National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hollow fiber membranes

  1. Characterization of hollow fiber supported Ionic liquid membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of hollow fiber supported Ionic liquid membranes using microfocus X-ray computed tomography This content will become publicly available on July 2, 2017 Prev ...

  2. Hollow-Fiber Membrane Compressed Air Drying System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the support of a NICE3 grant, a new hollow-fiber membrane for dehydrating gases has been developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. The membrane has 5 times higher water vapor permeation...

  3. Hollow fiber membranes and methods for forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhandari, Dhaval Ajit; McCloskey, Patrick Joseph; Howson, Paul Edward; Narang, Kristi Jean; Koros, William

    2016-03-22

    The invention provides improved hollow fiber membranes having at least two layers, and methods for forming the same. The methods include co-extruding a first composition, a second composition, and a third composition to form a dual layer hollow fiber membrane. The first composition includes a glassy polymer; the second composition includes a polysiloxane; and the third composition includes a bore fluid. The dual layer hollow fiber membranes include a first layer and a second layer, the first layer being a porous layer which includes the glassy polymer of the first composition, and the second layer being a polysiloxane layer which includes the polysiloxane of the second composition.

  4. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  5. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, Paul; Bhandari, Dhaval; Narang, Kristi; McCloskey, Pat; Singh, Surinder; Ananthasayanam, Balajee; Howson, Paul; Lee, Julia; Wroczynski, Ron; Stewart, Frederick; Orme, Christopher; Klaehn, John; McNally, Joshua; Rownaghi, Ali; Lu, Liu; Koros, William; Goizueta, Roberto; Sethi, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  6. Process for fabricating PBI hollow fiber asymmetric membranes for gas separation and liquid separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayaweera, Indira; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel; Jayaweera, Palitha; Bhamidi, Srinivas

    2016-04-26

    The invention provides methods for preparing an asymmetric hollow fiber, the asymmetric hollow fibers prepared by such methods, and uses of the asymmetric hollow fibers. One method involves passing a polymeric solution through an outer annular orifice of a tube-in-orifice spinneret, passing a bore fluid though an inner tube of the spinneret, dropping the polymeric solution and bore fluid through an atmosphere over a dropping distance, and quenching the polymeric solution and bore fluid in a bath to form an asymmetric hollow fiber.

  7. Lumen mass transfer in hollow-fiber membrane processes with constant external resistances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.

    1997-08-01

    Membrane processes have recently become an accepted unit operation for a wide variety of separations in industry and in environmental applications. Hollow-fiber membrane processes with a constant external resistance having a constant or variable shell concentration resulting from an operational mode of cocurrent or countercurrent are studied. By solving numerically the continuity mass-conservation equation with the corresponding boundary conditions, the lumen laminar mass-transfer coefficients for both cases are correlated. The correlations greatly improve the calculating accuracy of the overall mass-transfer coefficient and can be used to obtain the lumen mixed-cup concentration by an algebraic equation substituting the partial differential equation. A separation factor m{prime} is introduced to characterize the effect of the operational mode. Calculation results demonstrate that the lumen mass-transfer coefficient is independent of the real lumen and shell concentrations, but it is greatly influenced by m{prime}. The countercurrent mode, compared to the cocurrent mode, provides not only a higher mean driving force, but a higher lumen mass-transfer coefficient. This conclusion is novel and valid for the tube-shell heat or mass-transfer processes and is supported by the experimental data in the literature and the authors` gas membrane separation experiments.

  8. Hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) for the separation of lanthanides and actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V.K.; Patil, C.B.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Nd(III) was investigated using hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) from an acidic feed solution using N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in normal paraffinic hydrocarbon (NPH) as the carrier. Near quantitative transport (>99%) of Nd(III) from 500 mL of feed containing 1 g/L Nd in 3.5 M HNO{sub 3} was possible in about 45 minutes. Quantitative transport time increased when the volume or Nd(III ) concentration in the feed was increased. The liquid membrane had excellent stability as indicated by eight consecutive runs that gave consistent transport rates. The HFSLM data using Cyanex- 301 in n-dodecane as carrier extractant for the lanthanide-actinide separation with the feed solution 1 M NaNO{sub 3} at pH 3.5 and stripping solution 0.01 M EDTA at a pH 3.5 were promising. (authors)

  9. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  10. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore » attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  11. Hollow-fiber gas-membrane process for removal of NH{sub 3} from solution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Wang, S.

    1996-07-01

    A hollow-fiber supported gas membrane process for the separation of NH{sub 3} from aqueous solutions containing both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A lumen laminar flow and radial diffusion model was applied to calculate the membrane wall transfer coefficient from the data stripping a single volatile component, NH{sub 3} or CO{sub 2}, from their individual aqueous solutions. Influence of the type of membranes and operating conditions on mass-transfer rate were discussed, especially the influence of the membrane transfer coefficient on the film mass-transfer coefficient in the lumen. Appropriate configurations of the hollow-fiber modules for stripping of a single component were analyzed to optimize mass transfer. To predict the stripping of NH{sub 3} from a solution containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, a mathematical model incorporating local chemical equilibria and Nernst-Planck diffusion was developed to describe the mass transport. The models described the experimental data fairly well. The experimental results showed that the supported gas membrane process can be used to remove NH{sub 3} effectively from aqueous media containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  12. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  13. Micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers by coaxial electrospinning: Preparation and gas sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jin; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2011-11-15

    We report the preparation of micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers using a coaxial electrospinning technique and their gas sensing properties in terms of CO. The diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers can be controlled from 200 nm to several micrometers by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. A simple mathematical expression is presented to predict the change in diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers as a function of viscosity. The successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers is expected to bring extensive applications. To test a potential use of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers in chemical gas sensors, their sensing properties to CO are investigated at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Microstructures of as-prepared and calcined hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by the electrospinning technique with a coaxial needle. Dynamic response at various CO concentrations for the sensor fabricated with the hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers. Highlights: > Hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers were synthesized using a coaxial electrospinning technique. > Their diameter can be controlled by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. > Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. > In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in the case of higher viscosities. > Successful control over the diameter of hollow TiO{sub 2} fibers will bring extensive applications.

  14. Fabrication of micro-hollow fiber by electrospinning process in near-critical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu; Machmudah, Siti; Okubayashi, Satoko; Fukuzato, Ryuichi

    2014-02-24

    Electrospinning is a simple technique that has gained much attention because of its capability and feasibility in the fabrication of large quantities of fibers from polymer with diameters ranging in nano-microscale. These fibers provided high surface area to volume ratios, and it was of considerable interest for many applications, such as nanoparticle carriers in controlled release, scaffolds in tissue engineering, wound dressings, military wear with chemical and biological toxin-resistance, nanofibrous membranes or filters, and electronic sensors. Recently there has been a great deal of progress in the potential applications of hollow fibers in microfluids, photonics, and energy storage. In this work, electrospinning was conducted under high-pressure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to reduce the viscosity of polymer solution. The experiments were conducted at 313 K and ∼8.0 MPa. Polymer solution containing 5 wt% polymers which prepared in dichloromethane (DCM) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) ratio 80:20 was used as a feed solution. The applied voltage was 15 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The morphology and structure of the fibers produced were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under pressurized CO{sub 2}, PVP electrospun was produced without bead formation with diameter ranges of 608.50 - 7943.19 nm. These behaviors hold the potential to considerably improve devolatilization electrospinning processes.

  15. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study

  16. Hollow Core Fiber Optics for Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriesel, J.M.; Gat, N.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bledt, Carlos M.; Harrington, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    The development and testing of hollow core glass waveguides (i.e., fiber optics) for use in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) spectroscopy systems is described. LWIR fiber optics are a key enabling technology needed to improve the utility and effectiveness of trace chemical detection systems based in the 8 to 12 micron region. This paper focuses on recent developments in hollow waveguide technology geared specifically for LWIR spectroscopy, including a reduction in both the length dependent loss and the bending loss while maintaining relatively high beam quality. Results will be presented from tests conducted with a Quantum Cascade Laser.

  17. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langry, Kevin C; Farmer, Joseph C

    2015-04-28

    A method, according to one embodiment, includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode.

  18. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chance, Ronald; Chen, Grace; Dai, Ying; Fan, Yanfang; Jones, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Jayashree; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William; Lively, Ryan; McCool, Benjamin; Pang, Simon; Realff, Matthew; Rezaei, Fateme; Searcy, Katherine; Sholl, David; Subramanian, Swernath; Pang, Simon

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  19. Fuel cell components and systems having carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langry, Kevin C.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-08

    According to one embodiment, a system includes a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst coupled to the hollow fiber, an anode extending along at least part of a length of the structure, and a cathode extending along at least part of the length of the structure, the cathode being on an opposite side of the hollow fiber as the anode. In another embodiment, a method includes acquiring a structure having an ionically-conductive, electrically-resistive electrolyte/separator layer covering an inner or outer surface of a carbon-containing electrically-conductive hollow fiber and a catalyst along one side thereof, adding an anode that extends along at least part of a length of the structure, and adding a cathode that extends along at least part of the length of the structure on an opposite side as the anode.

  20. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ferrule and use thereof for cooling a melt spun hollow glass fiber as it emerges from a spinnerette

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, William E.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement in the process of melt spinning thin walled, hollow fibers from relatively low melting glasses results if cooling of the emerging fiber is accomplished by use of a thin layer of gas to transfer heat from the fiber to a ferrule which fits closely to the spinnerette face and the individual fiber. The ferrule incorporates or is in contact with a heat sink and is slotted or segmented so that it may be brought into position around the moving fiber. Thinner walled, more uniform fibers may be spun when this method of cooling is employed.

  2. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  3. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC PortoInstituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, da Faculdade de Cincias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5??10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3??10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3??10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8??10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  4. membrane-ge | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale High-Performance Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007514 GE Global Research is developing high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project will optimize the novel membranes at the bench scale, including

  5. Soliton delivery of few-cycle optical gigawatt pulses in Kagome-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Song-Jin; Husakou, Anton; Herrmann, Joachim

    2010-08-15

    We study the delivery of few-cycle soliton-like pulses at 800 nm with gigawatt power or microjoule energy through a hollow-core kagome-lattice photonic crystal fiber over 1 m with preserved temporal and spectral shape. We show that with optimized pressure of the argon filling, 5 fs input pulses are compressed up to 2.5 fs after 20 cm and restore their shape after 1 m propagation.

  6. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  7. Ionization-induced effects in the soliton dynamics of high-peak-power femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-07-15

    Ionization phenomena are shown to modify the soliton propagation dynamics of high-peak-power laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Based on the numerical solution of the pulse-evolution equation for a high-peak-power laser field in an ionizing gas medium in a hollow PCF, we demonstrate that hollow PCFs filled with gases having high ionization potentials I{sub p} can support soliton transmission regimes for gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses. In hollow PCFs filled with low-I{sub p} gases, on the other hand, the ionization-induced change in the refractive index of the gas leads to a blueshifting of soliton transients, pushing their spectrum beyond the point of zero group-velocity dispersion, thus preventing the formation of stable high-peak-power solitons.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for tritium gas analysis using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupp, S.; Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    The precise compositional analysis of tritium-containing gases is of high interest for tritium accountancy in future fusion power plants. Raman spectroscopy provides a fast and contact-free gas analysis procedure with high precision, thus being an advantageous tool for the named purpose. In this paper, it is shown that the sensitivity achieved with conventional Raman systems (in 90 degrees or forward/backward configurations) can be enhanced by at least one order of magnitude by using a metal-lined hollow glass fiber as the Raman cell. This leads to the ability of detecting low partial pressures of tritium within short measurement intervals (< 0.5 mbar in < 0.5 s) opening the way for real-time applications.

  9. Further developments of capillary absorption spectrometers using small hollow-waveguide fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James F.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2014-05-01

    Our objective is to enhance quantification of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios to better than 1 relative isotope precision for sample sizes < 1 pico-mole. A newer variant Capillary Absorption Spectrometer (CAS) is described using a proprietary linear-taper hollow waveguide in conjunction with wavelength and frequency modulation techniques of tunable laser absorption spectrometry. Previous work used circular capillaries with uniform 1 mm ID to measure 13C/12C ratios with ? 20 pico-mole samples to ? 10 ppm (1 precision against standards) [1]. While performing fairly well, it generated residual modal noise due to multipath propagation in the hollow-waveguides (HWGs). This system has been utilized with laser ablation-catalytic combustion techniques to analyze small resolution (~ 25 ?m spot diameter) laser ablation events on solids. Using smaller ID capillary waveguides could improve detection limits and spatial resolutions. Reducing an IR compatible hollow waveguides inner diameter (ID) to < 300 ?m, reduces modal noise significantly for mid-IR operation, but feedback noise with high gain semiconductor lasers can become problematic. A proprietary linear-taper small waveguide (mean ID = 0.35 mm, L = 1 m) was tested to understand whether modal noise and optical feedback effects could be simultaneously reduced. We see better mode filtering and, significant reductions of feedback noise under favorable coupling of a multi-spatial mode QC laser to the smaller ID of the linear-tapered HWG. We demonstrate that better modal coupling operation is consistent with Liouvilles theorem, where greater suppression of feedback from spurious scatter within the HWG occurs by injecting the laser into the smaller ID port. Our progress on developing lighter weight, potentially fieldable alternatives to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers (IRMS) with a small volume (? 0.1 cm3) CAS system will be discussed and compared to other competitive systems.

  10. membrane-process | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Project No.: DE-NT0005313 (click on image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International is researching fluorinated polymer membranes for carbon dioxide capture. RTI's research effort includes membrane materials development, module design, and process design. RTI is pursuing the development of two hollow-fiber membrane materials. First, RTI is working with Generon to develop a membrane material constructed of polycarbonate-based

  11. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberger, H. Liu, H.; Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Gierz, I.; Ermolov, A.; Belli, F.; Abdolvand, A.; Russell, P. St. J.; Travers, J. C.; Calegari, F.; Li, M. T.; Lin, C. T.; Cavalleri, A.

    2015-08-31

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few μJ energy generate vacuum ultraviolet radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  12. Understanding the dynamics of photoionization-induced nonlinear effects and solitons in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, Mohammed F.; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-12-15

    We present the details of our previously formulated model [Saleh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203902 (2011)] that governs pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by an ionizable gas. By using perturbative methods, we find that the photoionization process induces the opposite phenomenon of the well-known Raman self-frequency redshift of solitons in solid-core glass fibers, as was recently experimentally demonstrated [Hoelzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 203901 (2011)]. This process is only limited by ionization losses, and leads to a constant acceleration of solitons in the time domain with a continuous blueshift in the frequency domain. By applying the Gagnon-Belanger gauge transformation, multipeak ''inverted gravitylike'' solitary waves are predicted. We also demonstrate that the pulse dynamics shows the ejection of solitons during propagation in such fibers, analogous to what happens in conventional solid-core fibers. Moreover, unconventional long-range nonlocal interactions between temporally distant solitons, unique of gas plasma systems, are predicted and studied. Finally, the effects of higher-order dispersion coefficients and the shock operator on the pulse dynamics are investigated, showing that the conversion efficiency of resonant radiation into the deep UV can be improved via plasma formation.

  13. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  14. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  15. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  16. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  17. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, Marcus A; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Rebecca H; Kumbhar, Amar S; Naskar, Amit K

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  18. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  19. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  20. hybrid-membrane | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute is partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems in a three-year effort to develop a hybrid technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of solvent absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. The technology could also apply to removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery

  1. Preparation and properties of hexagonal boron nitride fibers used as high temperature membrane filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Xinmei Yu, Ziyou; Li, Yang; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • h-BN fibers were successfully fabricated using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6} as raw materials. • The obtained BN fibers were polycrystalline and uniform in morphology. • It exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride fibers were synthesized via polymeric precursor method using boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) and melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) as raw materials. The precursor fibers were synthesized by water bath and BN fibers were prepared from the precursor at 1873 K for 3 h in flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The crystalline phase and microstructures of BN fibers were examined by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The results showed that h-BN fibers with uniform morphology were successfully fabricated. The well-synthesized BN fibers were polycrystalline with 0.4–1.5 μm in diameter and 200–500 μm in length. The as-prepared samples exhibited good oxidation resistance and low thermal expansion coefficient at high temperature.

  2. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  3. Hollow lensing duct

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Mitchell, Scott; Lang, John; Maderas, Dennis; Speth, Joel; Payne, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    A hollow lensing duct to condense (intensify) light using a combination of focusing using a spherical or cylindrical lens followed by reflective waveguiding. The hollow duct tapers down from a wide input side to a narrow output side, with the input side consisting of a lens that may be coated with an antireflective coating for more efficient transmission into the duct. The inside surfaces of the hollow lens duct are appropriately coated to be reflective, preventing light from escaping by reflection as it travels along the duct (reflective waveguiding). The hollow duct has various applications for intensifying light, such as in the coupling of diode array pump light to solid state lasing materials.

  4. Fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor: Detection of volatile chlorinated compounds in air and water using ultra-thin membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.; Osantowski, R.E.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.

    1993-05-01

    Prior work on the fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor called HaloSnif{trademark} has been extended to include an ultra-thin membrane which allows passage of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCl). The membrane has been demonstrated to exclude H{sub 2}O during VOCl monitoring. The system is capable of measuring VOCl in gas-phase samples or aqueous solutions over a wide linear dynamic range. The lower limit of detection for trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), and other related compounds in the gas-phase is 1 to 5 ppm{sub v/v}, and in the aqueous-phase is 5 to 10 mg/L. Waste site characterization and remediation activities often require chemical analysis in the vadose zone and in groundwater. These analyses are typically performed in analytical laboratories using widely accepted standardized methods such as gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The new developments with HaloSnif provide rapid field screening which can augment the standardized methods.

  5. Production of hollow aerogel microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Henning, Sten A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making hollow aerogel microspheres of 800-1200 .mu. diameter and 100-300 .mu. wall thickness by forming hollow alcogel microspheres during the sol/gel process in a catalytic atmosphere and capturing them on a foam surface containing catalyst. Supercritical drying of the formed hollow alcogel microspheres yields hollow aerogel microspheres which are suitable for ICF targets.

  6. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and

  7. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, Allen; Koo, Jackson C.; Dressler, John L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100.mu. to about 500.mu. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5-20.mu.. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions. In one embodiment, one of the temperature regions is lower than both the preceeding region and the subsequent region. One region utilizes a temperature of at least 200.degree. C. higher than the melting point of the glass-forming material in the solution and, for example, may be at least 3 times higher than the temperature of the preceeding region. In addition, there is a sharp temperature gradient between these regions. As each droplet of solution passes through a first region it forms into a gel membrane having a spherical shape and encapsulates the rest of the drop retained in the elastic outer surface and the water entrapped within diffuses rapidly through the thin gel membrane which causes more of the glass-forming material to go out of solution and is incorporated into the gel membrane causing it to grow in size and become hollow. thus produced hollow glass sphere has a sphericity, concentricity, and wall uniformity of better than 5%. The sphere is capable of retaining material of up to at least 100 atmospheres therein over long periods of time. In one embodiment.

  8. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2002-03-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is a well-studied model solute in membrane filtration known for its fouling and concentration polarization capabilities. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using BSA solution as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure.

  9. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-06-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In our previous report, we reported our work on UF of BSA. In this report, we report our continuing application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using pectin in apple juice as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the

  10. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Schumacher, Ray F.; Wicks, George G.

    2010-02-23

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  11. Fabrication and Scale-up of Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Membrane Based System for Precombustion-Based Capture of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Gopala; Jayaweera, Indira; Sanjrujo, Angel; O'Brien, Kevin; Callahan, Richard; Berchtold, Kathryn; Roberts, Daryl-Lynn; Johnson, Will

    2012-03-31

    The primary objectives of this project are to (1) demonstrate the performance and fabrication of a technically and economically viable pre-combustion-based CO{sub 2} capture system based on the high temperature stability and permeance of PBI membranes, (2) optimize a plan for integration of PBI capture system into an IGCC plant and (3) develop a commercialization plan that addresses technical issues and business issues to outline a clear path for technology transfer of the PBI membrane technology. This report describes research conducted from April 1, 2007 to March 30, 2012 and focused on achieving the above objectives. PBI-based hollow fibers have been fabricated at kilometer lengths and bundled as modules at a bench-scale level for the separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2} at high temperatures and pressures. Long term stability of these fibers has been demonstrated with a relatively high H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity (35 to 50) and H{sub 2} permeance (80 GPU) at temperatures exceeding 225°C. Membrane performance simulations and systems analysis of an IGCC system incorporating a PBI hollow fiber membrane modules have demonstrated that the cost of electricity for CO{sub 2} capture (<10%) using such a high temperature separator. When the cost of transporting, storing, and monitoring the CO{sub 2} is accounted for, the increase in the COE is only 14.4%.

  12. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  13. Development of Advanced Membranes Technology Platform for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalthod, Dr Dilip

    2010-03-01

    selected for membrane development. A novel dope composition and spinning process were developed, which provide a new approach to controlling membrane porosity and wall and skin morphology. A hollow-fiber membrane with an external dense “skin” was produced that has a high water vapor permeation coefficient and selectivity, durability when in operation at 1000 psig and 70°C, and the ability to withstand aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon vapors for an extended period. The fiber meets the technical requirements for a commercial product offering in gas dehydration. It can be readily manufactured with some changes in process equipment and process conditions, and is an excellent candidate for scale-up to full-size membrane modules.

  14. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  15. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  16. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  17. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  18. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  19. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Davis, D.T.

    1994-05-10

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is disclosed. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optical fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends. 2 figures.

  20. Fiber optic hydrophone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  1. Optical fiber pressure and acceleration sensor fabricated on a fiber endface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo

    2006-05-30

    A fiber optic sensor has a hollow tube bonded to the endface of an optical fiber, and a diaphragm bonded to the hollow tube. The fiber endface and diaphragm comprise an etalon cavity. The length of the etalon cavity changes when applied pressure or acceleration flexes the diaphragm. The entire structure can be made of fused silica. The fiber, tube, and diaphragm can be bonded with a fusion splice. The present sensor is particularly well suited for measuring pressure or acceleration in high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments (e.g., oil well downholes and jet engines). The present sensors are also suitable for use in biological and medical applications.

  2. Array of planar membrane modules for producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vencill, Thomas R.; Chellappa, Anand S.; Rathod, Shailendra B.

    2012-05-08

    A shared or common environment membrane reactor containing a plurality of planar membrane modules with top and bottom thin foil membranes supported by both an intermediary porous support plate and a central base which has both solid extended members and hollow regions or a hollow region whereby the two sides of the base are in fluid communication. The membrane reactor operates at elevate temperatures for generating hydrogen from hydrogen rich feed fuels.

  3. Fiber laser coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan; Joshi, Sachin; Reynolds, Adam

    2008-03-04

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, and includes a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. The laser delivery assembly further includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. Other embodiments use a fiber laser to generate a spark. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to create a spark in an engine. Yet other embodiments include collecting light from the spark or a flame resulting from the spark and conveying the light for diagnostics. Methods of using the spark delivery systems and diagnostic systems are provided.

  4. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  5. Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pearl Hollow Landfil Biomass Facility Facility Pearl Hollow Landfil Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

  6. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. [Poly(etherimide) and poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream's composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  8. Hollow Nanoreactors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hollow Nanoreactors Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 2012pub.pdf (301 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Paul Alivisatos and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a new one-pot method for creating hollow nanocrystals. The geometrically novel particles can be used for highly controlled catalysis and drug delivery,

  9. Combined raman and IR fiber-based sensor for gas detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, Jerry C; Chan, James W; Trebes, James E; Angel, Stanley M; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-06-24

    A double-pass fiber-optic based spectroscopic gas sensor delivers Raman excitation light and infrared light to a hollow structure, such as a hollow fiber waveguide, that contains a gas sample of interest. A retro-reflector is placed at the end of this hollow structure to send the light back through the waveguide where the light is detected at the same end as the light source. This double pass retro reflector design increases the interaction path length of the light and the gas sample, and also reduces the form factor of the hollow structure.

  10. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaehn, John; Peterson, Eric; Orme, Christopher; Bhandari, Dhaval; Miller, Scott; Ku, Anthony; Polishchuk, Kimberly; Narang, Kristi; Singh, Surinder; Wei, Wei; Shisler, Roger; Wickersham, Paul; McEvoy, Kevin; Alberts, William; Howson, Paul; Barton, Thomas; Sethi, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (? = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (? = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  11. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Howard; Zhou, S James; Ding, Yong; Bikson, Ben

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating

  12. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  13. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 °C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 °C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 °C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 °C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 °C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid®, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 °C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 °C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 °C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  14. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, Nathan E.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures.

  15. Hollow electrode plasma excitation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballou, N.E.

    1992-04-14

    A plasma source incorporates a furnace as a hollow anode, while a coaxial cathode is disposed therewithin. The source is located in a housing provided with an ionizable gas such that a glow discharge is produced between anode and cathode. Radiation or ionic emission from the glow discharge characterizes a sample placed within the furnace and heated to elevated temperatures. 5 figs.

  16. Hollow Plasma in a Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-11-30

    A ring cathode for a pulsed, high-current, multi-spot cathodic arc discharge was placed inside a pulsed magnetic solenoid. Photography is used to evaluate the plasma distribution. The plasma appears hollow for cathode positions close the center of the solenoid, and it is guided closer to the axis when the cathode is away from the center.

  17. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal

  18. Experimental investigation of a molecular gate membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazama, S.; Kai, T.; Kouketsu, T.; Matsui, S.; Yamada, K.; Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-09-01

    Commercial-sized modules of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane with high CO2/N2 selectivity and CO2 permeance were developed according to the In-situ Modification (IM) method. This method utilizes the interfacial precipitation of membrane materials on the surface of porous, commercially available polysulfone (PSF) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane substrates. A thin layer of amphiphilic chitosan, which has a potential affinity for both hydrophobic PSF substrates and hydrophilic PAMAM dendrimers, was employed as a gutter layer directly beneath the inner surface of the substrate by the IM method. PAMAM dendrimers were then impregnated into the chitosan gutter layer to form a hybrid active layer for CO2 separation. Permeation experiments of the PAMAM dendrimer composite membrane were carried out using a humidified mixed CO2 / N2 feed gas at a pressure difference up to 97 kPa at ambient temperature. When conducted with CO2 (5%) / N2 (95%) feed gas at a pressure difference of 97 kPa, the PAMAM composite membrane exhibited an excellent CO2/N2 selectivity of 150 and a CO2 permeance of 1.7×10-7 m3(STP) m-2 s-1 kPa-1. The impact of various process parameters on the permeability and selectivity was also examined.

  19. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Ingersoll, David; Schmidt, Carrie; Flemming, Jeb

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  20. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  1. Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Center Jump to: navigation, search Name Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Facility Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  2. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an ...

  3. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream`s composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. Rugged fiber optic probe for raman measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Toole, Jr., William R.; Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    An optical probe for conducting light scattering analysis is disclosed. The probe comprises a hollow housing and a probe tip. A fiber assembly made up of a transmitting fiber and a receiving bundle is inserted in the tip. A filter assembly is inserted in the housing and connected to the fiber assembly. A signal line from the light source and to the spectrometer also is connected to the filter assembly and communicates with the fiber assembly. By using a spring-loaded assembly to hold the fiber connectors together with the in-line filters, complex and sensitive alignment procedures are avoided. The close proximity of the filter assembly to the probe tip eliminates or minimizes self-scattering generated by the optical fiber. Also, because the probe can contact the sample directly, sensitive optics can be eliminated.

  5. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can Kerem

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  6. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of

  7. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  8. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acidmore » solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.« less

  9. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Peterson, Eric S.; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. Finally, the resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  10. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1979-01-09

    Method is disclosed for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T [approx gt] 600 C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10[sup 3] [mu]m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants. 1 fig.

  11. Non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-04-15

    The non-lead hollow point bullet of the instant invention comprises a mixed construction slug further comprising, a monolithic metal insert having a tapered (preferred conical) hollow point tip and a tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion, and an unsintered powdered metal composite core in tandem alignment with the insert. The core has a hollow tapered (preferred conical) cavity tip portion coupled with the tapered (preferred conical) tail protrusion on the insert. An open tip jacket envelops at least a portion of the insert and the core. The jacket is swaged at the open tip.

  12. Method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1979-01-09

    Method for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T .gtorsim. 600.degree. C). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  13. Collimation Studies with Hollow Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Saewert, G.W.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Recent experimental studies at the Fermilab Tevatron collider have shown that magnetically confined hollow electron beams can act as a new kind of collimator for high-intensity beams in storage rings. In a hollow electron beam collimator, electrons enclose the circulating beam. Their electric charge kicks halo particles transversely. If their distribution is axially symmetric, the beam core is unaffected. This device is complementary to conventional two-stage collimation systems: the electron beam can be placed arbitrarily close to the circulating beam; and particle removal is smooth, so that the device is a diffusion enhancer rather than a hard aperture limitation. The concept was tested in the Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the existing electron lenses. We describe some of the technical aspects of hollow-beam scraping and the results of recent measurements.

  14. Testing of hollow clay tile masonry prisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.D.; Butala, M.B.

    1993-10-15

    This paper presents test results of 610-mm wide (24-in.) by 1219-mm high (48-in.) by 203-or 330-mm (8- or 13-in.) thick prisms constructed of hollow clay tiles. Three prisms were extracted fro existing hollow clay title walls and 69 were constructed in laboratories at The University of Tennessee and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Modulus of Elasticity, E, and compressive strength f{prime}{sub m} were calculated from the results.

  15. Fiber Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fiber lasers Fiber Lasers NIF & Photon Science physicists are exploring the fundamental limits of traditional round fiber structure and developing alternate solutions to allow scaling to higher powers and pulse energies. Comprehensive models of ribbon fiber structures, or waveguides, are also being developed. The goal is to develop ribbon fiber lasers that can amplify light beams to powers well beyond fundamental limits. Joint research efforts with the Lasers and Optics Research Center at

  16. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization from Chlorinated Polypropylene and Polyethylene Trunk Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Li, Meijun; Yue, Yanfeng; Tsouris, Costas; Janke, Christopher J.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-10

    Seawater contains a large amount of uranium (~4.5 billion tons) which can serve as a limitless supply of an energy source. However, in order to make the recovery of uranium from seawater economically feasible, lower manufacturing and deployment costs are required, and thus, solid adsorbents must have high uranium uptake, reusability, and high selectivity toward uranium. In this study, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), without the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP), was used for grafting acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from a new class of trunk fibers, forming adsorbents in a readily deployable form. The new class of trunk fibers was prepared by the chlorination of PP round fiber, hollow-gear-shaped PP fiber, and hollow-gear-shaped PE fiber. During ATRP, degrees of grafting (d.g.) varied according to the structure of active chlorine sites on trunk fibers and ATRP conditions, and the d.g. as high as 2570% was obtained. Resulting adsorbent fibers were evaluated in U-spiked simulated seawater and the maximum adsorption capacity of 146.6 g U/kg, much higher than that of a standard adsorbent JAEA fiber (75.1 g/kg), was obtained. This new type of trunk fibers can be used for grafting a variety of uranium-interacting ligands, including designed ligands that are highly selective toward uranium.

  17. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization from Chlorinated Polypropylene and Polyethylene Trunk Fibers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Suree; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Li, Meijun; Yue, Yanfeng; Tsouris, Costas; Janke, Christopher J.; Saito, Tomonori; Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-10

    Seawater contains a large amount of uranium (~4.5 billion tons) which can serve as a limitless supply of an energy source. However, in order to make the recovery of uranium from seawater economically feasible, lower manufacturing and deployment costs are required, and thus, solid adsorbents must have high uranium uptake, reusability, and high selectivity toward uranium. In this study, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), without the radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP), was used for grafting acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) from a new class of trunk fibers, forming adsorbents in a readily deployable form. The new class of trunk fibers wasmore » prepared by the chlorination of PP round fiber, hollow-gear-shaped PP fiber, and hollow-gear-shaped PE fiber. During ATRP, degrees of grafting (d.g.) varied according to the structure of active chlorine sites on trunk fibers and ATRP conditions, and the d.g. as high as 2570% was obtained. Resulting adsorbent fibers were evaluated in U-spiked simulated seawater and the maximum adsorption capacity of 146.6 g U/kg, much higher than that of a standard adsorbent JAEA fiber (75.1 g/kg), was obtained. This new type of trunk fibers can be used for grafting a variety of uranium-interacting ligands, including designed ligands that are highly selective toward uranium.« less

  18. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-05-18

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  19. Low-Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheem, Sang K. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2003-07-22

    The size and cost of fabricating fiber optic pressure sensors is reduced by fabricating the membrane of the sensor in a non-planar shape. The design of the sensors may be made in such a way that the non-planar membrane becomes a part of an air-tight cavity, so as to make the membrane resilient due to the air-cushion effect of the air-tight cavity. Such non-planar membranes are easier to make and attach.

  20. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramanayake, Shan; Luebke, David R.

    2015-06-09

    The method relates to the fabrication of a polymer microspheres comprised of an asymmetric layer surrounding a hollow interior. The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the thickness of the dope layer is at least 10% and less than 50% of the diameter of the inner core. The nascent hollow microsphere is exposed to a gaseous environment, generating a vitrified hollow microsphere, which is subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath. Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an embodiment, the polymer is a polyimide or a polyamide-imide, and the non-solvent in the core fluid and the coagulation bath is water. The fabricated hollow microspheres are particularly suited as solvent supports for gas separation processes.

  1. Method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Norman L.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2003-10-07

    The method of making a non-lead hollow point bullet has the steps of a) compressing an unsintered powdered metal composite core into a jacket, b) punching a hollow cavity tip portion into the core, c) seating an insert, the insert having a hollow point tip and a tail protrusion, on top of the core such that the tail protrusion couples with the hollow cavity tip portion, and d) swaging the open tip of the jacket.

  2. DOE Selects 16 Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corporation (Woburn, MA), and Trimeric Corporation (Buda, TX) - will combine a graphene oxide (GO) membrane unit with the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membrane...

  3. Composite membranes, methods of making same, and applications of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Park, Andrew; Ballengee, Jason

    2016-05-24

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a composite membrane includes: forming a first polymer solution from a first polymer and a second polymer solution from a second polymer, respectively, where the first polymer includes a charged polymer and the second polymer includes an uncharged polymer; electrospinning, separately and simultaneously, the first and second polymer solutions to form a dual fiber mat with first polymer fibers and second polymer fibers; and processing the dual fiber mat by softening and flowing one of the first or second polymer fibers to fill in the void space between the other of the first and second polymer fibers so as to form the composite membrane. In some embodiments, the composite membrane may be a proton exchange membrane (PEM) or an anion exchange membrane (AEM).

  4. Expanded beam non-imaging fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, T.; Jannson, J.; Yeung, P.

    1990-02-06

    There is disclosed an expanded beam fiber to fiber connector, based on non-imaging optic principles for coupling light beams from one optical fiber to another. The system consists of two identical connector parts, referred to herein as a collimating part and a concentrating part, each having a preferred partially curved reflective boundary surface for minimizing power loss and surrounding either a hollow space or a space filled with a uniform transparent medium. In one embodiment the boundary is metallic while in a second embodiment the boundary is in the form of an interface allowing total internal reflection. In both the hollow and filled case a lens may be located at the expanded end of both the collimator part and the concentrator part forming the connector. The connector is preferably located in a housing in order to protect and preserve the mechanical stability of the coupler. 13 figs.

  5. Expanded beam non-imaging fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, Tommasz; Jannson, Joanna; Yeung, Peter

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed an expanded beam fiber to fiber connector, based on non-imaging optic principles for coupling light beams from one optical fiber to another. The system consists of two identical connector parts, referred to herein as a collimating part and a concentrating part, each having a preferred partially curved reflective boundary surface for minimizing power loss and surrounding either a hollow space or a space filled with a uniform transparent medium. In one embodiment the boundary is metallic while in a second embodiment the boundary is in the form of an interface allowing total internal reflection. In both the hollow and filled case a lens may be located at the expanded end of both the collimater part and the concentrator part forming the connector. The connector is preferably located in a housing in order to protect and preserve the mechanical stability of the coupler.

  6. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  7. Ultrathin Palladium Membranes Prepared by a Novel Electric Field Assisted Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Samhun; Ko, Joon Ho; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-03-01

    Ultra-thin Pd composite membranes with a thickness of 1 ?m were prepared by a novel electric-field assisted activation technique followed by electroless deposition of Pd on a hollow-fiber ?-alumina support. The novel activation method places Pd precursors and a reducing agent on opposite sides of a porous substrate and uses an electric field to cause migration of Pd ions to the outer surface where they are reduced to form seeds in high density in a narrow spatial region. The resulting membranes showed a high hydrogen permeance in the range of 4.05.0 10{sup ?6} mol m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} Pa{sup ?1} and stable H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 30009000 during stability tests for 150 h at 733 K with H{sub 2} flow. The formation of the thin, defect-less and robust Pd layer can be ascribed to the evenly distributed Pd seeds on the support layer and the enhanced bonding between the Pd layer and the support layer resulting from the strong anchoring of the Pd seeds onto the support in the new activation step.

  8. Electrochemical Cell Design With A Hollow Gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio; Oweis, Salah; Chagnon, Guy; Staniewicz, Robert; Briscoe, Douglas

    2000-02-01

    An electrochemical cell having a spiral winding around a central core, wherein the central core is provided with longitudinal grooves on its outer surface to facilitate electrolyte filing and accommodate overpressure. The core itself improves dissipation of heat generated along the center of the cell, and the hollow core design allows the cell core to have a larger radius, permitting the "jelly roll" winding to begin at a larger radius and thereby facilitate the initial turns of the winding by decreasing the amount of bending required of the electrode laminate at the beginning of the winding operation. The hollow core also provides mechanical support end-to-end. A pair of washers are used at each end of the cell to sandwich current collection tabs in a manner that improves electrical and thermal conductivity while also providing structural integrity.

  9. Improved method for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosencwaig, A.; Koo, J.C.; Dressler, J.L.

    An improved method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass having an outer diameter ranging from about 100..mu.. to about 500..mu.. with a substantially uniform wall thickness in the range of about 0.5 to 20..mu.. are described. The method involves introducing aqueous droplets of a glass-forming solution into a long vertical drop oven or furnace having varying temperature regions.

  10. Trapping of intense light in hollow shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Shixia; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Weng, Suming; Wang, Jingwei; Xu, Han; Zhuo, Hongbin; Wong, A. Y.

    2015-09-15

    A small hollow shell for trapping laser light is proposed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation shows that under appropriate laser and plasma conditions a part of the radiation fields of an intense short laser pulse can enter the cavity of a small shell through an over-critical density plasma in an adjacent guide channel and become trapped. The trapped light evolves into a circulating radial wave pattern until its energy is dissipated.

  11. A novel synthesis of micrometer silica hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan Wen; Ye Junwei [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Lin Yuan; Wang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Zhongshan Road 158-43, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-02-04

    Silica microcapsules (hollow spheres) were synthesized successfully by a novel CTAB-stabilized water/oil emulsion system mediated hydrothermal method. The addition of urea to a solution of aqueous phase was an essential step of the simple synthetic procedure of silica hollow spheres, which leads to the formation of silica hollow spheres with smooth shell during hydrothermal process. The intact hollow spheres were obtained by washing the as-synthesized solid products with distilled water to remove the organic components. A large amount of silanol groups were retained in the hollow spheres by this facile route without calcination. The morphologies and optical properties of the product were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, on the basis of a series of SEM observations, phenomenological elucidation of a mechanism for the growth of the silica hollow spheres has been presented.

  12. Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction</p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction Technology Marketing Summary Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also very expensive. The catalytic activity per gram of

  13. Review of Synthetic Methods to Form Hollow Polymer Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Madeline T.

    2014-03-13

    Syntactic foams have grown in interest due to the widened range of applications because of their mechanical strength and high damage tolerance. In the past, hollow glass or ceramic particles were used to create the pores. This paper reviews literature focused on the controlled synthesis of hollow polymer spheres with diameters ranging from 100 –200 nm. By using hollow polymer spheres, syntactic foams could reach ultra-low densities.

  14. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are important in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for...

  15. Preston-Potter Hollow, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Preston-Potter Hollow, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.4354808, -74.2296713 Show Map Loading map......

  16. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  17. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  18. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  19. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1997-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  20. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  1. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  2. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  3. Zeolite membrane cascade for tritium extraction and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisevich, O.; Demange, D.; Lefebvre, X.; Kind, M.

    2015-03-15

    Membrane separation by zeolite membranes has been proposed as a pre-concentration stage for the tritium extraction from the purge helium of the breeding blanket combined with a final recovery by the catalytic membrane reactor PERMCAT. This fully continuous operation improves the tritium management in fusion machines, minimizing the tritium inventory. For the first time, the permeation measurements for H{sub 2} - He mixtures through a MFI-alumina hollow fibre membrane has been measured for different compositions (0.1 - 20% H{sub 2}) and temperatures. Such a highly permeable membrane, although it shows a limited selectivity, appears attractive for tritium recovery in the blanket. This will imply its operation in a membrane cascade, for which simulation work is ongoing. Mathematically the process is modeled using mass balance equations that can be transformed into the matrix form and solved iteratively assuming a permeate concentration on the first step of iteration, until the separation requirements are fulfilled.

  4. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on

  5. Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1979-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing small hollow spheres of glass, metal or plastic, wherein the sphere material is mixed with or contains as part of the composition a blowing agent which decomposes at high temperature (T.gtoreq.600.degree. C.). As the temperature is quickly raised, the blowing agent decomposes and the resulting gas expands from within, thus forming a hollow sphere of controllable thickness. The thus produced hollow spheres (20 to 10.sup.3 .mu.m) have a variety of application, and are particularly useful in the fabrication of targets for laser implosion such as neutron sources, laser fusion physics studies, and laser initiated fusion power plants.

  6. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-06-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  7. Formation of hollow nanocrystals through the nanoscale kirkendall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Hughes, Steven; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2004-03-11

    We demonstrate that hollow nanocrystals can be synthesized through a mechanism analogous to the Kirkendall Effect, in which pores form due to the difference in diffusion rates between two components in a diffusion couple. Cobalt nanocrystals are chosen as a primary example to show that their reaction in solution with oxygen, sulfur or selenium leads to the formation of hollow nanocrystals of the resulting oxide and chalcogenides. This process provides a general route to the synthesis of hollow nanostructures of large numbers of compounds. A simple extension of this process yields platinum-cobalt oxide yolk-shell nanostructures which may serve as nanoscale reactors in catalytic applications.

  8. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, P.

    1997-09-09

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  9. Casting of particle-based hollow shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, P.

    1995-05-30

    A method is disclosed for the production of hollow articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is coated onto a prewarmed continuous surface in a relatively thin layer so that the slurry is substantially uniformly coated on the surface. The heat of the prewarmed surface conducts to the slurry to initiate a reaction which causes the slurry to set or harden in a shape conforming to the surface. The hardened configurations may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product. 9 figs.

  10. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  11. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the development of gas lasers, gas discharge devices, and plasma chemistry. In addition, inner-shell ionization and hollow-atom formation are attractive for use in x-ray lasers. ...

  12. EA-1610: Windy Hollow Wind Project, Laramie County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proponent request to interconnect their proposed Windy Hollow Wind Project in Laramie County, Wyoming, to DOE’s Western Area Power Administration’s transmission system.

  13. Cleaning a semipermeable membrane in a papermaking machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, David A.

    2004-01-06

    A method of cleaning a semipermeable membrane, the semipermeable membrane being configured for carrying a fiber web, includes the steps of providing a cleaning fluid and applying the cleaning fluid on the semipermeable membrane. Further, an air press configured for carrying the semipermeable membrane therethrough is provided, and the air press has pressurized air therein. The semipermeable membrane is conveyed through the air press and is subjected to the pressurized air within the air press. The pressurized air thereby flushes the cleaning fluid through the semipermeable membrane.

  14. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  15. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  16. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  17. A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hollow-Ion Resonance of Unprecedented Strength Print A so-called hollow ion is formed when core electrons are removed or excited to higher energy levels, leaving an empty inner shell. Such states can be produced in He-, a fundamental three-electron system and prototypical negative ion. The nuclear Coulomb attraction is efficiently screened in negative ions, greatly enhancing the effects that the electrons have on each other and providing an ideal opportunity to verify and further motivate

  18. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A.H.; Cutler, R.A.

    1985-10-15

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2,250 and 125 [mu]m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 [mu]m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing. 6 figs.

  19. Hollow proppants and a process for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Arfon H.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    1985-01-01

    Hollow, fine-grained ceramic proppants are less expensive and improve fracture control when compared to conventional proppants (dense alumina, mullite, bauxite, zirconia, etc.). Hollow proppants of the present invention have been fabricated by spray drying, followed by sintering in order to obtain a dense case and a hollow core. These proppants generally have high sphericity and roundness (Krumbein sphericity and roundness greater than 0.8), have diameters on average between 2250 and 125 .mu.m, depending on proppant size required, and have strength equal to or greater than that of sand. The hollow core, the size of which can be controlled, permits better fracture control in hydraulic fracturing treatments since the proppant can be transported in lower viscosity fluids. Hollow proppants produced at the same cost/weight as conventional proppants also provide for lower costs, since less weight is required to fill the same volume. The fine-grained (preferably less than 5 .mu.m in diameter) ceramic case provides the strength necessary to withstand closure stresses and prevent crushing.

  20. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  1. Hollow nanoparticle cathode materials for sodium electrochemical cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shevchenko, Elena; Rajh, Tijana; Johnson, Christopher S.; Koo, Bonil

    2016-07-12

    A cathode comprises, in its discharged state, a layer of hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles disposed between two layers of carbon nanotubes, and preferably including a metallic current collector in contact with one of the layers of carbon nanotubes. Individual particles of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles comprise a crystalline shell of .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 including cation vacancies within the crystal structure of the shell (i.e., iron vacancies of anywhere between 3% to 90%, and preferably 44 to 77% of available octahedral iron sites). Sodium ions are intercalated within at least some of the cation vacancies within the crystalline shell of the hollow .gamma.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nanoparticles.

  2. Phase coherent transport in hollow InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.; Rosien, M.; Haas, F.; Rieger, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Lüth, H.; Grützmacher, D.; Schäpers, Th.; Demarina, N.

    2014-09-15

    Hollow InAs nanowires are produced from GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by wet chemical etching of the GaAs core. At room temperature, the resistivity of several nanowires is measured before and after removal of the GaAs core. The observed change in resistivity is explained by simulating the electronic states in both structures. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum transport in hollow InAs nanowires is studied. Flux periodic conductance oscillations are observed when the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the nanowire axis.

  3. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  4. Fiber optic connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, S.; Muhs, J.D.

    1996-10-22

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded are disclosed. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled. 3 figs.

  5. CO{sub 2} Capture by Sub-ambient Membrane Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, S.; Hasse, D.; Sanders, E.; Chaubey, T.

    2012-11-30

    The main objective of the project was to develop a CO{sub 2} capture process based on sub-ambient temperature operation of a hollow fiber membrane. The program aims to reach the eventual DOE program goal of > 90% CO{sub 2} capture from existing PC fired power plants with < 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project involves closed-loop testing of commercial fiber bundles under simulated process conditions to test the mechanical integrity and operability of membrane module structural component under sub ambient temperature. A commercial MEDAL 12” bundle exhibited excellent mechanical integrity for 2 months. However, selectivity was ~25% lower than expected at sub-ambient conditions. This could be attributed to a small feed to permeate leak or bundle non-ideality. To investigate further, and due to compressor flow limitations, the 12” bundle was replaced with a 6” bundle to conduct tests with lower permeate/feed ratios, as originally planned. The commercial 6” bundle was used for both parametric testing as well as long-term stability testing at sub-ambient conditions. Parametric studies were carried out both near the start and end of the long-term test. The parametric studies characterized membrane performance over a broad range of feed conditions: temperature (-25°C to -45°C), pressure (160 psig to 200 psig), and CO{sub 2} feed concentration (18% to 12%). Performance of the membrane bundle was markedly better at lower temperature (-45ºC), higher pressure (200 psig) and higher CO{sub 2} feed concentration (18%). The long-term test was conducted at these experimentally determined “optimum” feed conditions. Membrane performance was stable over 8 months at sub-ambient temperature operation. The experimentally measured high performance of the membrane bundle at sub-ambient operating conditions provides justification for interest in sub-ambient membrane processing of flue gas. In a parallel activity, the impact of contaminants (100 ppm SOx and NOx

  6. Fiber optic monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samborsky, James K.

    1993-01-01

    A device for the purpose of monitoring light transmissions in optical fibers comprises a fiber optic tap that optically diverts a fraction of a transmitted optical signal without disrupting the integrity of the signal. The diverted signal is carried, preferably by the fiber optic tap, to a lens or lens system that disperses the light over a solid angle that facilitates viewing. The dispersed light indicates whether or not the monitored optical fiber or system of optical fibers is currently transmitting optical information.

  7. Plasma processes inside dispenser hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.; Jameson, Kristina K.

    2006-06-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model of the plasma and neutral gas inside dispenser orificed hollow cathodes has been developed to quantify plasma processes that ultimately determine the life of the porous emitters inserted in these devices. The model self-consistently accounts for electron emission from the insert as well as for electron and ion flux losses from the plasma. Two cathodes, which are distinctively different in size and operating conditions, have been simulated numerically. It is found that the larger cathode, with outer tube diameter of 1.5 cm and orifice diameter of 0.3 cm, establishes an effective emission zone that spans approximately the full length of the emitter when operated at a discharge current of 25 A and a flow rate of 5.5 sccm. The net heating of the emitter is caused by ions that are produced by ionization of the neutral gas inside the tube and are then accelerated by the sheath along the emitter. The smaller cathode, with an outer diameter of 0.635 cm and an orifice diameter of 0.1 cm, does not exhibit the same operational characteristics. At a flow rate of 4.25 sccm and discharge current of 12 A, the smaller cathode requires 4.5 times the current density near the orifice and operates with more than 6 times the neutral particle density compared to the large cathode. As a result, the plasma particle density is almost one order of magnitude higher compared to the large cathode. The plasma density in this small cathode is high enough such that the Debye length is sufficiently small to allow 'sheath funneling' into the pores of the emitter. By accessing areas deeper into the insert material, it is postulated that the overall emission of electrons is significantly enhanced. The maximum emission current density is found to be about 1 A/mm{sup 2} in the small cathode, which is about one order of magnitude higher than attained in the large cathode. The effective emission zone in the small cathode extends to about 15% of the emitter length only, and

  8. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  9. Omnidirectional fiber optic tiltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.

    1983-06-30

    A tiltmeter is provided which is useful in detecting very small movements such as earth tides. The device comprises a single optical fiber, and an associated weight affixed thereto, suspended from a support to form a pendulum. A light source, e.g., a light emitting diode, mounted on the support transmits light through the optical fiber to a group of further optical fibers located adjacent to but spaced from the free end of the single optical fiber so that displacement of the single optical fiber with respect to the group will result in a change in the amount of light received by the individual optical fibers of the group. Photodetectors individually connectd to the fibers produce corresponding electrical outputs which are differentially compared and processed to produce a resultant continuous analog output representative of the amount and direction of displacement of the single optical fiber.

  10. Conducting fiber compression tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeTeresa, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    The invention measures the resistance across a conductive fiber attached to a substrate place under a compressive load to determine the amount of compression needed to cause the fiber to fail.

  11. Fiber Reinforced Composite Pipelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rawls Savannah River National Laboratory This presentation does not contain proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Fiber Reinforced Composite Pipelines ...

  12. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (Washington, DC); Kliner, Dahy (San Ramon, CA); Goldberg, Lew (Fairfax, VA)

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  13. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  14. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  15. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  16. Hollow microspheres of silica glass and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downs, Raymond L.; Miller, Wayne J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing gel powder suitable for use as a starting material in the manufacture of hollow glass microspheres having a high concentration of silica. The powder is manufactured from a gel containing boron in the amount of about 1% to 20% (oxide equivalent mole percent), alkali metals, specifically potassium and sodium, in an amount exceeding 8% total, and the remainder silicon. Preferably, the ratio of potassium to sodium is greater than 1.5.

  17. ENCAPSULATION OF PALLADIUM IN POROUS WALL HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heung, L; George Wicks, G; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-09

    A new encapsulation method was investigated in an attempt to develop an improved palladium packing material for hydrogen isotope separation. Porous wall hollow glass microspheres (PWHGMs) were produced by using a flame former, heat treating and acid leaching. The PWHGMs were then filled with palladium salt using a soak-and-dry process. The palladium salt was reduced at high temperature to leave palladium inside the microspheres.

  18. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  19. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Prelec, Krsto

    1983-01-01

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  20. Laser-driven ion acceleration with hollow laser beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brabetz, C. Kester, O.; Busold, S.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T.; Deppert, O.; Jahn, D.; Roth, M.; Schumacher, D.

    2015-01-15

    The laser-driven acceleration of protons from thin foils irradiated by hollow high-intensity laser beams in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) is reported for the first time. The use of hollow beams aims at reducing the initial emission solid angle of the TNSA source, due to a flattening of the electron sheath at the target rear side. The experiments were conducted at the PHELIX laser facility at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH with laser intensities in the range from 10{sup 18} W cm{sup −2} to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup −2}. We observed an average reduction of the half opening angle by (3.07±0.42)° or (13.2±2.0)% when the targets have a thickness between 12 μm and 14 μm. In addition, the highest proton energies were achieved with the hollow laser beam in comparison to the typical Gaussian focal spot.

  1. Fiber optic laser rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  2. Fiber coating method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2003-04-15

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  3. Fiber coating method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2001-01-01

    A coating is applied to reinforcing fibers arranged into a tow by coaxially aligning the tow with an adjacent separation layer and winding or wrapping the tow and separation layer onto a support structure in an interleaved manner so that the separation layer separates a wrap of the tow from an adjacent wrap of the tow. A coating can then be uniformly applied to the reinforcing fibers without defects caused by fiber tow to fiber tow contact. The separation layer can be a carbon fiber veil.

  4. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  5. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael W.; ; Lucas, Matthew S.

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  6. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  7. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  8. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  9. large-point | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Large Point Sources Project No.: FG02-04ER83925 SBIR Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridge. Commercial hollow fiber membrane cartridge [6"(D) X 17"(L)]. (click on image to enlarge) Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. developed and tested a carbon dioxide (CO2) removal system for flue gas streams from large point sources that offers improved mass transfer rates compared to conventional technologies. The project fabricated perfluorinated membranes on

  10. Method for selecting hollow microspheres for use in laser fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay; Havenhill, Jerry W.; Smith, Maurice Lee; Stoltz, Daniel L.

    1976-01-01

    Hollow microspheres having thin and very uniform wall thickness are useful as containers for the deuterium and tritium gas mixture used as a fuel in laser fusion targets. Hollow microspheres are commercially available; however, in commercial lots only a very small number meet the rigid requirements for use in laser fusion targets. Those meeting these requirements may be separated from the unsuitable ones by subjecting the commercial lot to size and density separations and then by subjecting those hollow microspheres thus separated to an external pressurization at which those which are aspherical or which have nonuniform walls are broken and separating the sound hollow microspheres from the broken ones.

  11. Plans for Deployment of Hollow Electron Lenses at the LHC for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hollow electron lenses are considered as a possible means to improve the LHC beam collimation system, providing active control of halo diffusion rates and suppressing the ...

  12. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vs. realistic operating environment Wall resistance and fiber morphologygeometry effects Cost availability of polymer "Designer polymer" is often not ...

  13. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, D.E.; Ingham, K.T.

    1987-04-28

    A flywheel comprising a hub having at least one radially projecting disc, an annular rim secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface. 2 figs.

  14. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Donald E.; Ingham, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  15. Fiber optic micro accelerometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.

    2005-07-26

    An accelerometer includes a wafer, a proof mass integrated into the wafer, at least one spring member connected to the proof mass, and an optical fiber. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially reflective surface on the proof mass and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. The two partially reflective surfaces are used to detect movement of the proof mass through the optical fiber, using an optical detection system.

  16. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  17. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  18. Eddy current system for inspection of train hollow axles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chady, Tomasz; Psuj, Grzegorz; Sikora, Ryszard; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Spychalski, Ireneusz

    2014-02-18

    The structural integrity of wheelsets used in rolling stock is of great importance to the safety. In this paper, electromagnetic system with an eddy current transducer suitable for the inspection of hollow axles have been presented. The transducer was developed to detect surface braking defects having depth not smaller than 0.5 mm. Ultrasound technique can be utilized to inspect the whole axle, but it is not sufficiently sensitive to shallow defects located close to the surface. Therefore, the electromagnetic technique is proposed to detect surface breaking cracks that cannot be detected by ultrasonic technique.

  19. Composite sensor membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  20. Electrospun Nafion®/Polyphenylsulfone composite membranes for regenerative Hydrogen bromine fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, Jun; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N.; Yarlagadda, Venkata; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2016-02-29

    Here, the regenerative H2/Br2-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br2 in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion® PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control.more » After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion® 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H2-Br2 fuel cell power output with a 65 m thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 m Nafion® 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H2/Br2-HBr systems.« less

  1. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  2. Multimode optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Molin, Denis; Sillard, Pierre

    2014-11-04

    A depressed graded-index multimode optical fiber includes a central core, an inner depressed cladding, a depressed trench, an outer depressed cladding, and an outer cladding. The central core has an alpha-index profile. The depressed claddings limit the impact of leaky modes on optical-fiber performance characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, core size, and/or numerical aperture).

  3. Super capacitor with fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph Collin; Kaschmitter, James

    2015-02-17

    An electrical cell apparatus includes a first current collector made of a multiplicity of fibers, a second current collector spaced from the first current collector; and a separator disposed between the first current collector and the second current collector. The fibers are contained in a foam.

  4. Quasi-static energy absorption of hollow microlattice structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, YL; Schaedler, TA; Jacobsen, AJ; Chen, X

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive modeling and numerical study focusing on the energy quasi-static crushing behavior and energy absorption characteristics of hollow tube microlattice structures. The peak stress and effective plateau stress of the hollow microlattice structures are deduced for different geometrical parameters which gives volume and mass densities of energy absorption, D-v and D-m, scale with the relative density, (rho) over bar, as D-v similar to (rho) over bar (1) (5) and D-m similar to (rho) over bar (0 5), respectively, fitting very well to the experimental results of both 60 degrees inclined and 90 degrees predominately microlattices. Then the strategies for energy absorption enhancement are proposed for the engineering design of microlattice structures. By introducing a gradient in the thickness or radius of the lattice members, the buckle propagation can be modulated resulting in an increase in energy absorption density that can exceed 40%. Liquid filler is another approach to improve energy absorption by strengthening the microtruss via circumference expansion, and the gain may be over 100% in terms of volume density. Insight into the correlations between microlattice architecture and energy absorption performance combined with the high degree of architecture control paves the way for designing high performance microlattice structures for a range of impact and impulse mitigation applications for vehicles and structures. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hermatically sealed motor blower unit with stator inside hollow armature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelian, Khatchik O.

    1976-01-20

    13. A hermetically sealed motor blower unit comprising, in combination, a sealed housing having a thrust plate mounted therein and having a re-entrant wall forming a central cavity in said housing, a rotor within said housing, said rotor comprising an impeller, a hollow shaft embracing said cavity and a thrust collar adapted to cooperate with said thrust plate to support the axial thrust of said shaft, one or more journal bearings within said housing for supporting the radial load of said shaft and electric motor means for rotating said rotor, said motor means comprising a motor-stator located within said cavity and adapted to cooperate through a portion of said re-entrant wall with a motor-rotor mounted within said hollow shaft, the portion of said re-entrant wall located between said motor-stator and said motor-rotor being made relatively thin to reduce electrical losses, the bearing surfaces of said thrust plate, thrust collar and journal bearings being in communication with the discharge of said impeller, whereby fluid pumped by said impeller can flow directly to said bearing surfaces to lubricate them.

  6. Potential fluctuations and energetic ion production in hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Jameson, Kristina K.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2007-10-15

    Ions with energies significantly in excess of the applied discharge voltage have been reported for many years in hollow cathode discharges. Models of dc potential hills downstream of the cathode and instabilities in postulated double layers in the cathode orifice have been proposed to explain this, but have not been substantiated. Measurements of the dc and rf plasma density and potential profiles near the exit of hollow cathodes by miniature fast-scanning probes suggests that turbulent ion acoustic fluctuations and ionization instabilities in the cathode plume significantly increase the energy of the ions that flow from this region. Increases in the discharge current and/or decreases in the cathode gas flow enhance the amplitude of the fluctuations and increase the number and energy of the energetic ions, which increases the erosion rate of the cathode electrodes. The transition from the quiescent 'spot mode' to the noisy 'plume mode' characteristic of these discharges is found to be a gradual transition of increasing fluctuation amplitudes.

  7. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-10-04

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  8. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  9. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  10. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  11. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  12. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids ...

  13. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  14. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  15. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  16. Facile approach to prepare hollow coreshell NiO microspherers for supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dandan; Xu, Pengcheng; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Song, Dalei; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Milin

    2013-07-15

    A facile lamellar template method (see image) has been developed for the preparation of uniform hollow coreshell structure NiO (HCSNiO) with a nanoarchitectured wall structure. The prepared NiO was found to be highly crystalline in uniform microstructures with high specific surface area and pore volume. The results indicated that ethanol interacted with trisodium citrate played an important role for the formation of hollow coreshell spheres. On the basis of the analysis of the composition and the morphology, a possible formation mechanism was investigated. NiO microspheres with hollow coreshell showed excellent capacitive properties. The exceptional cyclic, structural and electrochemical stability with ?95% coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promised good utility value of hollow coreshell NiO material in fabricating a wide range of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. - The hollow coreshell NiO was prepared with a facile lamellar template method. The prepared NiO show higher capacitance, lower ion diffusion resistance and better electroactive surface utilization for Faradaic reactions. - Highlights: Formation of hollow coreshell NiO via a novel and facile precipitation route. Exhibited uniform feature sizes and high surface area of hollow coreshell NiO. Synthesized NiO has high specific capacitance ( 448 F g{sup 1}) and very low ESR value. Increased 20% of long life cycles capability after 500 chargedischarge cycles.

  17. Preparation and characterization of optical-functional diblock copolymer brushes on hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Zhi; Zhao, Li-Min; Zhang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yan-Dong; Kong, Li-Li; Li, Ling-Ling

    2010-09-15

    The optical-functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb complex diblock copolymer brushes grafted from hollow sphere surface via atom transfer radical polymerization were investigated in this work. A sufficient amount of azo initiator was introduced onto hollow sphere surface firstly. Then the monomer methyl methacrylate was polymerized via surface-initiated reverse atom transfer radical polymerization using azo group modified hollow sphere as initiator. Following, the poly(methyl methacrylate) modified hollow sphere was used as maroinitiator for surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of Tb complex. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatographer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the poly(methyl methacrylate) had grafted from hollow sphere surface and the average diameter of hollow core was about 1 {mu}m. The optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-Tb copolymer modified hollow sphere were also reported.

  18. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, R.P.

    1957-09-17

    An instrument carried unobtrusively about the person such as in a finger ring to indicate when that person has been exposed to an unusual radiation hazard is described. A metallized quartz fiber is electrically charged to indicate a full scale reading on an etched glass background. The quartz fiber and the scale may be viewed through a magnifying lens for ease of reading. Incident radiation will ionize gaseous particles in the sealed structure thereby allowing the charge to leak off the quartz fiber with its resulting movement across the scale proportionally indicating the radiation exposure.

  19. Growth of solid and hollow gold particles through the thermal annealing of nanoscale patterned thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Junhao; He, Weidong; Vilayur Ganapathy, Subramanian; Peppernick, Samuel J.; Wang, Bin; Palepu, Sandeep; Remec, Miroslav; Hess, Wayne P.; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Dickerson, James

    2013-11-27

    Through thermally annealing well-arrayed, circular, nanoscale thin films of gold, deposited onto [111] silicon/silicon dioxide substrates, both solid and hollow gold particles of different morphologies with controllable sizes were obtained. The thin film could form individual particle or clusters of particles by tuning the diameter of it. Hollow gold particles were featured by their large size whose diameter was larger than 500 nm and confirmed by a cross-section view. Hollow gold particles show greater plasmonic field enhancement under photoemission electron microscopy. Potential growth mechanisms for these structures are explored

  20. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-01

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe12O19 spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 degrees C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Apparatus and process to enhance the uniform formation of hollow glass microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F

    2013-10-01

    A process and apparatus is provided for enhancing the formation of a uniform population of hollow glass microspheres. A burner head is used which directs incoming glass particles away from the cooler perimeter of the flame cone of the gas burner and distributes the glass particles in a uniform manner throughout the more evenly heated portions of the flame zone. As a result, as the glass particles are softened and expand by a released nucleating gas so as to form a hollow glass microsphere, the resulting hollow glass microspheres have a more uniform size and property distribution as a result of experiencing a more homogenous heat treatment process.

  2. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  3. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  6. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Benjamin G.

    2012-05-01

    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  7. Dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes and its recoil effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shuang; Chen, Qunzhi; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Kaile; Jiang, Zhe; Sun, Zhili; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-06-15

    A dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes (HEDBS), in which gas flow oriented parallel to the electric field, was proposed. Results showed that with this structure, air can be effectively ignited, forming atmospheric low temperature plasma, and the proposed HEDBS could achieve much higher electron density (5 × 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3}). It was also found that the flow condition, including outlet diameter and flow rate, played a key role in the evolution of electron density. Optical emission spectroscopy diagnostic results showed that the concentration of reactive species had the same variation trend as the electron density. The simulated distribution of discharge gas flow indicated that the HEDBS had a strong recoil effect on discharge gas, and could efficiently promote generating electron density as well as reactive species.

  8. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  9. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  10. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  11. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  12. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  13. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.; Krogh, Michael L.; Davis, Steven C.; Decker, Derek E.; Rosenblum, Ben Z.; Sanders, David M.; Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  14. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Warren, Mial Evans; Snipes, Jr., Morris Burton; Armendariz, Marcelino Guadalupe; Word, V., James Cole

    1997-01-01

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring.

  15. Fiber alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, S.H.; Warren, M.E.; Snipes, M.B. Jr.; Armendariz, M.G.; Word, J.C. V

    1997-08-19

    A fiber alignment apparatus includes a micro-machined nickel spring that captures and locks arrays of single mode fibers into position. The design consists of a movable nickel leaf shaped spring and a fixed pocket where fibers are held. The fiber is slid between the spring and a fixed block, which tensions the spring. When the fiber reaches the pocket, it automatically falls into the pocket and is held by the pressure of the leaf spring. 8 figs.

  16. Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Cummings, Daniel G.; Grey, Alan E.; Jessup, Janine S.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

  17. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  18. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  19. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  20. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  1. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Dave Warren, PI Cliff Eberle, Presenter Technology Development Manager Polymer Matrix Composites Oak Ridge National Laboratory May 16, 2012 Project ID # LM003 Status as of March 30, 2012 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) ARRA CAPITAL Project Overview * Funds received FY10Q2 * Scheduled finish FY13Q4

  2. Fiber optics welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  3. Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    test stand Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Guide for 3D WARP simulations of hollow electron beam lenses. Practical explanation on basis of Tevatron electron lens test ...

  4. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  5. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  6. Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

    1991-12-31

    A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

  7. Hollow and Filled with Potential | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hollow and Filled with Potential Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: Email Us More Information » 04.30.16 Hollow and

  8. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  9. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, Gary; Scott, Brian

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  10. Controllable synthesis of hollow mesoporous silica spheres and application as support of nano-gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tao; Ma, Weihua Shangguan, Junnan; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Qin

    2014-07-01

    Hollow silica spheres with mesoporous structure were synthesized by sol–gel/emulsion method. In the process, the surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used to stabilize the oil droplet and also used as structure direct agent. The diameter of the hollow silica spheres, ranging from 895 nm to 157 nm, can be controlled by changing the ratio of ethanol to water and the concentration of the surfactant as well. The shell thickness of the spheres decreased when the ratio of ethanol to water decreased. The proposed mechanism of the formation of silica spheres could elucidate the experimental results well. Furthermore, the resultant hollow mesoporous silica spheres were then employed as support of nano-gold which was used to catalyze the isomerization reaction of propylene oxide to produce allyl alcohol. - Graphical abstract: It is the schematic mechanism for the formation of hollow mesoporous silica spheres. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of the hollow spheres is proposed. • The isomerization of propylene oxide can be catalyzed by the nano-gold/SiO{sub 2}. • The hollow silica spheres can be prepared controllably.

  11. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  12. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  13. Optical fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  14. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  15. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  16. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  17. CX-012019: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Portable, Two-Stage, Antifouling Hollow Fiber Membrane Nanofiltration Process CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 04/28/2014 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-012018: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Portable, Two-Stage, Antifouling Hollow Fiber Membrane Nanofiltration Process CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6 Date: 04/28/2014 Location(s): New Mexico Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  20. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  1. QUARTZ FIBER ELECTROSCOPES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, R.P.

    1956-04-17

    This patent pertains to quartz fiber electroscopes of small size for use by personnel to monitor nuclear radiation. The invention resides tn a novel way of charging the electroscope whereby the charging of the electroscope whereby the charging of the electroscope is carried out without obtaining contact with the fiber system or its support and the electroscope can therefore be constructed without a protective cap to prevent wrongful discharge. The electroscope is charged by placing a voltage between an electrode located in close proximity to the element to be charged and the electroscope me metallic case. ABSTRACTS

  2. Silicon fiber optic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pocha, Michael D.; Swierkowski, Steve P.; Wood, Billy E.

    2007-10-02

    A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by a partially or wholly reflective surface on the free end of an integrated elongate channel or an integrated bounding wall of a chip of a wafer and a partially reflective surface on the end of the optical fiber. Such a constructed device can be utilized to detect one or more physical parameters, such as, for example, strain, through the optical fiber using an optical detection system to provide measuring accuracies of less than aboutb0.1%.

  3. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  4. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Obligin, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  5. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  6. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  7. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-15

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  8. Membrane separation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; Cussler, E.L.; Eykamp, W.; Koros, W.J.; Riley, R.L.; Strathman, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses developments and future directions in the field of membrane separation systems. It describes research needed to bring energy-saving membrane separation processes to technical and commercial readiness for commercial acceptance within the next 5 to 20 years. The assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in seven major membrane areas. These encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and pervaporation; and one emerging technology; facilitated transport.

  9. Anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  10. Gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.