Sample records for hogen pem stationary

  1. HOGEN{trademark} proton exchange membrane hydrogen generators: Commercialization of PEM electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.F.; Molter, T.M. [Proton Energy Systems, Inc., Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PROTON Energy Systems` new HOGEN series hydrogen generators are Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based water electrolyzers designed to generate 300 to 1000 Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour (SCFH) of high purity hydrogen at pressures up to 400 psi without the use of mechanical compressors. This paper will describe technology evolution leading to the HOGEN, identify system design performance parameters and describe the physical packaging and interfaces of HOGEN systems. PEM electrolyzers have served US and UK Navy and NASA needs for many years in a variety of diverse programs including oxygen generators for life support applications. In the late 1970`s these systems were advocated for bulk hydrogen generation through a series of DOE sponsored program activities. During the military buildup of the 1980`s commercial deployment of PEM hydrogen generators was de-emphasized as priority was given to new Navy and NASA PEM electrolysis systems. PROTON Energy Systems was founded in 1996 with the primary corporate mission of commercializing PEM hydrogen generators. These systems are specifically designed and priced to meet the needs of commercial markets and produced through manufacturing processes tailored to these applications. The HOGEN series generators are the first step along the path to full commercial deployment of PEM electrolyzer products for both industrial and consumer uses. The 300/1000 series are sized to meet the needs of the industrial gases market today and provide a design base that can transition to serve the needs of a decentralized hydrogen infrastructure tomorrow.

  2. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

  3. PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

  4. PEM fuel cell degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  5. 110 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the status of 1­10 kW CHP stationary fuel cell systems and to comment on the achievability of cost-temperature proton exchange membrane (LT-PEM) fuel cell systems operating, for the most part, in a temperature range of 60°­90°C; high temperature PEM (HT-PEM) fuel cell systems operating in a temperature range of 130

  6. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D...

  7. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates CH Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. Fuel Cell Project, stationary and automobile fuel cell systems. $0.00 $0.05 $0.10 $0.15 $0.20 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.40 $0.45 $0. · The technology has been evaluated by various clients and used in portable fuel cell power systems. Corporate

  8. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

  9. Automotive Perspective on PEM Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at least it's worth running FC tests * If HSF>10: material may be durable enough with MEA optimization Screening for PEM Chemical Stability Ex-situ Fenton's ageing tests are not...

  10. PEM/SPE fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, S.A.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM/SPE fuel cell is described including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates. 4 figs.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A PEM ELECTROLYZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PEM ELECTROLYZER: ENABLING SEASONAL STORAGE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Prepared For ELECTROLYZER: ENABLING SEASONAL STORAGE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY EISG AWARDEE Schatz Energy Research Center Humboldt Industrial/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Technologies Environmentally

  12. Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To achieve a deeper understanding and improve PEM fuel cell durability LANL is conducting research to better define fuel cell component degradation mechanisms and correlate AST measurements to component in 'real-world' situations.

  13. Novel, low-cost separator plates and flow-field elements for use in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edlund, D.J. [Northwest Power Systems, LLC, Bend, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    PEM fuel cells offer promise for a wide range of applications including vehicular (e.g., automotive) and stationary power generation. The performance and cost targets that must be met for PEM technology to be commercially successful varies to some degree with the application. However, in general the cost of PEM fuel cell stacks must be reduced substantially if they are to see widespread use for electrical power generation. A significant contribution to the manufactured cost of PEM fuel cells is the machined carbon plates that traditionally serve as bipolar separator plates and flow-field elements. In addition, carbon separator plates are inherently brittle and suffer from breakage due to shock, vibration, and improper handling. This report describes a bifurcated separator device with low resistivity, low manufacturing cost, compact size and durability.

  14. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  15. Development and validation of a two-phase, three-dimensional model for PEM fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To develop and validate a two-phase, three-dimensional transport modelfor simulating PEM fuel cell performance under a wide range of operating conditions; (2) To apply the validated PEM fuel cell model to improve fundamental understanding of key phenomena involved and to identify rate-limiting steps and develop recommendations for improvements so as to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell technology; (3) The validated PEMFC model can be employed to improve and optimize PEM fuel cell operation. Consequently, the project helps: (i) address the technical barriers on performance, cost, and durability; and (ii) achieve DOE's near-term technical targets on performance, cost, and durability in automotive and stationary applications.

  16. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  17. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  18. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Technical paper...

  19. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode. Abstract: The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of PEM Dehydration and Gas Manifold...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonance Imaging (MRI) of PEM Dehydration and Gas Manifold Flooding During Continuous Fuel Cell Operation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of PEM Dehydration and Gas Manifold...

  1. DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells This document describes test protocols...

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

  3. Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects. Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects....

  4. Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using PBI Membrane Technology Demonstration of Next Generation PEM CHP Systems for Global Markets Using PBI...

  5. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference? Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell...

  6. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications...

  7. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  8. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Grot, S.A.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring the performance of H{sub 2}--O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H{sub 2} sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken. 2 figs.

  9. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen Joel (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary Lynn (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  10. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen J. (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary L. (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  11. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang; Meng, Wen-Jin; Swathirajan, Swathy; Harris, Stephen Joel; Doll, Gary Lynn

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  12. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Y.; Meng, W.J.; Swathirajan, S.; Harris, S.J.; Doll, G.L.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell`s operating environment. Stainless steels rich in Cr, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers. 6 figs.

  13. The future of gas turbine compliance monitoring: The integration of PEMS and CEMS for regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macak, J.J. III

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Stationary Gas Turbines were first promulgated in 1979 (40 CFR 60, Subpart GG), continuous compliance monitoring for gas turbines was simply a parametric monitoring approach where a unit was tested at four load conditions. For those units where water or steam injection was used for NO{sub x} control, testing consisted of establishing a water (or steam injection) versus fuel flow curve to achieve permitted NO{sub x} emission levels across the load range. Since 1979, the growth in gas turbine popularity has encouraged the development of Predictive Emissions Monitoring Systems (PEMS) where gas turbine operating parameters and ambient conditions are fed into a prediction algorithm to predict, rather than monitor, emissions. However, permitting requirements and technological advances now have gas turbines emitting NO{sub x} in the single digits while the overall combined-cycle thermal efficiency has improved dramatically. The combination of supplemental duct-firing in heat recovery steam generators, pollution prevention technology, post-combustion emission controls, and EPA Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) regulations for the power industry, resulted in a shift towards CEMS due to the complexity of the overall process. Yet, CEMS are often considered to be a maintenance nightmare with significant amounts of downtime. CEMS and PEMS have their own advantages and disadvantages. Thus evolved the need to find the optimum balance between CEMS and PEMS for gas turbine projects. To justify the cost of both PEMS and CEMS in the same installation, there must be an economic incentive to do so. This paper presents the application of a PEMS/CEMS monitoring system that integrates both PEMS and CEMS in order to meet, and exceed, all emissions monitoring requirements.

  14. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  15. A retrospective on the LBNL PEM project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to Physica Medica LBNL 56612 [6] M. Pedrali- Noy,Submitted to Physica Medica LBNL 56612 ARETROSPECTIVE ON THE LBNL PEM PROJECT J.S. Huber, W.W.

  16. PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

    2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This project conducted fundamental studies of PEM MEA degradation. Insights gained from these studies were disseminated to assist MEA manufacturers in understanding degradation mechanisms and work towards DOE 2010 fuel cell durability targets.

  17. FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY AND MOTOR VEHICLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS UCD-ITS-RP-04-21 April 2004 by Timothy Lipman University of California: itspublications@ucdavis.edu #12;Energy Policy 32 (2004) 101125 Fuel cell system economics: comparing the costs

  18. Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Development of a New Generation, High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cell Based, CHP System Part of a 100 million fuel cell...

  19. 2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

  20. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to bridge the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  1. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  2. The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for Developing Durable Catalysts. The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for...

  3. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which focuses on passive PEM water management, was given by Susie Stenkamp of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. newfcstenkamppnnl.pdf More...

  4. DOE Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (Electrocatalysts, Supports, Membranes, and Membrane Electrode Assemblies) March 2007 Fuel cells, especially for...

  5. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (Electrocatalysts, Supports, Membranes, and Membrane Electrode Assemblies) Revised May...

  6. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton"...

  7. Webinar: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells, originally presented on November 19, 2013.

  8. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  9. Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kick-off Meeting COPYRIGHT 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS, INC. ALL RIGHTS...

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update October 18, 2012 Prepared By: Brian D. James Andrew B. Spisak...

  11. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award...

  12. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing, and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization This presentation, which focuses on...

  13. Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells Nigel David

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells by Nigel David B.Sc., Simon Fraser University, 2004 M or other means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Fiber Optic Sensors for PEM Fuel Cells) and air- water two-phase flow sensors are developed and demonstrated based on optical fibre Bragg gratings

  14. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

  15. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO-concentration in the H{sub 2} feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel stream. 4 figs.

  16. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  17. A liquid water management strategy for PEM fuel cell stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Nguyen, Trung; Knobbe, M. W.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a PEM fuel cell stack. Previous experimentation had found, and this experimentation confirms, that one very effective method of achieving proper gas and water management is the use...

  18. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells (Topic 4) GrafTech International, Ltd. * Funding DOE Cost Share Recipient Cost Share TOTAL 2,325,943 581,486 2,907,429 80% 20% 100%...

  19. Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FC Series 200 - 50 kW PEM #12;2 Development of Sensors for Automotive PEM-based Fuel Cells Program Thermal Management System Cabin safety / H2 sensor Fuel Cell Stack / CO, H2 , RH, O2 , pressure sensors streams: before, in, and after reformer, before and in fuel cell stack: CO, H2, O2, H2S, NH3. Safety [H2

  20. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendalow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

  1. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 ???????????????????????????????°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

  2. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

  3. Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yandrasits, Michael A.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOEs 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group unzipping is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to high speed, high volume manufacturing, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

  4. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita del'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Faccio, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita del'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Couairon, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Papazoglou, D. G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Abdollahpour, D. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  5. Method of monitoring CO concentrations in hydrogen feed to a PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen Andreas (Rochester, NY); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CO concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and/or voltage behavior patterns from a PEM-probe communicating with the reformate feed stream. Pattern recognition software may be used to compare the current and voltage patterns from the PEM-probe to current and voltage telltale outputs determined from a reference cell similar to the PEM-probe and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream. The PEM-probe is intermittently purged of any CO build-up on the anode catalyst (e.g., by (1) flushing the anode with air, (2) short circuiting the PEM-probe, or (3) reverse biasing the PEM-probe) to keep the PEM-probe at peak performance levels.

  6. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility...

  7. Forecasting the Costs of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems: Using Bounded Manufacturing Progress Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timonthy E.; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the manufactunng costs of fuel cells systems from presentlevel and manufactunng cost of PEM fuel cell systems, for amthe present cost cf PEM fuel cell systems by consldenng a

  8. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for...

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application: 2009...

  10. Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells. Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells. Abstract: A series of cathodes using Pt...

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

  12. Free air breathing planar PEM fuel cell design for portable electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crumlin, Ethan J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEM fuel cell technology is an energy source that can provide several times more energy per unit volume then current lithium ion batteries. However, PEM fuel cells remain to be optimized in volume and mass to create a ...

  13. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM...

  14. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS M. EHRHARDT, J, Germany ABSTRACT In proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, the transport of the fuel to the active diffusion layers. In order to improve existing mathematical and numerical models of PEM fuel cells, a deeper

  16. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt Committee Member, Mechanical Engineering). Abstract Liquid water formation and flooding in PEM fuel cell gas

  17. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

  18. Sensors for Safety & Performance Stationary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles · Interfacial Stability of Thin Film H2 Sensors · Sensors for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems · Micro-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Fuel Cell Monitoring #12;Discussion Points Barriers ·Cost ·Application ·Lifetime ·Flexibility ·Public

  19. PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSO project: 4760 High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Final report - Public part - #12;Project, Technical University of Denmark Partners: IRD Fuel Cells A/S Danish Power Systems Aps DONG Energy Authors, and a steady reduction of production cost is also desired (as in general for fuel cells). However, during

  20. Microstructure of Gas Diffusion Layers for PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Microstructure of Gas Diffusion Layers for PEM Fuel Cells N. Parikh1 , J. S. Allen1 , R. S. Yassar1 Introduction A gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a proton exchange mem- brane fuel cell (PEMFC) often is comprised porosimetry (MSP) [5]. The general procedure for obtaining the pore size distribution is to inject a fluid

  1. Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    ;Data Compilation What's Important? 1. SlugVolume (Dimensionless) Required to calculate how much power the channel (P_slug) Required to calculate how much power it takes to remove a slug Pslug #12;Square ChannelWater Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell

  2. HT-PEM Fuel Cell System with Integrated Thermoelectric Exhaust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in partial fulfillment submitted for assessment in partial fulfilment of the PhD degree. The scientific #12;papers are not included the efficiency and the load- following capability of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT- PEM

  3. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor for PEM Fuel Cells S.W. Allison, T.J. McIntyre, L.C. Maxey, M a Waveguide Temperature Sensor? Reliability - fiber optic sensors are immune to oxidizing or reducing Objectives Develop a low cost, robust temperature sensor for monitoring fuel cell condition and performance

  4. PEM FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY Key Research Needs and Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developer University #12;8 FUEL CELL RESEARCH NEEDS MEA optimization should focus on new materials Pt (full1 PEM FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY Key Research Needs and Approaches Tom Jarvi UTC Power South Windsor, CT 06074 23 January 2008 #12;2 UTC POWER MARKET FOCUS Transportation Fuel Cells On-Site Power Solutions #12

  5. Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic* , K optimization algorithm to determine an optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to the operation difference has the largest effect on the predicted polarization curve of the fuel cell. However, the optimal

  6. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration: Workshop Proceedings Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings Proceedings for the Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop...

  7. Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance.

  8. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  9. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  10. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This presentation reports on the status of mass production cost...

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2007 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost...

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Application Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the...

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    07 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems...

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update February 29, 2008 Final Version Brian D. James Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

  15. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

  16. mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update January 1, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski &...

  17. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

  18. Upcoming Webinar November 19: Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On November 19, the Energy Department will present a webinar on micro-structural mitigation strategies for PEM fuel cells focusing on morphological simulations and experimental approaches.

  19. Data-stationary pipelined machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, I.E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the data-stationary control concept of pipelined machines, with emphasis on its application in image processing systems. A parallel array of pipelined machines for image processing is considered, and data-stationary control is compared with time-stationary control. A system is proposed that is a parallel array of pipelined machines. Each pipeline is a multifunctional, statically configured, data-stationary device. The pipelines do not accommodate branching instructions or interrupts, and the design focus on vector processing only. The system can be used in other applications such as signal processing and arithmetic number crunching. 5 references.

  20. Development of a lithium hydride powered hydrogen generator for use in long life, low power PEM fuel cell power supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strawser, Daniel DeWitt

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies a hybrid PEM fuel cell system for use in low power, long life sensor networks. PEM fuel cells offer high efficiency and environmental friendliness but have not been widely adopted due to cost, reliability, ...

  1. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

  2. The Effect of Slip Velocity on Saturation for Multiphase Condensing Mixtures in a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    The Effect of Slip Velocity on Saturation for Multiphase Condensing Mixtures in a PEM Fuel Cell in computed results reported in the fuel cell literature, but which has not yet received a satisfactory to treat the slip velocity between phases. Keywords: Condensation Two Phase Flow PEM Fuel Cell Slip

  3. A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mnster, Westflische Wilhelms-Universitt

    A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

  4. Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells Z June 2011 Available online 14 June 2011 Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell Temperature effects Air) fuel cells is investi- gated using polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Three active area sizes

  5. Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Odne Stokke Burheim Thermal Signature and Thermal Conductivities of PEM Fuel Cells Thesis-Holst for believing in me and for giving me the opportunity to join the work on the "Thermal Effects in Fuel cell The work presented here gives estimates on thermal gradients within the PEM fuel cell, an experimental

  6. Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin , Rafael Gouriveau.jouin@femto-st.fr Abstract Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) suffer from a limited lifespan, which impedes of the proposed approach. Keywords: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, Prognostics, Remaining useful life

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation (2012), annually updated costs analyses will be conducted for PEM fuel cell passenger buses as well to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which

  8. Sputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs M. D. Gasda,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    applications.1 A key hurdle for mass-market adoption of fuel cell technology is overall system cost, drivenSputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs Layers M. D. Gasda,a R. Teki,b T.-M. Lu as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells using Nafion 1135 membranes and Teflon

  9. Thermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    in automotive applications such as forklifts. In this paper we present a control-oriented dynamic modelThermal modeling and temperature control of a PEM fuel cell system for forklift applications simulation System modeling and control PEMFC a b s t r a c t Temperature changes in PEM fuel cell stacks

  10. Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kr, Sren Knudsen

    Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy a b s t r a c t This paper analyzes the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance

  11. Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior dur- ing DEA operation

  12. Fuel Cells for Transportation FY 2001 Progress Report V. PEM STACK COMPONENT COST REDUCTION1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and flow field. - Optimize the fuel cell flow field design for optimized water management and air bleedFuel Cells for Transportation FY 2001 Progress Report 113 V. PEM STACK COMPONENT COST REDUCTION1 A. High-Performance, Matching PEM Fuel Cell Components and Integrated Pilot Manufacturing Processes Mark K

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Stationary Energy Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    StorageStationary Energy Storage Stationary Energy Storage The 1 MW Energy Storage Test Pad integrated with renewable energy generation at Sandia's Distributed Energy Technology...

  14. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Attendees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attendees List Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Attendees List List of attendees for the Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop...

  15. Stationary distributions of continuous time Markov chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 13, 2012 ... stationary distribution as the limiting fraction of time spent in states. 1 Stationary measures in continuous time. The following theorem is an...

  16. Stationary Fuel Cell Evaluation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This powerpoint presentation discusses its objectives: real world operation data from the field and state-of-the-art lab; collection; analysis for independent technology validation; collaboration with industry and end users operating stationary fuel cell systems and reporting on technology status, progress and technical challenges. The approach and accomplishments are: A quarterly data analysis and publication of first technical stationary fuel cell composite data products (data through June 2012).

  17. Novel Hydrogen Purification Device Integrated with PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Schwartz; Hankwon Lim; Raymond Drnevich

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototype device containing twelve membrane tubes was designed, built, and demonstrated. The device produced almost 300 scfh of purified hydrogen at 200 psig feed pressure. The extent of purification met the program target of selectively removing enough impurities to enable industrial-grade hydrogen to meet purity specifications for PEM fuel cells. An extrusion process was developed to produce substrate tubes. Membranes met several test objectives, including completing 20 thermal cycles, exceeding 250 hours of operating life, and demonstrating a flux of 965 scfh/ft2 at 200 psid and 400 C.

  18. Zongshen PEM Canada Chongqing Hydrogen Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind GeneratingZhongshengZiboZongshen PEM Canada

  19. PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse toOctoberMultifamily Landlords1Reality | 2.PBA2007PBS:PEM

  20. Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing |Prepare for| Department ofofLowEnergyPEM

  1. Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001Energy Efficiency GrantsElectrocatalysts for PEM Fuel

  2. 95TILING FOR STATIONARY METHODS SPARSE TILING FOR STATIONARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strout, Michelle Mills

    ­Seidel operating on sparse matrices. In scientific applications such as finite element analysis, these itera- tive of stationary iterative methods operating on sparse matrices. In scientific appli- cations, such as finite element analysis (FEA), these iter- ative methods dominate the execution time. FEA is a numerical

  3. Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomason, Arthur Hugh

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also ...

  4. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: 2010 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update This report is the fourth annual update of a...

  5. Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, E. J.; Kopf, P.; Sinha, J.; Sriramulu, S.; Yang, Y.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses on PEM fuel cell components and the overall system are presented including the most important cost factors and the effects of selected scenarios.

  6. Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomason, Arthur Hugh

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also determined. Current pulsing...

  7. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Joseph W. Pratt and Aaron P. Harris Prepared by...

  8. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-6772E A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications Max Wei, Timothy Lipman 1 , Ahmad Mayyas 1 ,...

  9. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey...

  10. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) in micro / nanofluidics for novel BioMEMS platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Hongchul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this thesis was to exploit the versatility of the polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) to fabricate a novel micro/nanofluidic device for patterning bacteria in BioMEMS. Nanofluidic channels offer new ...

  11. Stationary Measure in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Linde; Vitaly Vanchurin; Sergei Winitzki

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the recently proposed "stationary measure" in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the "Boltzmann brain" problem nor from the "youngness" paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a satisfactory performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.

  12. Stationary measure in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Vanchurin, Vitaly; Winitzki, Sergei, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu, E-mail: vitaly@cosmos2.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: winitzki@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)] [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the recently proposed ''stationary measure'' in the context of the string landscape scenario. We show that it suffers neither from the ''Boltzmann brain'' problem nor from the ''youngness'' paradox that makes some other measures predict a high CMB temperature at present. We also demonstrate a good performance of this measure in predicting the results of local experiments, such as proton decay.

  13. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, E. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.

  14. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.] [Giner, Inc.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  15. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

  16. Distributed/Stationary Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems Photo of stationary fuel cell The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing high-efficiency fuel...

  17. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Presentation by Rick Farmer at the IPHE Stationary Fuel...

  18. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. A central objective of a LANL/Industry collaborative effort supported by the Hydrogen Program is to integrate PEM fuel cell and novel stack designs at LANL with stack technology of H-Power Corporation (H-Power) in order to develop a manufacturable, low-cost/high-performance hydrogen/air fuel cell stack for stationary generation of electric power. A LANL/H-Power CRADA includes Tasks ranging from exchange, testing and optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies of large areas, development and demonstration of manufacturable flow field, backing and bipolar plate components, and testing of stacks at the 3-5 cell level and, finally, at the 4-5 kW level. The stack should demonstrate the basic features of manufacturability, overall low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Plans for future work are to continue the CRADA work along the time line defined in a two-year program, to continue the LANL activities of developing and testing stainless steel hardware for longer term stability including testing in a stack, and to further enhance air cathode performance to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies as required for stationary power application.

  19. Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Yu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 162 (2006) 388399 Model-based condition monitoring of PEM fuel cell using of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems, temporary faults in such systems still might occur/uncertainty of the fuel cell system, and the measurement noise. In this research, we propose a model-based condition

  20. Constructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordonez, Juan C.

    such as in a fuel cell, leading to high cost and computational time even for the simulation of a few selected casesConstructal flow structure for a PEM fuel cell J.V.C. Vargas a,*, J.C. Ordonez b , A. Bejan c the internal structure (relative sizes, spacings) and external shape (aspect ratios) of a unit PEM fuel cell so

  1. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Objectives Ultra-low loading Pt catalyysts for oxygen reduction reaction with higgh activityyand ggoodg yg Definition In Developing Low Loading Platinum Catalysts C l PCatalyst Perfformance Platinum

  2. Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor...

  3. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Session...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration Workshop Session II: State and Industry Perspectives Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Session II: State and Industry Perspectives Opportunities...

  4. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Agenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda, October 27, 2008, Phoenix, Arizonia Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Agenda, October 27, 2008, Phoenix, Arizonia Agenda for the Transportation and...

  5. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Overview of strengths,...

  6. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: ""An...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ""An Automaker's Views on the Transition to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: ""An Automaker's Views on the Transition to...

  7. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  8. AURORA Program Overview Topic 4A. Transport within the PEM Stack / Transport Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AURORA Program Overview Topic 4A. Transport within the PEM Stack / Transport all fuel cell applications. AURORA #12;C. Performance Technical Barriers Premise: DOE cost targets will do the opposite. AURORA #12;0.6 DCEfficiency(% Performance(voltcell) Technical Target Target

  9. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Mooradian, R.P. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  10. Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications for transportation. Fuel cell systems will have to be cost-competitive with conventional and advanced vehicle cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell

  12. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel, and biomass. Thus, fuel cell vehicles offer an environmentally clean and energysecure transportation pathway

  13. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications vehicles offer an environmentally clean and energy-secure transportation pathway. Fuel cell systems number of vehicles it represents, DOE has established detailed cost targets for automotive fuel cell

  14. A DC-DC Converter-Based PEM Fuel Cell System Emulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    power supplies. Fuel cell systems are characterized by high costs and complex auxiliary devices still impose some drawbacks: the cost of fuel cell system tests are expensive (e.g., hydrogenA DC-DC Converter-Based PEM Fuel Cell System Emulator Daoud Rezzak, Farid Khoucha, Mohamed

  15. Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Effect of Water Transport on the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer, large-scale production of hydrogen. A key step in the process is the oxidation of sulfur dioxide determines the product sulfuric acid concentration, iii affects SO2 crossover rate, and iv serves to hydrate

  16. Algorithm Development for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Diagnostics in PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Algorithm Development for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Diagnostics in PEM Fuel Cells-board fuel cell diagnostic hardware. Impedance can identify faults that cannot be identified solely by a drop Abstract The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to identify fuel cell faults using

  17. Comment on "A Look at the Multiphase Mixture Model for PEM Fuel Cell Simulations"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comment on "A Look at the Multiphase Mixture Model for PEM Fuel Cell Simulations" [Electrochem received June 2, 2008. Published December 11, 2008. The article of Gurau et al.1 discusses the multiphase mixture M2 model developed by Wang and co-workers2-6 over the last 15 years for the modeling of multiphase

  18. Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Pt/CARBON XEROGEL CATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS Nathalie JOBa , Frdric MAILLARDb , Jean, France ABSTRACT Carbon xerogels have been used to replace carbon black as catalyst support at the cathode in this electrode. Carbon xerogels are very clean nanostructured carbons with well-defined pore texture, which

  19. Fuzzy Logic-Based State-of-Health Determination of PEM Craig Fennie and David Reisner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Pritpal

    . Galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were made on four different 5W H-Power PEM fuel cell stacks over a frequency range of 0.1Hz to 1 kHz at both open- circuit and with a small

  20. A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model accounts for important transport phenomena in a fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode

  1. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff MeetingWater Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design fuel cell design and operation; Demonstrate improvements in water management resulting in improved

  2. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    g y Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications materials degradation mechanisms under automotive conditions that can lead to recommendations for mitigation, to better understand the durability at low relative humidity and during automotive cycling operation

  3. Water Transport Characteristics of Gas Diffusion Layer in a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok S. Damle; J. Vernon Cole

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A presentation addressing the following: Water transport in PEM Fuel Cells - a DoE Project 1. Gas Diffusion Layer--Role and Characteristics 2. Capillary Pressure Determinations of GDL Media 3. Gas Permeability Measurements of GDL Media 4. Conclusions and Future Activities

  4. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTechs GRAFCELL? resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTIs analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a Best Case Scenario for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this Best Case Scenario including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

  5. High resolution neutron imaging of water in PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal water management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is critical to improving the performance and durability of fuel cell systems especially during transient, start-up and shut-down operations. For example, while a high water content is desirable for improved membrane and catalyst ionomer conductivity, high water content can also block gas access to the triple-phase boundary resulting in lowered performance due to catalyst and gas diffusion layer (GDL) flooding. Visualizing liquid water by neutron imaging has been used over the past decade to study the water distribution inside operating fuel cells. In this paper, the results from our imaging at NIST using their recently installed higher resolution ({approx} 25 mm) Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector with a pixel pitch of 14.7 mm are presented. This detector is capable of quantitatively imaging the water inside the MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly)/GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) of working fuel cells and can provide the water profiles within these various components in addition to the channel water. Specially designed fuel cells (active area = 2.25 cm{sup 2}) have been used in order to take advantage of the full detector resolution. The cell design is illustrated in a figure where one of the current collector/end plates is shown. The serpentine pattern was machined into a block of aluminum and plated with nickel and then gold to form the flow field. The measurements were performed using beam no. 1 and aperture no. 2 with a fluence rate of 1.9 x 10{sup 6} neutrons cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. The cells were assembled with Gore{sup TM} Primea{sup R} MEAs and SGL Sigracet {sup R} 24 series GDLs (PRIMEA, GORE-SELECT and GORE are trademarks of W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc). All the cells were tested at 80 {sup o}C with 1.2 stoichiometry H{sub 2} and 2.0 stoichiometry air flows.

  6. Optimization of the Cathode Catalyst Layer Composition of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Novel 2-Step Preparation Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedmann, Roland

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    For good performance and high durability PEM fuel cells run at high water saturation levels. However, excess liquid water generated by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode can block pores in the catalyst layer so that reactant gases can...

  7. Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Power Generating Stationary Engines Nox Control: A Closed Loop Control Technology Poster presented at...

  8. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop...

  9. Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Testimony...

  10. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  11. Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and...

  12. Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems This report, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory, looks at impurities...

  13. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers This...

  14. Feasibility and electromagnetic compatibility study of the ClearPEM front-end electronics for simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    for simultaneous PET-MR imaging J.A. Neves a,b,c,n , R. Bugalho a,b , R. Gruetter c,d,e , A.W. Magill c,d , C Keywords: PET ClearPEM 7 Tesla MR Simultaneous PET-MRI EMI and EMC a b s t r a c t In this work we present a first feasibility study of the ClearPEM technology for simultaneous PET-MR imaging. The mutual

  15. Air Permitting for Stationary Sources (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The permitting system implements the permitting requirements of RSA 125-C and 125-I to regulate the operation and modification of new and existing stationary sources, area sources, and devices to...

  16. Virtual stationary timed automata for mobile networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolte, Tina Ann, 1979-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we formally define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual ...

  17. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  18. Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

  19. A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burlatsky, S F; O'Neill, J; Atrazhev, V V; Varyukhin, A N; Dmitriev, D V; Erikhman, N S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used...

  20. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  1. Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith

    asymmetry in the case of nitrogen oxides (NOx), the most recalcitrant criteria air pollutant in the UnitedSacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources Meredith, differently from mobile-source polluters, such as vehicles. This paper measures the extent of this regulatory

  2. Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Sacred Cars? Cost-Effective Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources Meredith reasons, environmental regulations sometimes treat point source polluters, such as power plants, differently from mobile source polluters, such as vehicles. This paper measures the extent of this regulatory

  3. Stationary light in cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

  4. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media and Its Effects on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xuhai

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow properties of porous media used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The liquid and gas phase relative permeability of porous media used in PEM fuel cells was measured...

  5. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    applications in stationary fuel cell systems. The analysis considers low temperature proton exchange membrane systems for use in combined heat and power applications from 1 to...

  6. Test profiles for stationary energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, J.F. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Taylor, P.A. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of battery and other energy storage technologies for stationary uses is progressing rapidly toward application-specific testing that uses computer-based data acquisition and control equipment, active electronic loads and power supplies, and customized software, to enable sophisticated test regimes that simulate actual use conditions. These simulated-use tests provide more accurate performance and life evaluations than simple constant resistance or current testing regimes. Some of the tests use stepped constant-power charge and discharge regimes to simulate conditions created by electric utility applications such as frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Other test profiles under development simulate conditions for the energy storage component of Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) that include renewable and/or fossil-fueled generators. Various RAPS applications have unique sets of service conditions that require specialized test profiles. However, almost all RAPS tests and many tests that represent other stationary applications need to simulate significant time periods during which storage devices operate at low-to-medium states-of-charge without full recharge. Consideration of these and similar issues in simulated-use test regimes is necessary to effectively predict the responses of the various types of batteries in specific stationary applications. This paper describes existing and evolving stationary applications for energy storage technologies and test regimes that are designed to simulate them. The paper also discusses efforts to develop international testing standards.

  7. NON-STATIONARY CONDITION MONITORING THROUGH EVENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in large diesel engines used for propulsion and power generation. Such operation involves frequent changes the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission that cannot be separated from alarms originating from real faults. MAN B&W Diesel has conducted experiments

  8. System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

  9. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

  10. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos AngelesGuillermo Garcia,Cost PEM

  11. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  12. Axisymmetric stationary solutions with arbitrary multipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Bckdahl

    2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the problem of finding an axisymmetric stationary spacetime from a specified set of multipole moments, is studied. The condition on the multipole moments, for existence of a solution, is formulated as a convergence condition on a power series formed from the multipole moments. The methods in this paper can also be used to give approximate solutions to any order as well as estimates on each term of the resulting power series.

  13. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  14. A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. F. Burlatsky; M. Gummalla; J. O'Neill; V. V. Atrazhev; A. N. Varyukhin; D. V. Dmitriev; N. S. Erikhman

    2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.

  15. On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Zissis Dardas; Ying She; Mallika Gummalla; Benoit Olsommer

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Report of On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells. The objective of this effort was to technologically enable a compact, fast start-up integrated Water Gas Shift-Pd membrane reactor for integration into an On Board Fuel Processing System (FPS) for an automotive 50 kWe PEM Fuel Cell (PEM FC). Our approach was to: (1) use physics based reactor and system level models to optimize the design through trade studies of the various system design and operating parameters; and (2) synthesize, characterize and assess the performance of advanced high flux, high selectivity, Pd alloy membranes on porous stainless steel tubes for mechanical strength and robustness. In parallel and not part of this program we were simultaneously developing air tolerant, high volumetric activity, thermally stable Water Gas Shift catalysts for the WGS/membrane reactor. We identified through our models the optimum WGS/membrane reactor configuration, and best Pd membrane/FPS and PEM FC integration scheme. Such a PEM FC power plant was shown through the models to offer 6% higher efficiency than a system without the integrated membrane reactor. The estimated FPS response time was < 1 minute to 50% power on start-up, 5 sec transient response time, 1140 W/L power density and 1100 W/kg specific power with an estimated production cost of $35/kW. Such an FPS system would have a Catalytic Partial Oxidation System (CPO) rather than the slower starting Auto-Thermal Reformer (ATR). We found that at optimum WGS reactor configuration that H{sub 2} recovery efficiencies of 95% could be achieved at 6 atm WGS pressure. However optimum overall fuel to net electrical efficiency ({approx}31%) is highest at lower fuel processor efficiency (67%) with 85% H{sub 2} recovery because less parasitic power is needed. The H{sub 2} permeance of {approx}45 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5} at 350 C was assumed in these simulations. In the laboratory we achieved a H{sub 2} permeance of 50 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5}) with a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 110 at 350 C with pure Pd. We also demonstrated that we could produce Pd-Ag membranes. Such alloy membranes are necessary because they aren't prone to the Pd-hydride {alpha}-{beta} phase transition that is known to cause membrane failure in cyclic operation. When funding was terminated we were on track to demonstrated Pd-Ag alloy deposition on a nano-porous ({approx}80 nm) oxide layer supported on porous stainless steel tubing using a process designed for scale-up.

  16. Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst molecules and a carbon material commonly used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), called XC coefficient at each temperature. At 350 K, a typical fuel cell temperature, the temperature function

  17. A Parametric Study of Cathode Catalyst Layer Structural Parameters on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and how changes in its structural parameters affect performance. These results give useful guidelines for manufactures of PEMFC catalyst layers. Keywords: PEM fuel cell In a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (or PEMFC), electrical energy is generated directly through

  18. Modeling and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System I Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G. Stefanopoulou, Huei Peng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Modeling and Control for PEM Fuel Cell Stack System I Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G. Stefanopoulou~umich, edu, hpeng@umich, edu Abstract A nonlinear fuel cell system dynamic model that is suit- able, the reactant partial pres- sures. Characterization of the Fuel Cell polarization curves based on time varying

  19. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Irfan S. Hussaini* and Chao-Yang Wang**,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of fuel cell voltage to a step change in external load is shown in Fig. 1. It is seen that after a step performance.6 They studied the phenomenon of current overshoot in response to a step change in cell voltageTransients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells Irfan S. Hussaini* and Chao

  20. Pore Formation by In Situ Etching of Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    a significant fraction of the overall cost of the fuel cell system, and much effort has therefore been directedPore Formation by In Situ Etching of Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman electrolyte membranes for testing as cathode electrodes in fuel cells. The rods were etched within fully

  1. Sputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    and power density.1 One obstacle to the widespread commercialization of fuel cells is the high cost activity than Pt,10 but is an attractive can- didate to supplement or replace Pt in lower cost fuel cellSputter-Deposited Pt/CrN Nanoparticle PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes: Limited Proton Conductivity Through

  2. Effects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    in the literature. Once properly calibrated, models can be used for fuel cell diagnostic and anode purge schedulingEffects of Nitrogen and Water Accumulation in the Dead-Ended-Anode Operation of PEM Fuel Cells S operation and associated hydrogen starvation on voltage measurements and fuel cell life are scarce

  3. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of burner temperature and the aspects of implementing advanced modeling based control approaches using], auxiliary and uninterruptible power systems [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuelDesign and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air

  4. Fiber-optic sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in PEM fuel cells Juan F. Botero-Cadavid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Fiber-optic sensor for detection of hydrogen peroxide in PEM fuel cells by Juan F. Botero of an optical fiber and its small size (125 m diameter), make the sensors here developed an ideal solution, by photocopy or other means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Supervisory Committee Fiber-optic

  5. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  6. Quantification of Liquid Water Saturation in a PEM Fuel Cell Diffusion Medium Using X-ray Microtomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at shutdown, may freeze under subzero tem- peratures and makes cold start of a PEM fuel cell difficult conditions. MRI is used to visualize the transport of liquid water across a polymer electrolyte membrane opportunities for imaging pore-scale flow and multiphase transport in porous me- dia. In recent years, X

  7. PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

  8. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release c

  9. Explicit multipole moments of stationary axisymmetric spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Backdahl; Magnus Herberthson

    2005-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we study multipole moments of axisymmetric stationary asymptotically flat spacetimes. We show how the tensorial recursion of Geroch and Hansen can be reduced to a recursion of scalar functions. We also demonstrate how a careful choice of conformal factor collects all moments into one complex valued function on R, where the moments appear as the derivatives at 0. As an application, we calculate the moments of the Kerr solution. We also discuss the freedom in choosing the potential for the moments.

  10. Stationary Power Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis(RedirectedStarr|| OpenStationary Power

  11. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Dr. K. G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A large-scale market for automotive fuel cells appears to be several years away and in any case will require a long-term, coordinated commitment by government and industry to insure the co-evolution of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles (Greene et al., 2008). The market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells, on the other hand, may be much closer to commercial viability (Stone, 2006). Cost targets are less demanding and manufacturers appear to be close, perhaps within a factor of two, of meeting them. Hydrogen supply is a significant obstacle to market acceptance but may not be as great a barrier as it is for hydrogen-powered vehicles due to the smaller quantities of hydrogen required. PEM fuel cells appear to be potentially competitive in two markets: (1) Backup power (BuP) supply, and (2) electrically-powered MHE (Mahadevan et al., 2007a, 2007b). There are several Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) of PEM fuel cell systems for these applications but production levels have been quite low (on the order of 100-200 per year) and cumulative production experience is also limited (on the order of 1,000 units to date). As a consequence, costs remain above target levels and PEM fuel cell OEMs are not yet competitive in these markets. If cost targets can be reached and acceptable solutions to hydrogen supply found, a sustainable North American PEM fuel cell industry could be established. If not, the industry and its North American supply chain could disappear within a year or two. The Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested a rapid assessment of the potential for a government acquisition program to bootstrap the market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells by driving down costs via economies of scale and learning-by-doing. The six week study included in-depth interviews of three manufacturers, visits to two production facilities, review of the literature on potential markets in North America and potential federal government procurements, development of a cost model reflecting economies of scale and learning-by-doing, and estimation of the impact of federal PEM fuel cell procurements on fuel cell system costs and the evolution of private market demand. This report presents the findings of that study. Section 2 outlines the status of the industry and describes potential markets based on interviews of manufacturers and the existing literature. Section 3 describes the modeling methodology including key premises and assumptions, and presents estimates of market evolution under four scenarios: (1) Base Case with no federal government procurement program, (2) Scenario 1, an aggressive program beginning with less than 200 units procured in 2008 ramping up to more than 2,000 units in 2012, (3) Scenario 2 which is identical to Scenario 1 except that the private market is assumed to be twice as sensitive to price, and (4) Scenario 3, a delayed, smaller federal procurement program beginning in 2011 increasing to a maximum of just over 1,000 units per year in 2012. The analysis suggests that the aggressive program of Scenario 1 would likely stimulate a sustainable, competitive North American non-automotive PEM fuel cell industry. Given plausible assumptions about learning rates and scale economies, the procurements assumed in Scenario 1 appear to be sufficient to drive down costs to target levels. These findings are conditional on the evolution of acceptable hydrogen supply strategies, which were not explicitly analyzed in this study. Success is less certain under Scenarios 2 and 3, and there appears to be a strong probability that existing OEMs would not survive until 2011. In the Base Case, no program, a viable North American industry does not emerge before 2020.

  12. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Harris, Aaron P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barge-mounted hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has the potential to reduce emissions and fossil fuel use of maritime vessels in and around ports. This study determines the technical feasibility of this concept and examines specific options on the U.S. West Coast for deployment practicality and potential for commercialization.The conceptual design of the system is found to be straightforward and technically feasible in several configurations corresponding to various power levels and run times.The most technically viable and commercially attractive deployment options were found to be powering container ships at berth at the Port of Tacoma and/or Seattle, powering tugs at anchorage near the Port of Oakland, and powering refrigerated containers on-board Hawaiian inter-island transport barges. Other attractive demonstration options were found at the Port of Seattle, the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, the California Maritime Academy, and an excursion vessel on the Ohio River.

  13. Iron-based alloy and nitridation treatment for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Yang, Bing (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive component that can be used as a bipolar plate in a PEM fuel cell application is composed of an alloy substrate which has 10-30 wt. % Cr, 0.5 to 7 wt. % V, and base metal being Fe, and a continuous surface layer of chromium nitride and vanadium nitride essentially free of base metal. A oxide layer of chromium vanadium oxide can be disposed between the alloy substrate and the continuous surface nitride layer. A method to prepare the corrosion resistant electrically conductive component involves a two-step nitridization sequence by exposing the alloy to a oxygen containing gas at an elevated temperature, and subsequently exposing the alloy to an oxygen free nitrogen containing gas at an elevated temperature to yield a component where a continuous chromium nitride layer free of iron has formed at the surface.

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Permit to Construct and Operate Stationary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Permits are required for the construction or major modification of a stationary source or emission unit. Some exemptions apply. These regulations describe permit requirements,...

  15. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers stationary fuel cells and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative:...

  17. National Template: Stationary & Portable Fuel Cell Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This graphic template shows the SDOs responsible for leading the support and development of key codes and standards for stationary and portable fuel cell systems.

  18. an inverse boundary value problem for the stationary transport ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    outer normal to ?X at x ? ?X. Let us denote by f the solution (if exists) to the following boundary value problem for the stationary linear transport (Boltzmann)

  19. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: A California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A California Perspective Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: A California Perspective Overview of California regulations, latest funded hydrogen stations, and...

  20. Evaluation of Stationary Fuel Cell Deployments, Costs, and Fuels (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL's technology validation of stationary fuel cell systems and presents data on number of deployments, system costs, and fuel types.

  1. Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decision Makers Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Decision Makers Download presentation slides from the May 8, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program...

  2. Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems ANLCSEFCTFQ-2011-11 Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost,...

  3. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    560-49072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler...

  4. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership...

  5. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  6. Propagating and stationary superfluid turbulent fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castiglione, J.; Murphy, P.J.; Tough, J.T.; Hayot, F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have observed that the critical heat current for the transition to superfluid turbulence in weakly nonuniform circular channels depends strongly on the flow direction. This observation is particularly surprising since no other property of the turbulence appears to have such a dependence. In a nonuniform channel the critical heat current is associated with a stationary front between the laminar and turbulent flow. The authors propose a new model for super-fluid turbulent fronts which explains the asymmetry of the critical heat currents in a simple way. The model is based on the subcritical nature of the transition, and the generic description of such a bifurcation by the Ginzburg-Landau equation. As a bonus, the model also explains a long-standing problem in superfluid physics-the nature of propagating fronts in uniform channels. The results of this analysis of both the uniform and nonuniform channel data also provide new information about the vortex line drift velocity.

  7. Separable geodesic action slicing in stationary spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Robert T. Jantzen

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple observation about the action for geodesics in a stationary spacetime with separable geodesic equations leads to a natural class of slicings of that spacetime whose orthogonal geodesic trajectories represent freely falling observers. The time coordinate function can then be taken to be the observer proper time, leading to a unit lapse function. This explains some of the properties of the original Painlev\\'e-Gullstrand coordinates on the Schwarzschild spacetime and their generalization to the Kerr-Newman family of spacetimes, reproducible also locally for the G\\"odel spacetime. For the static spherically symmetric case the slicing can be chosen to be intrinsically flat with spherically symmetric geodesic observers, leaving all the gravitational field information in the shift vector field.

  8. Stationary Applications of Energy Storage Technologies for Transit Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Lily H.

    Stationary Applications of Energy Storage Technologies for Transit Systems Paul Radcliffe, James S, Ontario, Canada paul.radcliffe@utoronto.ca Abstract ­ Stationary energy storage technologies can improve the efficiency of transit systems. In this paper, three different demonstrations of energy storage technologies

  9. Locally stationary wavelet coherence with application to neuroscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryzlewicz, Piotr

    Locally stationary wavelet coherence with application to neuroscience Jean Sanderson1 and Piotr extensively in neuroscience in order to study the interdependence between two simultaneously recorded signals (Pereda et al. (2005)). Neurophysiological time series are inherently non-stationary, and the detection

  10. Fourier law, phase transitions and the stationary Stefan problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna De Masi; Errico Presutti; Dimitrios Tsagkarogiannis

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the one-dimensional stationary solutions of an integro-differential equation derived by Giacomin and Lebowitz from Kawasaki dynamics in Ising systems with Kac potentials, \\cite{GiacominLebowitz}. We construct stationary solutions with non zero current and prove the validity of the Fourier law in the thermodynamic limit showing that below the critical temperature the limit equilibrium profile has a discontinuity (which defines the position of the interface) and satisfies a stationary free boundary Stefan problem. Under-cooling and over-heating effects are also studied. We show that if metastable values are imposed at the boundaries then the mesoscopic stationary profile is no longer monotone and therefore the Fourier law is not satisfied. It regains however its validity in the thermodynamic limit where the limit profile is again monotone away from the interface.

  11. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM); Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  12. 2004 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Review Presentation COST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

  13. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Carlson

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

  14. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    precursor, the necessary scrubbers to purify the resultingcatalytic reduction (SCR) scrubber system for reduction ofcan be reduced further using a scrubber for PEM fuel cell

  15. FINAL REPORT FOR PSO project 5728 Title of the project: Development of more efficient and cheaper MEA's for PEM fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MEA's for PEM fuel cells Projekttitel p dansk: Udvikling af mere effektive og billigere MEA'er til, Technical University of Denmark (KI-DTU) IRD Fuel Cell A/S (IRD) Danish Power System Aps (DPS) Dansk Polymer.............................................................................................................................20 3.6. FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE

  16. 184 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 26, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 PEM Fuel Cell Stack Modeling for Real-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    . In addition, fuel cell test costs (hydrogen consumption and the need of safety installations) are still with the real- time fuel cell emulator initially without any risks for the fuel cell stack, with low cost184 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 26, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 PEM Fuel Cell Stack Modeling

  17. Binary Black Holes in Quasi-Stationary Circular Orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Baker

    2002-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method of determining solutions to the constraint equations of General Relativity approximately describing binary black holes in quasi-stationary circular orbits. Black holes with arbitrary linear momenta are constructed in the manner suggested by Brandt and Brugmann. The quasi-stationary circular orbits are determined by local minima in the ADM mass in a manner similar to Baumgarte and Cook; however, rather than fixing the area of the apparent horizon, we fix the value of the bare masses of the holes. We numerically generate an evolutionary sequence of quasi-stationary circular orbits up to and including the innermost stable circular orbit. We compare our results with post-Newtonian expectations as well as the results of Cook and Baumgarte. We also generate additional numerical results describing the dynamics of the geometry due to the emission of gravitational radiation.

  18. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elbaz Alon, Lior [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roy, Aaron [University of New Mexico; Serov, Alexey [University of New Mexico; Ward, Timothy [University of New Mexico

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to predict the thermodynamic and activation barriers for fundamental electrode processes occurring at platinum surfaces supported on thin films of the ceramic support materials. The results of this work will be used in order to optimize support properties.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMICAL SENSORS FOR PEM AND SOFC SYSTEMS A-M. Azad, C. Holt, S. Swartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    a hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure is in place. In the interim, fuel cells offer a viable or propane for residential and stationary applications, and liquid fuels (gasoline or diesel

  20. Self-Calibration of Stationary Cameras Richard I. Hartley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartley, Richard

    Self-Calibration of Stationary Cameras Richard I. Hartley G.E. CRD, Schenectady, NY, 12301. Email : hartley@crd.ge.com Abstract A new practical method is given for the self-calibration of a camera of the camera and calibration is computed from an analysis of point matches between the images. The method

  1. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  2. Bidding strategies for renewable energy generation with non stationary statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannitrapani, Antonello

    Bidding strategies for renewable energy generation with non stationary statistics A. Giannitrapani strategies to offer the maximum amount of energy while avoiding imbalance costs. Optimal bidding strategies to the integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. This paper studies the problem

  3. Gyrokinetic modelling of stationary electron and impurity profiles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skyman, A., E-mail: andreas.skyman@chalmers.se; Tegnered, D., E-mail: tegnered@chalmers.se; Nordman, H., E-mail: hans.nordman@chalmers.se; Strand, P., E-mail: par.strand@chalmers.se [EuratomVR Association, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gteborg (Sweden)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle transport due to Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG)/Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence is investigated using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Both a reduced quasilinear treatment and nonlinear simulations are performed for typical tokamak parameters corresponding to ITG dominated turbulence. The gyrokinetic results are compared and contrasted with results from a computationally efficient fluid model. A selfconsistent treatment is used, where the stationary local profiles are calculated corresponding to zero particle flux simultaneously for electrons and trace impurities. The scaling of the stationary profiles with magnetic shear, safety factor, electron-to-ion temperature ratio, collisionality, toroidal sheared rotation, plasma ?, triangularity, and elongation is investigated. In addition, the effect of different main ion mass on the zero flux condition is discussed. The electron density gradient can significantly affect the stationary impurity profile scaling. It is therefore expected that a selfconsistent treatment will yield results more comparable to experimental results for parameter scans where the stationary background density profile is sensitive. This is shown to be the case in scans over magnetic shear, collisionality, elongation, and temperature ratio, for which the simultaneous zero flux electron and impurity profiles are calculated. A slight asymmetry between hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with respect to profile peaking is obtained, in particular, for scans in collisionality and temperature ratio.

  4. Air Traffic Control Using Virtual Stationary Automata Matthew D. Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Air Traffic Control Using Virtual Stationary Automata by Matthew D. Brown B.S., Massachusetts by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;Air Traffic Control Using Virtual of Engineering Abstract As air travel has become an essential part of modern life, the air traffic control system

  5. No hair theorems for stationary axisymmetric black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a non-perturbative proof of the no hair theorems corresponding to scalar and Proca fields for stationary axisymmetric de Sitter black hole spacetimes. Our method also applies to asymptotically flat and under a reasonable assumption, to asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  6. 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Review PresentationCOST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the program during the past year was to complete Technical Objectives 2 and 3 and initiate Technical Objective 4 are described. To assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

  7. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  8. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  9. Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. stationary and portable fuel cell systems.

  10. Anisotropic fluids in the case of stationary and axisymmetric spaces of General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Papakostas

    2001-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a stationary axisymmetric solution belonging to Carter's family [A] of spaces and representing an anisotropic fluid configuration.

  11. Interpretation of Stationary States in Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a prequantum classical statistical model in that the role of hidden variables is played by classical (vector) fields. We call this model Prequantum Classical Statistical Field Theory (PCSFT). The correspondence between classical and quantum quantities is asymptotic, so we call our approach asymptotic dequantization. In this note we pay the main attention to interpretation of so called pure quantum states (wave functions) in PCSFT, especially stationary states. We show, see Theorem 2, that pure states of QM can be considered as labels for Gaussian measures concentrated on one dimensional complex subspaces of phase space that are invariant with respect to the Schr\\"odinger dynamics. ``A quantum system in a stationary state $\\psi$'' in PCSFT is nothing else than a Gaussian ensemble of classical fields (fluctuations of the vacuum field of a very small magnitude) which is not changed in the process of Schr\\"odinger's evolution. We interpret in this way the problem of {\\it stability of hydrogen atom.

  12. Gravitational field of a stationary circular cosmic string loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A; A. Sen; N. Banerjee

    1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational field of a stationary circular cosmic string loop has been studied in the context of full nonlinear Einstein's theory of gravity. It has been assumed that the radial and tangential stresses of the loop are equal to the energy density of the string loop. An exact solution for the system has been presented which has a singularity at a finite distance from the axis,but is regular for any other distances from the axis of the loop.

  13. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n? can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  14. Freeze drying for gas chromatography stationary phase deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sylwester, Alan P. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to methods for deposition of gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases into chromatography columns, for example gas chromatography columns. A chromatographic medium is dissolved or suspended in a solvent to form a composition. The composition may be inserted into a chromatographic column. Alternatively, portions of the chromatographic column may be exposed or filled with the composition. The composition is permitted to solidify, and at least a portion of the solvent is removed by vacuum sublimation.

  15. Non-stationary measurements of Chiral Magnetic Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevchenko, V.I., E-mail: vladimir.i.shevchenko@gmail.com

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the Chiral Magnetic Effect from the quantum theory of measurements point of view for non-stationary measurements. The effect of anisotropy for fluctuations of electric currents in a magnetic field is addressed. It is shown that anisotropy caused by nonzero axial chemical potential is indistinguishable in this framework from anisotropy caused by finite measurement time or finite lifetime of the magnetic field, and in all cases it is related to abelian triangle anomaly. Possible P-odd effects in central heavy-ion collisions (where the Chiral Magnetic Effect is absent) are discussed in this context. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Mikhail Polikarpov (19522013). -- Highlights: Asymmetry in the response function for vector currents of massless fermions in the magnetic field is computed. Asymmetry caused by axial chemical potential is practically indistinguishable from the one caused by non-stationarity. The CME current is non-dissipative in the stationary case and dissipative in the non-stationary case. Importance of studies of P-odd signatures in central collisions is emphasized.

  16. Stationary Nonaxisymmetric Configurations of Magnetized Singular Isothermal Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-qing Lou

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accepted.... Received...; in original form... We construct both aligned and unaligned (logarithmic spiral) stationary configurations of nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disks from either a full or a partial razor-thin power-law axisymmetric magnetized singular isothermal disk (MSID) that is embedded with a coplanar azimuthal magnetic field B? of a non-force-free radial scaling r?1/2 and that rotates differentially with a flat rotation curve of speed aD, where a is the isothermal sound speed and D is the dimensionless rotation parameter. Analytical solutions and stability criteria for determining D2 are derived. For aligned nonaxisymmetric MSIDs, eccentric m = 1 displacements may occur at arbitrary D2 in a full MSID but are allowed only with a2D2 = C2 A /2 in a partial MSID (CA is the Alfvn speed), while each case of |m | ? 1 gives two possible values of D2 for purely azimuthal propagations of fast and slow MHD density waves (FMDWs and SMDWs) that appear stationary in an inertial frame of reference. For disk galaxies modeled by a partial MSID resulting from a massive dark-matter halo with a flat rotation curve and a2D2 ? C2 A, stationary aligned perturbations of m = 1 are not allowed. For

  17. On Optimal Feedback Control for Stationary Linear Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, David L., E-mail: russell@math.vt.ed [Virginia Tech, Department of Mathematics (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study linear-quadratic optimal control problems for finite dimensional stationary linear systems AX+BU=Z with output Y=CX+DU from the viewpoint of linear feedback solution. We interpret solutions in relation to system robustness with respect to disturbances Z and relate them to nonlinear matrix equations of Riccati type and eigenvalue-eigenvector problems for the corresponding Hamiltonian system. Examples are included along with an indication of extensions to continuous, i.e., infinite dimensional, systems, primarily of elliptic type.

  18. Symmetry groups of non-stationary planar ideal plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Lamothe

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a study of the Lie groups of point symmetries admitted by a system describing a non-stationary planar flow of an ideal plastic material. For several types of forces involved in the system, the infinitesimal generators which generate the Lie algebra of symmetries have been obtained. In the case of a monogenic force, the classification of one- and two- dimensional subalgebras into conjugacy classes under the action of the group of automorphisms has been accomplished. The method of symmetry reduction is applied for certain subalgebra classes in order to obtain invariant solutions.

  19. SYSTEMS MODELING OF AMMONIA BORANE BEAD REACTOR FOR OFF-BOARD REGENERABLE HYDROGEN STORAGE IN PEM FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; King, Dale A.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Out of the materials available for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has a high hydrogen storage capacity (upto 19.6% by weight for the release of three hydrogen molecules). Therefore, AB was chosen in our chemical hydride simulation studies. A model for the AB bead reactor system was developed to study the system performance and determine the energy, mass and volume requirements for off-board regenerable hydrogen storage. The system includes hot and cold augers, ballast tank and reactor, product tank, H2 burner and a radiator. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure in the reactor system. Control signals to various components are governed by a control system which is modeled as an independent subsystem. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Preliminary system simulation results for a start-up case and for a transient drive cycle indicate accurate trends in the reactor system dynamics.

  20. File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    icon File:5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File...

  1. Stationary Fuel Cell Application Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, C. W.; Rivkin, C. H.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of codes and standards related to stationary fuel cell applications and identifies gaps and resolutions associated with relative codes and standards.

  2. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saur, G.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Peters, M.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes 25 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the fourth quarter of 2013.

  3. Abatement of Air Pollution: Permit to Construct and Operate Stationary Sources (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permits are required for the construction or major modification of a stationary source or emission unit. Some exemptions apply. These regulations describe permit requirements, authorized activities...

  4. Webinar: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, originally presented on May 8, 2012.

  5. StationaryEnvironment ResidentialTransportation Premium Power Advanced High Efficiency, Quick Start Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Premium Power Agenda STARTM (1999-2003) Substrate based Transportation application Autothermal ReformerEnvironment Residential Stationary Premium Power STAR Fuel Processor Autothermal reformer Substrate-based catalysts

  6. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes 24 composite data products (CDPs) produced for stationary fuel cell systems, with data through the second quarter of 2013.

  7. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough, component sizing, and utility needs. These data, along with process efficiency results from the model, were subsequently used to calculate the cost of electricity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correlate the concentrations of key impurities in the fuel gas feedstock to the cost of electricity.

  8. Statistics of Stationary Points of Random Finite Polynomial Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, Dhagash; Sun, Chuang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stationary points (SPs) of the potential energy landscapes (PELs) of multivariate random potentials (RPs) have found many applications in many areas of Physics, Chemistry and Mathematical Biology. However, there are few reliable methods available which can find all the SPs accurately. Hence, one has to rely on indirect methods such as Random Matrix theory. With a combination of the numerical polynomial homotopy continuation method and a certification method, we obtain all the certified SPs of the most general polynomial RP for each sample chosen from the Gaussian distribution with mean 0 and variance 1. While obtaining many novel results for the finite size case of the RP, we also discuss the implications of our results on mathematics of random systems and string theory landscapes.

  9. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  10. Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Technologies Inc. and its subcontractors, during the period April 1, 1993 through October 31, 1994 under Phase II of the DOE Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development program. The objective of the program is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the implementation of selected ceramic components.

  11. Existence result for stationary compressible fluids and asymptotic behavior in thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Chupin; Rmy Sart

    2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we are first interested in the compressible Navier-Stokes equations with densitydependent viscosities in bounded domains with on-homogeneous Dirichlet conditions. We study the wellposedness of such models with non-constant coefficients in non-stationary and stationary cases. We apply the last result in thin domains context, justifying the compressible Reynolds equations.

  12. THE INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL STATIONARY PV-BATTERY SYSTEMS IN SMART DISTRIBUTION GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    ) in presence of photovoltaic (PV) panel on the view of techno economic optimal sizing taking the considerationTHE INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL STATIONARY PV-BATTERY SYSTEMS IN SMART DISTRIBUTION stationary battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the public low-voltage distribution grid in order

  13. Stationary free surface viscous flows without surface tension in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stationary free surface viscous flows without surface tension in three dimensions Frederic Abergel dimensional channel. In the absence of surface tension, we prove the existence of a unique stationary solution is not elliptic when surface tension is neglected. Hence, analysis such as that made in [4] or [17] fails

  14. PEMFC Power System on EthanolPEMFC Power System on Ethanol Caterpillar Inc.Caterpillar Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. RichardsThomas J. Richards #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cells 2003 Annual Merit Review 21 May 2003 #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL In 2003, a 10-15 kW stationary PEM fuel cell system examines the durability of a PEM based fuel cell system while operating on ethanol - a renewable fuel

  15. Lyapunov functions and relative stability in reaction-diffusion systems with multiple stationary states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, N.F.; Ross, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In prior work on a thermodynamic and stochastic theory of chemical systems far from equilibrium, the excess work (a Lyapunov function) was shown to predict relative stability of stationary states in reaction-diffusion systems with multiple stationary states. This theory predicts equistability when the excess work from one stationary state to the stable inhomogeneous concentration profile separating the two stable stationary states equals the excess work from the other stable stationary state to that profile. Here we prove that any Lyapunov function of the deterministic reaction-diffusion equations of a given form can be used to predict equistability. Further, we show that the spatial derivative of any Lyapunov function for these equations, which is simpler to calculate, can also be used to predict relative stability. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.

    1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

  17. Time-Frequency Analysis of Non-Stationary Signals in Fusion Plasmas using the Choi-Williams Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time-Frequency Analysis of Non-Stationary Signals in Fusion Plasmas using the Choi-Williams Distribution

  18. TimeFrequency Analysis of Non Stationary Signals in Fusion Plasmas using the Choi-Williams Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TimeFrequency Analysis of Non Stationary Signals in Fusion Plasmas using the Choi-Williams Distribution

  19. Combined use of close-talk and throat microphones for improved speech recognition under non-stationary background noise.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupont, Stéphane

    -stationary background noise. St´ephane Dupont, Christophe Ris and Damien Bachelart Multitel & FPMS-TCTS, Avenue Copernic

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  1. An Inversion-Relaxation Approach for Sampling Stationary Points of Spin Model Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciaran Hughes; Dhagash Mehta; David J Wales

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Sampling the stationary points of a complicated potential energy landscape is a challenging problem. Here we introduce a sampling method based on relaxation from stationary points of the highest index of the Hessian matrix. We illustrate how this approach can find all the stationary points for potentials or Hamiltonians bounded from above, which includes a large class of important spin models, and we show that it is far more efficient than previous methods. For potentials unbounded from above, the relaxation part of the method is still efficient in finding minima and transition states, which are usually the primary focus of attention for atomistic systems.

  2. Phase dynamics of nearly stationary patterns in activator-inhibitor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagberg, Aric [Center for Nonlinear Studies and T-7, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Nonlinear Studies and T-7, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Meron, Ehud [The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research and the Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Sede Boker Campus 84990, (Israel)] [The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research and the Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Sede Boker Campus 84990, (Israel); Passot, Thierry [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Boite Postale 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, (France) [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Boite Postale 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, (France); Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The slow dynamics of nearly stationary patterns in a FitzHugh-Nagumo model are studied using a phase dynamics approach. A Cross-Newell phase equation describing slow and weak modulations of periodic stationary solutions is derived. The derivation applies to the bistable, excitable, and Turing unstable regimes. In the bistable case stability thresholds are obtained for the Eckhaus and zigzag instabilities and for the transition to traveling waves. Neutral stability curves demonstrate the destabilization of stationary planar patterns at low wave numbers to zigzag and traveling modes. Numerical solutions of the model system support the theoretical findings. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  3. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development program -- Fifth annual summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.R.; Jimenez, O.; Faulder, L.; Edwards, B.; Parthasarathy, V.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program is being performed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the selective replacement of metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. The program focuses on design, fabrication, and testing of ceramic components, generating a materials properties data base, and applying life prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The development program is being performed by a team led by Solar Turbines Incorporated, and which includes suppliers of ceramic components, US research laboratories, and an industrial cogeneration end user. The Solar Centaur 50S engine was selected for the development program. The program goals included an increase in the turbine rotor inlet temperature (TRIT) from 1,010 C (1,850 F) to 1,121 C (2,050 F), accompanied by increases in thermal efficiency and output power. The performance improvements are attributable to the increase in TRIT and the reduction in cooling air requirements for the ceramic parts. The ceramic liners are also expected to lower the emissions of NOx and CO. Under the program uncooled ceramic blades and nozzles have been inserted for currently cooled metal components in the first stage of the gas producer turbine. The louvre-cooled metal combustor liners have been replaced with uncooled continuous-fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) liners. Modifications have been made to the engine hot section to accommodate the ceramic parts. To date, all first generation designs have been completed. Ceramic components have been fabricated, and are being tested in rigs and in the Centaur 50S engine. Field testing at an industrial co-generation site was started in May, 1997. This paper will provide an update of the development work and details of engine testing of ceramic components under the program.

  4. Water Vapor Turbulence Profiles in Stationary Continental Convective Mixed Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Berg, Larry K.; Schween, Jan

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) programs Raman lidar at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in north-central Oklahoma has collected water vapor mixing ratio (q) profile data more than 90% of the time since October 2004. Three hundred (300) cases were identified where the convective boundary layer was quasi-stationary and well-mixed for a 2-hour period, and q mean, variance, third order moment, and skewness profiles were derived from the 10-s, 75-m resolution data. These cases span the entire calendar year, and demonstrate that the q variance profiles at the mixed layer (ML) top changes seasonally, but is more related to the gradient of q across the interfacial layer. The q variance at the top of the ML shows only weak correlations (r < 0.3) with sensible heat flux, Deardorff convective velocity scale, and turbulence kinetic energy measured at the surface. The median q skewness profile is most negative at 0.85 zi, zero at approximately zi, and positive above zi, where zi is the depth of the convective ML. The spread in the q skewness profiles is smallest between 0.95 zi and zi. The q skewness at altitudes between 0.6 zi and 1.2 zi is correlated with the magnitude of the q variance at zi, with increasingly negative values of skewness observed lower down in the ML as the variance at zi increases, suggesting that in cases with larger variance at zi there is deeper penetration of the warm, dry free tropospheric air into the ML.

  5. 5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: 5 CCR 1001-5...

  6. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

  7. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  8. Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes stationary fuel cell system composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  9. R&D of Large Stationary Hydrogen/CNG/HCNG Storage Vessels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stationary HydrogenCNGHCNG Storage Vessels September 28, 2010 Add hydrogen to natural gas makes it burn more cleanly (notably reducing smog-causing NO X by 50%). HCNG...

  10. The Spectral Density Estimation of Stationary Time Series with Missing Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schellekens, Michel P.

    reported in literature (see, e.g. Green et al., 2002, Kaneoke and Vitek, 1996, Fortin and Mackey, 1999, and Laguna et al., 1998). Here we consider estimating the spectral density of stationary time series

  11. CGH Data Modeling and Smoothing in Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform Domain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Heng

    CGH Data Modeling and Smoothing in Stationary Wavelet Packet Transform Domain. Heng Huang1 , Nha, Texas, USA Email: Heng Huang- heng@uta.edu; Nha Nguyen - nhn3175@exchange.uta.edu; Soontorn Oraintara

  12. Economically and ecologically sustainable adoption of stationary fuel cells in the USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhaumick, Benjamin, 1967-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy in various forms is essential to all human activity, be it leisure or business. Currently employed stationary energy generation technology is marked by relatively high emissions of pathogenic chemicals such as carbon ...

  13. High-Speed Boundary-Layer Transition : : Study of Stationary Crossflow Using Spectral Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary Instability of Crossflow Vortices. J. Fluid Mech.R. & S ARIC , W. S. 1999 Crossflow Stability and TransitionSaturation of Stationary Crossflow Vortices in a Swept-Wing

  14. Constructing non-stationary Dynamic Bayesian Networks with a flexible lag choosing mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Yi; Huan, Jun

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) are widely used in regulatory network structure inference with gene expression data. Current methods assumed that the underlying stochastic processes that generate the gene expression data are stationary...

  15. The elementary spike produced by a pure $e^+e^-$ pair-electromagnetic pulse from a Black Hole: The PEM Pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Luciano Bianco; Remo Ruffini; She-Sheng Xue

    2001-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the model that uses black holes endowed with electromagnetic structure (EMBH) as the energy source, we study how an elementary spike appears to the detectors. We consider the simplest possible case of a pulse produced by a pure $e^+e^-$ pair-electro-magnetic plasma, the PEM pulse, in the absence of any baryonic matter. The resulting time profiles show a {\\em Fast-Rise-Exponential-Decay} shape, followed by a power-law tail. This is obtained without any special fitting procedure, but only by fixing the energetics of the process taking place in a given EMBH of selected mass, varying in the range from 10 to $10^3$ $M_\\odot$ and considering the relativistic effects to be expected in an electron-positron plasma gradually reaching transparency. Special attention is given to the contributions from all regimes with Lorentz $\\gamma$ factor varying from $\\gamma=1$ to $\\gamma=10^4$ in a few hundreds of the PEM pulse travel time. Although the main goal of this paper is to obtain the elementary spike intensity as a function of the arrival time, and its observed duration, some qualitative considerations are also presented regarding the expected spectrum and on its departure from the thermal one. The results of this paper will be comparable, when data will become available, with a subfamily of particularly short GRBs not followed by any afterglow. They can also be propedeutical to the study of longer bursts in presence of baryonic matter currently observed in GRBs.

  16. Stationary table CT dosimetry and anomalous scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Robert L., E-mail: rdixon@wfubmc.edu [Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Boone, John M. [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)] [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Anomalous, scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} for stationary phantom/table protocols (having elevated values of CTDI{sub vol} over 300% higher than the actual dose to the phantom) have been observed; which are well-beyond the typical accuracy expected of CTDI{sub vol} as a phantom dose. Recognition of these outliers as bad data is important to users of CT dose index tracking systems (e.g., ACR DIR), and a method for recognition and correction is provided. Methods: Rigorous methods and equations are presented which describe the dose distributions for stationary-table CT. A comparison with formulae for scanner-reported values of CTDI{sub vol} clearly identifies the source of these anomalies. Results: For the stationary table, use of the CTDI{sub 100} formula (applicable to a moving phantom only) overestimates the dose due to extra scatter and also includes an overbeaming correction, both of which are nonexistent when the phantom (or patient) is held stationary. The reported DLP remains robust for the stationary phantom. Conclusions: The CTDI-paradigm does not apply in the case of a stationary phantom and simpler nonintegral equations suffice. A method of correction of the currently reported CTDI{sub vol} using the approach-to-equilibrium formula H(a) and an overbeaming correction factor serves to scale the reported CTDI{sub vol} values to more accurate levels for stationary-table CT, as well as serving as an indicator in the detection of bad data..

  17. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities region including Charlotte, Greenville, and Columbia. Such events allowed for H2 Education Material to be presented, and recruit attendees for future sessi

  18. Bridging the Gap Between Transportation and Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and their Implications for the Transportation Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy; Unnasch, Stephen

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts,E 2 Four Potential Types of Hydrogen Energy Stations VehicleOperational Toronto Hydrogen Energy Station Stationary PEMFC

  19. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Economic Analysis of Stationary PEM Fuel Cell Systems · Harry Stone, Economist and Principal Investigator. #12;8 Skill Set ­ Models (Battelle) Battelle Team: Economic Analysis of Stationary PEM Fuel Cell Systems Economic analysis of stationary fuel cells and their associated markets to understand the cost

  20. The use of the stationary phase method as a mathematical tool to determine the path of optical beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Silvnia A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the stationary phase method to determine the path of optical beams which propagate through a dielectric block. In the presence of partial internal reflection, we recover the geometrical result obtained by using the Snell law. For total internal reflection, the stationary phase method overreaches the Snell law predicting the Goos-Haenchen shift.

  1. Stable stationary vortices and traveling oscillatory vortices in a stenotic fluid-flow channel David W. Pravica,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bier, Martin

    will show that a sufficiently large boundary vor- ticity layer is required for stationary vortices and that a suf- ficiently high Reynolds number with a boundary shear stress is required for traveling oscillatoryStable stationary vortices and traveling oscillatory vortices in a stenotic fluid-flow channel

  2. Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim in a Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) flow battery that can be used in a stationary energy storage application. Li* and Nina MahootcheianAsl Richard Lugar Center for Renewable Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering

  3. Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart storage system in the near future. Broader context With the rapid development of renewable energy sources

  4. mn header will be provided by the publisher Linear Passive Stationary Scattering Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rovnyak, James

    mn header will be provided by the publisher Linear Passive Stationary Scattering Systems 26, Odessa 65020, Ukraine 2 Department of Mathematics, University of Virginia, P. O. Box 400137@farlep.net Corresponding author: e-mail: rovnyak@Virginia.edu e-mail: sergey saprikin@ukr.net Copyright line

  5. STATIONARY HIGH-PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES IN THE DII-D TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUCE,TC; WADE,MR; FERRON,JR; HYATT,AW; KELLMAN,AG; KINSEY,JE; LAHAYE,RJ; LASNIER,CJ; MURAKAMI,M; POLITZER,PA; SCOVILLE,JT

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A271 STATIONARY HIGH-PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES IN THE DII-D TOKAMAK. Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak under stationary conditions at relatively low plasma current (q{sub 95} > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain ({beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2}) has been maintained at values corresponding to ! = 10 operation in a burning plasma for > 6 s or 36{tau}{sub E} and 2{tau}{sub R}. The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q{sub min} > 1. In the absence of sawteeth and fishbones, stable operation has been achieved up to the estimated no-wall {beta} limit. Feedback control of the energy content and particle inventory allow reproducible, stationary operation. The particle inventory is controlled by gas fueling and active pumping; the wall plays only a small role in the particle balance. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption. In addition, the pulse length capability is greatly increased, which is essential for a technology testing phase of a burning plasma experiment where fluence (duty cycle) is important.

  6. Blind Identification of MIMO FIR Systems Driven by Quasi-Stationary Sources Using Second Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, James P.

    1 Blind Identification of MIMO FIR Systems Driven by Quasi-Stationary Sources Using Second Order This paper discusses a frequency domain method for blind identification of MIMO convolutive channels driven are presented to demonstrate the performance of the new algorithm1 . I. Introduction Blind identification

  7. Coloquio Inter-Institucional "Modelos Estocasticos e Aplicacoes" When stationary limits of spatially ergodic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, I-Shih

    Coloquio Inter- Institucional "Modelos Estocasticos e Aplicacoes" When stationary limits "Modelos Estocasticos e Aplicacoes" · General case Open problem · Particle systems Spin flip systems and Garcia (2006) 2 Rio de Janeiro, 29/06/2007 #12;Coloquio Inter- Institucional "Modelos Estocasticos e

  8. A VARIATIONAL FORMULA FOR THE LYAPUNOV EXPONENT OF BROWNIAN MOTION IN STATIONARY ERGODIC POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    A VARIATIONAL FORMULA FOR THE LYAPUNOV EXPONENT OF BROWNIAN MOTION IN STATIONARY ERGODIC POTENTIAL JOHANNES RUESS Abstract. We establish a variational formula for the exponential decay rate of the Green. Such a variational formula is established by Schroeder in [Sch88] for periodic potentials and is generalised

  9. Kalman filter mixture model for spike sorting of non-stationary Ana Calabrese and Liam Paninski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Kalman filter mixture model for spike sorting of non-stationary data Ana Calabrese and Liam. Our algorithm is based on a computationally efficient Kalman filter model; the recursive nature and real data. Keywords: Spike sorting; non-stationarity; Kalman filter; hidden Markov model; mixture model

  10. Stationary formulas for computing the response in eddy-current NDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, G.L.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stationary or variational formulations have been proven to be useful in a number of electromagnetic problems. This paper presents such a formulation for the response in the eddy-current NDE problem. It thus provides an approach to estimating the response due to arbitrary defects in cases where a reasonable first guess for the current distribution responsible for the scattered fields can be obtained.

  11. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications V Abstract: Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy factor. One of the technologies in focus in EU research programmers is solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC

  12. Experimental validation of large eddy simulations of flow and heat transfer in a stationary ribbed duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Duct flow; Ribbed channels; LES 1. Introduction In an effortExperimental validation of large eddy simulations of flow and heat transfer in a stationary ribbed Abstract Accurate prediction of ribbed duct flow and heat transfer is of importance to the gas turbine

  13. Thermocapillary and Magnetohydrodynamic Effects in Modelling the Thermodynamics of Stationary Welding Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gary

    Welding Processes Michael HUGHES, Gareth A. TAYLOR and Koulis PERICLEOUS Centre for Numerical Modelliqng transport and solidification in a stationary axisymmetric weld pool. The PHOENICS implementations, the integration of the effects within the fluid dynamics of an axisymmetric weld pool is compared against

  14. Dynamic Power Management for non-stationary service requests Eui-Young Chung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    . Introduction Design methodologies for energy-efficient system-level design are receiving increasingly larger phones, laptop computers, etc.) and of the concerns about the environmental impact of elec- tronic-line analysis of usage traces, hence they are not suitable to non-stationary request streams whose statistical

  15. Dynamical and Stationary Properties of On-line Learning from Finite Training Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Michael K Y

    are found to agree with simulations. The physical origin of the critical learning rate is presentedDynamical and Stationary Properties of On-line Learning from Finite Training Sets Peixun Luo #3 of on-line learning from #12;nite training sets are analysed using the cavity method. For large input

  16. Modeling and Optimization of Commercial Buildings and Stationary Fuel Cell Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; McLarty, D.; Sullivan, R.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the Distributed Generation Building Energy Assessment Tool (DG-BEAT) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of California Irvine. DG-BEAT is designed to allow stakeholders to assess the economics of installing stationary fuel cell systems in a variety of building types in the United States.

  17. Adaptive Threshold Spike Detection using Stationary Wavelet Transform for Neural Recording Implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    to optimize power consumption. The system was designed in 130nm CMOS and shown to occupy 0.082 mm2. Such a system must operate with very low power and occupy minimal area in order to facilitate implantationAdaptive Threshold Spike Detection using Stationary Wavelet Transform for Neural Recording Implants

  18. Uniqueness Theorem for Stationary Axisymmetric Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Rogatko

    2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the uniqueness theorem for stationary axisymmetric black hole solution in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity being the low-energy limit of the heterotic string theory. We consider both non-degenerate and extremal Kerr-Sen black hole solutions.

  19. Uniqueness theorem for stationary axisymmetric black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the uniqueness theorem for the stationary axisymmetric black hole solution in Einstein-Maxwell-axion-dilaton gravity being the low-energy limit of the heterotic string theory. We consider both the nonextremal and extremal Kerr-Sen black hole solutions.

  20. Quasi-stationary states and a classification of the range of pair interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabrielli, A. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi (ISC), CNR, Via dei Taurini 19, Rome (Italy); Joyce, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (France); Marcos, B. [Laboratoire J.-A. Dieudonne, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems of long-range interacting particles present typically 'quasi-stationary' states (QSS). Investigating their lifetime for a generic pair interaction V(r{yields}{infinity}){approx}1/r{sup {gamma}} we give a classification of the range of the interactions according to the dynamical properties of the system.

  1. Coping with Information Delays in the Assignment of Mobile Agents to Stationary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the former case, the application of mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) has proved very useful when1 Coping with Information Delays in the Assignment of Mobile Agents to Stationary Tasks Brandon J toward a common goal. This problem is often put in the context of assignment of agents to tasks

  2. Three-dimensional stationary cyclic symmetric Einstein-Maxwell solutions; black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Alberto A. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: aagarcia@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    From a general metric for stationary cyclic symmetric gravitational fields coupled to Maxwell electromagnetic fields within the (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity the uniqueness of wide families of exact solutions is established. Among them, all uniform electromagnetic solutions possessing electromagnetic fields with vanishing covariant derivatives, all fields having constant electromagnetic invariants F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}F{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}} and T{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}T{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}, the whole classes of hybrid electromagnetic solutions, and also wide classes of stationary solutions are derived for a third-order nonlinear key equation. Certain of these families can be thought of as black hole solutions. For the most general set of Einstein-Maxwell equations, reducible to three nonlinear equations for the three unknown functions, two new classes of solutions - having anti-de Sitter spinning metric limit - are derived. The relationship of various families with those reported by different authors' solutions has been established. Among the classes of solutions with cosmological constant a relevant place is occupied by the electrostatic and magnetostatic Peldan solutions, the stationary uniform and spinning Clement classes, the constant electromagnetic invariant branches with the particular Kamata-Koikawa solution, the hybrid cyclic symmetric stationary black hole fields, and the non-less important solutions generated via SL(2,R)-transformations where the Clement spinning charged solution, the Martinez-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole solution, and Dias-Lemos metric merit mention.

  3. Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    PWP-092 Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems emissions, and petroleum use from motor vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) could also act as distributed Fuel Cell Systems in California January 31, 2002 Dr. Timothy E. Lipman Ms. Jennifer L. Edwards Prof

  4. Investigating the Linear and Nonlinear Stationary Wave Response to Anomalous North American Snow Cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on monthly-to-intraseasonal time scales, with the potential to modify local and remote atmospheric diagnose a deep, snow-induced, tropospheric cooling over NA and hypothesize that this may represent that diabatic cooling is the primary driver of the stationary wave response. In particular, the total nonlinear

  5. Alpha channeling in rotating plasma with stationary waves Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. It is shown that stationary magnetic fields with high n can be used for this purpose, and simulations indicate that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy. © 2010

  6. Multivariate Non-stationary Stochastic Streamflow Models for Two Urban , R. Vogel2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    as changes in the water use cycle. Urbanization leads to construction of water distribution systems and storm1 Multivariate Non-stationary Stochastic Streamflow Models for Two Urban Watersheds M. Ng1 , R: urbanization and changes in climate and water use are examples of such influences. The evolution

  7. Stationary free surface viscous ows without surface tension in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Stationary free surface viscous ows without surface tension in three dimensions Frederic Abergel owing down a three dimensional channel. In the absence of surface tension, we prove the existence is not elliptic when surface tension is neglected. Hence, analysis such as that made in [4] or [17] fails

  8. Lyapunov functions, stationary distributions, and non-equilibrium potential for chemical reaction networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyapunov functions, stationary distributions, and non-equilibrium potential for chemical reaction reac- tion systems and Lyapunov functions for their deterministic counterparts. Specifically, we derive the well known Lyapunov function of chemical reaction network theory as a scaling limit of the non

  9. Massive spin-2 and spin-1/2 no hair theorems for stationary axisymmetric black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a proof of the no hair theorems corresponding to free massive non-perturbative Pauli-Fierz spin-2 and perturbative massive spin-1/2 fields for stationary axisymmetric de Sitter black hole spacetimes of dimension four with two commuting Killing vector fields. The applicability of these results for asymptotically flat and anti-de Sitter spacetimes are also discussed.

  10. System Break-Out Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    battery and Gensets for stationary application - Significant price advantage over PEM fuel cells * Refer to CellEra and Tokuyama presentations for more details Application -...

  11. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS ADVANCE CLASS WAIVER OF PATENT. RIGHTS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    but not limited to, the development of stationary polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for buildings, development of a back-up fuel cell systems, improving...

  12. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS ADVANCE CLASS WAIVER OF PATENT. RIGHTS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    but not limited to. the development of stationary polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for buildings, development of a back-up fuel cell systems, improving...

  13. Downstream asymptotics in exterior domains: from stationary wakes to time periodic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. van Baalen

    2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in a half-space with boundary data on the line $(x,y)=(x_0,y)$ assumed to be time-periodic (or stationary) with a fixed asymptotic velocity ${\\bf u}_{\\infty}=(1,0)$ at infinity. We show that there exist (locally) unique solutions for all data satisfying a compatibility condition in a certain class of fuctions. Furthermore, we prove that asymptotically the vorticity decompose itself in a dominant stationary part on the parabolic scale $y\\sim\\sqrt{x}$ and corrections of order $x^{-{3/2}+\\epsilon}$, while the velocity field decompose itself in a dominant stationary part in form of an explicit multiscale expansion on the scales $y\\sim\\sqrt{x}$ and $y\\sim x$ and corrections decaying at least like $x^{-{9/8}+\\epsilon}$. The asymptotic fields are made of linear combinations of universal functions with coefficients depending mildly on the boundary data. The asymptotic expansion for the component parallel to ${\\bf u}_{\\infty}$ contains `non-trivial' terms in the parabolic scale with amplitude $\\ln(x)x^{-1}$ and $x^{-1}$. To first order, our results also imply that time-periodic wakes behave like stationary ones as $x\\to\\infty$. The class of functions used is `natural' in the sense that `Physically Reasonable' (in the sense of Finn & Smith) stationary solutions of the N.-S. equations around an obstacle are covered if the half-space is choosen sufficiently far downstream. The coefficients appearing in the asymptotics may then be linearly related to the net force acting on the obstacle. To our knowledge, it is the first time that estimates uncovering the $\\ln(x)x^{-1}$ correction are proved in this setting.

  14. Young Stellar Clusters with a Schuster Mass Distribution - I: Stationary Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palous, Jan; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically-symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and 1D numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic into supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds diminish significantly their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy ISM. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius and half mass radius is discussed.

  15. Stationary Axisymmetric and Slowly Rotating Spacetimes in Ho?ava-Lifshitz Gravity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Anzhong

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stationary, axisymmetric, and slowly rotating vacuum spacetimes in the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity are studied, and it is shown that, for any given spherical static vacuum solution of the HL theory (of any model, including the ones with an additional U(1) symmetry), there always exists a corresponding slowly rotating, stationary, and axisymmetric vacuum solution, which reduces to the former, when the rotation is switched off. The rotation is universal and only implicitly depends on the models of the HL theory and their coupling constants through the spherical seed solution. As a result, all asymptotically flat slowly rotating vacuum solutions are asymptotically identical to the slowly rotating Kerr solution. This is in contrast to the claim of Barausse and Sotiriou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 181101 (2012)], in which slowly rotating black holes were reported (incorrectly) not to exist in the infrared limit of the nonprojectable HL theory.

  16. System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying and convening the current produced by the photodiode into a voltage, a computer for receiving the amplified photodiode current for RHEED data analysis, and a graphite impregnated triaxial cable for improving the signal to noise ratio obtained while sampling a stationary or rotating substrate. A rotating stage for supporting the substrate with diametrically positioned electron beam apertures and an optically encoded shaft can also be used to accommodate rotation of the substrate during measurement. 16 figs.

  17. System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, P.

    1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying and converting the current produced by the photodiode into a voltage, a computer for receiving the amplified photodiode current for RHEED data analysis, and a graphite impregnated triaxial cable for improving the signal-to-noise ratio obtained while sampling a stationary or rotating substrate. A rotating stage for supporting the substrate with diametrically positioned electron beam apertures and an optically encoded shaft can also be used to accommodate rotation of the substrate during measurement. 16 figs.

  18. Regulation of Emissions from Stationary Diesel Engines (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 11, 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations covering emissions from stationary diesel engines New Source Performance Standards that limit emissions of NOx, particulate matter, SO2, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons to the same levels required for nonroad diesel engines. The regulation affects new, modified, and reconstructed diesel engines. Beginning with model year 2007, engine manufacturers must specify that new engines less than 3,000 horsepower meet the same emissions standard as nonroad diesel engines. For engines greater than 3,000 horsepower, the standard will be fully effective in 2011. Stationary diesel engine fuel will also be subject to the same standard as nonroad diesel engine fuel, which reduces the sulfur content of the fuel to 500 parts per million by mid-2007 and 15 parts per million by mid-2010.

  19. Field evaluation of methodology for measurement of cadmium in stationary-source stack gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseman, R.F.; Bath, D.B.; McReynolds, J.R.; Holder, D.J.; Sykes, A.L.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory and field-evaluation study was done to develop methodology for the measurement of cadmium in stationary-source stack emissions. Field evaluations were performed at a municipal solid-waste incinerator and a sewage-sludge incinerator. The methodology was tested through the laboratory and field-sampling validation phases to evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method. Colocated, quadruplicate flue-gas samples of nominally 30 and 60 dscf in 1 and 2 hours sampling time were collected to assure an adequate cadmium content, a representative sample, and the production of data to validate the method in terms of between-train precision. The overall accuracy and precision of the analysis procedure were 89.2% and 1.7%, respectively. The detection limit of the atomic absorption instrument was 0.03 ug/mL. The methodology proved to be a reliable sampling approach to determine cadmium emissions from the stationary sources tested.

  20. Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

  1. Energy and Momentum of a Stationary Beam of Light in the New General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamal G. L. Nashed; Mohamed M. Mourad

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We give an exact solution to the gravitational field in the new general relativity. The solution creates Bonnor spacetime. This spacetime describes the gravitational field of a stationary beam of light. The energy and momentum of this solution is calculated using the energy-momentum complex given by M{\\o}ller in (1978) within the framework of the Weitzenb{\\rm $\\ddot{o}$}ck spacetime.

  2. A spherically symmetric and stationary universe from a weak modification of general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Corda; Herman J. Mosquera Cuesta

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a weak modification of general relativity, in the linearized approach, renders a spherically symmetric and stationary model of the universe. This is due to the presence of a third mode of polarization in the linearized gravity in which a "curvature" energy term is present. Such an energy can, in principle, be identified as the Dark Energy. The model can also help to a better understanding of the framework of the Einstein-Vlasov system.

  3. TOWARDS NON-STATIONARY MODEL-BASED NOISE ADAPTATION FOR LARGE VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Brendan J.

    the power Mel spectrum transformation to Eq.(1), we arrive at: jY (fi)j2 = jX(fi)j2 jH(fi)j2 + jN(fi)j2 + (2TOWARDS NON-STATIONARY MODEL-BASED NOISE ADAPTATION FOR LARGE VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION T and deployment environments. One approach to tackling this problem is to transform the acoustic models based

  4. Is the electron stationary in the ground state of the Dirac hydrogen atom in Bohm's Theory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Hiley

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that, in the relativistic Bohm model of a Dirac-like particle, the electron in the ground state of the hydrogen atom is moving, unlike the prediction for the case of a Schr\\"{o}dinger-like particle, where the electron is stationary. This accounts for the empirically observed dilation of the decay time of the muon in the ground state of muonium.

  5. Current shunting and formation of stationary shock waves during electric explosions of metal wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Barishpol'tsev, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of experiments on the generation of shock waves during electric explosions of fine copper and tungsten wires in air are analyzed. The generation mechanism of stationary shock wave by a plasma piston formed during the shunting breakdown of the electrode gap in the course of a wire explosion is investigated. The role of structural elements of such discharges, such as the core, corona, and wire environment, is analyzed.

  6. Phantom of Higgs Boson Versus Hierarchy of Stationary States of Superhigh Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Chechelnitsky

    2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As is known, the Standard Model mainly ideologically and qualitatively focuss the experimenters in their search of new mass states (of EP- elementary particles). The exact quantitative prognosis of their properties, especially of masses, lays outside opportunities of the usual theory. Model of Stationary states of EP within the framework of the Wave Universe Concept [Chechelnitsky, 1980-2001] points on existence of Hierarchy of physically distinguished - stationary (elite, dominant) states described by the mass formulas, in particular, in a range 10-210 Gev/c^2. The states close to: ..., 101.5; 107.3; 112.76-113; 139.5-143; 147.6; 202 Gev/c^2 should be observed. Apparently, the experiment already confirms this prognosis in a range up to 100 Gev/c^2. You see preferable states, observable already now in experiment, it - not rejected by the usual theory as the candidates in constituents of Standard model (for example, not holding Higgs bosons), but quite real displays of stationary (first of all, -dominant) mass states. Last data of L3 (CERN) Collaboration really specify displays of new mass states and close to 103.7; 108.9; 114.5 Gev/c^2.

  7. Technical and Economic Feasibility of Applying Used EV Batteries in Stationary Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREADY, ERIN; LIPPERT, JOHN; PIHL, JOSH; WEINSTOCK, IRWIN; SYMONS, PHILIP

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying used electric vehicle (EV) batteries in stationary applications was evaluated in this study. In addition to identifying possible barriers to EV battery reuse, steps needed to prepare the used EV batteries for a second application were also considered. Costs of acquiring, testing, and reconfiguring the used EV batteries were estimated. Eight potential stationary applications were identified and described in terms of power, energy, and duty cycle requirements. Costs for assembly and operation of battery energy storage systems to meet the requirements of these stationary applications were also estimated by extrapolating available data on existing systems. The calculated life cycle cost of a battery energy storage system designed for each application was then compared to the expected economic benefit to determine the economic feasibility. Four of the eight applications were found to be at least possible candidates for economically viable reuse of EV batteries. These were transmission support, light commercial load following, residential load following, and distributed node telecommunications backup power. There were no major technical barriers found, however further study is recommended to better characterize the performance and life of used EV batteries before design and testing of prototype battery systems.

  8. Temporal transcriptomic analysis of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough transition into stationary phase growth during electrondonor depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, M.E.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Huang, K.H.; Alm, E.J.; Wan, X.-F.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.-Z.; Fields, M.W.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris was cultivated in a defined medium, and biomass was sampled for approximately 70 h to characterize the shifts in gene expression as cells transitioned from the exponential to the stationary phase during electron donor depletion. In addition to temporal transcriptomics, total protein, carbohydrate, lactate, acetate, and sulfate levels were measured. The microarray data were examined for statistically significant expression changes, hierarchical cluster analysis, and promoter element prediction and were validated by quantitative PCR. As the cells transitioned from the exponential phase to the stationary phase, a majority of the down-expressed genes were involved in translation and transcription, and this trend continued at the remaining times. There were general increases in relative expression for intracellular trafficking and secretion, ion transport, and coenzyme metabolism as the cells entered the stationary phase. As expected, the DNA replication machinery was down-expressed, and the expression of genes involved in DNA repair increased during the stationary phase. Genes involved in amino acid acquisition, carbohydrate metabolism, energy production, and cell envelope biogenesis did not exhibit uniform transcriptional responses. Interestingly, most phage-related genes were up-expressed at the onset of the stationary phase. This result suggested that nutrient depletion may affect community dynamics and DNA transfer mechanisms of sulfate-reducing bacteria via the phage cycle. The putative feoAB system (in addition to other presumptive iron metabolism genes) was significantly up-expressed, and this suggested the possible importance of Fe{sup 2+} acquisition under metal-reducing conditions. The expression of a large subset of carbohydrate-related genes was altered, and the total cellular carbohydrate levels declined during the growth phase transition. Interestingly, the D. vulgaris genome does not contain a putative rpoS gene, a common attribute of the {delta}-Proteobacteria genomes sequenced to date, and the transcription profiles of other putative rpo genes were not significantly altered. Our results indicated that in addition to expected changes (e.g., energy conversion, protein turnover, translation, transcription, and DNA replication and repair), genes related to phage, stress response, carbohydrate flux, the outer envelope, and iron homeostasis played important roles as D. vulgaris cells experienced electron donor depletion.

  9. Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

  10. Communication: Newton homotopies for sampling stationary points of potential energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Dhagash, E-mail: dmehta@nd.edu [Department of Applied and Computational Mathematics and Statistics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); University Chemical Laboratory, The University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Chen, Tianran, E-mail: chentia1@msu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Hauenstein, Jonathan D., E-mail: hauenstein@nd.edu [Department of Applied and Computational Mathematics and Statistics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratory, The University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging and frequently arising problems in many areas of science is to find solutions of a system of multivariate nonlinear equations. There are several numerical methods that can find many (or all if the system is small enough) solutions but they all exhibit characteristic problems. Moreover, traditional methods can break down if the system contains singular solutions. Here, we propose an efficient implementation of Newton homotopies, which can sample a large number of the stationary points of complicated many-body potentials. We demonstrate how the procedure works by applying it to the nearest-neighbor ?{sup 4} model and atomic clusters.

  11. Lasing from single, stationary, dye-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiraz, A; Do?anay, S; Dndar, M A; Kurt, A; Kalaycıo?lu, H; Demirel, A L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report laser emission from single, stationary, Rhodamine B-doped glycerol/water microdroplets located on a superhydrophobic surface. In the experiments, a pulsed, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm was used as the excitation source. The microdroplets ranged in diameter from a few to 20 um. Lasing was achieved in the red-shifted portion of the dye emission spectrum with threshold fluences as low as 750 J/cm2. Photobleaching was observed when the microdroplets were pumped above threshold. In certain cases, multimode lasing was also observed and attributed to the simultaneous lasing of two modes belonging to different sets of whispering gallery modes.

  12. Collisionless kinetic regimes for quasi-stationary axisymmetric accretion disc plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremaschini, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Tessarotto, M. [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is concerned with the kinetic treatment of quasi-stationary axisymmetric collisionless accretion disc plasmas. The conditions of validity of the kinetic description for non-relativistic magnetized and gravitationally bound plasmas of this type are discussed. A classification of the possible collisionless plasma regimes which can arise in these systems is proposed, which can apply to accretion discs around both stellar-mass compact objects and galactic-center black holes. Two different classifications are determined, which are referred to, respectively, as energy-based and magnetic field-based classifications. Different regimes are pointed out for each plasma species, depending both on the relative magnitudes of kinetic and potential energies and the magnitude of the magnetic field. It is shown that in all cases, there can be quasi-stationary Maxwellian-like solutions of the Vlasov equation. The perturbative approach outlined here permits unique analytical determination of the functional form for the distribution function consistent, in each kinetic regime, with the explicit inclusion of finite Larmor radius-diamagnetic and/or energy-correction effects.

  13. Kinetic description of quasi-stationary axisymmetric collisionless accretion disk plasmas with arbitrary magnetic field configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremaschini, Claudio [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste 34136 (Italy); Miller, John C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Trieste 34136, Italy and Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Tessarotto, Massimo [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Trieste, Trieste 34127 (Italy)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A kinetic treatment is developed for collisionless magnetized plasmas occurring in high-temperature, low-density astrophysical accretion disks, such as are thought to be present in some radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. Quasi-stationary configurations are investigated, within the framework of a Vlasov-Maxwell description. The plasma is taken to be axisymmetric and subject to the action of slowly time-varying gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The magnetic field is assumed to be characterized by a family of locally nested but open magnetic surfaces. The slow collisionless dynamics of these plasmas is investigated, yielding a reduced gyrokinetic Vlasov equation for the kinetic distribution function. For doing this, an asymptotic quasi-stationary solution is first determined, represented by a generalized bi-Maxwellian distribution expressed in terms of the relevant adiabatic invariants. The existence of the solution is shown to depend on having suitable kinetic constraints and conditions leading to particle trapping phenomena. With this solution, one can treat temperature anisotropy, toroidal and poloidal flow velocities, and finite Larmor-radius effects. An asymptotic expansion for the distribution function permits analytic evaluation of all the relevant fluid fields. Basic theoretical features of the solution and their astrophysical implications are discussed. As an application, the possibility of describing the dynamics of slowly time-varying accretion flows and the self-generation of magnetic field by means of a ''kinetic dynamo effect'' are discussed. Both effects are shown to be related to intrinsically kinetic physical mechanisms.

  14. NON-STATIONARY TEMPERATURE STRESSES IN THE INDUSTRIAL STEAM TURBINE ROTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvonimir Guzovi?; Kreimir Kova?i?; Tihomir Mihali?

    The usage of industrial steam turbines in different industrial branches (chemistry, petrochemistry, refineries, sugar and ethanol plants, etc.) for a generator drive for electricity generation or a mechanical drive for compressors, blowers and pumps, is characterized by the need for high flexibility of operation. High flexibility includes numerous start-ups, shut-downs and power changes during the useful life. Changes in power and steam mass flow lead to changes of the working fluid state in the single turbine stages, and thus their aerodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics. During these transient working regimes in steam turbine rotors, large space and time-dependent temperature gradients appear, which can result in high non-stationary temperature stresses, i.e. increased local stress concentrations, what has a negative impact on the useful life of the rotor. In the worst case they can cause fracture of the turbine rotor. Today, for the determination of thermal stressed state of the steam turbine parts the user softwares based on numerical methods are used. In this paper the results of numerical modelling and calculations of non-stationary temperature fields and related stresses in the rotor of industrial steam turbine of 35 MW power during transient operating regime (a cold startup) will be presented. The results of the calculations serve for estimation of the transient regime impact on the stresses of the rotor, as well as on its entire useful life. Key words: industrial steam turbine, transient regimes, temperature stresses, numerical modelling 1.

  15. A statistical analysis of avalanching heat transport in stationary enhanced core confinement regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, S.; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a statistical analysis of heat transport in stationary enhanced confinement regimes obtained from flux-driven gyrofluid simulations. The probability density functions of heat flux in improved confinement regimes, characterized by the Nusselt number, show significant deviation from Gaussian, with a markedly fat tail, implying the existence of heat avalanches. Two types of avalanching transport are found to be relevant to stationary states, depending on the degree of turbulence suppression. In the weakly suppressed regime, heat avalanches occur in the form of quasi-periodic (QP) heat pulses. Collisional relaxation of zonal flow is likely to be the origin of these QP heat pulses. This phenomenon is similar to transient limit cycle oscillations observed prior to edge pedestal formation in recent experiments. On the other hand, a spectral analysis of heat flux in the strongly suppressed regime shows the emergence of a 1/f (f is the frequency) band, suggesting the presence of self-organized criticality (SOC)-like episodic heat avalanches. This episodic 1/f heat avalanches have a long temporal correlation and constitute the dominant transport process in this regime.

  16. Bayesian soft X-ray tomography using non-stationary Gaussian Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dong; Svensson, J.; Thomsen, H.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Teilinstitut, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Teilinstitut, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Medina, F. [Asociacin EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)] [Asociacin EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a Bayesian based non-stationary Gaussian Process (GP) method for the inference of soft X-ray emissivity distribution along with its associated uncertainties has been developed. For the investigation of equilibrium condition and fast magnetohydrodynamic behaviors in nuclear fusion plasmas, it is of importance to infer, especially in the plasma center, spatially resolved soft X-ray profiles from a limited number of noisy line integral measurements. For this ill-posed inversion problem, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution over all possible solutions under given model assumptions. Specifically, the use of a non-stationary GP to model the emission allows the model to adapt to the varying length scales of the underlying diffusion process. In contrast to other conventional methods, the prior regularization is realized in a probability form which enhances the capability of uncertainty analysis, in consequence, scientists who concern the reliability of their results will benefit from it. Under the assumption of normally distributed noise, the posterior distribution evaluated at a discrete number of points becomes a multivariate normal distribution whose mean and covariance are analytically available, making inversions and calculation of uncertainty fast. Additionally, the hyper-parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through a Bayesian Occam's Razor formalism and thereby automatically adjust the model complexity. This method is shown to produce convincing reconstructions and good agreements with independently calculated results from the Maximum Entropy and Equilibrium-Based Iterative Tomography Algorithm methods.

  17. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial work in a project on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal-derived fuels in a large stationary stirling engine. High thermal efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended. (LCL)

  18. Automotive Perspective on PEM Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  19. high temperature pem Degradation & Durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    A harmonious mix of renewable and alternative energy sources, including fuel cells is necessary to mitigate intermittency problems. The excess energy can be used to produce hydrogen from water or can be stored in liquid alcohols such as methanol, which can be sources of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. In addition, fuel

  20. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Completed: P&ID, PFD, control diagrams, safety review, FMEA, system layout and packaging drawings 100% (Dec

  1. PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49, thePAGEPART

  2. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from stationary combustion sources: Numerical modeling capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kee, R.J.; Lutz, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Senkan, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collaborative research program initiated to study the emissions of a wide variety of chemical species from stationary combustion systems. These product species have been included in the Clean Air act legislation and their emissions must be rigidly controlled, but there is a need for much better understanding of the physical and chemical mechanisms that produce and consume them. We are using numerical modeling study the chemical reactions and fluid mechanical factors that occur in industrial processes: we are examining systems including premixed and diffusion flames, stirred reactors and plug flow reactors in these modeling studies to establish the major factors leading to emissions of these chemicals. In addition, we are applying advanced laser diagnostic techniques to validate the model predictions and to study the possibilities of developing sophisticated sensors to detect emissions of undesirable species in real time. This paper will discuss the organization of this collaborative effort and its results to date.

  3. Artificial boundary conditions for stationary Navier-Stokes flows past bodies in the half-plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boeckle, Christoph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss artificial boundary conditions for stationary Navier-Stokes flows past bodies in the half-plane, for a range of low Reynolds numbers. When truncating the half-plane to a finite domain for numerical purposes, artificial boundaries appear. We present an explicit Dirichlet condition for the velocity at these boundaries in terms of an asymptotic expansion for the solution to the problem. We show a substantial increase in accuracy of the computed values for drag and lift when compared with results for traditional boundary conditions. We also analyze the qualitative behavior of the solutions in terms of the streamlines of the flow. The new boundary conditions are universal in the sense that they depend on a given body only through one constant, which can be determined in a feed-back loop as part of the solution process.

  4. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  5. Stationary bound states of spin-half particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Gorbatenko; V. P. Neznamov

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the possibility of existence of stationary bound states of spin-half particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem gravitational field using a self-conjugate Hamiltonian with a flat scalar product of wave functions. Bound states of Dirac particles with a real discrete energy spectrum can exist both for particles above the external "event horizon", and for particles under the internal "event horizon", or the Cauchy horizon. The Hilbert condition g_{00}>0 leads to a boundary condition such that components of the vector of current density of Dirac particles are zero near the "event horizons". Based on the results of this study, we can assume that there exists a new type of charged collapsars, for which the Hawking radiation is not present. The results of this study can lead to a revision of some concepts of the standard cosmological model related to the evolution of the universe and interaction of charged collapsars with surrounding matter.

  6. Helmet streamers with triple structure: Weakly two-dimensional stationary states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; K. Schindler; T. Neukirch

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations of the solar corona with the LASCO coronagraph on board of the SOHO spacecraft have revealed the occurrence of triple helmet streamers even during solar minimum, which occasionally go unstable and give rise to particularly huge coronal mass ejections. We present a method to calculate (semi-)analytically self-consistent stationary configurations of triple helmet streamers which can serve as input for stability considerations and dynamical calculations. The method is based on an asymptotic expansion procedure using the elongated structure of the streamers. The method is very flexible and can be used in both Cartesian and spherical geometry. We discuss the effects of magnetic shear, gravity and field-aligned flow on open field lines. Example solutions illustrating the influence of each of these features on the solution are presented.

  7. Kinetic theory of quasi-stationary collisionless axisymmetric plasmas in the presence of strong rotation phenomena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlk, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of formulating a kinetic treatment for quasi-stationary collisionless plasmas in axisymmetric systems subject to the possibly independent presence of local strong velocity-shear and supersonic rotation velocities is posed. The theory is developed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for multi-species non-relativistic plasmas. Applications to astrophysical accretion discs arising around compact objects and to plasmas in laboratory devices are considered. Explicit solutions for the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) are constructed based on the identification of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants. These are shown to be expressed in terms of generalized non-isotropic Gaussian distributions. A suitable perturbative theory is then developed which allows for the treatment of non-uniform strong velocity-shear/supersonic plasmas. This yields a series representation for the equilibrium KDF in which the leading-order term depends on both a finite set of fluid fields as well as on the gradients of an appropriate rotational frequency. Constitutive equations for the fluid number density, flow velocity, and pressure tensor are explicitly calculated. As a notable outcome, the discovery of a new mechanism for generating temperature and pressure anisotropies is pointed out, which represents a characteristic feature of plasmas considered here. This is shown to arise as a consequence of the canonical momentum conservation and to contribute to the occurrence of temperature anisotropy in combination with the adiabatic conservation of the particle magnetic moment. The physical relevance of the result and the implications of the kinetic solution for the self-generation of quasi-stationary electrostatic and magnetic fields through a kinetic dynamo are discussed.

  8. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  9. Sequential non-stationary dynamic classification with sparse feedback D.R. Lowne, S.J. Roberts , R. Garnett

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Stephen

    for adaptive non-linear classification that extends the non-stationary linear logistic regression system are potentially non- linear and subject to ``concept drift'' and hence static classifiers fail. The applications's performance. The inherent non-stationarity in the data is tracked using a non-linear dynamic classifier

  10. Lipschitz stability for a coefficient inverse problem for the non-stationary transport equation via Carleman estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , theory of nuclear reactors, etc. (see, e.g., the book of Anikonov, Kovtanyuk and Prokhorov [1], and [6 in a scattering medium, etc. (see, e.g., the book of Case and Zweifel [6]). Coefficient inverse problems (CIPs] and in the book of Romanov [23]. Uniqueness and existence results for CIPs for the non-stationary transport

  11. Evaluation of improved materials for stationary diesel engines operating on residual and coal based fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results to date from an on-going research program on improved materials for stationary diesel engines using residual or coal-based fuels are presented with little discussion of conclusions about these results. Information is included on ring and liner wear, fuel oil qualities, ceramic materials, coatings, test procedures and equipment, and tribology test results. (LCL)

  12. Sigma S-Dependent Antioxidant Defense Protects Stationary-Phase Escherichia coli against the Bactericidal Antibiotic Gentamicin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matin, A.C.

    elucidated. Loss of s rendered stationary-phase Esch- erichia coli more sensitive to the bactericidal. Use of the psfiA genetic reporter, 3=-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF) dye, and Amplex Red showed that Gm generated more reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mutant. Gm did not cause cell elongation

  13. 15 AUGUST 2002 2125H E L D E T A L . Northern Winter Stationary Waves: Theory and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15 AUGUST 2002 2125H E L D E T A L . Northern Winter Stationary Waves: Theory and Modeling ISAAC M; Valdes and Hoskins 1989; Ting 1994) his- tory has shown that one can make some progress in modeling these zonal asymmetries using linear models Corresponding author address: Dr. Isaac M. Held, NOAA

  14. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  15. Quasi-stationary solutions of self-gravitating scalar fields around black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Sanchis-Gual; Juan Carlos Degollado; Pedro J. Montero; Jos A. Font

    2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasi-stationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological timescales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such type of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical non-rotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar fields configurations around non-rotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A byproduct of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasi-bound states.

  16. On hitting times and fastest strong stationary times for skip-free chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fill, James Allen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An (upward) skip-free Markov chain with the set of nonnegative integers as state space is a chain for which upward jumps may be only of unit size; there is no restriction on downward jumps. In a 1987 paper, Brown and Shao determined, for an irreducible continuous-time skip-free chain and any d, the passage time distribution from state 0 to state d. When the nonzero eigenvalues nu_j of the generator are all real, their result states that the passage time is distributed as the sum of d independent exponential random variables with rates nu_j. We give another proof of their theorem. In the case of birth-and-death chains, our proof leads to an explicit representation of the passage time as a sum of independent exponential random variables. Diaconis and Miclo recently obtained the first such representation, but our construction is much simpler. We obtain similar (and new) results for a fastest strong stationary time T of an ergodic continuous-time skip-free chain with stochastically monotone time-reversal started ...

  17. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  18. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  19. Asymptotically Stationary and Static Space-times and Shear-free Null Geodesic Congruences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. M. Adamo; E. T. Newman

    2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In classical electromagnetic theory, one formally defines the complex dipole moment (the electric plus 'i' magnetic dipole) and then computes (and defines) the complex center of charge by transforming to a complex frame where the complex dipole moment vanishes. Analogously in asymptotically flat space-times it has been shown that one can determine the complex center of mass by transforming the complex gravitational dipole (mass dipole plus 'i' angular momentum) (via an asymptotic tetrad trasnformation) to a frame where the complex dipole vanishes. We apply this procedure to such space-times which are asymptotically stationary or static, and observe that the calculations can be performed exactly, without any use of the approximation schemes which must be employed in general. In particular, we are able to exactly calculate complex center of mass and charge world-lines for such space-times, and - as a special case - when these two complex world-lines coincide, we recover the Dirac value of the gyromagnetic ratio.

  20. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  1. Test method for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, B.A.; Peterson, M.R.; Rickman, E.E.; Jayanty, R.K.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol was designated under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as a pollutant to be regulated. A test method has been developed for the measurement of methanol emissions from stationary sources. The methanol sampling train (MST) consists of a glass-lined heated probe, two condensate knockout traps, and three sorbent cartridges packed with Anasorb 747. The Anasorb samples were desorbed with a 1:1 mixture of carbon disulfide and N,N-dimethylformamide. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Following laboratory testing, field tests of the MST and the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) sampling method for methanol were conducted at two pulp and paper mills. In accordance with EPA Methol 301, two pairs of trains were run in parallel for six runs, collecting a total of 24 samples by each method. During each run, half of the trains were spiked with a known amount of methanol. The sampling location at the first test was an inlet vent to a softwood bleach plant scrubber where the methanol concentration was about 30 ppm. A second field test was conducted at the vent of a black liquor oxidation tank where the methanol concentration was about 350 ppm. Samples were shown to be stable for at least 2 weeks after collection.

  2. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

  3. Creep events and creep noise in gravitational-wave interferometers: basic formalism and stationary limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Yuri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In gravitational-wave interferometers, test masses are suspended on thin fibers which experience considerable tension stress. Sudden microscopic stress release in a suspension fiber, which I call a 'creep event', would excite motion of the test mass that would be coupled to the interferometer's readout. The random test-mass motion due to a time-sequence of creep events is referred to as 'creep noise'. In this paper I present an elasto-dynamic calculation for the test-mass motion due to a creep event. I show that within a simple suspension model, the main coupling to the optical readout occurs via a combination of a "dc" horizontal displacement of the test mass, and excitation of the violin and pendulum modes, and not, as was thought previously, via lengthening of the fiber. When the creep events occur sufficiently frequently and their statistics is time-independent, the creep noise can be well-approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. I derive the functional form of the creep noise spectral densit...

  4. Creep events and creep noise in gravitational-wave interferometers: basic formalism and stationary limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri Levin

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In gravitational-wave interferometers, test masses are suspended on thin fibers which experience considerable tension stress. Sudden microscopic stress release in a suspension fiber, which I call a 'creep event', would excite motion of the test mass that would be coupled to the interferometer's readout. The random test-mass motion due to a time-sequence of creep events is referred to as 'creep noise'. In this paper I present an elasto-dynamic calculation for the test-mass motion due to a creep event. I show that within a simple suspension model, the main coupling to the optical readout occurs via a combination of a "dc" horizontal displacement of the test mass, and excitation of the violin and pendulum modes, and not, as was thought previously, via lengthening of the fiber. When the creep events occur sufficiently frequently and their statistics is time-independent, the creep noise can be well-approximated by a stationary Gaussian random process. I derive the functional form of the creep noise spectral density in this limit, with the restrictive assumption that the creep events are statistically independent from each other.

  5. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  6. Time-frequency analysis of non-stationary fusion plasma signals using an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yangqing, E-mail: liuyq05@gmail.com; Tan, Yi; Xie, Huiqiao; Wang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhe [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is developed to the time-frequency analysis of non-stationary signals in tokamak plasmas. Maximal overlap discrete wavelet packet transform rather than wavelet packet transform is proposed as a preprocessor to decompose a signal into various narrow-band components. Then, a correlation coefficient based selection method is utilized to eliminate the irrelevant intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition of those narrow-band components. Subsequently, a time varying vector autoregressive moving average model instead of Hilbert spectral analysis is performed to compute the Hilbert spectrum, i.e., a three-dimensional time-frequency distribution of the signal. The feasibility and effectiveness of the improved Hilbert-Huang transform method is demonstrated by analyzing a non-stationary simulated signal and actual experimental signals in fusion plasmas.

  7. Solvent viscosity effect on quenching rate constants of phenophytin a fluorescence by quinones. Role of non-stationary effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapinus, E.I.; Dilung II.; Kucherova, I.Y.; Kuz'min, M.G.; Zartsev, N.K.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fluorescence quenching of phenophytin a by quinones in different solvents has been studied with a steady-state and pulse photoexcitation. The quenching in alcohols is caused by complexes which are spectrally undetectable. In other solvents the quenching is dynamic. The effect of viscosity on the quenching rate has been studied. It has been found that the non-stationary effects play a substantial role in the quenching process.

  8. Nonlinear, stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves: Exact solutions for solitons, periodic waves, and wedge shaped waveforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, J. F. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, Durban 4001 (South Africa); School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag: X54001, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Doyle, T. B. [Materials Research Division, iThemba LABS, P.O.Box 722, Somerset West, 7129, South Africa and School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag: X54001, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Rajah, S. S. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of fully nonlinear stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is further developed. The existence of two fundamental constants of motion; namely, momentum flux density parallel to the background magnetic field and energy density, facilitates the reduction of the wave structure equation to a first order differential equation. For subsonic waves propagating sufficiently obliquely to the magnetic field, soliton solutions can be constructed. Importantly, analytic expressions for the amplitude of the soliton show that it increases with decreasing wave Mach number and with increasing obliquity to the magnetic field. In the subsonic, quasi-parallel case, periodic waves exist whose compressive and rarefactive amplitudes are asymmetric about the 'initial' point. A critical 'driver' field exists that gives rise to a soliton-like structure which corresponds to infinite wavelength. If the wave speed is supersonic, periodic waves may also be constructed. The aforementioned asymmetry in the waveform arises from the flow being driven towards the local sonic point in the compressive phase and away from it in the rarefactive phase. As the initial driver field approaches the critical value, the end point of the compressive phase becomes sonic and the waveform develops a wedge shape. This feature and the amplitudes of the compressive and rarefactive portions of the periodic waves are illustrated through new analytic expressions that follow from the equilibrium points of a wave structure equation which includes a driver field. These expressions are illustrated with figures that illuminate the nature of the solitons. The presently described wedge-shaped waveforms also occur in water waves, for similar 'transonic' reasons, when a Coriolis force is included.

  9. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

  10. Experimental sloshing pressure impacts in ensemble domain: Transient and stationary statistical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulian, G., E-mail: gbulian@units.it [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, Building C5 - II floor, Via A.Valerio 10, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Botia-Vera, E., E-mail: elkinmauricio.botia@upm.es, E-mail: antonio.souto@upm.es; Souto-Iglesias, A., E-mail: elkinmauricio.botia@upm.es, E-mail: antonio.souto@upm.es [Naval Architecture Department (ETSIN), Technical University of Madrid (UPM), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper focuses on the analysis of impact pressure registrations from repeated model scale sloshing experiments under harmonic rotational excitation. A series of more than 100 experiments, each one encompassing more than 100 impact events, has been conducted seeking the highest feasible repeatability. Different excitation periods, that cover the main features of the impact dynamics, have been considered in a preliminary screening, describing the main features of the impact dynamics. Since, even under a nominally deterministic excitation, the pressure at each impact is characterized by a high variability, a statistical approach is used treating the impact pressure as a stochastic process. For one selected excitation period, the statistical analysis focuses on the ensemble distribution of the maximum pressure during each impact event. Particular attention is given to the evolution of such distributions, in order to detect the variations in the statistical characteristics of the process. This is achieved by, first, identifying the presence and the length of the transient phase and, second, by characterizing the process at stationary state. The statistics of impact pressure for different peaks are discussed mostly in the ensemble domain. Linking the latter with the time domain analysis is made by checking that the problem can be considered practically ergodic. The practical ergodicity of the process is dealt with by checking to what extent steady state ensemble statistical information can be obtained from a single long run experiment. Statistical checks for correlation and independence of maximum impact pressures are also carried out to test the hypothesis of independent identically distributed random variables. The method of analysis presented in this paper through the considered example case is general in nature and is considered to be highly portable. In particular, it is considered to allow for a more thorough understanding of non-deterministic events such as those considered herein, by looking at them from a sound statistical perspective. The thorough description of the whole experimental setup makes the presented data suitable for comparison purposes and for validation of theoretical/numerical approaches.

  11. Stationary components of HeI in strong magnetic fields - a tool to identify magnetic DB white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Jordan; P. Schmelcher; W. Becken

    2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In only three of the 61 known magnetic white dwarfs helium has been identified unambiguously while about 20% of all non-magnetic stars of this class are known to contain HeI or HeII. Until recently, data for HeI data were available only for magnetic fields below 20MG. This changed with the publication of extensive data by the group in Heidelberg. The corresponding calculations have now been completed for the energetically lowest five states of singlet and triplet symmetry for the subspaces with |m| <= 3; selected calculations have been performed for even higher excitations. In strongly magnetized white dwarfs only line components are visible whose wavelengths vary slowly with respect to the magnetic field, particularly stationary components which have a wavelength minimum or maximum in the range of the magnetic fields strengths on the stellar surface. In view of the many ongoing surveys finding white dwarfs we want to provide the astronomical community with a tool to identify helium in white dwarfs for fields up to 5.3GG. To this end we present all calculated helium line components whose wavelengths in the UV, optical, and near IR vary slowly enough with respect to the field strength to produce visible absorption features. We also list all stationary line components in this spectral range. Finally, we find series of minima and maxima which occur as a result of series of extremal transitions to increasingly higher excitations. We estimated the limits for 8 series which can possibly give rise to additional absorption in white dwarf spectra; one strong absorption feature in GD229 which is yet unexplained by stationary components is very close to two estimated series limits.

  12. Corresponding author : Marcello.pucci@ieee.org ISSIA-CNR (Institute on Intelligent Systems for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    -linear Predictive Control for PEM-FC 2 stack as well as for reducing the maintenance costs of the fuel cell to Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM-FC). The control objective is to regulate the cell voltage stationary and mobile power generation. Fuel cells in general show 1) good efficiency, even at reduced loads

  13. Electrochemical impedance study of electrode-membrane assemblies in PEM fuel cells. 1: Electro-oxidation of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO mixtures on Pt-based gas-diffusion electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciureanu, M.; Wang, H.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ EIS data are presented on the anodic process in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and the influence of CO poisoning of the Pt gas-diffusion electrodes (GDE) is examined. A characterization of the effects of interfacial kinetics in determining polarization losses in the presence of CO is performed by comparing impedance patterns obtained for cells of the type H{sub 2}/H{sub 2} with H{sub 2}/(H{sub 2} + CO). The impedance spectrum of the poisoned electrode is strongly dependent on potential and on the CO concentration in the gas feed. In the range between 0 and 0.3 V the impedance increases rapidly with the potential, while at potentials higher than 0.3 V a pseudoinductive behavior is observed, in which a positive loop at higher frequencies is accompanied by a low frequency (LF) loop in the fourth quadrant. The latter was assigned to a new rate-determining process, the oxidation of CO{sub ads} by Pt-H{sub 2}O{sub ads}. As a critical potential V{sub crit} is attained, the diameters of the two loops become almost equal and the LF limit of the impedance (R{sub o}) approaches the value for unpoisoned electrode, showing that the activity of the electrode activity has been restored. The value of V{sub crit} is 0.43 and 0.58 V for electrodes poisoned with 100 ppm and 2% CO, respectively. At very high potentials, where the oxidizing species are Pt-OH{sub ads}, the impedance pattern is reserved to the second and third quadrants. Stripping voltammetry and polarization curves recorded in situ, are used to support the conclusions obtained from impedance measurements.

  14. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  15. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making fuel cell projects easier to put into service. In this environment, federal decision makers can focus on being smart buyers of fuel cell energy instead of attempting to become experts in fuel cell technology. For agencies that want to pursue a fuel cell CHP this guide presents a four step process for a successful project. 1. Perform a preliminary screening of the energy needs energy costs and incentives. 2. Compare a detailed project plan. 3. Make a financing and contracting decision. 4. Execute the project plan including financing, installation, and operation. The simplest procurement method is designated funding for the outright purchase of the fuel cell CHP system, although this is usually not the most cost-effective option. This guide describes the following financing options: Power purchase agreement Energy savings performance contract Utility energy services contract Enhanced use lease Fuel cell CHP technology can help federal facility managers comply with agency objectives for reducing energy consumption and air pollution emissions. Fuel cells do not generate particulate pollutants, unburned hydrocarbons or the gases that produce acid rain. Fuel cells emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) than other, less efficient technologies and use of renewable fuels can make them carbon neutral. Fuel cell CHP technology can deliver reliable electricity and heat with high efficiency (70% to 85%) in a small physical footprint with little noise, making it a cost-effective option for federal facilities.

  16. Stationary bound states of spin-half particles in the Kerr and Kerr-Newman gravitational fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Gorbatenko; V. P. Neznamov

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the possibility of existence of stationary bound states of stationary bound states of spin-half probe particles for the Kerr and Kerr-Newman gravitational fields using Chandrasekhar's Hamiltonian. If the Hilbert condition is satisfied, g_{00}>0, bound states of Dirac particles with a real discrete energy spectrum can exist both for particles outside the surface of the outer ergosphere of the Kerr and Kerr-Newman fields, and for particles under the surface of the inner ergosphere. In this case, the surfaces of the external and internal ergospheres play the role of infinitely high potential barriers. Spin-half quantum-mechanical particles cannot cross the ergosphere surfaces of the Kerr and Kerr-Newman fields. Based on the results of this study, we can assume that there exists a new type of rotating collapsars, for which the Hawking radiation is absent. The results of this study can lead to a revision of some concepts of the standard cosmological model related to the evolution of the universe and interaction of rotating collapsars with surrounding matter.

  17. Characterization of the Quasi-Stationary State of an Impurity Driven by Monochromatic Light I - The Effective Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bru, Jean-Bernard; Westrich, Matthias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an impurity ($N$--level atom) driven by monochromatic light in a host environment which is a fermionic thermal reservoir. The external light source is a time--periodic perturbation of the atomic Hamiltonian stimulating transitions between two atomic energy levels $E_{1}$ and $E_{N}$ and thus acts as an optical pump. The purpose of the present work is the analysis of the effective atomic dynamics resulting from the full microscopic time--evolution of the compound system. We prove, in particular, that the atomic dynamics of population relaxes for large times to a quasi-stationary state, that is, a stationary state up to small oscillations driven by the external light source. This state turns out to be uniquely determined by a balance condition. The latter is related to \\textquotedblleft generalized Einstein relations\\textquotedblright relations of spontaneous/stimulated emission/absorption rates, which are conceptually similar to the phenomenological relations derived by Einstein in 1916. As an appl...

  18. Characterization of the Quasi-Stationary State of an Impurity Driven by Monochromatic Light I - The Effective Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Bernard Bru; Walter de Siqueira Pedra; Matthias Westrich

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an impurity ($N$--level atom) driven by monochromatic light in a host environment which is a fermionic thermal reservoir. The external light source is a time--periodic perturbation of the atomic Hamiltonian stimulating transitions between two atomic energy levels $E_{1}$ and $E_{N}$ and thus acts as an optical pump. The purpose of the present work is the analysis of the effective atomic dynamics resulting from the full microscopic time--evolution of the compound system. We prove, in particular, that the atomic dynamics of population relaxes for large times to a quasi-stationary state, that is, a stationary state up to small oscillations driven by the external light source. This state turns out to be uniquely determined by a balance condition. The latter is related to \\textquotedblleft generalized Einstein relations\\textquotedblright relations of spontaneous/stimulated emission/absorption rates, which are conceptually similar to the phenomenological relations derived by Einstein in 1916. As an application we show from quantum mechanical first principles how an inversion of population of energy levels of an impurity in a crystal can appear. Our results are based on the spectral analysis of the generator of the evolution semigroup related to a non--autonomous Cauchy problem effectively describing the atomic dynamics.

  19. 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 2/25/2011 eere.energy.gov Overview of Hydrogen &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 $/kW PEM cost (5-10kW) Stationary Fuel Cell Costs Preliminary projected cost of stationary fuel & Fuel Cell Activities FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM IPHE ­ Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Rick Farmer U: US DOE 2/25/2011 eere.energy.gov Technology Barriers* Economic& Institutional Barriers Fuel Cell Cost

  20. Low-rank approximations for large stationary covariance matrices, as used in the Bayesian and generalized-least-squares analysis of pulsar-timing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutger van Haasteren; Michele Vallisneri

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Many data-analysis problems involve large dense matrices that describe the covariance of stationary noise processes; the computational cost of inverting these matrices, or equivalently of solving linear systems that contain them, is often a practical limit for the analysis. We describe two general, practical, and accurate methods to approximate stationary covariance matrices as low-rank matrix products featuring carefully chosen spectral components. These methods can be used to greatly accelerate data-analysis methods in many contexts, such as the Bayesian and generalized-least-squares analysis of pulsar-timing residuals.

  1. Ballard fuel cell development for the new energy environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnison, D.; Smith, D. [Ballard Power Systems, Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Torpey, J. [GPU International, Parsippany, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballard Power Systems is the world leader in the development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte. These fuel cells are compact and produce powerful electric current relative to their size. PEM fuel cells can deliver higher power density than other types of fuel cells, resulting in reduced cost, weight and volume, and improved performance. The PEM fuel cell is the only fuel cell considered practical for both transportation and stationary applications. Ballard fuel cells are the heart of BGS`s products. The proprietary zero-emission engine converts natural gas, methanol or hydrogen fuel into electricity without combustion.

  2. The Energy-Level Shifts of a Stationary Hydrogen Atom in Static External Gravitational Field with Schwarzschild Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen-Hua Zhao; Yu-Xiao Liu; Xi-Guo Li

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The first order perturbations of the energy levels of a stationary hydrogen atom in static external gravitational field, with Schwarzschild metric, are investigated. The energy shifts are calculated for the relativistic 1S, 2S, 2P, 3S, 3P, 3D, 4S, 4P, 4D and 4F levels. The results show that the energy-level shifts of the states with total angular momentum quantum number 1/2 are all zero, and the ratio of absolute energy shifts with total angular momentum quantum number 5/2 is 1:4:5. This feature can be used to help us to distinguish the gravitational effect from other effect.

  3. Does f(R,T) gravity admit a stationary scenario between dark energy and dark matter in its framework?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudra, Prabir

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note we address the well-known cosmic coincidence problem in the framework of the \\textit{f(R,T)} gravity. In order to achieve this, an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered. A constraint equation is obtained which filters the \\textit{f(R,T)} models that produce a stationary scenario between dark energy and dark matter. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration three widely known models of \\textit{f(R,T)} gravity are taken into consideration and used in the setup designed to study the problem. The study reveals that, the realization of the coincidence scenario is almost impossible for the popular models of $f(R,T)$ gravity, thus proving to be a major setback for these models.

  4. Stationary Solutions of the NavierStokes Equations in a HalfPlane DownStream of an Object: Universality of the Wake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stationary Solutions of the NavierStokes Equations in a HalfPlane DownStream of an Object in the down--stream direction, the leading order deviation from the constant flow is universal, i--Stokes equations can be interpreted as a dynamical system, the down--stream direction playing the role of time

  5. Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, John A.

    2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOEs Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode development. Membranes and MEAs were supplied by team member BASF Fuel Cell (formerly PEMEAS), a manufacturer of polymer and fiber. Additional subcontractors Entegris, the University of South Carolina (USC) Fuel Cell Center, and RPIs Fuel Cell Center conducted activities with regard to stack sealing, acid modeling, and electrode development.

  6. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

  7. Dynamic Changes in LSM Nanoparticles on YSZ: A Model System for Non-stationary SOFC Cathode Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S; Gorte, R J; Orme, C A; Nelson, A J

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between nanoparticles of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) and single crystal yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Nanoparticles of LSM were deposited directly onto single crystal YSZ substrates (100) using an ultrasonic spray nozzle. As samples were annealed from 850 C to 1250 C, nanoparticles gradually decreased in height and eventually disappeared completely. Subsequent reduction in H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O at 700 C resulted in the reappearance of nanoparticles. Studies were carried out on identical regions of the sample allowing the same nanoparticles to be characterized at different temperatures. Morphological changes indicate the formation of a thin layer of LSM, and XPS results support the observation by indicating an increase in signal from the La and Sr and a decrease in signal from the Y and Zr with increasing temperature. SEM/EDX was used to verify that the nanoparticles in the reduced sample contained La. The changes in the LSM/YSZ morphology may be important in explaining the non-stationary behavior observed in operating fuel cells. The thin layer of LSM initially results in poor cathode performance; reducing conditions then lead to film disruptions, indicating nano/microporosity, that increase oxygen ion diffusion and performance.

  8. Procedure for Performing PEM Single Cell Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  9. Polyphenylene Sulfonic Acid: a new PEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Summary of Case Western?s highly sulfonated polymers research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 "

  10. Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Allan J. Jacobson1 Alejandra Ramirez2 and Russell R. Chianelli2 1Department of Chemistry, University Verde-Gómez1 and Allan J. Jacobson1 Alejandra Ramirez2 and Russell R. Chianelli2 1Department

  11. Polyphenylene Sulfonic Acid: a new PEM

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2.- Structural characterization of the obtained materials. 3.- Evaluation of water absorption, proton conductivity and thermal stability of the polymer membranes, and comparison...

  12. PEM Electrolysis R&D Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49, thePAGEPART I

  13. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketingSmart WindowsDepartment ofEnforcement Actions

  14. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detectorof Energy LeakHydrogenof

  15. Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLosCombustion |Needs |

  16. Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.Energy UniversityOversightFlow of

  17. High Temperature PEM - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School football Fancy footwork by C.

  18. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReview | Department

  19. Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartment ofEnergyDepartment ofandWebinar on

  20. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  1. Transportation and Stationary Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is small. Previous feedback from industry has indicated that existing transportation fuel providers (oil for multiple fuel cell applications, including material handling equipment, backup power, and light- or heavy

  2. Sandia Energy - Stationary Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear PressLaboratorySoftware Home Climate &

  3. Trends in stationary energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter GetsEnergySpecification:Donofrio Ford

  4. Non-Pt Electrocatalysts DOE Program/Targets and Workshop Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for transportation and stationary applications Program Focus · Fuel cell stack component cost reduction (catalyst & membrane) and stationary systems development · Integrated fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen infrastructure barriers Assist suppliers Independent T&E Advanced concepts Analysis & Modeling DEVELOPERS PEM Fuel Cell

  5. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available,

    1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.

  6. Conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H.S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developed engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  7. Dilaton field minimally coupled to 2+1 gravity; uniqueness of the static Chan-Mann black hole and new dilaton stationary metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garca-Diaz, Alberto A. [Departamento de Fsica, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mxico DF, Mxico. and Departamento de Fsica, Universidad Autnoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apdo. (Mexico)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Schwarzschild coordinate frame for a static cyclic symmetric metric in 2+1 gravity coupled minimally to a dilaton logarithmically depending on the radial coordinate in the presence of an exponential potential, by solving first order linear Einstein equations, the general solution is derived and it is identified with the ChanMann dilaton solution. In these coordinates, a new stationary dilaton solution is obtained; it does not allow for a de SitterAnti-de Sitter limit at spatial infinity, where its structural functions increase indefinitely. On the other hand, it is horizonless and allows for a naked singularity at the origin of coordinates; moreover, one can identify at a large radial coordinate a (quasi-local) mass parameter and in the whole space a constant angular momentum. Via a general SL(2,R)transformation, applied on the static cyclic symmetric metric, a family of stationary dilaton solutions has been generated. A particular SL(2,R)transformation is identified, which gives rise to the rotating ChanMann dilaton solution. All the exhibited solutions have been characterized by their quasi-local energy, mass, and momentum through their series expansions at spatial infinity. The algebraic structure of the Riccienergy-momentum, and Cotton tensors is given explicitly.

  8. PM PEMs Pre-Measurement Allowance On-Road Evaluation and Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air system problems included failed air compressor, faultyair system problems included a failed air compressor, faulty

  9. PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air system problems included failed air compressor, faultyto confirm. 4. Compressor Valve Stuck Problem - There wasalso a problem with the main compressor drain valve sticking

  10. PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catalytic conditions, and thermophoretic losses. With themuch closer thus thermophoretic, diffusion and impactionand thus higher thermophoretic losses. It is unclear if this

  11. PM PEMs Pre-Measurement Allowance On-Road Evaluation and Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis also accounts for thermophoretic losses and sulfateanalysis also accounts for thermophoretic losses and sulfatemuch closer thus thermophoretic, diffusion and impaction

  12. PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program,Emissions from Diesel Engines. 1. Regulated GaseousEmissions from Diesel Engines. 2. Sampling and Toxics and

  13. PM PEMs Pre-Measurement Allowance On-Road Evaluation and Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made from a class 8 truck whose PM emissions levels werea class 8 truck whose in- use PM emissions levels averaged

  14. PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    values, the 95 th and 5 th percentile confidence limits arebias. The 5 th and 95 th percentile confidence limits thus5 th , 50 th and 95 th percentiles lie. This section gives

  15. PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and Technologys (CE-CERT) Mobile EmissionsResearch and Technologys (CE-CERT) Mobile Emissions

  16. PM PEMs Pre-Measurement Allowance On-Road Evaluation and Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and Technologys (CE-CERT) Mobile EmissionsResearch and Technologys (CE-CERT) Mobile EmissionsResearch and Technologys (CE-CERT) Mobile Emissions

  17. Features of the adsoprtion of naproxen on the chiral stationary phase (S,S)-Whelk-O1 under reversed-phase conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asnin, Leonid [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kaczmarski, Krzysztof [University of Tennessee and Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland; Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using elution chromatography, we studied the adsorption mechanism of the Naproxen enantiomers on the chiral stationary phase (S,S)-Whelk-O1, from buffered methanol-water solutions. We propose an adsorption mechanism that assumes monolayer adsorption of the more retained enantiomer and the associative adsorption of the less retained one. The effects of the mobile phase composition on the adsorption of Naproxen are discussed. The combination of an elevated column temperature and of the use of an acidic mobile phase led to the degradation of the column and caused a major loss of its separation ability. The use of a moderately acidic mobile phase at temperature slightly above ambient did not produce rapid severe damages but, nevertheless, hampered the experiments and caused a slow gradual deterioration of the column.

  18. Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

  19. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. First quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available,

    1980-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is Phase I of a multi-phased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprises the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The main effort in Phase I is the generation of state-of-the-art conceptual designs having greatest potential for prototype testing in 1985. The conceptual designs include a heat transport system for integrating the engine heater head with such energy sources as conventional oil/gas combustors, fluidized bed and other coal combustors, and combustors using coal-derived liquid fuels, and low/medium BTU gases. The heat transport systems being investigated include forced convection with gases or liquids, heat pipes, and direct firing. Currently, the leading choice for the solid fuel combustion system is the atmospheric fluidized bed, with low BTU gasification still a viable alternative. Both systems will continue to be evaluated further, but with greater emphasis on FBC. To date, there appears no clear choice among the heat pipe, forced convection gas loop, or direct firing as the prime candidate for the heat transport sub-system. Conceptual design and analysis will continue on all three sub-systems. Scale-up of United Stirling's P-75 engine to serve as the conceptual design of the 500 HP engine module is continuing. (LCL)

  20. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)

  1. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Systems (National Fire Protection Association 2007) 6.4.1 Gaseous Hydrogen 502 Required Systems 510 Hazardous Exhaust Systems NFPA 55, Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids Permitted 7.3 Exhaust Systems Compressed Hydrogen Gas Storage International Building Code (International

  2. ILZRO-sponsored field data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of VRLA batteries in stationary applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.A. [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Moseley, P.T. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have served in stationary applications for more than a decade, proprietary concerns of battery manufacturers and users and varying approaches to record-keeping have made the data available on performance and life relatively sparse and inconsistent. Such incomplete data are particularly detrimental to understanding the cause or causes of premature capacity loss (PCL) reported in VRLA batteries after as little as two years of service. The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project to characterize relationships between batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; and recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. This paper, prepared before preliminary conclusions were possible, presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users; discusses the analytic approach; presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that emerge in the early analysis of the data; and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. The presentation of this paper will include preliminary results and information regarding the follow-on workshop for the study.

  3. Dynamics of a vertical flight in the stationary gravitational field of a celestial body: Post-newtonian corrections and gravitational redshift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imshennik, V. S., E-mail: imshennik@itep.r [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard problem of a radial motion of test particles in the stationary gravitational field of a spherically symmetric celestial body is solved and is used to determine the time features of this motion. The problem is solved for the equations of motion of general relativity (GR), and the time features are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation, with linear GR corrections proportional to r{sub g}/r and {beta}{sup 2} (in the solution being considered, they are of the same order of smallness) being taken rigorously into account. Total times obtained by integrating the time differentials along the trajectories of motion are considered as the time features in question. It is shown that, for any parameters of the motion, the proper time (which corresponds to watches comoving with a test particle) exceeds the time of watches at rest (watches at the surface of the celestial body being considered). The mass and the radius of the celestial body, as well as the initial velocity of the test particle, serve as arbitrary parameters of the motion. The time difference indicated above implies a leading role of the gravitational redshift, which decreases somewhat because of the opposite effect of the Doppler shift. The results are estimated quantitatively for the important (from the experimental point of view) case of vertical flights of rockets starting from the Earth's surface. In this case, the GR corrections, albeit being extremely small (a few microseconds for several hours of the flight), aremeasurable with atomic (quantum) watches.

  4. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: stationary ships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emergency backup systems, and light-duty trucks, to name a few. Providing auxiliary power to ships in berth may be added to that list soon. Joe Pratt (Energy Systems...

  6. Hydrogen Storage Workshop Argonne National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    hydrogen, fuel cells, and distribution..." #12;1. Hydrogen Storage 2. Hydrogen Production 3. Fuel Cell Cost barriers Assist Suppliers Independent T&E Advanced Concepts Analysis & Modeling SUPPLIERS PEM fuel cell, Stationary Fuel Cells 5,440 5,500 7,500 2,000 (+36%) HYDROGEN RESEARCH Core Research and Development 14

  7. The Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science at Virginia Tech supports and promotes cutting-edge research at the intersection of engineering, science, and medicine. Please visit www.ictas.vt.edu.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    and high temperature fuel cell systems to improve performance and reduce cost. · Development of glass seal materials for solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers. State-of-the-Art PEM Fuel Cell Materials & Processes, and in stationary applications, studies show that the incorporation of high temperature fuel cells can lead

  8. Durability is one of the most critical remaining issues impeding successful commercialization of broad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuel cells have the potential to replace the vehicle's internal combustion engine. Specifically is the current focus for light-duty vehicles. The durability of fuel cell sys- tems, however, has not been of broad PEM fuel cell stationary and transportation energy applications, and the durability of fuel cell

  9. Thse prpare l'Institut FEMTO-ST (Dpartement Energie, UMR CNRS 6174) dans le cadre de la Fdration de Recherche FC LAB (FR CNRS 3539) et en cotutelle avec l'Universit de Cocody-Abidjan, Cte d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A stand alone multi-source system based on the coupling of photovoltaic energy and both a PEM electrolyser and a PEMFC for stationary application is studied. The system gathers photovoltaic array as main energy source one to another one, the energetic system sizing is performed according to a household power profile

  10. Three-wheel air turbocompressor for PEM fuel cell systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehg, Tim; Gee, Mark; Emerson, Terence P.; Ferrall, Joe; Sokolov, Pavel

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system comprises a compressor and a fuel processor downstream of the compressor. A fuel cell stack is in communication with the fuel processor and compressor. A combustor is downstream of the fuel cell stack. First and second turbines are downstream of the fuel processor and in parallel flow communication with one another. A distribution valve is in communication with the first and second turbines. The first and second turbines are mechanically engaged to the compressor. A bypass valve is intermediate the compressor and the second turbine, with the bypass valve enabling a compressed gas from the compressor to bypass the fuel processor.

  11. Higher Temperature PEM Composite Systems for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004.

  12. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  13. advanced pem fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on hydrogen rich mixtures best Hydrogen rich leads to highest power density in fuel cell Cost of SOFC is high, lower cost SOFC system is potentially highest power density...

  14. Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at >4lpm Q1 & 20ccm Q2 N2 at 4lpm Q1 & ccm Q2 N2 at 0lpmQ1 & ccm Q2 No tube on Q1 (open to atm) Pump to MEL

  15. Progress and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voltage(V) Time (Hrs) Golden Gate Transit Cycle Avg_CellVoltage CP_KWDC Failed field diagnostic for fuel air. #12; Brief company history in area of fuel cell buses Current fuel cell bus deployments commercialization of fuel cell buses Fuel cell bus R&D needs Future plans Agenda 2 #12;UTC Fleet history 14

  16. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  17. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a small business technology spin-out of Sarnoff Corporation in March 2006 * The metal corrosion protection technology has been developed for over 5 years. The US Patent (US...

  18. PEM Fuel Cell Technology, Key Research Needs and Approaches ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    icitationwkshopjan08jarvi.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System...

  19. Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    non- regeneration 50 th percentile bsPM emissions for thehp-h, with a 5 th and 95 th percentile of 11 and 43 mg/hp-h,and 3 where the 50 th percentiles were 18, 26, and 25 mg/hp-

  20. Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    elballardkickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting...

  1. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virginia Tech University (Academic)- Membrane Development Collaborations 3M Fuel Cell Components Program- NSTF Catalyst & Membrane Entegris - Carbon Cell...

  2. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  3. PEM Fuel Cell Air Blowers DOE Merit Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % GF Polycarbonate Epoxy stator (SLA) Aluminum Motor housing BLDC Motor R6 ball bearing 17-4 sleeve3 Achieved compact integrated design Selected mixed flow axial machine Motor cooled by process fluid

  4. Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

  5. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua [TreadStone Technologies, Inc.

    2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  6. Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of most line-haul class 8 trucks. Ballard Nexa Fuel Cell Thefuel cell powered auxiliary power units (APUs) to reduce idling in line-haul trucks.

  7. applications pem fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solution against environment and en- ergy Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 99 Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: is ter...

  8. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForumEngines |NewStateDepartment of Energy

  9. Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2 ofEmergencyAcrobatBetterby USEC, INC.Cathode

  10. PEM Fuel Cell Technology, Key Research Needs and Approaches (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49, thePAGEPART IEnergy|

  11. Dedicated to The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton: ENERGY8DecommissioningFuel Cell Powered

  12. Progress and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:in the U.S.Logistical

  13. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos Angeles

  14. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment of EnergyLow-CostManagement

  15. Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergyInstituteMicro3 BALLARD POWER

  16. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02ReportWaste-to-Energy andApril 10,Department ofTesting

  17. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02ReportWaste-to-Energy andApril 10,Department

  18. Techno-economic Analysis of PEM Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| Department ofGeneralWindBuildingOffice28-98 -TechnikonProduction

  19. High Pressure PEM Electrolysis: Status, Key Issues, and Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartmentHigh

  20. Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReview | Department ofTechnicalPRODUCTION

  1. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  2. Approximating Stationary Points of Stochastic Mathematical ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 25, 2010 ... In this paper we consider the following stochastic mathematical ...... H. Xu and M. Fukushima, Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo sam-.

  3. Online Learning of Non-stationary Sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteleoni, Claire

    2003-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an online learning scenario in which the learner can make predictions on the basis of a fixed set of experts. The performance of each expert may change over time in a manner unknown to the learner. We formulate ...

  4. Algorithms for optimizing Placement of Stationary Monitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    (The terms monitors and sensors can be used interchangeably, although we .... An adversary can enter the area at any node (1,j) in the first column. ...... objective function is not ascending in our search direction at a stepsize of , and is...

  5. HIGH DETAIL STATIONARY OPTIMIZATION MODELS FOR GAS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    linear physics, major gas network operators in Germany and Europe face hard ..... This is a natural approach since our industrial partners rely on the same...

  6. Trends in stationary energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnologyfact sheetTransferringInc. | Department|

  7. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter GetsEnergy

  8. Trends in stationary energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter GetsEnergySpecification:Donofrio FordTrends in

  9. Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Staging Technologies EPRI_DOE_EPA Combined Utility AirCombinations. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. [5] Electric PolicyVersion 1.0. Palo Alto, CA: EPRI. [6] Farrell, Alexander

  10. Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost s Information about which compliance strategies were chosen by coal plantcost curve for power plants We estimate NOx abatement costs for 632 coal-costs of implementing dierent abatement options at dierent coal plants

  11. Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mendelsohn. 2008. "E cient Pollution Regulation: Gettingthe damages of air pollution in the United States. JournalMendelsohn. 2006. The Air Pollution Emission Experiments

  12. Interaction between a stationary electric charge and a stationary magnetic dipole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Bonnor

    2002-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Einstein-Maxwell theory I investigate the gravitational field generated by an electric charge and a magnetic dipole, both held in fixed positions, but spinning with prescribed angular momenta. There is a conical singularity between them representing a strut balancing the gravitational attraction of their masses. However, there is in general another singularity, which I call a torsion singularity. I interpret this as a couple needed to maintain the spins at their prescribed values. It vanishes when the parameters obey a certain formula. A conclusion of the work is that the charge and the magnet must spin relative to one another unless constrained by a couple.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of impregnated platinum on PFSA degradation for PEM fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, Marianne [ORNL] [ORNL; Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bonville, Leonard J. [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)] [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Cullen, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL] [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)] [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main sources of membrane degradation in fuel cells is attack by radicals formed wherever Pt, H2, and O2 are present. The effect of Pt precipitated in the membrane is under debate. Although Pt can provide another site for radical formation, it can also scavenge hydrogen peroxide and radicals in the membrane and improve durability. In this work, the effects of Pt particles within the membrane are evaluated and related to membrane degradation. Membranes were ex situ impregnated with 0, 10, 30, and 50 mol% Pt and then tested for 100 h in a fuel cell, at 90 C/100% relative humidity. The highest degradation was observed with the membranes containing 10 mol% Pt, with fluoride emissions of the same magnitude as those of catalyst coated membranes containing Pt/C. Membranes containing 0, 30, and 50 mol% Pt resulted in very low fluoride emission. The high degradation in the 10 mol% membrane was attributed to the low density of platinum particles, which allows generated radicals to attack the membrane before being deactivated. In the 30 mol% and 50 mol% membranes, where the platinum particles were denser, the generated radicals became deactivated on neighboring particles before they attacked the membrane.

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report is the seventh annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis conducted by Strategic Analysis under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. In...

  15. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  16. New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Woojin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in future power generation. However, significant technical challenges remain and the commercial breakthrough of fuel cells is hindered by the high price of fuel cell components. As is well known...

  17. Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which...

  18. FREEWAY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (PeMS): AN OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varaiya, Pravin

    that are based on limited data due to the high effort and cost involved in field data collection. The use of Pe of Freeway Operations California Department of Transportation District 7 120 S Spring Street Los Angeles, CA/day of 30-second loop detector data in real time to produce useful information. Managers at any time can

  19. New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Woojin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in future power generation. However, significant technical challenges remain and the commercial breakthrough of fuel cells is hindered by the high price of fuel cell ...

  20. Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Prodip K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-