject a hollow electron into a cylindrical cavity to generate high-power microwaves at 6

  8. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  9. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  10. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  11. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (?) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (?) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(?)) decreased from 554 to 458?kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831?kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

  12. Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

  13. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  14. Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    ,Particulates (Environmental norms) Global competitiveness #12;3 April, 2006 4Source: www.oilnergy.com Crude Oil Price #12;3 April, 2006 5 Natural Gas Price Source: www.oilnergy.com #12;3 April, 2006 6 Carbon Dioxide Endothermic heat of reaction Glass enthalpy at outlet of tank 1886 From temperature of 20 oC to 1500 oC Batch

  15. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  16. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

  17. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  18. hollow fiber represent an enormous increase in the (active) aeration surface. Thus, oxygen is not limiting to cell growth, which results in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    - ditions oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse from the hollow-fiber membrane into the cell suspensionhollow fiber represent an enormous increase in the (active) aeration surface. Thus, oxygen In controlled cultivation systems, such as common stirred tank bioreactors, an optimal oxygen supply is state

  19. 674 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2013 High-Speed mm-Wave Data-Link Based on Hollow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    -Giga-bit/s (up to 6 Gbps) and energy-efficient ( 1 pJ/bit/m) data link is formed by using hollow plastic cable GLOBAL Data Centers continue to demand better energy efficiency (in terms of pJ/bit/m) data links markets for high data rates and flexible deployment. However, they are hardly energy-efficient because

  20. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH); Massey, Richard T. (Hamilton, OH)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  1. The use of glass matrices for solidification of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gromov, V.V.; Minaev, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The physico-chemical aspects of the solidification of nuclear wastes have been studied at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences for a number of years. This method is viewed as the most reliable method of storage of nuclear wastes. Various glass systems have been studied, including phosphate, borosilicate glasses etc. The data obtained allow optimal glass compositions to be chosen for solidification of various nuclear wastes.

  2. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  3. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic...

  4. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbant material, such as FeO, VO.sub.2, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbant material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbant material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbant material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbant material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbant material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping.

  5. Poisson's Ratio and the Densification of Glass under High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouxel, T.; Ji, H. [Applied Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Rennes 1, LARMAUR, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Hammouda, T. [Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS-OPG , Universite Blaise Pascal, 5 rue Kessler, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand cedex (France); Moreac, A. [IPR, CNRS-Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France)

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of a relatively low atomic packing density, (C{sub g}) glasses experience significant densification under high hydrostatic pressure. Poisson's ratio ({nu}) is correlated to C{sub g} and typically varies from 0.15 for glasses with low C{sub g} such as amorphous silica to 0.38 for close-packed atomic networks such as in bulk metallic glasses. Pressure experiments were conducted up to 25 GPa at 293 K on silica, soda-lime-silica, chalcogenide, and bulk metallic glasses. We show from these high-pressure data that there is a direct correlation between {nu} and the maximum post-decompression density change.

  6. Method of processing ``BPS`` glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.T.; Stone, R.G.; McCollister, H.L.; Wengert, P.R.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO{sub 2} (65--80%), LiO{sub 2} (8--16%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2--8%), K{sub 2}O (1--8%), P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1--5%), B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.5--7%), and ZnO (0--5%) to the following processing steps: (1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, (2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, (3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and (4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/in/C) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper. 5 figs.

  7. Method of processing "BPS" glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Stone, Ronald G. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wengert, deceased, Paul R. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, 2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, 3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and 4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200.times.10.sup.-7 in/in/.degree.C.) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper.

  8. From local to global ground states in Ising spin glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilia Zintchenko; Matthew B. Hastings; Matthias Troyer

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider whether it is possible to find ground states of frustrated spin systems by solving them locally. Using spin glass physics and Imry-Ma arguments in addition to numerical benchmarks we quantify the power of such local solution methods and show that for the average low-dimensional spin glass problem outside the spin- glass phase the exact ground state can be found in polynomial time. In the second part we present a heuristic, general-purpose hierarchical approach which for spin glasses on chimera graphs and lattices in two and three dimensions outperforms, to our knowledge, any other solver currently around, with significantly better scaling performance than simulated annealing.

  9. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1996-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbent material, such as FeO, VO{sub 2}, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbent material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbent material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbent material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbent material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbent material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping. 8 figs.

  10. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Process Heating Systems Process heating plays a key role in producing steel, aluminum, and glass and in manufacturing products made from these materials. Faced with...

  11. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  12. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  13. alternatives glass jars: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small amounts). When looking at the cost effectiveness of recycling versus waste to landfill, it's worth bearing Melham, Tom 100 Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass...

  14. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  15. aging colloidal glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matter (arXiv) Summary: We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the dynamics of aging colloidal glasses. We prepare a colloidal suspension at high density, a...

  16. Thermal Predictions of the Cooling of Waste Glass Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal. Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Canister centerline temperatures and the total amount of heat transfer from the canisters to the surrounding air are reported.

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  18. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  19. The Conservation of Seventeenth Century Archaeological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcak, Cory

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . These materials are melted together in a heat resistant container or crucible. Once melted to the consistency of a molten liquid, the material is either cast, poured into a mold or is blown. Glass blowing is accomplished by gathering the molten material onto a... the materials and manipulate the molten mass through the various stages of glassmaking. Alkalis commonly used for glassmaking are derived from the ashes of plants and trees and are referred to as soda ash (sodium carbonate) and potash (potassium carbonate...

  20. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScienceCareers Apply for aCould WorkVehicles andBioactive Glass

  1. Analysis and Research on the Thermal Properties of Energy-efficient Building Glass: A Case Study in PVB Laminated Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Z.; Meng, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are analyzed. The methods on usage of energy-saving glass are promoted based on the differences of their thermal properties. Meanwhile, a new kind of glass?PVB laminated glass (Fig.1), is introduced. Fl at cl ear gl ass 0. 05mmLOWE coati ng Fl at cl ear g... lass 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB Fig. 1 Structure of PVB laminated glass ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency, Vol.II-4-5 2. EVALUATION STANDARDS OF SOLAR-OPTICAL PROPERTY The main...

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystals in KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} glasses and chemical etching of nanocrystallized glass fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enomoto, Itaru [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Benino, Yasuhiko [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanocrystallization behavior of 25K{sub 2}O-25Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(50-x)GeO{sub 2}-xSiO{sub 2} glasses with x=0,25,and50 (i.e., KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} glasses) and the chemical etching behavior of transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers have been examined. All glasses show nanocrystallization, and the degree of transparency of the glasses studied depends on the heat treatment temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glasses can be obtained if the glasses are heat treated at the first crystallization peak temperature. Transparent nanocrystallized glass fibers with a diameter of about 100{mu}m in 25K{sub 2}O-25Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-50GeO{sub 2} are fabricated, and fibers with sharpened tips (e.g., the taper length is about 450{mu}m and the tip angle is about 12{sup o}) are obtained using a meniscus chemical etching method, in which etching solutions of 10wt%-HF/hexane and 10M-NaOH/hexane are used. Although the tip (aperture size) has not a nanoscaled size, the present study suggests that KNb(Ge,Si)O{sub 5} nanocrystallized glass fibers have a potential for new near-field optical fiber probes with high refractive indices of around n=1.8 and high dielectric constants of around {epsilon}=58 (1kHz, room temperature)

  3. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N. [UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, A. K., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?°C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?°C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?°C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  4. Observations of a mode transition in a hydrogen hollow cathode discharge using phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Sam, E-mail: sam.dixon@anu.edu.au; Charles, Christine; Dedrick, James; Boswell, Rod [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gans, Timo; O'Connell, Deborah [Department of Physics, York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Two distinct operational modes are observed in a radio frequency (rf) low pressure hydrogen hollow cathode discharge. The mode transition is characterised by a change in total light emission and differing expansion structures. An intensified CCD camera is used to make phase resolved images of Balmer ? emission from the discharge. The low emission mode is consistent with a typical ? discharge, and appears to be driven by secondary electrons ejected from the cathode surface. The bright mode displays characteristics common to an inductive discharge, including increased optical emission, power factor, and temperature of the H{sub 2} gas. The bright mode precipitates the formation of a stationary shock in the expansion, observed as a dark region adjacent to the source-chamber interface.

  5. Hydrotreatment of petroleum vaccum residue with NiMo supported on carbon black of hollow nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, N.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenation with NiMo catalyst on the carbon black of hollow sphere was very active to decrease asphaltene(hexane insoluble:HI) from 10% to 1% in the VR under the conditions of 340{degrees}C, 4h, and 10 MPa of H2. Non-protonated-aromatic carbons of remaining HI were converted to protonated carbons with increase of naphthenic carbons observed by {sup 13}C-NMR. Metallic compounds principally contained in HI were also converted to be hexane soluble(HS). It revealed that some of the metal containing compounds trapped in the asphaltene micelle are liberated from the micelle through the catalytic hydrogenation under mild conditions. The present catalyst was found much more active for the hydrogenative conversion of asphaltene and metallic compounds as well as the demetallation than the conventional demetallation catalysts, suggesting that NiMo/KB catalyst is highly dispersed to interact more intimately with asphaltene molecules.

  6. Influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions on the micro-hollow cathode discharge driven by thermionic emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)] [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Department of Physics, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)] [Department of Physics, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms on the hollow cathode discharge driven by electron thermionic emission is studied using two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions modeling. A comparison with the results of two-component (electrons and Xe{sup +} ions) plasma modeling showed that the presence of the Xe{sub 2}{sup +} dimer ions and excited Xe* atoms in the plasma affects the plasma parameters (density, potential, and ion fluxes toward the cathode). The influence of Xe{sub 2}{sup +} ions and Xe* atoms on the plasma sheath parameters, such as thickness and the ion velocity at the sheath edge, is analyzed.

  7. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  8. Graded index antireflective coatings for glass : final report, September 1978 - February 1982

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions and process conditions by which broad band gradedindex antreflective films can be produced on glass surfaces have been developed. The end use for the treated glass sheet is as cover plates for flat plate ...

  9. The effect of temperature on the bending of laminated glass beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edel, Matthew Thomas

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laminated glass is comprised of multiple plates of glass bonded together with polymorphous interlayers. The interest in the use of architectural laminated glass in the construction industry has increased due to its possible advantages over...

  10. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in Resistan{trademark}-G1 from quasi-static spherical indentation. This indicates that friction is affecting ring crack initiation in Resistan{trademark}-G1. Friction also affected ring crack initiation in Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glasses. Among these three materials, friction was the most pronounced (largest slope in the RCIF-elastic modulus graph) in the Starphire{reg_sign} and least pronounced in the BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. The reason for this is not understood, but differences in deformation behavior under high contact stresses could be a cause or contributor to this. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than it is under quasi-static conditions in Resistan{trademark}-L and Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramics. This is a trend observed too in Starphire{reg_sign} and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. (5) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation-induced ring crack initiation forces. This is not a material property nor is it exclusive to glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, rather, it is a statistical mechanical response to an accumulated history of processing and handling of that specific tile.

  11. Americium/curium extraction from a lanthanide borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Pareizs, J.M.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solution containing kilogram quantities of highly radioactive isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) and lanthanide fission products is currently stored in a process tank at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). This tank and its vital support systems are old, subject to deterioration, and prone to possible leakage. For this reason, a program has been initiated to stabilize this material as a lanthanide borosilicate (LBS) glass. The Am/Cm has commercial value and is desired for use by the heavy isotope programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A recovery flowsheet was demonstrated using a curium containing glass to extract the Am/Cm from the glass matrix. The procedure involved grinding the glass to less than 200 mesh and dissolving in concentrated nitric acid at 110 {degrees}C. Under these conditions, the dissolution was essentially 100% after 2 hours except for the insoluble silicon. Using a nonradioactive surrogate, the expected glass dissolution rate during Am/Cm recovery was bracketed by using both static and agitated conditions. The measured rates, 0.0082 and 0.040 g/hr.sq cm, were used to develop a predictive model for the time required to dissolve a spherical glass particle in terms of the glass density, particle size, and measured rate. The calculated dissolution time was in agreement with the experimental observation that the curium glass dissolution was complete in less than 2 hrs.

  12. Thermodynamics and Universality for Mean Field Quantum Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Crawford

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study aspects of the thermodynamics of quantum versions of spin glasses. By means of the Lie-Trotter formula for exponential sums of operators, we adapt methods used to analyze classical spin glass models to answer analogous questions about quantum models.

  13. production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ti3+ production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy. P irradiation of Ti4+ ions in aluminoborosilicate glasses have been studied by EPR spectroscopy at 20 K of the Ti3+ ion EPR spectra has shown three different Ti3+ environment attributed to one [VI] Ti3+ and two

  14. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  15. Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass Daniel Ashlock Mathematics-photorealistic rendering is a broad class of tech- niques for creating art from digital pictures. One or more digital to that in the tile. Tile boundaries are rendered black, providing the "lead" enclosing the stained glass panes

  16. Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate X. Chavanne, S. Balibar and F wave to study cavitation, i.e. the nucleation of bubbles, in liquid helium 4 near a clean glass plate and threshold pressures in the range 0 to -3 bar, significantly less negative than for homogeneous cavitation

  17. Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    to the sponsor. The collector incorporated a solar panel that charged a battery unit. The battery poweredPENNSTATE Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector Overview Pittsburgh Corning, a leading manufacturer of architectural glass blocks, wanted to incorporate a solar

  18. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Crum, Jarrod V.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  19. Property Data for Simulated Americium/Curium Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, B.J.; Smith, D.E.; Peeler, D.K.; Reamer, I.A.; Vienna, J.D.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors studied the properties of mixed lanthanide-alumino-borosilicate glasses. Fifty-five glasses were designed to augment a previous, Phase I, study by systematically varying the composition of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the concentrations of Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SrO in glass. These glasses were designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Technology Center and tested at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The properties measured include the high-temperature viscosity ({eta}) as a function of temperature (T) and the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of Phase II test glasses.

  20. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallized glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Takumi; Mori, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystallization of rutile and anatase was observed in a CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} crystallized glass. The color of the present crystallized glass was changed by the heat-treatment temperature, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the crystallized glass show that the apparent color change is correlated with the formation of titania nanocrystallites. The particle size of crystallites observed in the transmission electron microscope image is comparable to that measured by XRD pattern. In addition, a large change of refractive index between the rutile particles and glass matrix, 0.8 or larger, was obtained. The present titania crystallized glass will be not only a photocatalytic material but also a promising candidate for random lasing devices.

  1. Parametric effects of glass reaction under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Woodland, A.B.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eventual liquid water contact of high-level waste glass stored under the unsaturated conditions anticipated at the Yucca Mountain site will be by slow intrusion of water into a breached container/canister assembly. The water flow patterns under these unsaturated conditions will vary, and the Unsaturated Test method has been developed by the YMP to study glass reaction. The results from seven different sets of tests done to investigate the effect of systematically varying parameters, such as glass composition, composition and degree of sensitization of 304L stainless steel, water input volume, and the interval of water contact are discussed. Glass reaction has been monitored over a period of five years, and the parametric effects can result in up to a ten-fold variance in the degree of glass reaction.

  2. IRON-PHOSPHATE GLASS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; XU K; CHOI J; UM W; HEO J

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) can bring a serious environmental threat because of its high fission yield, long half-life, and high solubility and mobility in the ground water. The present work investigated the immobilization of Tc-99 (surrogated by Re) by heat-treating mixtures of an iron-phosphate glass with 1.5 to 6 wt.% KReO{sub 4} at {approx}1000 C. The Re retention in the glass was as high as {approx}1.2 wt. % while the loss of Re by evaporation during melting was {approx}50%. Re was uniformly distributed within the glass. The normalized Re release by the 7-day Product Consistency Test was {approx}0.39 g/m{sup 2}, comparable with that in phosphate-bonded ceramics and borosilicate glasses. These results suggest that iron-phosphate glass can provide a good matrix for immobilizing Tc-99.

  3. PbO-free glasses for low temperature packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brow, R.K.; Bencoe, D.N.; Tallant, D.R. [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc polyphosphate glasses were examined as potential candidates for low temperature sealing applications. Glass-formation and properties were determined for the ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZnO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} systems, and information about the short-range structures of these glasses was obtained by Raman and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. In general, the most durable polyphosphate glasses have structures based on relatively short pyrophosphate chain lengths (i.e., 2 P-tetrahedra). Modified phosphate compositions are given, including compositions used to seal float glass substrates at temperatures as low as 500{degrees}C.

  4. Removal Rate Model for Magnetorheological Finishing of Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic subaperture polishing process. The process uses a magntorheological (MR) fluid that consists of micrometer-sized, spherical, magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles, nonmagnetic polishing abrasives, water, and stabilizers. Material removal occurs when the CI and nonmagnetic polishing abrasives shear material off the surface being polished. We introduce a new MRF material removal rate model for glass. This model contains terms for the near surface mechanical properties of glass, drag force, polishing abrasive size and concentration, chemical durability of the glass, MR fluid pH, and the glass composition. We introduce quantitative chemical predictors for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, into an MRF removal rate model. We validate individual terms in our model separately and then combine all of the terms to show the whole MRF material removal model compared with experimental data. All of our experimental data were obtained using nanodiamond MR fluids and a set of six optical glasses.

  5. Development of hollow fiber catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature gas cleanup. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yi Hua; Moser, W.R.; Pien, S.; Shelekhin, A.B.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop economically and technically viable catalytic membrane reactors for high temperature, high pressure gaseous contaminant control in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. These catalytic membrane reactors decompose H{sub 2}S and separate the reaction products. The reactors were designed to operate in the hostile process environment of the IGCC systems, and at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000{degrees}C. Severe conditions encountered in the IGCC process (e.g., 900{degrees}C, containing of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) make it impossible to use polymeric membranes in the process. A list of inorganic membranes that can be employed in the membrane reactor includes Pd metallic membranes, molecular-sieve glass membranes (PPG Industries), porous Vycor glass membranes and porous sol-gel derived membranes such as alumina, zirconia. Alumina and zirconia membranes, however, cannot withstand for a long time at high temperatures in the presence of water vapors. Palladium membranes are a very promising class of inorganic membranes for gas separations that is currently under development. In this project two different types of membranes were used in the design of the membrane reactor -- molecular-sieve glass membrane and Vycor glass porous membrane.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - area glass sheets Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A national trade association that establishes Summary: , the anchor strip may be plastic or metal Annealed Glass Standard sheet or plate glass. Annealing To heat... the...

  7. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with...

  8. alkali-silicate glass exposed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 40 Glass Forming...

  9. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

  10. Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate and Borosilicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate. However, those data are in a contradiction with published data on radiation defect generation in silicate of the photoinduced etching in silicate glasses. 2. Experimental The following materials were used as samples

  11. Microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres and their high efficient photocatalytic degradation for p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingting, E-mail: tingtingli1983@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Yang, Lixia [Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Ecological Diagnosis, Remediation and Pollution Control, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres were successfully fabricated by the approach of microwave-assisted solvothermal and in situ photo-assisted reduction. A reactive ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 16}mim]Br) was employed as Br source in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The photocatalytic activity of Ag/AgBr/BiOBr towards the decomposition of p-nitrophenol under visible light irradiation was evaluated. The results indicated that Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol, comparing with P25, BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. More than 96% of p-nitrophenol was decomposed in 3.5 h under visible-light irradation. The excellent photocatalytic activity of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres can be attributed to the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption, suitable energy band structure and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. The possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species test and band gap structure analysis. - Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic reaction mechanisms of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr/BiOBr. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Successful synthesis of flower-like Ag/AgBr/BiOBr microspheres. • The Ag/AgBr/BiOBr showed much higher photocatalytic activity towards p-nitrophenol as compared to BiOBr and Ag/AgBr. • The reasons for the excellent photocatalytic activity are the large specific surface area, strong visible-light absorption and surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles. • The O{sub 2}·{sup ?}, Br{sup 0} and photogenerated h{sup +} play key roles in the photocatalytic degradation process.

  12. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  13. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  14. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T. (Clarks Summit, PA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Aston, Mary Kay (Moscow, PA); Elder, Melanie L. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  15. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  16. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials were used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions. That difference decreases with increasing elastic modulus mismatch between the sphere material and borosilicate This trend was opposite in soda-lime silicate glass; (5) Fracture in borosilicate glass occurs at lower velocities (i.e., easier) at 24{sup o} than at 0{sup o} (orthogonal) and 46{sup o} of impact for the same probability of failure. Though not analyzed yet, this suggests that a convolution of kinetic energy and friction is contributing to that trend; (6) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation RCIF. This likely is not a material property nor exclusive to borosilicate glass, rather, it is a statistical response of a combination of local, surface-located flaw and imposed tensile stress. Understanding of the surface flaw population and flaw positioning can likely enable prediction of spherical indentation RCIF; and (7) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Borofloat BS for impact kinetic energies up to {approx} 20 mJ. For kinetic energies between {approx} 20-150 mJ, fracture sometimes initiated. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 150 mJ. The energy values, and their boundaries, were much lower for BS glass than they were for soda-lime silicate glass.

  17. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  18. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  19. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  20. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  1. Photon Interaction Studies with Some Glasses and Building Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Harvinder [Guru Nanak Dev University (India); Singh, Kulwant [Guru Nanak Dev University (India); Sharma, Gopi [Guru Nanak Dev University (India); Nathuram, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India); Sahota, H.S. [Punjabi University (India)

    2002-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass attenuation coefficients of some shielding materials, namely, Bakelite, black cement, white cement, plaster of paris, and concrete were determined at 356-, 511-, 662-, 1173-, and 1332-keV energies, and those of glasses containing oxides of B, Cd, Pb, and Bi were determined only at 662 keV using a narrow beam transmission method. These coefficients of glasses were then used to determine their interaction cross sections, effective atomic numbers, and electron densities. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical values. It has been proven that glasses have a potential application as a transparent radiation shielding.

  2. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  3. Process for direct conversion of reactive metals to glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajan, John B. (Naperville, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive alkali metal is introduced into a cyclone reactor in droplet form by an aspirating gas. In the cyclone metal reactor the aspirated alkali metal is contacted with silica powder introduced in an air stream to form in one step a glass. The sides of the cyclone reactor are preheated to ensure that the initial glass formed coats the side of the reactor forming a protective coating against the reactants which are maintained in excess of 1000.degree. C. to ensure the formation of glass in a single step.

  4. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P.sub.2 O.sub.5, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules.

  5. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules. 7 figs.

  6. Core–shell TiO{sub 2} microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Hong, E-mail: guohongcom@126.com [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing 655000, Yunnan (China); Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun [School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, No. 2, Green Lake North Road, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic hollow core–shell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare core–void–shell anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of core–shell–shell anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic core–void–shell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique core–void–shell anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. ? It is core–void–shell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. ? It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage.

  7. Facile preparation of titania hollow spheres by combination of the mixed solvent method and the sol-gel process and post-calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Xin [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); He Junhui, E-mail: jhhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Zhongguancun Beiyitiao 2, Haidianqu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Polystyrene (core)-titania (shell) composite spheres consisting were readily prepared by a sol-gel process of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) in a mixed solvent of ethanol/acetonitrile (3:1, v/v). Smooth and homogeneous titania coatings formed when the mixed solvent was dehydrated by anhydrous sodium sulfate. The thickness and surface roughness of titania coating increase with increase of the TBOT concentration. By adjusting the TBOT concentration in the range of 5.8-29.0 mM, the size of titania-coated PS spheres could be varied from 990 to 1125 nm. Calcination at elevated temperature gave dense, homogeneous, robust shells of anatase titania. The sizes of titania hollow spheres are 11.3-16.9% smaller than those of the titania-coated PS spheres as a result of calcination-induced shrinkage. The composite and hollow spheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction measurements. These core-shell organic-inorganic spheres and hollow ceramic spheres may have wide applications in catalysts, adsorbents, lightweight fillers, capsules, etc.

  8. Preparation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from oxide-glass precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinks, David G. (Lemont, IL); Capone, II, Donald W. (Northbridge, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor and precursor therefor from oxide mixtures of Ca, Sr, Bi and Cu. Glass precursors quenched to elevated temperatures result in glass free of crystalline precipitates having enhanced mechanical properties. Superconductors are formed from the glass precursors by heating in the presence of oxygen to a temperature below the melting point of the glass.

  9. Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zemach, Ezra

    Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

  10. Seeing through Obscure Glass Qi Shan, Brian Curless, and Tadayoshi Kohno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Li

    condition for successful deconvolution) and minimize: Digital approach requires: sparse-kernel glass, access

  11. Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses R September 2005 By directly writing waveguides inside bulk erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses.3 These glasses, also fabri- cated by us, have been shown

  12. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  13. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  14. Nanomechanical studies of metallic glasses at ambient and elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packard, Corinne E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk metallic glasses, though attractive for use in structural applications for their high strength and elastic limit, display several unacceptable features upon deformation, including quasi-brittle failure along shear ...

  15. Horizontal non-contact slumping of flat glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Edward, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper continues the work of M. Akilian and A. Husseini on developing a noncontact glass slumping/shaping process. The shift from vertical slumping to horizontal slumping is implemented and various technologies required ...

  16. Rankine and Brayton Cycle Cogeneration for Glass Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparisons are made of the performance and installation costs of Rankine and Brayton power cycles when applied to waste heat recovery from a 350 ton/day container glass furnace. The power cycles investigation included: a) a conventional steam...

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  18. The effect of moisture on a glass/epoxy composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatawanich, Candy Suda

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was done to determine the effect of moisture on the transverse tensile strength and the interfacial shear strength of a glass/epoxy composite. Specimens with two different fiber sizings, one epoxy compatible and one vinyl-ester compatible...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, M.L.

    We have studied the mechanical properties of monolithic bulk metallic glasses and composite in the La based alloys. La???yAl??(Cu, Ni)y (y=24 to 32) alloy systems was used to cast the ...

  20. Quenched-vacancy induced spin-glass order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulpinar, Gul

    The ferromagnetic phase of an Ising model in d=3, with any amount of quenched antiferromagnetic bond randomness, is shown to undergo a transition to a spin-glass phase under sufficient quenched bond dilution. This result, ...

  1. The effect of reinforcement on loadbearing capacity of structural glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Bridget I. (Bridget Isabela)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transparent property of glass makes it a favored choice of material in the design of structures because it maximizes light and creates an illusion of larger spaces. However, it is a very brittle, making it difficult ...

  2. Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses as investigated by multi-nuclear NMR, Raman, & Mö Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate...

  3. Bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Semjonov, S L; Firstov, Sergei V; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the optical properties of bulk bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses prepared in an iridium crucible to those of optical fibres prepared by the powder-in-tube method and having a core identical in composition to the glasses. The bulk glasses and fibres are shown to be similar in luminescence properties. The optical loss in the fibres in their IR luminescence band is about one order of magnitude lower than that in the crucible-melted glasses. The level of losses in the fibres and their luminescence properties suggest that such fibres can be made to lase near 1.15 {mu}m. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  4. Preparation and characterization of boro-tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Nirmal, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com; Khanna, Atul, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com [Glass Physics and Sensors Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India); Krishna, P. S. R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass samples of the system: xB{sub 2}O{sub 3}?(100?x) TeO{sub 2}; x= 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Density of glasses decreased with increase in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration due to the replacement of heavier TeO{sub 2} with lighter B{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas the glass transition temperature increased from 339°C to 366°C; the later effect was due to increase in the concentration of stronger B-O bonds in the glass network. FTIR studies found that BO{sub 4} units convert into BO{sub 3} with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES CONTINUOUS MELTING AND BULK VITRIFICAITON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; the glass on cooling may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  6. Americium/curium extraction from a lanthanide borosilciate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.S.; Pareizs, J.M.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A solution containing kilogram quantities of highly radioactive isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) and lanthanide fission products is currently stored in a process tank at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS). This tank and its vital support systems are old, subject to deterioration, and prone to possible leakage. For this reason, a program has been initiated to immobilize this material as a lanthanide borosilicate glass for safe long-term storage. The Am/Cm has commercial value and is desired for use by the heavy isotope programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Therefore, a flowsheet was demonstrated using a curium-containing glass to extract these elements from the glass matrix. The method involved grinding the glass to less than 200 mesh and dissolving in concentrated nitric acid at 110{degrees}C. Under these conditions, the dissolution was essentially 100% after 2 hours except for silicon which remained mostly insoluble. Since the actual process conditions at ORNL could not be exactly simulated, the dissolution rate of a surrogate glass was measured using static and agitated conditions to bracket the expected rate. The measured rates, 0.040 to 0.0082 grams/hour-centimeter, were constant which allowed development of a predictive model for the time required to dissolve a glass particle of spherical geometry in terms of the glass density, particle size, and experimentally measured rate. The calculated time required to dissolve an idealized curium glass particle was in agreement with the experimental observation that dissolution was complete in less than 2 hours.

  7. Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

    1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  8. Evaluation of glass-contact materials for waste glass melters. [Corhart 1215, Corhart 1780, ER-2161

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alternative refractory and electrode materials have been evaluated as glass-contact materials for the vitrification of SRP waste. Monofrax K-3 (The Carborundum Co.) is the optimum refractory, based on corrosion and thermal-shock resistance. Inconel 690 (Huntington Alloys, Inc.) is the recommended electrode alloy. However, a potentially more corrosion-resistant alternative, UCAR Metal Ceramic, Grade LT-1 (Union Carbide Corp.), is being evaluated further. This material melts at a much higher temperature than Inconel 690. In the event of an unexpected high-temperature excursion in a melter, this material may offer significantly greater protection.

  9. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE GLASS MELTER FEEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R; PIERCE DA

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Melter feeds for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) typically contain a large number of constituents that evolve gas on heating, Multiple gas-evolving reactions are both successive and simultaneous, and include the release of chemically bonded water, reactions of nitrates with organics, and reactions of molten salts with solid silica. Consequently, when a sample of a HLW feed is subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the rate of change of the sample mass reveals multiple overlapping peaks. In this study, a melter feed, formulated for a simulated high-alumina HLW to be vitrified in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction at the Hanford Site in Washington State, USA, was subjected to TGA. In addition, a modified melter feed was prepared as an all-nitrate version of the baseline feed to test the effect of sucrose addition on the gas-evolving reactions. Activation energies for major reactions were determined using the Kissinger method. The ultimate aim of TGA studies is to obtain a kinetic model of the gas-evolving reactions for use in mathematical modeling of the cold cap as an element of the overall model of the waste-glass melter. In this study, we focused on computing the kinetic parameters of individual reactions without identifying their actual chemistry, The rough provisional model presented is based on the first-order kinetics.

  10. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  11. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

    1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole %.iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  12. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui (Middle Island, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY)

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900.degree. C. include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided.

  13. Helium solubility in SON68 nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fares, Toby; Peuget, Sylvain; Bouty, Olivier; Broudic, Veronique; Maugeri, Emilio; Bes, Rene; Jegou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD SECM LMPA, F-30207 Marcoule, Bagnols Sur Cez, (France); Chamssedine, Fadel; Sauvage, Thierry [CNRS, CEMHTI, F-245071 Orleans, (France); Deschanels, Xavier [LNAR, Marcoule Inst Separat Chem, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium behavior in a sodium borosilicate glass (SON68) dedicated to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste is examined. Two experimental approaches on nonradioactive glass specimens are implemented: pressurized helium infusion experiments and {sup 3}He ion implantation experiments. The temperature variation of helium solubility in SON68 glass was determined and analyzed with the harmonic oscillator model to determine values of the energy of interaction E(0) at the host sites (about -4000 J/mol), the vibration frequency (about 1.7 x 10{sup 11} s{sup -1}), and the density of solubility sites (2.2 x 10{sup 21} sites cm{sup -3}). The implantation experiments show that a non diffusive transport phenomenon (i.e., athermal diffusion) is involved in the material when the helium concentration exceeds 2.3 x 10{sup 21} He cm{sup -3}, and thus probably as soon as it exceeds the density of solubility sites accessible to helium in the glass. We propose that this transport mechanism could be associated with the relaxation of the stress gradient induced by the implanted helium profile, which is favored by the glass damage. Microstructural characterization by TEM and ESEM of glass specimens implanted with high helium concentrations showed a homogeneous microstructure free of bubbles, pores, or cracking at a scale of 10 nm. (authors)

  14. Development of a process control sensor for the glass industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, M.; Candee, A.; Kramlich, J.; Koppang, R.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated to fill a need in the glass industry for a non-contact temperature sensor for glass melts. At present, the glass forming industry (e.g., bottle manufacture) consumes significant amounts of energy. Careful control of temperature at the point the bottle is molded is necessary to prevent the bottle from being rejected as out-of-specification. In general, the entire glass melting and conditioning process is designed to minimize this rejection rate, maximize throughput and thus control energy and production costs. This program focuses on the design, development and testing of an advanced optically based pyrometer for glass melts. The pyrometer operates simultaneously at four wavelengths; through analytical treatment of the signals, internal temperature profiles within the glass melt can be resolved. A novel multiplexer alloys optical signals from a large number of fiber-optic sensors to be collected and resolved by a single detector at a location remote from the process. This results in a significant cost savings on a per measurement point basis. The development program is divided into two phases. Phase 1 involves the construction of a breadboard version on the instrument and its testing on a pilot-scale furnace. In Phase 2, a prototype analyzer will be constructed and tested on a commercial forehearth. This report covers the Phase 1 activities.

  15. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15 mole % to about 20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30 mole % to about 60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20 mole % to about 50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30 mole % to about 70 mole % phosphate, from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3 mole % to about 8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5 mole % to about 2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3 mole % to about 6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  16. Phosphate glasses for radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste immobilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, H.; Adams, J.W.; Kalb, P.D.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free phosphate glass compositions are provided which can be used to immobilize low level and/or high level radioactive wastes in monolithic waste forms. The glass composition may also be used without waste contained therein. Lead-free phosphate glass compositions prepared at about 900 C include mixtures from about 1--6 mole % iron (III) oxide, from about 1--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 15--20 mole % sodium oxide or potassium oxide, and from about 30--60 mole % phosphate. The invention also provides phosphate, lead-free glass ceramic glass compositions which are prepared from about 400 C to about 450 C and which includes from about 3--6 mole % sodium oxide, from about 20--50 mole % tin oxide, from about 30--70 mole % phosphate, from about 3--6 mole % aluminum oxide, from about 3--8 mole % silicon oxide, from about 0.5--2 mole % iron (III) oxide and from about 3--6 mole % potassium oxide. Method of making lead-free phosphate glasses are also provided. 8 figs.

  17. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp; Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655?nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490?nm and 500–600?nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  18. Energy transfer kinetics in oxy-fluoride glass and glass-ceramics doped with rare-earth ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Annapurna, K. [Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of donor-acceptor energy transfer kinetics in dual rare earths doped precursor oxy-fluoride glass and its glass-ceramics containing NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals is reported here, using three different donor-acceptor ion combinations such as Nd-Yb, Yb-Dy, and Nd-Dy. The precipitation of NaYF{sub 4} nano-crystals in host glass matrix under controlled post heat treatment of precursor oxy-fluoride glasses has been confirmed from XRD, FESEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. Further, the incorporation of dopant ions inside fluoride nano-crystals has been established through optical absorption and TEM-EDX analysis. The noticed decreasing trend in donor to acceptor energy transfer efficiency from precursor glass to glass-ceramics in all three combinations have been explained based on the structural rearrangements that occurred during the heat treatment process. The reduced coupling phonon energy for the dopant ions due to fluoride environment and its influence on the overall phonon assisted contribution in energy transfer process has been illustrated. Additionally, realization of a correlated distribution of dopant ions causing clustering inside nano-crystals has also been reported.

  19. Evaluation Of Glass Density To Support The Estimation Of Fissile Mass Loadings From Iron Concentrations In SB8 Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.; Kot, W. K.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy – Savannah River (DOE-SR) has provided direction to Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3}. In support of that guidance, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a technical basis and a supporting Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet for the evaluation of fissile loading in Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) glass based on the iron (Fe) concentration in glass as determined by the measurements from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) acceptability analysis. SRR has since requested that the necessary density information be provided to allow SRR to update the Excel® spreadsheet so that it may be used to maintain fissile concentration in glass below 897 g/m{sup 3} during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). One of the primary inputs into the fissile loading spreadsheet includes an upper bound for the density of SB8-based glasses. Thus, these bounding density values are to be used to assess the fissile concentration in this glass system. It should be noted that no changes are needed to the underlying structure of the Excel-based spreadsheet to support fissile assessments for SB8. However, SRR should update the other key inputs to the spreadsheet that are based on fissile and Fe concentrations reported from the SB8 Waste Acceptance Product Specification (WAPS) sample.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE GLASS POURING PROCESS OVER A KNIFE EDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification is the process of capturing radioactive waste in glass. The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is one of the facilities using the vitrification technology to treat and immobilize radioactive waste. The objective of the project is to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout knife edge. Experiments are run using simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as the radioactive sludge glass, but without radioactive contaminants. The purpose of these tests is to obtain actual glass data that, when combined with previous cold data from other fluids, will provide an overall understanding of the physics of liquids flowing over a pour spout and knife edge, A specific objective is to verify computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with a range of liquid data with particular emphasis on glass so as to provide confidence in use of these CFD models for designing a new improved pour spout for the DWPF melter. The work to be performed at FIU-HCET includes assembling the melting and pouring system that mimics the DWPF melter and determining the key parameters that may influence wicking. Information from the FIU-HCET melter tests will lead to better operating guidelines for the DWPF melter so as to avoid wicking. During FY98, a bench-scale melter complete with pour spout and a knife edge was designed and assembled at FIU-HCET. Initially, the system was tested with glycerine. Subsequently, glass provided by SRS was used for experimentation. Flow visualization tests were performed with the melter in FY98 to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout model simulating a DWPF pour spout of the original design. Simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as sludge glass but without radioactive contaminants was used in the tests. All the tasks and milestones mentioned in the PTP for the project were accomplished. The project completed its second year, and this document reports the tasks and milestones that were accomplished during the 1998 fiscal year.

  1. Final Report on Actinide Glass Scintillators for Fast Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of an experimental investigation of actinide glass scintillators for fast-neutron detection. It covers work performed during FY2012. This supplements a previous report, PNNL-20854 “Initial Characterization of Thorium-loaded Glasses for Fast Neutron Detection” (October 2011). The work in FY2012 was done with funding remaining from FY2011. As noted in PNNL-20854, the glasses tested prior to July 2011 were erroneously identified as scintillators. The decision was then made to start from “scratch” with a literature survey and some test melts with a non-radioactive glass composition that could later be fabricated with select actinides, most likely thorium. The normal stand-in for thorium in radioactive waste glasses is cerium in the same oxidation state. Since cerium in the 3+ state is used as the light emitter in many scintillating glasses, the next most common substitute was used: hafnium. Three hafnium glasses were melted. Two melts were colored amber and a third was clear. It barely scintillated when exposed to alpha particles. The uses and applications for a scintillating fast neutron detector are important enough that the search for such a material should not be totally abandoned. This current effort focused on actinides that have very high neutron capture energy releases but low neutron capture cross sections. This results in very long counting times and poor signal to noise when working with sealed sources. These materials are best for high flux applications and access to neutron generators or reactors would enable better test scenarios. The total energy of the neutron capture reaction is not the only factor to focus on in isotope selection. Many neutron capture reactions result in energetic gamma rays that require large volumes or high densities to detect. If the scintillator is to separate neutrons from gamma rays, the capture reactions should produce heavy particles and few gamma rays. This would improve the detection of a signal for fast neutron capture.

  2. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

  3. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

  4. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo calculations, 2) compiling the solution data and alteration phases identified from accelerated weathering tests conducted with ILAW glass by PNNL and Viteous State Laboratory/Catholic University of America as well as other literature sources for use in geochemical modeling calculations, and 3) conducting several initial calculations on glasses that contain the four major components of ILAW-Al2O3, B2O3, Na2O, and SiO2.

  6. Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  7. Elliptic Flow from Nonequilibrium Color Glass Condensate Initial Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruggieri, M; Plumari, S; Greco, V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current goal of relativistic heavy ion collisions experiments is the search for a Color Glass Condensate as the limiting state of QCD matter at very high density. In viscous hydrodynamics simulations, a standard Glauber initial condition leads to estimate $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$, while a Color Glass Condensate modeling leads to at least a factor of 2 larger $\\eta/s$. Within a kinetic theory approach based on a relativistic Boltzmann-like transport simulation, we point out that the out-of-equilibrium initial distribution proper of a Color Glass Condensate reduces the efficiency in building-up the elliptic flow. Our main result at RHIC energy is that the available data on $v_2$ are in agreement with a $4\\pi \\eta/s \\sim 1$ also for Color Glass Condensate initial conditions, opening the possibility to describe self-consistently also higher order flow, otherwise significantly underestimated, and to pursue further the search for signatures of the Color Glass Condensate.

  8. Geologic origin of magnetic volcanic glasses in the KBS tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlinger, C.M.; Smith, R.M.; Veblen, D.R.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic glass shards and banded pumice from the KBS tuff of northern Kenya exhibit marked variations in magnetic susceptibility and color (colorless to dark brown). The darker glass shards exhibit superparamagnetism, which they now know to be carried by a population of tiny microcrystals of Fe-rich cubic oxide, approx. 20 to approx. 100 A in size, thought to be magnetite. A theory for their origin is one of nucleation and growth (precipitation) in quenched homogeneous glass (colorless) at temperatures of approx. 700-1000/sup 0/C during and immediately subsequent to eruption. Results from high-temperature heating experiments on KBS shards support this idea. The precipitate appears in the KBS shards as a consequence of their cooling history and is the origin of their coloring; the origin cannot lie in negligible compositional differences between the colorless and darkest shards. On the other hand, banded pumice from the KBS tuff has both dark and colorless glasses of differing compositions. The pumice appears banded because precipitation occurred preferentially in the Fe-rich glass. Although magma mixing may have played a role in the eruption of these materials, on the basis of their survey of distal eruptive products, it would appear that the volumetric amount of the mafic end member (dark pumice) was insubstantial.

  9. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V., E-mail: ravi.phy@pondiuni.edu.in [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605 014 (India); Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x?=?30, 35, 40, and 45?mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (?) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (?{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  10. Faience and glass beads from the late Bronze Age shipwreck at Uluburun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, Rebecca Suzanne

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipwreck. iii v vi viii ix 1 1 4 5 15 15 17 49 67 70 78 80 82 85 85 87 92 94 vii CHAPTER V GLASS: MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURE?????????.. Glass Composition and Origins???????????????. Glass Manufacture and Trade...????????????????... 44 2.15 Faience melon bead KW 5174????????????????... 47 2.16 Small glass bead KW 1550?????????????????? 50 2.17 Concreted mass of small glass beads inside Canaanite jar KW 8???.. 52 2.18 Small glass beads inside Canaanite jar KW 8...

  11. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alias, Nor Hayati, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Norriza Mohd, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md, E-mail: norhayati@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhammad, Azali [Malaysian Society for Non-Destructive Testing (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures.

  12. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  13. Development of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers for INO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayana Bheesette; for the INO collaboration

    2008-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50kton magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to study atmospheric neutrinos and to make precision measurements of the parameters related to neutrino oscillations. Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of about 2m X 2m in size are going to be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. We have fabricated a large number of glass RPC prototypes of 1m X 1m in size and have studied their performance and long term stability. In the process, we have developed and produced a number of materials and components required for fabrication of RPCs. We have also designed and optimised a number of fabrication and quality control procedures for assembling the gas gaps. In this paper we will review our activities towards development of glass RPCs for the INO ICAL detector and will present results of the characterisation studies of the RPCs.

  14. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  15. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  16. Efficient Cluster Algorithm for Spin Glasses in Any Space Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng Zhu; Andrew J. Ochoa; Helmut G. Katzgraber

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin systems with frustration and disorder are notoriously difficult to study both analytically and numerically. While the simulation of ferromagnetic statistical mechanical models benefits greatly from cluster algorithms, these accelerated dynamics methods remain elusive for generic spin-glass-like systems. Here we present a cluster algorithm for Ising spin glasses that works in any space dimension and speeds up thermalization by several orders of magnitude at temperatures where thermalization is typically difficult. Our isoenergetic cluster moves are based on the Houdayer cluster algorithm for two-dimensional spin glasses and lead to a speedup over conventional state-of-the-art methods that increases with the system size. We illustrate the benefits of the isoenergetic cluster moves in two and three space dimensions, as well as the nonplanar Chimera topology found in the D-Wave quantum annealing machine.

  17. Ultrashort laser pulse induced nanogratings in borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Zimmermann@uni-jena.de; Richter, Sören [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Plech, Anton [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan [Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on nanogratings inscribed by repetitive femtosecond laser pulses into the bulk of borosilicate glass. The irradiation produces small nanopores (10–20?nm thick) which start to self-organize in gratings as well as elongated sheets of up to 400?nm length. A quantitative description of the grating structure and its development are obtained by a combination of focused ion beam milling, scanning electron microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS partial invariant of the thin sheets is found to correlate well with the measured optical retardance. Compared to fused silica nanogratings borosilicate glass shows a much smaller retardance due to re-annealing of pores. In addition, the nanograting period strongly deviates from the well-known ?/2n prediction. We could observe periods down to 60?nm (at an inscribing wavelength of 800?nm). This has not been observed yet in other glasses.

  18. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  19. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  20. Fluozirconate glass with low improper scattering on the phase microimpurities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grishin, I.A.; Mityugova, V.N.; Tyutyaev, I.N.; Tseloval`nova, T.V.

    1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicomponent fluozirconate glass is transparent in the 0.5-5.5 {mu}m range, the transparency maximum being at 2.55 {mu}m. It is used as an active medium of solid state lasers, fiber lasers, and amplifiers in the visible and IR region of transformers of IR-radiation into visible radiation (green, red, etc.). The Faraday rotation was found in fluoride glasses containing rare-earth elements, lead, manganese, etc.. Fluoride light guides are used in devices for medical diagnostics, in surgery, anesthesia, etc.. A fluozirconate glass of the 52ZrF{sub 4}{center_dot}20BaF{sub 2}{center_dot}4LaF{sub 3}{center_dot}4AlF{sub 3}{center_dot}20NaF (mole %) composition with a calculated improper scattering of 5{center_dot}10{sup -6} dB/km at 2.6 {mu}m was synthesized.

  1. Preliminary Simulation of the Corrosion Rate of Archaeological Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we make use of a micro-continuum modeling approach (the Kinetic-Microscopic-Continuum Model or K{micro}C model) to capture the spatial distribution and identity of reaction products developing over time as a result of the archaeological glass corrosion, while also matching the time scales of alteration where possible. Since the glass blocks sat on the Mediterranean seafloor for 1800 years, the physical and chemical boundary conditions are largely constant. We focus on a fracture within the glass block identified by Verney-Carron et al. (2008) and simulate it as a 1D system, with a fixed concentration (Dirichlet) boundary corresponding to the interior of the fracture.

  2. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

  3. A modeling study on the thermomechanical behavior of glass-ceramic and self-healing glass seals at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindaraju, Nirmal; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Singh, Prabhakar; Singh, R.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hermetic gas seals are critical components for planar solid oxide fuel cells. This article focuses on comparative evaluation of a glass-ceramic developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and a self-healing glass seal developed by the University of Cincinnati. The stress and strain levels in the Positive electrode-Electrolyte-Negative electrode (PEN) seal in one cell stack are evaluated using a multi-physics simulation package developed at PNNL. Simulations were carried out with and without consideration of clamping force and stack body force, respectively. The results indicate that the overall stress and strain levels are dominated by the thermal expansion mismatches between the different cell components. Further, compared with glass-ceramic seal, the self-healing glass seal results in much lower steady state stress due to its much lower stiffness at the operating temperature of SOFC, and also exhibits much shorter relaxation times due to high creep rate. It is also noted that the self-healing glass seal will experience continuing creep deformation under the operating temperature of SOFC therefore resulting in possible overflow of the sealing materials. Further stopper material may need to be added to maintain its geometric stability during operation.

  4. Redox-Dependent Solubility of Technetium in Low Activity Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Mccloy, John S.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of technetium was measured in a Hanford low activity waste glass simulant. The simulant glass was melted, quenched and pulverized to make a stock of powdered glass. A series of glass samples were prepared using the powdered glass and varying amounts of solid potassium pertechnetate. Samples were melted at 1000°C in sealed fused quartz ampoules. After cooling, the bulk glass and the salt phase above the glass (when present) were sampled for physical and chemical characterization. Technetium was found in the bulk glass up to 2000 ppm (using the glass as prepared) and 3000 ppm (using slightly reducing conditions). The chemical form of technetium obtained by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy can be mainly assigned to isolated Tc(IV), with a minority of Tc(VII) in some glasses and TcO2 in two glasses. The concentration and speciation of technetium depends on glass redox and amount of technetium added. Solid crystals of pertechnetate salts were found in the salt cake layer that formed at the top of some glasses during the melt.

  5. Spin glass behavior in FeAl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lue, CS; Oner, Y.; Naugle, Donald G.; Ross, JH.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature.10 For higher Al concen- trations, Fe12xAlx alloys form a series of complex ordered crystal structures, generally with weak magnetic behavior. While no magnetic or spin-glass transitions have been iden- tified in these alloys, a recent site...-diluted Ising model has suggested the existence of a spin-glass phase in disordered alloys of this type.11 In the dilute Fe limit, Fe-Al alloys are nonmagnetic, and there is some uncertainty as to whether the Fe ions lose their moment through spin...

  6. Transient stress evolution in repulsion and attraction dominated glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian P. Amann; Matthias Fuchs

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from microscopic mode coupling theory generalized to colloidal dispersions under shear in an integration-through-transients formalism. Stress-strain curves in start-up shear, flow curves, and normal stresses are calculated with the equilibrium static structure factor as only input. Hard spheres close to their glass transition are considered, as are hard spheres with a short-ranged square-well attraction at their attraction dominated glass transition. The consequences of steric packing and physical bond formation on the linear elastic response, the stress release during yielding, and the steady plastic flow are discussed and compared to experimental data from concentrated model dispersions.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Corrosion of Aluminoborosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is one of the most common components included in nuclear waste glasses. Therefore, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of aluminum on the rate and mechanism of dissolution of sodium borosilicate glasses in static conditions. The glasses studied were in the compositional range (70-2x)% SiO2 x% Al2O3 15% B2O3 (15+x)% Na2O, where 0 ? x ? 15%. The simulation results show that increasing amounts of aluminum in the pristine glasses slow down the initial rate of dissolution as determined from the rate of boron release. However, the extent of corrosion - as measured by the total amount of boron release - initially increases with addition of Al2O3, up to 5 Al2O3 mol%, but subsequently decreases with further Al2O3 addition. The MC simulations reveal that this behavior is due to the interplay between two opposing mechanisms: (1) aluminum slows down the kinetics of hydrolysis/condensation reactions that drive the reorganization of the glass surface and eventual formation of a blocking layer; and (2) aluminum strengthens the glass thereby increasing the lifetime of the upper part of its surface and allowing for more rapid formation of a blocking layer. Additional MC simulations were performed whereby a process representing the formation of a secondary aluminosilicate phase was included. Secondary phase formation draws dissolved glass components out of the aqueous solution, thereby diminishing the rate of condensation and delaying the formation of a blocking layer. As a result, the extent of corrosion is found to increase continuously with increasing Al2O3 content, as observed experimentally. For Al2O3 < 10 mol%, the MC simulations also indicate that, because the secondary phase solubility eventually controls the aluminum content in the part of the altered layer in contact with the bulk aqueous solution, the dissolved aluminum and silicon concentrations at steady state are not dependent on the Al2O3 content of the pristine aluminoborosilicate glass.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulations of the Corrosion of Aluminoborosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ryan, Joseph V [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is one of the most common components included in nuclear waste glasses. Therefore, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of aluminum on the rate and mechanism of dissolution of sodium borosilicate glasses in static conditions. The glasses studied were in the compositional range (70 2x)% SiO2x% Al2O3 15% B2O3 (15 + x)% Na2O, where 0 x 15%. The simulation results show that increasing amounts of aluminum in the pristine glasses slow down the initial rate of dissolution as determined from the rate of boron release. However, the extent of corrosion as measured by the total amount of boron release initially increases with addition of Al2O3, up to 5 mol% Al2O3, but subsequently decreases with further Al2O3 addition. The MC simulations reveal that this behavior is due to the interplay between two opposing mechanisms: (1) aluminum slows down the kinetics of hydrolysis/condensation reactions that drive the reorganization of the glass surface and eventual formation of a blocking layer; and (2) aluminum strengthens the glass thereby increasing the lifetime of the upper part of its surface and allowing for more rapid formation of a blocking layer. Additional MC simulations were performed whereby a process representing the formation of a secondary aluminosilicate phase was included. Secondary phase formation draws dissolved glass components out of the aqueous solution, thereby diminishing the rate of condensation and delaying the formation of a blocking layer. As a result, the extent of corrosion is found to increase continuously with increasing Al2O3 content, as observed experimentally. For Al2O3 < 10 mol%, the MC simulations also indicate that, because the secondary phase solubility eventually controls the aluminum content in the part of the altered layer in contact with the bulk aqueous solution, the dissolved aluminum and silicon concentrations at steady state are not dependent on the Al2O3 content of the pristine aluminoborosilicate glass.

  9. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  10. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  11. A simple monatomic ideal glass former: the glass transition by a first-order phase transition above the melting point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mĺns Elenius; Tomas Oppelstrup; Mikhail Dzugutov

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid can form under cooling a glassy state either as a result of a continuous slowing down or by a first order polyamorphous phase transition. The second scenario has so far always been observed below the melting point where it interfered with crystalline nucleation. We report the first observation of the liquid-glass transition by a first order phase transition above the melting point. The observation was made in a molecular dynamics simulation of a one-component system with a model metallic pair potential. This is also the first observation of a simple monatomic ideal glass former -- a liquid that avoids crystallization at any cooling rate. Besides its conceptual importance, this result indicates a possibility of existence of metallic ideal glass formers.

  12. High-Power Solid-State Lasers from a Laser Glass Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J H; Hayden, J S; Marker, A J

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in laser glass compositions and manufacturing have enabled a new class of high-energy/high-power (HEHP), petawatt (PW) and high-average-power (HAP) laser systems that are being used for fusion energy ignition demonstration, fundamental physics research and materials processing, respectively. The requirements for these three laser systems are different necessitating different glasses or groups of glasses. The manufacturing technology is now mature for melting, annealing, fabricating and finishing of laser glasses for all three applications. The laser glass properties of major importance for HEHP, PW and HAP applications are briefly reviewed and the compositions and properties of the most widely used commercial laser glasses summarized. Proposed advances in these three laser systems will require new glasses and new melting methods which are briefly discussed. The challenges presented by these laser systems will likely dominate the field of laser glass development over the next several decades.

  13. Methods of improving the surface flatness of thin glass sheets and silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akilian, Mireille

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacturing of high quality sheet glass has allowed for many technologies to advance to astonishing frontiers. With dimensions reaching ~ 3 x 3 m˛, sheet glass is pushing the envelope for producing massive size flat ...

  14. The memory glasses : wearable computing for just-in-time memory support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVaul, Richard W. (Richard Wayne), 1971-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis documents a body of wearable computing research surrounding the development of the Memory Glasses, a new type of proactive memory support technology. The Memory Glasses combines features of existing memory ...

  15. Comparison of glass surfaces as a countertop material to existing surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turo, Laura A.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gleen Glass, a small production glass company that creates countertops, was selected for the Technology Assistance Program through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gleen Glass was seeking material property analysis comparing glass as a countertop material to current surfaces (i.e. marble, granite and engineered stone). With samples provided from Gleen Glass, testing was done on granite, marble, and 3 different glass surfaces ('Journey,' 'Pebble,' and 'Gleen'). Results showed the glass surfaces have a lower density, lower water absorption, and are stronger in compressive and flexural tests as compared to granite and marble. Thermal shock tests showed the glass failed when objects with a high thermal mass are placed directly on them, whereas marble and granite did not fracture under these conditions.

  16. PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass PID-free C-Si PV Module Using Novel Chemically-Tempered Glass Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop,...

  17. Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

  18. Supply and demand in the material recovery system for cathode ray tube glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadeau, Marie-Claude

    This paper presents an analysis of the material recovery system for leaded glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs). In particular, the global mass flow of primary and secondary CRT glass and the theoretical capacities for using ...

  19. A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si. A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si....

  20. Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klam, Jeremy Wayne

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A percentage of insulating glass (IG) units break each year due to thermally induced perimeter stresses. The glass industry has known about this problem for many years and an ASTM standard has recently been developed for the design of monolithic...

  1. Alkali metal ions through glass: a possible radioactive waste management application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert Allan

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early studies show that some types of glass can become conductors of electricity at higher temperatures. The nature of the conductance was shown to be ionic. The studies also showed that, due to structural properties within the glass, the ionic...

  2. Free-standing graphene membranes on glass nanopores for ionic current measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Michael I.; Weatherup, Robert S.; Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Hofmann, Stephan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is established to reliably suspend graphene monolayers across glass nanopores as a simple, low cost platform to study ionic transport through graphene membranes. We systematically show that the graphene seals glass nanopore openings...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - alumino-borosilicate glass developed Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Qub Summary: represents development in glass science. It has led to the recognition of self-organization in disordered... Reversibility window in as-quenched Ge-As-S glasses E. C...

  4. Observation of radio frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge plasma with MgO and Al electrodes for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtsu, Yasunori, E-mail: ohtsuy@cc.saga-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Naoki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Various high-density plasma sources have been proposed for plasma processing. Especially, the hollow cathode discharge is one of the powerful ones. In this work, radio-frequency (RF) driven ring-shaped hollow cathode discharges with high secondary-electron emission have been investigated, using an aluminum (Al) cathode, coated or not with magnesium oxide (MgO). The thickness of MgO thin film is approximately 200?nm. The RF discharge voltage for the coated cathode is almost the same as that for the uncoated one, in a wide range of Ar gas pressure, from 5.3 to 53.2?Pa. The results reveal that the plasma density has a peak at an Ar gas pressure of 10.6?Pa for both cathodes. The plasma density for the coated cathode is about 1.5–3 times higher than that for the uncoated one, at various gas pressures. To the contrary, the electron temperature for the coated cathode is lower than temperature obtained with the uncoated cathode, at various gas pressures. Radial profiles of electron saturation current, which is proportional to plasma flux, are also examined for a wide range of gas pressure. Radial profiles of electron temperature at various axial positions are almost uniform for both cathodes so that the diffusion process due to density gradient is dominant for plasma transport. The secondary electrons emitted from the coated cathode contribute to the improvement of the plasma flux radial profile obtained using the uncoated cathode.

  5. GLASS FABRICATION AND ANALYSIS LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHOD SELECTION FOR WTP WASTE FEED QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D.

    2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Scope of the Report The objective of this literature review is to identify and review documents to address scaling, design, operations, and experimental setup, including configuration, data collection, and remote handling that would be used during waste feed qualification in support of the glass fabrication unit operation. Items addressed include: ? LAW and HLW glass formulation algorithms; ? Mixing and sampling; ? Rheological measurements; ? Heat of hydration; ? Glass fabrication techniques; ? Glass inspection; ? Composition analysis; ? Use of cooling curves; ? Hydrogen generation rate measurement.

  6. Dynamical First-Order Phase Transition in Kinetically Constrained Models of Glasses J. P. Garrahan,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Wijland, Frédéric - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7

    .40.Ăża An increasingly accepted view is that the phenomenol- ogy associated with the glass transition [1

  7. Direct imaging of repulsive and attractive colloidal glasses Laura J. Kaufmana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Laura

    of the same phenomenol- ogy as molecular glassy systems. From a macroscopic point of view, colloidal glasses

  8. Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

  9. Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    PNNL-15394 Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas Foaming of E-Glass II (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D.-S. Kim M. Portch J. Matyas P. R. Hrma Pacific of glass batch chemical composition on E-glass foaming. The present study also included reruns of foam

  10. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D. (Richland, WA); Kirby, Brent W. (Kennewick, WA)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  11. Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    choose the oxyfluoride glass ceramic as the host material in our investigations. Through thermal treatIntense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic Wei Xu,1 (Doc. ID 158093); published January 12, 2012 Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic containing -PbF2

  12. Morphology of Femtosecond Laser Ablated Borosilicate Glass Surfaces Adela Ben-Yakar and Robert L. Byer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harkin, Anthony

    carried out experiments on borosilicate glass (1.1 mm thick, Precision Glass and Optics, Ltd.), also known very weak etchant) for about 20 minutes. We irradiated the glass samples with near-infrared (780-800 nm = 0.12 J/mm2 . incident beam. Following irradiation, the samples were analyzed with a scanning

  13. Comparison of radiation-induced transmission degradation of borosilicate crown optical glass from four different manufacturers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    glass. Our results show that whereas the glasses are optically similar before irradiation, they showComparison of radiation-induced transmission degradation of borosilicate crown optical glass from of Optics and Photonics/CREOL 4000 Central Florida Blvd. Orlando, FL 32816-2700, USA d SCK·CEN Belgian

  14. THROUGH-THE-GLASS SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY OF CdTe SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    THROUGH-THE-GLASS SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY OF CdTe SOLAR CELLS Jie Chen 1 , Jian Li 1 , Courtney of the optical structure of CdTe solar cells on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coated glass superstrates. SE components from the coated glass before solar cell fabrication. A step-by-step fitting procedure identifies

  15. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 154 (2007) 6062 Investigation of vanadiumsodium silicate glasses using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekki, Abdelkarim

    ­sodium silicate glasses using XANES spectroscopy M. Faiza,, A. Mekkia, B.S. Munb, Z. Hussainb a Surface Science. Keywords: XANES; Vanadium­sodium silicate glasses; V L2,3 edges; O K edge 1. Introduction Studies on oxide vanadium-sodium silicate glasses. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a pow- erful

  16. Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Glass foams: formation, transport properties, and heat, mass, and radiation transfer Andrei G depend, to a large extent, on foams formed on the surface of the molten glass and of the batch due models for thermophysical and transport properties and heat, mass, and radiation transfer in glass foams

  17. Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project for PPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    PNNL-14625 Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project for PPG) D. Kim P.. Hrma Pacific Northwest This document was printed on recycled paper. (8/00) #12;PNNL-14625 Foaming of E-Glass (Report for G Plus Project atmosphere on E-glass foaming, specifically focused on its water content to understand the effect of oxy

  18. Compressive response of glass fiber composite sandwich structures A.J. Malcom a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Accepted 12 July 2013 Available online 20 July 2013 Keywords: A. Glass fibers A. Foams A. 3-Dimensional cell, PVC foam inserts. The corrugated struc- ture was stitched to 3D woven S2-glass fiber face sheetsCompressive response of glass fiber composite sandwich structures A.J. Malcom a, , M.T. Aronson b

  19. Supercooled water and the kinetic glass transition F. Sciortino,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    -dynamics study of the self-dynamics of water molecules in deeply supercooled liquid states. We find the superheated, stretched, and supercooled states of liquid water 4­6 ; ii the existence of a meta- stable, lowSupercooled water and the kinetic glass transition F. Sciortino,1 P. Gallo,2 P. Tartaglia,1 and S

  20. Baseline Glass Development for Combined Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Lang, Jesse B.; Marra, James C.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Borosilicate glass was selected as the baseline technology for immobilization of the Cs/Sr/Ba/Rb (Cs), lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) waste steams as part of a cost benefit analysis study.[1] Vitrification of the combined waste streams have several advantages, minimization of the number of waste forms, a proven technology, and similarity to waste forms currently accepted for repository disposal. A joint study was undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop acceptable glasses for the combined Cs + Ln + TM waste streams (Option 1) and Cs + Ln combined waste streams (Option 2) generated by the AFCI UREX+ set of processes. This study is aimed to develop baseline glasses for both combined waste stream options and identify key waste components and their impact on waste loading. The elemental compositions of the four-corners study were used along with the available separations data to determine the effect of burnup, decay, and separations variability on estimated waste stream compositions.[2-5] Two different components/scenarios were identified that could limit waste loading of the combined Cs + LN + TM waste streams, where as the combined Cs + LN waste stream has no single component that is perceived to limit waste loading. Combined Cs + LN waste stream in a glass waste form will most likely be limited by heat due to the high activity of Cs and Sr isotopes.