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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

power with stationary andmotor vehicle PEM fuel cell systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This investigation examines the economics of producing electricity from proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems under various conditions, including the possibility of using fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to produce power when they are parked at office buildings and residences. The analysis shows that the economics of both stationary fuel cell and FCV-based power vary significantly with variations in key input variables such as the price of natural gas, electricity prices, fuel cell andreformer system costs, andfuel cell system durability levels. The central case results show that stationary PEM fuel cell systems can supply electricity for offices andhomes in California at a net savings when fuel cell system costs reach about $6000 for a 5 kW home system ($1200/kW) and $175,000 for a 250 kW commercial system ($700/kW) andassuming somewhat favorable natural gas costs of $6/GJ at residences and $4/GJ at commercial buildings. Grid-connected FCVs in commercial settings can also potentially supply electricity at competitive rates, in some cases producing significant annual benefits. Particularly attractive is the combination of net metering along with timeof-use electricity rates that allow power to be suppliedto the utility gridat the avoidedcost of central power plant generation. FCVbased power at individual residences does not appear to be as attractive, at least where FCV power can only be used directly or banked with the utility for net metering and not sold in greater quantity, due to the low load levels at these locations that provide a

Timothy Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen; Timothy E. Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

Rich Chartrand

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Microsoft PowerPoint - Francfort slides 1 - 20.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Environmental Laboratory APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant * Electrolytic hydrogen production on site, Proton Energy Systems' HOGEN PEM stationary fuel cell operating...

5

Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are feasible. Safety and logistics force these URFC demonstration units to be small, transportable, and easily set up, hence they already prove the viability of URFC systems for portable applications.

Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED JULY 2009 B U I L D I N G A C L E A N E N E R G Y G R O W T H C O M P A N Y B A L L A R D P O W E R S Y S T E M S PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status Duarte R. Sousa, PE August 11, 2011 AUGUST 2009 P A G E 2 Overview of PEM Stack Manufacturing MEA Manufacturing Plate Manufacturing Stack Assembly Stack Conditioning and Testing Package and Ship For each of the four main processes, the following will be provided: 1. A brief history of where we have been; 2. Where we are today; 3. Where we would like to transition to; 4. Gaps and proposals. AUGUST 2009 P A G E 3 PEM Stack Manufacturing: Cost Overview * The MEA was readily identified as the major cost driver in a 10 kW stationary stack. * The precious metal catalyst electrode is the major cost driver for the MEA.

7

Computational analysis of heat and water transfer in a PEM fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising power-generation sources for mobile and stationary applications. In this paper a non-isothermal, single-domain and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is presented to investigate ... Keywords: CFD, PEM fuel cell, heat, non-isothermal, single-domain

Ebrahim Afshari; Seyed Ali Jazayeri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEM Fuel Cell PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs Presented by Duarte Sousa, PE Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project  Cost drivers were identified for the following: * MEA * Plates * Balance of Plant (BOP) * Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project - Phase 1 Note that this presentation will be MEA centric as this is the working group I represent...  MEA Cost Drivers Identified: Identifying MEA Cost Drivers * The MEA was readily identified as the major cost driver in a 10 kW stationary stack. * The precious metal catalyst electrode is the major cost driver for the MEA. Thus, focus cost reduction efforts on MEA manufacturing methods. Identify gaps in MEA manufacturing technology: How much better can we do? Note: Cost reductions realized from both material price reduction

9

PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle Number (#/cc) Event Trigger 1.E+06 Cummins Test #CVS #/cc PEMS4 raw Event Trigger PEMS3 raw J1939 Hp PEMS5CVS #/cc PEMS5 raw Event Trigger PEMS3 raw PEMS4 raw 1.E+07

Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Analysis of PEM electrolyzers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen can be produced using a PEM electrolyzer. A PEM electrolyzer operates like a fuel cell in reverse. On the anode side of the electrolyzer, electrons are removed from water to form protons and oxygen molecules. The protons are then transported across the membrane. The protons then rejoin with electrons to form hydrogen molecules. In this way water is electrolyzed. In automobiles, the majority of pollutant emissions occur during the start-up of the vehicle. In order to reduce these harmful emissions, a burner will be placed at the end of process to burn off the hydrocarbon emissions. However, this burner must also be hot to completely burn the harmful pollutants. One method of heating this burner quickly is to burn hydrogen before start-up. The burning of the hydrogen will not produce any pollutants. The only products of hydrogen combustion are water and heat. For this reason, a theoretical design of an electrolyzer/burner system was developed.

Knobbe, M.W.

1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

11

FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during many months of the year). * Similarly, use of PEM fuel cell waste heat for hot water heating wouldFUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY AND MOTOR VEHICLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS UCD-ITS-RP-04-21 April 2004 by Timothy Lipman University of California

Kammen, Daniel M.

12

PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Digital Loc1 PEMS3 Digital Loc2 Event Trigger PEMS3 TailpipeDigital Loc1 PEMS3 Digital Loc2 Event Trigger PEMS3 TailpipeEvent Trig THC ppm Event Trigger Sample Time (sec) Figure 4-

Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM/SPE fuel cell is described including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates. 4 figs.

Grot, S.A.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM/SPE fuel cell including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates.

Grot, Stephen Andreas (Henrietta, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To achieve a deeper understanding and improve PEM fuel cell durability LANL is conducting research to better define fuel cell component degradation mechanisms and correlate AST measurements to component in 'real-world' situations.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

); and · Similarly, use of PEM fuel cell waste heat for hot water heating would require careful integration with hot consider cogeneration of hot water to be a potential competitive advantage of stationary fuel cellsPWP-092 Economic Implications of Net Metering for Stationary and Motor Vehicle Fuel Cell Systems

Kammen, Daniel M.

18

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

Luczak, F.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

PEM fuel cell monitoring system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring the performance of H{sub 2}--O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H{sub 2} sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Grot, S.A.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen J. (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary L. (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

PEM fuel cell monitoring system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Grot, Stephen Andreas (West Henrietta, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electrochemical energy storage using PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the results of an engineering assessment for future, long-lived space power systems for extraterrestrial applications. Solar-based, regenerative fuel cell power plants formed from either alkaline or PEM components are the focus. Test results on advanced PEM fuel cell stack components are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Huff, J.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

26

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project conducted fundamental studies of PEM MEA degradation. Insights gained from these studies were disseminated to assist MEA manufacturers in understanding degradation mechanisms and work towards DOE 2010 fuel cell durability targets.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

27

2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Nenad M. Markovic Vojislav R. Stamenkovic Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory 1 st Layer 2 nd Layer 3 rd Layer Pt=100 at.% Pt=48 at.% Ni=52 at.% Pt=87 at.% Ni=13 at.% Pt[111]-Skin surface 5 nm (111) (100) 3 nm Size distribution c-15 nm Shape Bulk composition Surface structure ? HR-TEM: Characterization of Nanoscale Pt/C Catalyst x 15 x 5 Surface composition ? 2 Surface Science Approach design, synthesis, characterization, and testing of well-defined interfaces Pt/C H 2 O 2 Real Applications FUEL CELLS / BATTERIES / ELECTROLIZERS Activity and Stability Mapping DFT/MC EC Pt Au Ru Surface Characterization UHV Chemical / Physical Synthesis SXS/HRDFS FTIR HRTEM DOUBLE-LAYER-BY-DESIGN

29

PEM Electrolysis R&D Webinar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolysis R&D Webinar Electrolysis R&D Webinar May 23, 2011 Presented by Dr. Katherine Ayers Outline * Key Messages About Electrolysis * Company Intro and Market Discussion - Electrolysis Technology Comparison * Infrastructure Challenges and Solutions - System Approaches: Capacity and Delivery Pressure - Materials Advancements: Cost and Efficiency Improvements * Summary and Future Vision 2 Key Takeaways for Today * Hydrogen markets exist today that can leverage advancements in on-site generation technologies * PEM electrolysis already highly cost competitive in these markets * PEM technology meets alkaline output capacities and has performance advantages for many applications * Multiple fueling stations utilizing hydrogen from electrolysis: can help bridge the infrastructure gap * Clear pathways exist for considerable cost reductions

30

Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to bridge the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

Lvov, Serguei

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

31

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

Neutzler, J.K.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

35

NETL: Releases & Briefs - PEMs, MEMS and microvalves  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMs, MEMS and Microvalves PEMs, MEMS and Microvalves PEM fuel cell on the test stand Research partners at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the University of Pittsburgh have designed a piezoelectric microvalve for integration in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, the fully integrated valve will optimize air and hydrogen flow to help eliminate problems including poor fuel conversion efficiency, hot spots, decreased cell life, and reduced cell voltage. Based on a patent pending flow and energy management concept developed by the NETL Gas Energy Systems Dynamics Focus Area, the system controls cell-to-cell flow distribution inside a fuel cell stack. The University of Pittsburgh is manufacturing the first prototype for testing. (photo shows PEM fuel cell on the test stand)

36

Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The CO-concentration in the H{sub 2} feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel stream. 4 figs.

Meltser, M.A.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

Edward F. Kiczek

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Stationary nonlinear Airy beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

Lotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita del'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Faccio, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Matematica, Universita del'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Couairon, A. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Papazoglou, D. G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Materials Science and Technology Department, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Abdollahpour, D. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

PEM fuel cell with onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents ...

42

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9/2011 9/2011 1 BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. Manufacturing Barriers to high temperature PEM commercialization 39 Veronica Ave Somerset , NJ 08873 Tel : (732) 545-5100 9/9/2011 2 Background on BASF Fuel Cell  BASF Fuel Cell was established in 2007, formerly PEMEAS Fuel Cells (including E-TEK)  Product line is high temperature MEAs (Celtec ® P made from PBI-phosphoric acid)  Dedicated a new advanced pilot manufacturing facility in Somerset NJ May 2009. Ribbon-cutting hosted by Dr. Kreimeyer (BASF BoD, right) and attended by various US pubic officials including former NJ Governor Jon Corzine (left) 9/9/2011 3 Multi-layer product of membrane (polybenzimidazole and phosphoric acid), gas diffusion material and catalysts Unique characteristics:  High operating temperature

43

150 kW PEM Stationary Power Plant Operating on Natural Gas -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reformate. Insights gained from these studies will be applied towards designing a power plant, such as described above, that meets the following 2015 DOE targets: Operating...

44

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 ???????????????????????????????°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

James E. McGrath

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

45

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

46

Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOEs 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group unzipping is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to high speed, high volume manufacturing, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

Yandrasits, Michael A.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Trends in stationary energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Colin McCormick Senior Advisor for R&D Office of the Under Secretary US Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2013 April 2013 2 Under Secretary of Energy * Oversee the applied energy programs * Efficiency & Renewables * Electric grid * Fossil energy * Nuclear energy * Indian energy * Support interactions with Office of Science, ARPA-E * Support cross-cutting topics in energy systems * Energy systems interaction * Water-energy nexus * Bulk energy storage * Energy finance * International Lab engagement * Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR) 3 2013: Already a busy year for energy 4 Some notable trends in stationary energy The water-energy nexus The rise of natural gas Global trends New models for the grid

48

Trends in stationary energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Colin McCormick Senior Advisor for R&D Office of the Under Secretary US Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2013 April 2013 2 Under Secretary of Energy * Oversee the applied energy programs * Efficiency & Renewables * Electric grid * Fossil energy * Nuclear energy * Indian energy * Support interactions with Office of Science, ARPA-E * Support cross-cutting topics in energy systems * Energy systems interaction * Water-energy nexus * Bulk energy storage * Energy finance * International Lab engagement * Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR) 3 2013: Already a busy year for energy 4 Some notable trends in stationary energy The water-energy nexus The rise of natural gas Global trends New models for the grid

49

Free air breathing planar PEM fuel cell design for portable electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PEM fuel cell technology is an energy source that can provide several times more energy per unit volume then current lithium ion batteries. However, PEM fuel cells remain to be optimized in volume and mass to create a ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method of monitoring CO concentrations in hydrogen feed to a PEM fuel cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CO concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and/or voltage behavior patterns from a PEM-probe communicating with the reformate feed stream. Pattern recognition software may be used to compare the current and voltage patterns from the PEM-probe to current and voltage telltale outputs determined from a reference cell similar to the PEM-probe and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream. The PEM-probe is intermittently purged of any CO build-up on the anode catalyst (e.g., by (1) flushing the anode with air, (2) short circuiting the PEM-probe, or (3) reverse biasing the PEM-probe) to keep the PEM-probe at peak performance levels.

Grot, Stephen Andreas (Rochester, NY); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event horizons, Schwarzschild metric, Kerr metric, no-hair theorems 1

Chru?ciel, Piotr T.

52

AN EVALUATION OF SELECT PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS Kristina Haraldsson, Keith Wipke National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS 1633 Golden, Colorado, 80401 ABSTRACT Many proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell models have been reported in publications, and some are available commercially. This paper helps users match their modeling needs with specific fuel cell models. The paper has three parts. First, it describes the model selection criteria for choosing a fuel cell model. Second, it applies these criteria to select state- of-the-art fuel cell models available in literature and commercially. The advantages and disadvantages of commercial models are discussed. Third, the paper illustrates the process of choosing a fuel cell model with an

53

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BY BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. Miller *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Giner Giner Electrochemical Systems: Monjid Hamdan *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Proton Proton OnSite: Kathy Ayers *Q&A 3 DOE EERE-FCT Goals and Objectives Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/gge Capacity (kg/day) Distributed Central 100,000,000 100,000 50,000 10,000 1,000 10 Natural Gas Reforming Photo- electro- chemical Biological Water Electrolysis (Solar) 2015-2020 Today-2015 2020-2030 Coal Gasification (No Carbon Capture) Electrolysis Water (Grid) Coal Gasification (Carbon Capture)

54

Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

Eric J. Carlson

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Recent Progress in Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are attracting much attention as promising clean power sources and an alternative to conventional internal combustion engines, secondary batteries, and other power sources. Much effort from government laboratories, industry, and academia has been devoted to developing PEM fuel cells, and great advances have been achieved. Although prototype cars powered by fuel cells have been delivered, successful commercialization requires fuel cell electrocatalysts, which are crucial components at the heart of fuel cells, meet exacting performance targets. In this review, we present a brief overview of the recent progress in fuel cell electrocatalysts, which involves catalyst supports, Pt and Pt-based electrocatalysts, and non-Pt electrocatalysts.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

Ceramic stationary gas turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

Roode, M. van

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance.

K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 Low Low - - Cost Cost Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 IIPS Number 16910 Ward TeGrotenhuis, Susie Stenkamp, Curt Lavender Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Richland, WA HFCIT Kick Off Meeting February 2007 2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective: Project objective: Create a low cost Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

59

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig #  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig # Piotr T. Chru?sciel + February 8, 2005 Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event. this space­time a natural model for a non­rotating black hole. We can now come back to the problem

Chru?ciel, Piotr T.

60

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stationary Black Holes Robert Beig Piotr T. Chru´sciel February 8, 2005 Abstract We review the theory of stationary black hole solutions of vacuum Einstein equations. Keywords: black holes, event-Szekeres extension of the Schwarzschild solution. this space-time a natural model for a non-rotating black hole. We

Chru?ciel, Piotr T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition Metal Sulfide Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 March 21, 2003 Objectives ¾ Investigate non-platinum electro-catalysts with CO tolerance ¾ Focus on transition metal sulfides as electro-catalysts

62

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

63

Interpreting Stationary Wave Nonlinearity in Barotropic Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stationary wave nonlinearity describes the self-interaction of stationary waves and is important in maintaining the zonally asymmetric atmospheric general circulation. However, the dynamics of stationary wave nonlinearity, which is often ...

Lei Wang; Paul J. Kushner

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of a lithium hydride powered hydrogen generator for use in long life, low power PEM fuel cell power supplies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis studies a hybrid PEM fuel cell system for use in low power, long life sensor networks. PEM fuel cells offer high efficiency and environmental friendliness but have not been widely adopted due to cost, reliability, ...

Strawser, Daniel DeWitt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Stationary Fuel Cell Evaluation (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This powerpoint presentation discusses its objectives: real world operation data from the field and state-of-the-art lab; collection; analysis for independent technology validation; collaboration with industry and end users operating stationary fuel cell systems and reporting on technology status, progress and technical challenges. The approach and accomplishments are: A quarterly data analysis and publication of first technical stationary fuel cell composite data products (data through June 2012).

Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Novel Hydrogen Purification Device Integrated with PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prototype device containing twelve membrane tubes was designed, built, and demonstrated. The device produced almost 300 scfh of purified hydrogen at 200 psig feed pressure. The extent of purification met the program target of selectively removing enough impurities to enable industrial-grade hydrogen to meet purity specifications for PEM fuel cells. An extrusion process was developed to produce substrate tubes. Membranes met several test objectives, including completing 20 thermal cycles, exceeding 250 hours of operating life, and demonstrating a flux of 965 scfh/ft2 at 200 psid and 400 C.

Joseph Schwartz; Hankwon Lim; Raymond Drnevich

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moderate PEM Light Duty Vehicles- Fuel Cell Limited Limited to Moderate Steam Methane Reformer Hydrogen

69

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Catalysts and Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells DE-FG36-07GO17007 Mark K. Debe 3M Company Feb. 13, 2007 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off Meeting This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Overview Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM FC's - 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off, Feb. 13-14, 2007 2 3 Barriers A. Electrode and MEA Durability B. Stack Material & Mfg Cost C. Electrode and MEA Performance DOE Technical Targets Electrocatalyst (2010, 2015) * Durability w/cycling: hrs < 80 o C - (5000, 5000) > 80 o C - (2000, 5000) * Cost: $/kW (5,4) * Mass activity: A/mg ( 0.44, 0.44) * PGM Total, g/ kW rated: (0.3, 0.2) MEA (2010, 2015) * Cost: $/kW (10,5) * Performance: W/cm 2 at Rated Pwr. (1,1) ; 0.8V (0.25, 0.25) Budget * Total Project funding $10.43MM

70

Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented non-kinetic losses in PEM fuel cells under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support. The cathode with carbon-supported Pt catalyst was prepared and characterized with potential hold at 1.2 V vs. SHE in PEM fuel cells. Irreversible losses caused by carbon corrosion were evaluated using a variety of electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization technique. Ohmic losses at the cathode with potential hold were determined using its capacitive responses. Concentration losses in PEM fuel cells were analyzed in terms of Tafel behavior and thin film/flooded-agglomerate dynamics.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Balance of Plant Needs and Balance of Plant Needs and Integration of Stack Components for Stationary Power and CHP Applications Applications Chris Ainscough P.E. Chief Engineer - PowerEdge Nuvera Fuel Cells cainscough@nuvera.com Background  Experience integrating systems based on fuel cells and reformers.  Applications include vehicles, combined heat and power (CHP), industrial plants, and forklifts. Who Needs Balance of Plant?  "...an electric generator that has no moving parts...This elegant device is called a fuel cell." Skerrett, P. J. "Fuel Cell Update." Popular Science. June 1993:89. print. No Moving Parts Except These  The typical fluid components in a PEM CHP system based on steam/methane reformer technology. (in red) SWITCH STACK PRV

72

High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or * nanoplates - Ni, Co, and Fe have been selected as V.D.14 High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-Based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts Table 1. Technical Targets for...

73

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses on PEM fuel cell components and the overall system are presented including the most important cost factors and the effects of selected scenarios.

Carlson, E. J.; Kopf, P.; Sinha, J.; Sriramulu, S.; Yang, Y.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Technologies Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Eric L. Brosha, Anthony Burrell, Neil Henson, Jonathan Phillips, and Tommy Rockward Los Alamos National Laboratory Timothy Ward, Plamen Atanassov University of New Mexico Karren More Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cell Technologies Program Kick-off Meeting September 30 - October 1, 2009 Washington DC Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Fuel Cell Technologies Objectives  Develop a ceramic alternative to carbon material supports for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode that exhibits an enhanced resistance to corrosion and Pt coalescence while preserving positive attributes of carbon such as

75

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (Electrocatalysts, Supports, Membranes, and Membrane Electrode Assemblies) Revised May 26, 2010 Fuel cells, especially for automotive propulsion, must operate over a wide range of operating and cyclic conditions. The desired operating range encompasses temperatures from below the freezing point to well above the boiling point of water, humidity from ambient to saturated, and half-cell potentials from 0 to >1.5 volts. Furthermore, the anode side of the cell may be exposed to hydrogen and air during different parts of the driving and startup/shutdown cycles. The severity in operating conditions is greatly exacerbated by the transient and cyclic nature of

76

Method of making MEA for PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) for a PEM/SPE fuel cell comprising applying a slurry of electrode-forming material directly onto a membrane-electrolyte film. The slurry comprises a liquid vehicle carrying catalyst particles and a binder for the catalyst particles. The membrane-electrolyte is preswollen by contact with the vehicle before the electrode-forming slurry is applied to the membrane-electrolyte. The swollen membrane-electrolyte is constrained against shrinking in the "x" and "y" directions during drying. Following assembly of the fuel cell, the MEA is rehydrated inside the fuel cell such that it swells in the "z" direction for enhanced electrical contact with contiguous electrically conductive components of the fuel cell.

Hulett, Jay S. (West Henrietta, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Novel Stationary Phase Materials in Separation Science ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Description: The Organic Chemical Metrology Group maintains on ongoing effort to study liquid and gas chromatographic stationary phases. ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

International Stationary Fuel Cell Demonstration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STATIONARY FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION STATIONARY FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION John Vogel, Plug Power Inc. Yu-Min Tsou, PEMEAS E-TEK 14 February, 2007 Clean, Reliable On-site Energy SAFE HARBOR STATEMENT This presentation contains forward-looking statements, including statements regarding the company's future plans and expectations regarding the development and commercialization of fuel cell technology. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this presentation. The company expressly disclaims any obligation or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any such statements to reflect any change in the company's expectations or any change in

79

Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the major aim of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. This latter aspect is key to attaining the 2015 DOE technical targets for platinum group metal (PGM) loadings (0.20 mg/cm{sup 2}). The benefits of the use of carbon-supported catalysts to drastically reduce Pt loadings from the early, conventional Pt-black technology are well known. The supported platinum catalyzed membrane approach widely used today for fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was developed shortly thereafter these early reports. Of direct relevance to this present work, are the investigations into Pt particle growth in PEM fuel cells, and subsequent follow-on work showing evidence of Pt particles suspended free of the support within the catalyst layer. Further, durability work has demonstrated the detrimental effects of potential cycling on carbon corrosion and the link between electrochemical surface area and particle growth. To avoid the issues with carbon degradation altogether, it has been proposed by numerous fuel cell research groups to replace carbon supports with conductive materials that are ceramic in nature. Intrinsically, these many conductive oxides, carbides, and nitrides possess the prerequisite electronic conductivity required, and offer corrosion resistance in PEMFC environments; however, most reports indicate that obtaining sufficient surface area remains a significant barrier to obtaining desirable fuel ceU performance. Ceramic materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity and necessary stability under fuel cell conditions must also exhibit high surface area as a necessary adjunct to obtaining high Pt dispersions and Pt utilization targets. Our goal in this work is to identify new synthesis approaches together with materials that will lead to ceramic supports with high surface areas and high Pt dispersions. Several strong candidates for use as PEMFC catalyst supports include: transition metal nitrides and substoichiometric titanium oxides, which hither to now have been prepared by other researcher groups with relatively low surface areas (ca. 1-50 m{sup 2}/g typical). To achieve our goals of engineering high surface area, conductive ceramic support for utilization in PEMFCs, a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with experience synthesizing and investigating these materials has been assembled. This team is headed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico. This report describes our fiscal year 2010 technical progress related to applying advanced synthetiC methods towards the development of new ceramic supports for Pt catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blackmore, Karen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Fast test for the durability of PEM fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

ETek Pt/C catalyst was used as standard materials to develop a new test protocol for fast screening durable catalyst for PEM fuel cells. Potential step (Pstep) method with the upper potential of 1.4V and the potential-static (Pstat) holding at 1.4 V or 1.2V are used to degrade the catalyst. The degradation in the electrochemical surface area (ESA) for Pt/C under Pstep conditions is greatly accelerated as compared with other conditions. The durability of Pt/Vulcan and Pt/CNT were studied using the new protocol with the electrochemical stressing of Pstep(1.4V/0.6V), which provided the same results as those tested using conventional protocols: Pt/CNT is more durable than Pt/Vulcan. This confirms that the new protocol works well in screening catalyst in terms of durability. The new protocol can differentiate the durability of electrocatalysts by shortening the test time to several hours. It is reliable and time-efficient.

Shao, Yuyan; Kou, Rong; Wang, Jun; Kwak, Ja Hun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2008-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Agenda...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I: Project Overview and Federal Perspective Moderator: Marc Melaina, NREL 1. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Analysis Scope and Approach Fred Joseck, U.S....

82

Stationary Phases in Gas Chromatographic Retention Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lists below contain names of stationary phases found in the gas chromatography retention ... CP Sil 2; Nonpolar; LM-5; JXR; Vacuum Grease Oil (VM-4) ...

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: "An...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Seminar 2008 Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop "An Automaker's Views on the Transition to Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles" Phoenix, AZ 27 October 2008 Britta...

84

Load Sharing in a Hybrid Power System with a PV Panel and a PEM Fuel-Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

varies with the time of the day. In order to improve the reliability of PV energy and at the same timeLoad Sharing in a Hybrid Power System with a PV Panel and a PEM Fuel-Cell Dachuan Yu S. Yuvarajan power system with PV panels and a PEM fuel cell is described. The system draws the maximum power

Yuvarajan, Subbaraya

85

Orientation of stationary axial collectors  

SciTech Connect

Attention is drawn to the fact that stationary solar collectors with axial symmetry have a third degree of freedom which must be considered, in addition to their azimuth and tilt angles, if their orientation is to be optimized on an annual or seasonal basis. The authors set up the equations needed to describe collector orientation in terms of all angles, including this extra degree of freedom which they refer to as skewness. Examples of the use of these equations are then given, both for northern and southern latitudes, which illustrate the manner in which skewness may be taken into consideration and highlight the importance of doing this. For the sake of simplicity the illustrative examples treat only the direct beam component of the total insolation intercepted by the collector.

Faiman, D.; Mills, D.R. (Sydney Univ., New South Wales (Australia))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative and Durable High Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells PNNL: Yong Wang Conrad Zhang Vilayanur Viswanath Yuehe Lin Jun Liu Project kick Project kick - - off meeting off meeting Feb 13 Feb 13 - - 14, 2007 14, 2007 Ballard Power Systems: Stephen Campbell University of Delaware: Jingguang Chen ORNL: Sheng Dai 2 Technical Issues and Objective Technical Issues and Objective Current technical issues z Carbon support „ Susceptible to oxidation under fuel cell operating conditions. „ Oxidation further catalyzed by Pt „ Corrosion leads to Pt migration and agglomeration

87

Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalyst supports exhibit great influence on the cost, performance, and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. This review paper is to summarize several important kinds of novel support materials for PEM fuel cells (including direct methanol fuel cell, DMFC): nanostructured carbon materials (carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers, mesoporous carbon), conductive doped diamonds and nanodiamonds, conductive oxides (tin oxide/indium tin oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide) and carbides (tungsten carbides). The advantages and disadvantages, the acting mechanism to promote electrocatalysis, and the strategies to improve present catalyst support materials and to search for new ones are discussed. This is expected to throw light on future development of catalyst support for PEM fuel cells.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

NETL: NATCARB - CO2 Stationary Sources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary Sources Stationary Sources NATCARB CO2 Stationary Sources CO2 Stationary Source Emission Estimation Methodology NATCARB Viewer The NATCARB Viewer is available at: http://www.natcarbviewer.com. 2012 Atlas IV DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) employed carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions estimate methodologies that are based on the most readily available representative data for that particular industry type within the respective partnership area. Carbon dioxide emissions data provided by databases (for example, eGRID, IEA GHG, or NATCARB) were the first choice for all of the RCSPs, both for identifying major CO2 stationary sources and for providing reliable emission estimations. Databases are considered to contain reliable and accurate data obtained

89

FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary/Distributed Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects to someone by E-mail Share FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on Facebook Tweet about FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on Twitter Bookmark FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on Google Bookmark FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on Delicious Rank FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on Digg Find More places to share FCT Technology Validation: Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects on AddThis.com... Home Transportation Projects Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects DOE Projects Non-DOE Projects Integrated Projects Quick Links Hydrogen Production

90

160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

L.G. Marianowski

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

91

Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environment; Copper-halide 1. Introduction The use of hydrocarbon fuels for generating power for cars for both transportation and residential power systems. PEM fuel cells operate on hydro- gen. However, the infrastructure for hydrogen that will support large markets is decades away. The use of hydro- carbon fuels (e

Dutta, Prabir K.

92

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTechs GRAFCELL? resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTIs analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a Best Case Scenario for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this Best Case Scenario including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

93

"Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile The system is comprised of a stationary closed...

94

Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Reliable access to...

95

Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

96

Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Reliable...

97

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Major Stationary Sources...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Major Stationary Sources and Major Modifications (Vermont) Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Major Stationary Sources and Major Modifications (Vermont) Eligibility Utility...

98

Air Permitting for Stationary Sources (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The permitting system implements the permitting requirements of RSA 125-C and 125-I to regulate the operation and modification of new and existing stationary sources, area sources, and devices to...

99

Northern Winter Stationary Waves: Theory and Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review is provided of stationary wave theory, the theory for the deviations from zonal symmetry of the climate. To help focus the discussion the authors concentrate exclusively on northern winter. Several theoretical issues, including the ...

Isaac M. Held; Mingfang Ting; Hailan Wang

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

On the stability of stationary age distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Age structured nonlinear single species and predator prey population models are treated and a straightforward relatively simple method is shown to arrive at a condition of stability of stationary solutions. Keywords: population dynamics, stability

M. Farkas

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Virtual stationary timed automata for mobile networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we formally define a programming abstraction for mobile networks called the Virtual Stationary Automata programming layer, consisting of real mobile clients, virtual timed I/O automata called virtual ...

Nolte, Tina Ann, 1979-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Radiative Forcing of Stationary Planetary Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stationary wave components of the planetary-scale circulation are maintained by topographic forcing and by latent and sensible heat transfers and radiation. These waves have a potential vorticity balance mainly due to vertically differential ...

Leo J. Donner; Hsiao-Lan Kuo

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Zhili Feng Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Gap Analysis for Bulk...

104

Retrieving scale from quasi-stationary images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a novel method to derive scale information from quasi-stationary images, which relies on a rotation-guided multi-scale analysis of features derived from Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM). Unlike other methods for multi-scale ... Keywords: CNS, GLCM, Gray-Level Co-occurrence matrices, MPGS, Multi-scale, Quasi-stationary images, Rotation-guided, Texture characterization

Piotr W. Mirowski; Daniel M. Tetzlaff

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off P I : Branko N Popov P. I.: Branko N. Popov Center for Electrochemical Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia SC 29208. September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Center for Electrochemical Engineering, University of South Carolina 1 Overview Timeline * S Start d date: J June 01 2010 01 2010 * End date: Nov 30 2012 (Phase I) : May 31 2014 (Phase II) Budget * Total project funding ¾ DOE share: $ 4 400 000 ¾ DOE share: $ 4,400,000 ¾ Contractor share: $1,100,000 * Incremental funding received in FY10: $750,000

106

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in PEM Fuel Cells: in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Background Water Management Issues Arise From: ƒ Generation of water by cathodic reaction ƒ Membrane humidification requirements ƒ Capillary pressure driven transport through porous MEA and GDL materials ƒ Scaling bipolar plate channel dimensions J.H. Nam and M. Kaviany, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 4595-4611 (2003) Relevant Barriers and Targets ƒ Improved Gas Diffusion Layer, Flow Fields, Membrane Electrode Assemblies Needed to Improve Water Management: * Flooding blocks reactant transport

107

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subcontract Report Subcontract Report Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell NREL/SR-560-39104 Systems for Transportation December 2005 September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL Technical Monitor: K. Wipke Prepared under Subcontract No. KACX-5-44452-01 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-560-39104 December 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy

108

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used...

Burlatsky, S F; O'Neill, J; Atrazhev, V V; Varyukhin, A N; Dmitriev, D V; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Stationary light in cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

111

Oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond J. P. Dodelet INRS-Énergie et Matériaux C. P. 1020, Varennes, Québec, Canada, J3X 1S2 dodelet@inrs-ener.uquebec.ca Collaborators Michel Lefèvre (INRS) Sébastien Marcotte (INRS) Frédéric Jaouen (Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden) Prof. Patrick Bertrand (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium) Prof. Göran Lindbergh (Royal Inst. Of Technology, Sweden) New Orleans workshop March 21 03. DODELET, J. P. ; New Orleans, March 21, 03 1 PEM Fuel Cells Anode : 2 H 2 → 4 H + + 4 e - Electrolyte : Perfluorinated polymer - SO 3 H Cathode : O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e - → 2 H 2 O Acidic Medium ( pH ~ 1 ) Low Temperature Fuel Cell (80°C) ↓ Pt- based Anode and Cathode Catalysts Pt is not abundant and expensive

112

1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

These systems are fueled using reformate from natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and even kerosene in some demonstrations being conducted in Japan. LT-PEM fuel cell...

113

Stationary Barotropic Modons in Westerly Background Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extension is given of the class of barotropic modon solutions on a sphere. In contrast to the previously obtained modons, the new solutions can be stationary in a solid-body rotation which is westerly. This property, as well as the fact that ...

W. T. M. Verkley

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Test profiles for stationary energy storage applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaluation of battery and other energy storage technologies for stationary uses is progressing rapidly toward application-specific testing that uses computer-based data acquisition and control equipment, active electronic loads and power supplies, and customized software, to enable sophisticated test regimes that simulate actual use conditions. These simulated-use tests provide more accurate performance and life evaluations than simple constant resistance or current testing regimes. Some of the tests use stepped constant-power charge and discharge regimes to simulate conditions created by electric utility applications such as frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Other test profiles under development simulate conditions for the energy storage component of Remote Area Power Supplies (RAPS) that include renewable and/or fossil-fueled generators. Various RAPS applications have unique sets of service conditions that require specialized test profiles. However, almost all RAPS tests and many tests that represent other stationary applications need to simulate significant time periods during which storage devices operate at low-to-medium states-of-charge without full recharge. Consideration of these and similar issues in simulated-use test regimes is necessary to effectively predict the responses of the various types of batteries in specific stationary applications. This paper describes existing and evolving stationary applications for energy storage technologies and test regimes that are designed to simulate them. The paper also discusses efforts to develop international testing standards.

Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, J.F. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Taylor, P.A. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use data on 2007 model- year cars. Figure 7: Trends in NOxCSEM WP 181 Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary94720-5180 www.ucei.org Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of

Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

DR Brown; R Jones

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors for detecting a bio-agent plume Title Trade-offs between moving and stationary particle collectors for detecting a...

118

The Role of Stationary Eddies in Shaping Midlatitude Storm Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transient and stationary eddies shape the extratropical climate through their transport of heat, moisture, and momentum. In the zonal mean, the transports by transient eddies dominate over those by stationary eddies, but this is not necessarily ...

Yohai Kaspi; Tapio Schneider

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Comparing non-stationary and irregularly spaced time series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present approximate distributions for the ratio of the cumulative wavelet periodograms considering stationary and non-stationary time series generated from independent Gaussian processes. We also adapt an existing procedure to use this ... Keywords: Distributions of quadratic forms, Hypothesis testing, Irregularly spaced time series, Locally stationary wavelet processes, Multiresolution approximation

Gladys E. Salcedo; RogRio F. Porto; Pedro A. Morettin

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Final Scientific Report : Development of Transition Metal/ Chalcogen Based Cathode Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aim of this project was to investigate the potential for using base metal sulfides and selenides as low cost replacements for precious metal catalysts, such as platinum, currently being used in PEM fuel cells. The approach was to deposit thin films of the materials to be evaluated onto inert electrodes and evaluate their activity for the cathode reaction (oxygen reduction) as well as ex-situ structural and compositional characterization. The most active materials identified are CoS2 and the 50:50 solid solution (Co,Ni)S2. However, the OCP of these materials is still considered too low, at 0.83V and 0.89V vs. RHE respectively, for testing in fuel cells. The methods employed here were necessary to compare with the activity of platinum as, when nano-dispersed on carbon supports, the active surface area of these materials is difficult to measure, making comparisons inaccurate. This research adds to the knowledge of potential candidates for platinum replacement in order to reduce the cost of PEM fuel cell technology and promote commercialization. Although the fabrication methods employed here are strictly experimental, methods were also developed to produce nano-dispersed catalysts with similar compositions, structure and activity. Cycling of these catalysts to highly oxidizing potentials resulted in an increase of the open circuit voltage to approach that of platinum, however, it proved difficult to determine why using these dispersed materials. The potential for non-precious, non-metallic, low cost, compound catalysts for PEM fuel cells has been investigated and demonstrated.

Campbell, Stephen, A.

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Heat and mass transfer design issues in PEM fuel cell hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dynamic moisture transport within polymeric electrolytes influences PEM fuel cell performance. Lowering electrolyte moisture content leads to decreased ionic transport rates, and other long term effects including polymer degradation. Results illustrate anode dehydration, the effect of water transport concurrent with the proton flux, is significant in single cells at current densities exceeding 500 ma/cm{sup 2}, and at higher temperatures. Evaporation and condensation to and from the gas phase contribute significantly to the cell thermal flows. Several strategies for successful high current density operation of these devices are presented. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Nguyen, Trung; Hedstrom, J.C.; Vanderborgh, N.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Stationary Combustion Guidance[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for stationary combustion is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

125

Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Testimony of Thomas S. Key, Technical Leader, Renewables and Distributed Generation, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications before the House Science and Technology Committee Energy and Environment Subcommittee October 3, 2007 Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications More Documents & Publications DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA (July 2013) Grid Energy Storage December 2013 Enhancing the Smart Grid: Integrating Clean Distributed and Renewable

126

Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

Zia Mirza, Program Manager

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.

S. F. Burlatsky; M. Gummalla; J. O'Neill; V. V. Atrazhev; A. N. Varyukhin; D. V. Dmitriev; N. S. Erikhman

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

Stability estimates in stationary inverse transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the stability of the reconstruction of the scattering and absorption coefficients in a stationary linear transport equation from knowledge of the full albedo operator in dimension $n\\geq3$. The albedo operator is defined as the mapping from the incoming boundary conditions to the outgoing transport solution at the boundary of a compact and convex domain. The uniqueness of the reconstruction was proved in [M. Choulli-P. Stefanov, 1996 and 1999] and partial stability estimates were obtained in [J.-N. Wang, 1999] for spatially independent scattering coefficients. We generalize these results and prove an $L^1$-stability estimate for spatially dependent scattering coefficients.

Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

129

On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final Report of On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells. The objective of this effort was to technologically enable a compact, fast start-up integrated Water Gas Shift-Pd membrane reactor for integration into an On Board Fuel Processing System (FPS) for an automotive 50 kWe PEM Fuel Cell (PEM FC). Our approach was to: (1) use physics based reactor and system level models to optimize the design through trade studies of the various system design and operating parameters; and (2) synthesize, characterize and assess the performance of advanced high flux, high selectivity, Pd alloy membranes on porous stainless steel tubes for mechanical strength and robustness. In parallel and not part of this program we were simultaneously developing air tolerant, high volumetric activity, thermally stable Water Gas Shift catalysts for the WGS/membrane reactor. We identified through our models the optimum WGS/membrane reactor configuration, and best Pd membrane/FPS and PEM FC integration scheme. Such a PEM FC power plant was shown through the models to offer 6% higher efficiency than a system without the integrated membrane reactor. The estimated FPS response time was < 1 minute to 50% power on start-up, 5 sec transient response time, 1140 W/L power density and 1100 W/kg specific power with an estimated production cost of $35/kW. Such an FPS system would have a Catalytic Partial Oxidation System (CPO) rather than the slower starting Auto-Thermal Reformer (ATR). We found that at optimum WGS reactor configuration that H{sub 2} recovery efficiencies of 95% could be achieved at 6 atm WGS pressure. However optimum overall fuel to net electrical efficiency ({approx}31%) is highest at lower fuel processor efficiency (67%) with 85% H{sub 2} recovery because less parasitic power is needed. The H{sub 2} permeance of {approx}45 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5} at 350 C was assumed in these simulations. In the laboratory we achieved a H{sub 2} permeance of 50 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5}) with a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 110 at 350 C with pure Pd. We also demonstrated that we could produce Pd-Ag membranes. Such alloy membranes are necessary because they aren't prone to the Pd-hydride {alpha}-{beta} phase transition that is known to cause membrane failure in cyclic operation. When funding was terminated we were on track to demonstrated Pd-Ag alloy deposition on a nano-porous ({approx}80 nm) oxide layer supported on porous stainless steel tubing using a process designed for scale-up.

Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Zissis Dardas; Ying She; Mallika Gummalla; Benoit Olsommer

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release c

Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

132

New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in future power generation. However, significant technical challenges remain and the commercial breakthrough of fuel cells is hindered by the high price of fuel cell components. As is well known, the fuel cells do not provide the robust source characteristics required to effectively follow the load during significant load steps and they have limited overload-handling capability. Further, the performance of the fuel cell is significantly degraded when the CO (Carbon Monoxide) is contained in the hydrogen fuel. In this thesis several new approaches to improve the performance of PEM based fuel cell power systems are discussed. In the first section an impedance model of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) is first proposed. This equivalent circuit model of the fuel cell stack is derived by a frequency response analysis (FRA) technique to evaluate the effects of the ripple current generated by the power-conditioning unit. Experimental results are presented to show the effects of the ripple currents. In the second section, a fuel cell powered UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) system is proposed. In this approach, two PEM Fuel Cell modules along with suitable DC/DC and DC/AC power electronic converter modules are employed. A Supercapacitor module is also employed to compensate for instantaneous power fluctuations including overload and to overcome the slow dynamics of the fuel processor such as reformers. A complete design example for a 1-kVA system is presented. In the third section, an advanced power converter topology is proposed to significantly improve the CO tolerance on PEM based fuel cell power systems. An additional two-stage dc-dc converter with a supercapacitor module is connected to the fuel cell to draw a low frequency (0.5Hz) pulsating current of the specific amplitude (20-30[A]) from the fuel cell stack. CO on the catalyst surface can be electro-oxidized by using this technique, and thereby the CO tolerance of the system can be significantly improved. Simulation and experimental results show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Choi, Woojin

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GHG emissions specifically from the combustion of fuels in stationary sources such as boilers and furnaces. AgencyCompany Organization World Resources Institute, World Business...

134

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Potential for Stationary Fuel Cells to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential for Stationary Fuel Cells to Augment Hydrogen Availability for Potential for Stationary Fuel Cells to Augment Hydrogen Availability for Hydrogen Vehicles Project Summary Full Title: Analyzing the Potential for Stationary Fuel Cells to Augment Hydrogen Availability in the Transition to Hydrogen Vehicles Project ID: 281 Principal Investigator: David Greene Brief Description: This analysis was focused on the role that combined heat and hydrogen power (CHHP) could play in increasing hydrogen refueling availability during the transition to hydrogen vehicles. Keywords: Stationary fuel cell; hydrogen; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; hydrogen fuel cell vehicle; combined heat, hydrogen and power; internal combustion engine Performer Principal Investigator: David Greene Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

135

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Lessons Learned from Stationary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigator Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons...

136

Evaluation of Stationary Fuel Cell Deployments, Costs, and Fuels (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation summarizes NREL's technology validation of stationary fuel cell systems and presents data on number of deployments, system costs, and fuel types.

Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cathode/Anode Selection and Full Cell Performance for Stationary Li-ion Battery System. Author(s), Daiwon Choi, Donghai Wang, Vilayanur...

138

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LLC 35 Hartwell Avenue Lexington, MA 02421-3102 www.TIAXLLC.com Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) Peer Review and Update...

139

Modified method of perturbed stationary states. I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction coordinate approach of Mittleman is used to generalize the method of Perturbed Stationary States. A reaction coordinate is defined for each state in the scattering expansion in terms of parameters which depend on the internuclear separation. These are to be determined from a variational principle described by Demkov. The variational result agrees with that of Bates and McCarroll in the limit of separated atoms, but is generally different elsewhere. The theory is formulated for many-electron systems, and the construction of the scattering expansion is discussed for simple one-, two-, and three-electron systsm. The scattering expansion and the Lagrangian for the radial scattering functions are given in detail for a heteronuclear one-electron system. 2 figures.

Green, T.A.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Stationary turbine component with laminated skin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A large-scale market for automotive fuel cells appears to be several years away and in any case will require a long-term, coordinated commitment by government and industry to insure the co-evolution of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles (Greene et al., 2008). The market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells, on the other hand, may be much closer to commercial viability (Stone, 2006). Cost targets are less demanding and manufacturers appear to be close, perhaps within a factor of two, of meeting them. Hydrogen supply is a significant obstacle to market acceptance but may not be as great a barrier as it is for hydrogen-powered vehicles due to the smaller quantities of hydrogen required. PEM fuel cells appear to be potentially competitive in two markets: (1) Backup power (BuP) supply, and (2) electrically-powered MHE (Mahadevan et al., 2007a, 2007b). There are several Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) of PEM fuel cell systems for these applications but production levels have been quite low (on the order of 100-200 per year) and cumulative production experience is also limited (on the order of 1,000 units to date). As a consequence, costs remain above target levels and PEM fuel cell OEMs are not yet competitive in these markets. If cost targets can be reached and acceptable solutions to hydrogen supply found, a sustainable North American PEM fuel cell industry could be established. If not, the industry and its North American supply chain could disappear within a year or two. The Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested a rapid assessment of the potential for a government acquisition program to bootstrap the market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells by driving down costs via economies of scale and learning-by-doing. The six week study included in-depth interviews of three manufacturers, visits to two production facilities, review of the literature on potential markets in North America and potential federal government procurements, development of a cost model reflecting economies of scale and learning-by-doing, and estimation of the impact of federal PEM fuel cell procurements on fuel cell system costs and the evolution of private market demand. This report presents the findings of that study. Section 2 outlines the status of the industry and describes potential markets based on interviews of manufacturers and the existing literature. Section 3 describes the modeling methodology including key premises and assumptions, and presents estimates of market evolution under four scenarios: (1) Base Case with no federal government procurement program, (2) Scenario 1, an aggressive program beginning with less than 200 units procured in 2008 ramping up to more than 2,000 units in 2012, (3) Scenario 2 which is identical to Scenario 1 except that the private market is assumed to be twice as sensitive to price, and (4) Scenario 3, a delayed, smaller federal procurement program beginning in 2011 increasing to a maximum of just over 1,000 units per year in 2012. The analysis suggests that the aggressive program of Scenario 1 would likely stimulate a sustainable, competitive North American non-automotive PEM fuel cell industry. Given plausible assumptions about learning rates and scale economies, the procurements assumed in Scenario 1 appear to be sufficient to drive down costs to target levels. These findings are conditional on the evolution of acceptable hydrogen supply strategies, which were not explicitly analyzed in this study. Success is less certain under Scenarios 2 and 3, and there appears to be a strong probability that existing OEMs would not survive until 2011. In the Base Case, no program, a viable North American industry does not emerge before 2020.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Dr. K. G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

October 2009 October 2009 BUILDING A CLEAN ENERGY GROWTH COMPANY B A L L A R D P O W E R S Y S T E M S Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kick-off Meeting COPYRIGHT © 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Project Objectives ƒ Understand and quantify the fundamental degradation mechanisms Establish relationships between morphology, operational conditions, and the rate of catalyst/catalyst layer degradation ƒ Understand the impact of degradation on the mechanical/chemical stability of the component interfaces, including the stability of the 3-phase interface ƒ Develop mechanistic, forward predictive kinetic and materials aging models for catalyst layer degradation

143

Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-0501 3-0501 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Joseph W. Pratt and Aaron P. Harris Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. 2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

144

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gas and pollutants than

145

Design and testing criteria for bipolar plate materials for PEM fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are currently under development. These plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must be sufficiently strong to support clamping forces, be electrically conducting, be fitted with flow channels for stack thermal control, be of a low permeability material to separate safely hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, and be fitted with distribution channels to transfer the feed streams over the plate surface. To date, bipolar plate costs dominate stack costs, and therefore future materials need to meet strict cost targets. A first step in the bipolar plate development program is an assessment of design constraints. Such constraints have been estimated and evaluated and are discussed here. Conclusions point to promising advanced materials, such as conductive, corrosion resistant coatings on metal substrates, as candidates for mass production of fuel cell bipolar plates. Possible candidate materials are identified, and testing procedures developed to determine suitability of various materials.

Borup, R.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Final Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.

Mark Debe

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

An information geometrical view of stationary subspace analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stationary Subspace Analysis (SSA) is an unsupervised learning method that finds subspaces in which data distributions stay invariant over time. It has been shown to be very useful for studying non-stationarities in various applications. In this paper, ... Keywords: Kullback-Leibler divergence, generative model, information geometry, maximum likelihood estimation, stationary subspace analysis

Motoaki Kawanabe; Wojciech Samek; Paul Von Bnau; Frank C. Meinecke

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Lithium-ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of Li-ion batteries for stationary energy storage systems to complement renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power has recently attracted great interest. Currently available Li-ion battery electrode materials suitable for such stationary applications have been discussed, along with optimum cathode and anode combinations, limitations and future research directions.

Xu, Terrence (Tianren); Wang, Wei; Gordin, Mikhail; Wang, Donghai; Choi, Daiwon

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications Testimony of Thomas S. Key, Technical Leader, Renewables and Distributed Generation, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) on Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications before the House Science and Technology Committee Energy and Environment Subcommittee October 3, 2007 Energy Storage Technologies: State of Development for Stationary and Vehicular Applications More Documents & Publications DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA (July 2013) Grid Energy Storage December 2013 Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Day 3, Session 3

150

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor of the over all system, COPs of the double effect cooling and heating system, and power and heat output of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that the efficiency of the cell decreases, ranging from 46.2% to 24.4% with increase in membrane thickness and current density, and at the same time the COP increases ranging from 0.65 to 1.52. The heat and power output of the fuel cell decreases from 10.54 kW to 5.12 kW, and 9.12 kW to 6.99 kW, respectively for the increase in membrane thickness. However, when the temperature of the cell is increased the heat and power output increases from 5.12 kW to 10.54 kW, and 6.9 kW to 7.02 kW, respectively. The COP is found to be decreasing ranging from 1.53 to 0.33 with the increase in temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. As for the utilization factor, it increases ranging from 17% to 87% with increase in the temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. This study reveals that an integrated PEM fuel cell with a double effect absorption cooling systems has a very high potential to be an economical and environmental solution as compared with conventional systems of high electricity and natural gas prices which emit lots of harmful gasses and are not that efficient.

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program (Mississippi) Small Business Stationary Source Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance Program (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State

152

Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Advanced Materials and Devices for Stationary Electrical Energy Storage Applications Reliable access to cost-effective electricity is the backbone of the U.S. economy, and electrical energy storage is an integral element in this system. Without significant investments in stationary electrical energy storage, the current electric grid infrastructure will increasingly struggle to provide reliable, affordable electricity, jeopardizing the transformational changes envisioned for a modernized grid. Investment in energy storage is essential for keeping pace with the increasing demands for electricity arising from continued growth in U.S. productivity, shifts in and continued expansion of national cultural imperatives (e.g., the distributed

153

Barotropic Stationary States and Persistent Anomalies in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust algorithm, capable of finding nearly stationary solutions of the unforced barotropic vorticity equation near to observed atmospheric streamfunctions, is presented. When applied to observed persistent anomaly patterns, the nearly ...

Jeffrey L. Anderson

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Nonlinear Amplification of Stationary Rossby Waves Near Resonance. Part I.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors search the stationary solutions of the barotropic vorticity equation in spherical coordinates by numerically solving the equations with the NewtonKeller pseudoarclength continuation method. The solutions consist of planetary-scale ...

P. Malguzzi; A. Speranza; A. Sutera; R. Caballero

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Influence of Zonal Mean Flow Change on Stationary Wave Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fluctuation of stationary waves caused by zonal mean flow changes is investigated using a barotropic model and GCM simulated upper-level data. The EOF analysis of monthly mean ? fluctuations during winter shows that a positive anomaly at the ...

In-Sik Kang

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Response of Stationary Planetary Waves to Tropospheric Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A steady-state, linear, quasi-geostrophic model of stationary waves on a sphere is employed to study the lower boundary forcing of airflow over topography and the internal forcing that results from the geographical distribution of diabatic ...

J. C. Alpert; S. K. Avery

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Stationary Waves on a Sphere: Sensitivity to Thermal Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal forcing feedback is proposed to be an important mechanism in middle and high latitudes in determining the low-frequency variability of the stationary wave structure. The total diabatic heating in the atmosphere is not due solely to the ...

Harry H. Hendon; Dennis L. Hartmann

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Thermally Forced Stationary Waves in a Quasigeostrophic System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical solutions of thermally forced stationary waves in a linear quasigeostrophic model are obtained. It is found that the zonal flow has a profound impact on the structure of the responses. The inviscid solutions on a resting basic state ...

Ping Chen

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Climate Field Reconstruction under Stationary and Nonstationary Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fidelity of climate reconstructions employing covariance-based calibration techniques is tested with varying levels of sparseness of available data during intervals of relatively constant (stationary) and increasing (nonstationary) forcing. ...

S. Rutherford; M. E. Mann; T. L. Delworth; R. J. Stouffer

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fuel Cells Today and For Tomorrow: Stationary and Mobile Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Today and For Tomorrow: Stationary and Mobile Applications and Synergies Speaker(s): Timothy Lipman Date: December 12, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Various types of...

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161

Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

Daily, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM); Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

162

Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants -- the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos, and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Stroh, K.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Huff, J.R. (Ballard Power Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants -- the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos, and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Stroh, K.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Huff, J.R. [Ballard Power Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PEM FUEL CELLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells use components that are susceptible to contaminants in the fuel stream. To ensure fuel quality, standards are being set to regulate the amount of impurities allowable in fuel. The present study investigates the effect of chlorinated impurities on fuel cell systems using tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a model compound for cleaning and degreasing agents. Concentrations between 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and 30 ppm were studied. We show how PCE causes rapid drop in cell performances for all concentrations including 0.05 ppm. At concentrations of 1 and 0.05 ppm, PCE poisoned the cell at a rate dependent on the dosage of the contaminant delivered to the cell. PCE appears to affect the cell when the cell potential was over potentials higher than approximately 0.2 V. No effects were observed at voltages around or below 0.2 V and the cells could be recovered from previous poisoning performed at higher potentials. Recoveries at those low voltages could be induced by changing the operating voltage or by purging the system. Poisoning did not appear to affect the membrane conductivity. Measurements with long-path length IR results suggested catalytic decomposition of the PCE by hydrogen over the anode catalyst.

COLON-MERCHADO, H.; MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, M.; FOX, E.; RHODES, W.; MCWHORTER, C.; GREENWAY, S.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

165

Market Concepts, Competing Technologies and Cost Challenges for Automotive and Stationary Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000). 13. Allied Business Intelligence, Stationary Fuelthis market. Allied Business Intelligence has forecast that

Lipman, Todd; Sperling, Daniel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also determined. Current pulsing involves periodically demanding positive current pulses from the fuel cell to create an anode over-potential, while "self-oxidation" or sustained potential oscillations is achieved when the anode catalyst becomes so saturated with CO that the anode over-potential increases to a value at which CO is oxidized from the catalyst surface. The CO tolerance of a fuel cell system with a Pt-Ru anode was tested using 50 and 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel. The performance of the system declined with an increase in CO concentration. Current pulses of various amplitude, frequency, and duty cycle were applied to the cell while CO was present in the anode fuel. With 50 ppm CO in the anode fuel, the most effective pulse in increasing CO tolerance while maintaining normal cell operation was 1.0 A/cm2, 0.25 Hz, and a 5% duty cycle. A pulse (120 Hz, 50% duty cycle) similar to the ripple current often generated when converting DC to single-phase 60 Hz AC had a positive effect on the CO tolerance of the system, but at frequencies that high, the pulse duration was not long enough to completely oxidize the CO from the catalyst surface. With 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel, a pulse of 1.0 A/cm2, 0.5 Hz, and a 20% duty cycle proved most effective. When the cell was exposed to 496 ppm CO, without employing pulsing, "self-oxidation" occurred and CO was periodically oxidized from the catalyst surface. However, pulsing allowed the cell to operate at the desired voltage and power a higher percentage of the time than "self-oxidation"; hence, pulsing was more effective.

Thomason, Arthur Hugh

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

File:FormAInstructionsStationarySource.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FormAInstructionsStationarySource.pdf FormAInstructionsStationarySource.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:FormAInstructionsStationarySource.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 12 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 11:48, 1 November 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 11:48, 1 November 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 12 pages (75 KB) Dklein2012 (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup instructions for more information)

168

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

& & Renewable Energy Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership Working Group April 14 th , 2010 2 * DOE Fuel Cell Market Transformation Overview * Overview of CHP Concept * Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP Applications * Partnering and Financing (Sam Logan) * Example Project Outline 3 Fuel Cells: Addressing Energy Challenges Energy Efficiency and Resource Diversity  Fuel cells offer a highly efficient way to use diverse fuels and energy sources. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollution:  Fuel cells can be powered by emissions-free fuels that are produced from clean, domestic resources. Stationary Power (including CHP & backup power)

169

Construction of a stationary FIFO queue with impatient customers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the stability of queues with impatient customers. Under general stationary ergodic assumptions, we first provide some conditions for such a queue to be regenerative (i.e. to empty a.s. an infinite number of times). In the particular case of a single server operating in First in, First out, we prove the existence (in some cases, on an enlarged probability space) of a stationary workload. This is done by studying stochastic recursions under the Palm settings, and by stochastic comparison of stochastic recursions.

Moyal, Pascal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Construction of a stationary queue with impatient customers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the stability of queues with impatient customers. Under general stationary ergodic assumptions, we first provide some conditions for such a queue to be regenerative (i.e. to empty a.s. an infinite number of times). In the particular case of a single server operating in First in, First out, we prove the existence (in some cases, on an enlarged probability space) of a stationary workload. This is done by studying a non-monotonic stochastic recursion under the Palm settings, and by stochastic comparison of stochastic recursions.

Moyal, Pascal

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Bridging the Gap Between Transportation and Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and their Implications for the Transportation Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)) improves the economics ofproduction SMR, MCFC, SOFC Local distribution gridsupport SMR, MCFC, SOFC 5-500 per day PEM 5-50 per day MCFC

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy; Unnasch, Stephen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to predict the thermodynamic and activation barriers for fundamental electrode processes occurring at platinum surfaces supported on thin films of the ceramic support materials. The results of this work will be used in order to optimize support properties.

Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elbaz Alon, Lior [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roy, Aaron [University of New Mexico; Serov, Alexey [University of New Mexico; Ward, Timothy [University of New Mexico

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

173

Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which possessed an active area of 25, 50, and 100 cm2 with the Nafion 117 and 115 membranes. Higher flow rates of inlet gases increase the performance of a fuel cell by increasing the removal of the water vapor, and decrease the mass transportation loss at high current density. Higher flow rates, however, result in low fuel utilization. An important factor, therefore, is to find the appropriate stoichiometric flow coefficient and starting point of stoichiometric flow rate in terms of fuel cell efficiency. Higher air supply leads to have better performance at the constant stoichiometric ratio at the anode, but not much increase after the stoichiometric ratio of 5. The effects of the environmental conditions and the channel depth for an airbreathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell were investigated experimentally. Triple serpentine designs for the flow fields with two different flow depths was used. The shallow flow field deign improves dramatically the performance of the air-breathing fuel cell at low relative humidity, and slightly at high relative humidity. For proton exchange membrane fuel cells, proper water management is important to obtain maximum performance. Water management includes the humidity levels of the inlet gases as well as the understanding of the water process within the fuel cell. Two important processes associated with this understanding are (1) electro-osmotic drag of water molecules, and (2) back diffusion of the water molecules. There must be a neutral water balance over time to avoid the flooding, or drying the membranes. For these reasons, therefore, an investigation of the role of water transport in a PEM fuel cell is of particular importance. In this study, through a water balance experiment, the electro-osmotic drag coefficient was quantified and studied. For the cases where the anode was fully hydrated and the cathode suffered from the drying, when the current density was increased, the electro- osmotic drag coefficient decreased.

Park, Yong Hun

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Vertical-Zonal Propagation of a Stationary Planetary Wave Packet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to explain why the Aleutian high stands out in the winter stratosphere, a complex Fourier analysis is made of simulated and observed stationary waves. It is found that in the troposphere the envelope of the time mean geopotential height ...

Yoshikazu Hayashi

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transportation and Stationary Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop On October 27, 2008, more than 55 participants from industry, state and federal government, utilities, national laboratories, and other groups met to discuss the topic of integrating stationary fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) systems and hydrogen production infrastructure for vehicles. The workshop was co-hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Fuel Cell Council, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and was held in conjunction with the Fuel Cell Seminar in Phoenix, Arizona. Plenary presentations provided an overview of the integration concept and perspective on the opportunity from federal, state and industry organizations. Workshop participants met in breakout sessions to consider the potential to leverage early hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure requirements by co-producing hydrogen in stationary fuel cell CHP applications at select facilities (e.g., military bases, postal facilities, airports, hospitals, etc.). The efficiency, reliability, and emissions benefits of these CHP systems have the potential to offset the up-front capital costs and financial risks associated with producing hydrogen for early vehicle markets.

176

Stationary and Axisymmetric Solutions of Higher-Dimensional General Relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study stationary and axisymmetric solutions of General Relativity, i.e. pure gravity, in four or higher dimensions. D-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric solutions are defined as having D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We derive a canonical form of the metric for such solutions that effectively reduces the Einstein equations to a differential equation on an axisymmetric D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in three-dimensional flat space (apart from a subclass of solutions that instead reduce to a set of equations on a D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in two-dimensional flat space). This generalizes the Papapetrou form of the metric for stationary and axisymmetric solutions in four dimensions, and furthermore generalizes the work on Weyl solutions in four and higher dimensions. We analyze then the sources for the solutions, which are in the form of thin rods along a line in the three-dimensional flat space that the matrix field can be seen to live in. As examples of stationary and axisymmetric solutions, we study the five-dimensional rotating black hole and the rotating black ring, write the metrics in the canonical form and analyze the structure of the rods for each solution.

Troels Harmark

2004-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

177

Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Stationary and Axisymmetric Solutions of Higher-Dimensional General Relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study stationary and axisymmetric solutions of General Relativity, i.e. pure gravity, in four or higher dimensions. D-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric solutions are defined as having D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We derive a canonical form of the metric for such solutions that effectively reduces the Einstein equations to a differential equation on an axisymmetric D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in three-dimensional flat space (apart from a subclass of solutions that instead reduce to a set of equations on a D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in two-dimensional flat space). This generalizes the Papapetrou form of the metric for stationary and axisymmetric solutions in four dimensions, and furthermore generalizes the work on Weyl solutions in four and higher dimensions. We analyze then the sources for the solutions, which are in the form of thin rods along a line in the three-dimensional flat space that the matrix field can be seen to live in. As examples of stationary and axisymmetric solutions, w...

Harmark, T

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

On the Establishment of Stationary Waves in the Northern Hemisphere Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The establishment of stationary waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter is investigated using stationary and time-dependent linear primitive equation models. Confirming the results of Nigam and Lindzen, we find that small displacements of the ...

Arlindo M. Da Silva; Richard S. Lindzen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Reflection of a Stationary Gravity Wave by a Viscous Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The backward reflection of a stationary gravity wave (GW) propagating toward the ground is examined in the linear viscous case and for large Reynolds numbers (Re). In this case, the stationary GW presents a critical level at the ground because ...

Franois Lott

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

On the Form of Stationary Size Distributions Established by Coagulation and Sedimentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In stationary solutions of the equations for nucleation, coagulation and sedimentation, the concentration of large particles falls off more strongly than any power of particle size. The tails of stationary size distributions established by these ...

Warren H. White

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Behavior of Winter Stationary Planetary Waves Forced by Topography and Diabatic Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A primitive equation linear wave model is developed to examine the effects of mean zonal wind structure on the vertical propagation of stationary planetary waves and to identify the characteristics of the winter stationary waves forced by ...

Ben-Da Lin

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document lists codes and standards typically used for U.S. stationary and portable fuel cell systems.

Not Available

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski & Kevin N. Baum One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared under: Subcontract No. AGB-0-40628-01 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the U.S. Department of Energy Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gasses and pollutants than

185

2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Review PresentationCOST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program during the past year was to complete Technical Objectives 2 and 3 and initiate Technical Objective 4 are described. To assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Stationary power applications for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The benefits provided by Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) for power generation (e.g. low operating temperatures, and non-corrosive and stable electrolyte), as well as advances in recent years in lowering their cost and improving anode poisoning tolerance, are stimulating interest in the system for stationary power applications. A significant market potentially exists for PEFCs in certain stationary applications where PEFC technology is a more attractive alternative to other fuel cell technologies. A difficulty with the PEFC is its operation on reformed fuels containing CO, which poisons the anode catalyst. This difficulty can be alleviated in several ways. One possible approach is described whereby the product reformate is purified using a relatively low cost, high-throughput hydrogen permselective separator. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the utility of the concept.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Landgrebe, A.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Stationary density profiles in the Alcator C-mod tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In the absence of an internal particle source, plasma turbulence will impose an intrinsic relationship between an inwards pinch and an outwards diffusion resulting in a stationary density profile. The Alcator C-mod tokamak utilizes RF heating and current drive so that fueling only occurs in the vicinity of the separatrix. Discharges that transition from L-mode to I-mode are seen to maintain a self-similar stationary density profile as measured by Thomson scattering. For discharges with negative magnetic shear, an observed rise of the safety factor in the vicinity of the magnetic axis appears to be accompanied by a decrease of electron density, qualitatively consistent with the theoretical expectations.

Kesner, J.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Whyte, D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Scott, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Positron emission mammography (PEM): Effect of activity concentration, object size, and object contrast on phantom lesion detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To characterize the relationship between lesion detection sensitivity and injected activity as a function of lesion size and contrast on the PEM (positron emission mammography) Flex Solo II scanner using phantom experiments. Methods: Phantom lesions (spheres 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mm diameter) were randomly located in uniform background. Sphere activity concentrations were 3 to 21 times the background activity concentration (BGc). BGc was a surrogate for injected activity; BGc ranged from 0.44-4.1 kBq/mL, corresponding to 46-400 MBq injections. Seven radiologists read 108 images containing zero, one, or two spheres. Readers used a 5-point confidence scale to score the presence of spheres. Results: Sensitivity was 100% for lesions {>=}12 mm under all conditions except for one 12 mm sphere with the lowest contrast and lowest BGc (60% sensitivity). Sensitivity was 100% for 8 mm spheres when either contrast or BGc was high, and 100% for 4 mm spheres only when both contrast and BGc were highest. Sphere contrast recovery coefficients (CRC) were 49%, 34%, 26%, 14%, and 2.8% for the largest to smallest spheres. Cumulative specificity was 98%. Conclusions: Phantom lesion detection sensitivity depends more on sphere size and contrast than on BGc. Detection sensitivity remained {>=}90% for injected activities as low as 100 MBq, for lesions {>=}8 mm. Low CRC in 4 mm objects results in moderate detection sensitivity even for 400 MBq injected activity, making it impractical to optimize injected activity for such lesions. Low CRC indicates that when lesions <8 mm are observed on PEM images they are highly tracer avid with greater potential of clinical significance. High specificity (98%) suggests that image statistical noise does not lead to false positive findings. These results apply to the 85 mm thick object used to obtain them; lesion detectability should be better (worse) for thinner (thicker) objects based on the reduced (increased) influence of photon attenuation.

MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Wang, Carolyn L.; Eissa, Marna; Haseley, David; Kelly, Mary M.; Liu, Franklin; Parikh, Jay R.; Beatty, J. David; Rogers, James V. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 and Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States); Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357987, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Swedish Cancer Institute, Swedish Medical Center, 1221 Madison Street Arnold Pavilion, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Estimation of evolutionary spectra for simulation of non-stationary and non-Gaussian stochastic processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

No spectral representation-based methodology exists to simulate non-stationary and non-Gaussian stochastic processes. This is due to the inability to determine a unique evolutionary spectrum (ES) for a process with known non-stationary autocorrelation. ... Keywords: Evolutionary spectrum, Non-Gaussian, Non-stationary, Spectral Representation Method, Stochastic process or field, Translation process

M. D. Shields, G. Deodatis

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Non-stationary power signal processing for pattern recognition using HS-transform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach to time-frequency transform and pattern recognition of non-stationary power signals is presented in this paper. In the proposed work visual localization, detection and classification of non-stationary power signals are achieved using hyperbolic ... Keywords: Fuzzy C-means clustering, Genetic algorithm, HS-transform, Non-stationary power signals, Power quality (PQ)

B. Biswal; P. K. Dash; B. K. Panigrahi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Demonstration of a NOx Control System for Stationary Diesel Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

California has over 26,000 stationary diesel engines, mostly in emergency power and direct drive applications. In the past few years, various incentive programs in the state have resulted in the change-out of older, dirtier engines for newer, cleaner models or replacement with electric motors. Emissions reductions can be accomplished by equipping existing engines with controls for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). The retrofit systems currently available, however, either are not cost com...

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n? can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Freeze drying for gas chromatography stationary phase deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to methods for deposition of gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases into chromatography columns, for example gas chromatography columns. A chromatographic medium is dissolved or suspended in a solvent to form a composition. The composition may be inserted into a chromatographic column. Alternatively, portions of the chromatographic column may be exposed or filled with the composition. The composition is permitted to solidify, and at least a portion of the solvent is removed by vacuum sublimation.

Sylwester, Alan P. (Livermore, CA)

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

194

Stationary Nonaxisymmetric Configurations of Magnetized Singular Isothermal Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accepted.... Received...; in original form... We construct both aligned and unaligned (logarithmic spiral) stationary configurations of nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disks from either a full or a partial razor-thin power-law axisymmetric magnetized singular isothermal disk (MSID) that is embedded with a coplanar azimuthal magnetic field B? of a non-force-free radial scaling r?1/2 and that rotates differentially with a flat rotation curve of speed aD, where a is the isothermal sound speed and D is the dimensionless rotation parameter. Analytical solutions and stability criteria for determining D2 are derived. For aligned nonaxisymmetric MSIDs, eccentric m = 1 displacements may occur at arbitrary D2 in a full MSID but are allowed only with a2D2 = C2 A /2 in a partial MSID (CA is the Alfvn speed), while each case of |m | ? 1 gives two possible values of D2 for purely azimuthal propagations of fast and slow MHD density waves (FMDWs and SMDWs) that appear stationary in an inertial frame of reference. For disk galaxies modeled by a partial MSID resulting from a massive dark-matter halo with a flat rotation curve and a2D2 ? C2 A, stationary aligned perturbations of m = 1 are not allowed. For

Yu-qing Lou

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Solid oxide fuel cells for stationary, mobile, and military applications.  

SciTech Connect

Among all designs of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), the most progress has been achieved with the tubular design. However, the electrical resistance of tubular SOFCs is high, and specific power output (W/cm2) and volumetric power density (W/cm3) are low. These low power densities make tubular SOFCs suitable only for stationary power generation and not very attractive for mobile applications. Planar SOFCs, in contrast, are capable of achieving very high power densities. Additionally, sizeable cost reductions are possible through a concept called''mass customization'' that is being pursued in the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). This concept involves the development a 3-10 kW size core planar SOFC module that can be mass produced and then combined for different size applications in stationary power generation, transportation, and military market sectors, thus eliminating the need to produce custom-designed and inherently more expensive fuel cell stacks to meet a specific power rating. This paper discusses the recent work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the design and development of low-cost modular SOFC systems using lower temperature, anode-supported SOFCs.

Singhal, Subhash C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

196

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Potential transportation and stationary applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) as a primary power source in electric vehicles has received increasing attention during the last few years. This increased attention is the result of a combination of significant technical advances in this fuel cell technology and the initiation of some projects for the demonstration of a complete, PEFC-based power system a bus or in a passenger car. Such demonstration projects reflect an increase in industry`s faith in the potential of this technology for transportation applications, or, at least, in the need for a detailed evaluation of this potential. Nevertheless, large scale transportation applications of PEFCs require a continued concerted effort of research on catalysis, materials and components, combined with the engineering efforts addressing the complete power system. This is required to achieve a cost effective, highly performing PEFC stack and power system. A related set of technical and cost challenges arises in the context of potential applications of PEFCs for stationary power applications, although there are clearly some differences in their nature, particularly, to do with the different types of fuels to be employed for each of these applications. We describe in this contribution some recent results of work performed by the Core Research PEFC Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which has addressed materials, components and single cell testing of PEFCS. Also included are some recent observations and some insights regarding the potential of this fuel cell technology for stationary Power generation.

Gottesfeld, S.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Standards of performance for new stationary sources gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

In order to implement the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency establishes standards of performance which limit emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from new, modified, and reconstructed stationary gas turbines. The intended effect of this regulation is to require new, modified, and reconstructed stationary gas turbines to use the best demonstrated system of continuous emission reduction. There are no emission limits for gas turbines below 10.7 gigaj/hr. For all gas turbines 10.7 gigaj/hr and larger, the sulfur dioxide emission limit is 150 ppm; alternatively, a fuel with less than 0.8Vertical Bar3< sulfur can be fired. For gas turbines between 10.7 and 107.2 giga8/hr used for gas and oil transportation or production not located in a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the nitrogen oxides emission limit is 150 ppm. For gas turbines larger than 107.2 gigaj/hr used for gas and oil transportation or production located in an MSA, and for all other uses, the nitrogen oxides emission limit is 75 ppm. These regulations are effective as of 9/10/79.

1979-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Potential transportation and stationary applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) as a primary power source in electric vehicles has received increasing attention during the last few years. This increased attention is the result of a combination of significant technical advances in this fuel cell technology and the initiation of some projects for the demonstration of a complete, PEFC-based power system a bus or in a passenger car. Such demonstration projects reflect an increase in industry's faith in the potential of this technology for transportation applications, or, at least, in the need for a detailed evaluation of this potential. Nevertheless, large scale transportation applications of PEFCs require a continued concerted effort of research on catalysis, materials and components, combined with the engineering efforts addressing the complete power system. This is required to achieve a cost effective, highly performing PEFC stack and power system. A related set of technical and cost challenges arises in the context of potential applications of PEFCs for stationary power applications, although there are clearly some differences in their nature, particularly, to do with the different types of fuels to be employed for each of these applications. We describe in this contribution some recent results of work performed by the Core Research PEFC Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which has addressed materials, components and single cell testing of PEFCS. Also included are some recent observations and some insights regarding the potential of this fuel cell technology for stationary Power generation.

Gottesfeld, S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough, component sizing, and utility needs. These data, along with process efficiency results from the model, were subsequently used to calculate the cost of electricity. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to correlate the concentrations of key impurities in the fuel gas feedstock to the cost of electricity.

Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Abatement of Air Pollution: Permit to Construct and Operate Stationary Sources (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Permits are required for the construction or major modification of a stationary source or emission unit. Some exemptions apply. These regulations describe permit requirements, authorized activities...

202

On dispersive effect of the Coriolis force for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dispersive effect of the Coriolis force for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. The effect is of a different nature than the one shown for the non-stationary case by J. Y. Chemin, B. Desjardins, I. Gallagher and E. Grenier. Existence of a unique solution is shown for arbitrary large external force provided the Coriolis force is large enough. The analysis is carried out in a new framework of the Fourier-Besov spaces. In addition to the stationary case counterparts of several classical results for the non-stationary Navier-Stokes problem have been proven.

Konieczny, Pawe\\l

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

On dispersive effect of the Coriolis force for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dispersive effect of the Coriolis force for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations is investigated. The effect is of a different nature than the one shown for the non-stationary case by J. Y. Chemin, B. Desjardins, I. Gallagher and E. Grenier. Existence of a unique solution is shown for arbitrary large external force provided the Coriolis force is large enough. The analysis is carried out in a new framework of the Fourier-Besov spaces. In addition to the stationary case counterparts of several classical results for the non-stationary Navier-Stokes problem have been proven.

Pawe? Konieczny; Tsuyoshi Yoneda

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

204

5 CCR 1001-5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5 Colorado Stationary Source Permitting and Air Pollution Control Emission Notice Requirements Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: 5...

205

Stationary Fuel Cell Application Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides an overview of codes and standards related to stationary fuel cell applications and identifies gaps and resolutions associated with relative codes and standards.

Blake, C. W.; Rivkin, C. H.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Magnetohydrodynamics in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes: A fully covariant approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fully geometrical treatment of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is developed under the hypotheses of perfect conductivity, stationarity, and axisymmetry. The spacetime is not assumed to be circular, which allows for greater generality than the Kerr-type spacetimes usually considered in general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. Expressing the electromagnetic field tensor solely in terms of three scalar fields related to the spacetime symmetries, we generalize previously obtained results in various directions. In particular, we present the first relativistic version of the Soloviev transfield equation, subcases of which lead to fully covariant versions of the Grad-Shafranov equation and of the Stokes equation in the hydrodynamical limit. We have also derived, as another subcase of the relativistic Soloviev equation, the equation governing magnetohydrodynamical equilibria with purely toroidal magnetic fields in stationary and axisymmetric spacetimes.

Gourgoulhon, Eric [Laboratoire Univers et Theories, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Markakis, Charalampos [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Uryu, Koji [Department of Physics, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Eriguchi, Yoshiharu [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, 3-8-1, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Geometric transport along circular orbits in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel transport along circular orbits in orthogonally transitive stationary axisymmetric spacetimes is described explicitly relative to Lie transport in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the induced connection. The influence of both the gravitoelectromagnetic fields associated with the zero angular momentum observers and of the Frenet-Serret parameters of these orbits as a function of their angular velocity is seen on the behavior of parallel transport through its representation as a parameter-dependent Lorentz transformation between these two inner-product preserving transports which is generated by the induced connection. This extends the analysis of parallel transport in the equatorial plane of the Kerr spacetime to the entire spacetime outside the black hole horizon, and helps give an intuitive picture of how competing "central attraction forces" and centripetal accelerations contribute with gravitomagnetic effects to explain the behavior of the 4-acceleration of circular orbits in that spacetime.

Donato Bini; Christian Cherubini; Gianluca Cruciani; Robert T. Jantzen

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Dirty black holes: Symmetries at stationary non-static horizons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish that the Einstein tensor takes on a highly symmetric form near the Killing horizon of any stationary but non-static (and non-extremal) black hole spacetime. [This follows up on a recent article by the current authors, gr-qc/0402069, which considered static black holes.] Specifically, at any such Killing horizon -- irrespective of the horizon geometry -- the Einstein tensor block-diagonalizes into ``transverse'' and ``parallel'' blocks, and its transverse components are proportional to the transverse metric. Our findings are supported by two independent procedures; one based on the regularity of the on-horizon geometry and another that directly utilizes the elegant nature of a bifurcate Killing horizon. It is then argued that geometrical symmetries will severely constrain the matter near any Killing horizon. We also speculate on how this may be relevant to certain calculations of the black hole entropy.

A J M Medved; Damien Martin; Matt Visser

2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

Large stationary Stirling engine. Final report. Volume II. Program plan  

SciTech Connect

A program plan for the design, fabrication and testing of two 1000 HP stationary Stirling engines was developed. The program duration is expected to be approximately 5-1/2 years, with engine site installation occurring in the beginning and mid-1986, respectively; including a substantial effort for the design/development of a heat transport system, a development and design verification testing program and a user-demonstration program for both the engines. The total program cost including fee is $22.5M, assuming that the heat source is furnished completely checked out. The overall program was structured in six major tasks which are as follows: project management, preliminary design, development testing, final design, fab and assembly, and installation and test.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Takacs Fiksel method for stationary marked Gibbs point processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies a method to estimate the parameters governing the distribution of a stationary marked Gibbs point process. This method, known as the Takacs-Fiksel method, is based on the estimation of the left and right hand sides of the Georgii-Nguyen-Zessin formula and leads to a family of estimators due to the possible choices of test functions. We propose several examples illustrating the interest and flexibility of this procedure. We also provide sufficient conditions based on the model and the test functions to derive asymptotic properties (consistency and asymptotic normality) of the resulting estimator. The different assumptions are discussed for exponential family models and for a large class of test functions.

Coeurjolly, Jean-Franois; Drouilhet, Rmy; Lavancier, Frdric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

Bill Major

1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

212

Review: A general framework for second-order blind separation of stationary colored sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the blind separation of stationary colored sources using the second-order statistics (SOS) of their instantaneous mixtures. We first start by presenting a brief overview of existing contributions in that field. Then, we present ... Keywords: Blind source separation, Second-order statistics, Stationary colored sources

Abdeldjalil A?ssa-El-Bey; Karim Abed-Meraim; Yves Grenier; Yingbo Hua

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Quasi-Stationary Waves in the Southern Hemisphere. Part I: Observational Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Part I presents selected major features of the quasi-stationary (monthly mean) wave field in the troposphere and stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. It is confirmed that the quasi-stationary wave with zonal wavenumber 1 (QS-wave 1) is ...

Arturo I. Quintanar; Carlos R. Mechoso

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1993--October 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed by Solar Technologies Inc. and its subcontractors, during the period April 1, 1993 through October 31, 1994 under Phase II of the DOE Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development program. The objective of the program is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the implementation of selected ceramic components.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procuring Fuel Cells Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers (Text Version) on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers (Text Version) on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Procuring Fuel Cells for

216

Stationary liquid drops in Lorentz-Minkowski space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the configurations of shapes that shows a spacelike liquid drop in Minkowski space deposited over a spacelike plane $\\Pi$. We assume the presence of a uniform gravity field directed toward $\\Pi$ and that the volume of the drop is prescribed. Our interest are the liquid drops that are critical points of the energy of the corresponding mechanical system and we will say then that the liquid drop is stationary. In such case, the liquid-air interface is determined by the condition that the mean curvature is a linear function of distance from $\\Pi$ and that the drop makes a constant hyperbolic angle of contact with the plate $\\Pi$. As first result, we shall prove that the liquid drop must be rotational symmetric with respect to an axis orthogonal to $\\Pi$. Then we prove the existence and uniqueness of symmetric solutions for a given angle of contact with $\\Pi$. Finally, we shall study the shapes that a liquid drop can adopt in terms of its size. So, we shall derive estimates of its height, volume and area of the wetted surface on $\\Pi$.

Rafael Lopez

2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

217

Stability of stationary and time-varying nongyrotropic particle distributions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The ubiquity of nongyrotropic particle populations in space plasmas warrants the study of their characteristics, in particular their stability. The unperturbed nongyrotropic distribution functions in homogeneous media without sources and sinks (closed phase space) must be rotating and time-varying (TNG), whereas consideration of open phase spaces allows for the occurrence of homogeneous and stationary distributions (SNG). The free energy brought about by the introduction of gyrophase organization in a particle population can destabilize otherwise thoroughly stable magnetoplasmas (or, a fortiori, enhance pre-existing gyrotropic instabilities) and feed intense wave growth both in TNG and SNG environments: The nongyrotropic (electron or ion) species can originate unstable coupling among the gyrotropic characteristic waves. The stability properties of these two types of homogeneous nongyrotropy shall be contrasted for parallel (with respect to the ambient magnetic eld) and perpendicular propagation, and their potential role as wave activity sources shall be illustrated resorting to solutions of the appropriate dispersion equations and numerical simulations. Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities) Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities) Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence) 1

A. L. Brinca

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim* and Nina MahootcheianAsl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) Flow Battery for Stationary Energy Storage Applications Youngsik Kim in a Waste-Lithium-Liquid (WLL) flow battery that can be used in a stationary energy storage application. Li

Zhou, Yaoqi

219

Dynamical Processes Related to the Appearance of Quasi-Stationary Waves on the Subtropical Jet in the Midsummer Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical features of quasi-stationary planetary waves were examined on the subtropical jet in the midsummer Northern Hemisphere by using objectively analyzed data and satellite data. As a result, a quasi-stationary wave train that is highly ...

Naoki Sato; Masaaki Takahashi

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report Number 1, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls), this propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; (3) analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) identify any future R and D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

Oei, G.

1994-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

Oei, D.

1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

223

Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Quantum manipulation of two-color stationary light: Quantum wavelength conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a quantum manipulation of a traveling light pulse using double atomic coherence for two-color stationary light and quantum frequency conversion. The quantum frequency conversion rate of the traveling light achieved by the two-color stationary light phenomenon is near unity. We theoretically discuss the two-color stationary light for the frequency conversion process in terms of pulse area, energy transfer and propagation directions. The resulting process may apply the coherent interactions of a weak field to nonlinear quantum optics such as quantum nondemolition measurement.

S. A. Moiseev; B. S. Ham

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ceramic stationary gas turbine development program -- Fifth annual summary  

SciTech Connect

A program is being performed under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through the selective replacement of metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. The program focuses on design, fabrication, and testing of ceramic components, generating a materials properties data base, and applying life prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The development program is being performed by a team led by Solar Turbines Incorporated, and which includes suppliers of ceramic components, US research laboratories, and an industrial cogeneration end user. The Solar Centaur 50S engine was selected for the development program. The program goals included an increase in the turbine rotor inlet temperature (TRIT) from 1,010 C (1,850 F) to 1,121 C (2,050 F), accompanied by increases in thermal efficiency and output power. The performance improvements are attributable to the increase in TRIT and the reduction in cooling air requirements for the ceramic parts. The ceramic liners are also expected to lower the emissions of NOx and CO. Under the program uncooled ceramic blades and nozzles have been inserted for currently cooled metal components in the first stage of the gas producer turbine. The louvre-cooled metal combustor liners have been replaced with uncooled continuous-fiber reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) liners. Modifications have been made to the engine hot section to accommodate the ceramic parts. To date, all first generation designs have been completed. Ceramic components have been fabricated, and are being tested in rigs and in the Centaur 50S engine. Field testing at an industrial co-generation site was started in May, 1997. This paper will provide an update of the development work and details of engine testing of ceramic components under the program.

Price, J.R.; Jimenez, O.; Faulder, L.; Edwards, B.; Parthasarathy, V.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop longer-lifetime, lower-cost Li-ion batteries. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are investigating cost-effective electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as novel low-cost synthesis approaches for making highly efficient electrode materials using additives such as graphine, oleic acid, and paraffin. To address safety issues, researchers will also identify materials with better thermal stability. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) More Documents & Publications Battery SEAB Presentation

228

Stationary Barotropic Flow Induced by a Mountain over a Tropical Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stationary solutions in the presence of bottom topography are computed for a tropical atmospheric belt. A primitive divergent barotropic model is assumed. An iterative time-averaging method proposed by Edelmann (1972b) is used for the purpose of ...

Fredrick H. M. Semazzi

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

What Causes the Seasonal Cycle of Stationary Waves in the Southern Stratosphere?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stationary planetary waves in the southern stratosphere display a characteristic seasonal cycle. Previous research based on a one-dimensional model suggests that this behavior is mainly determined by seasonally varying transmission properties of ...

Volkmar Wirth

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Mechanisms for Quasi-Stationary Behavior in Simulated Heavy-Rain-Producing Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, idealized numerical simulations are used to identify the processes responsible for initiating, organizing, and maintaining quasi-stationary convective systems that produce locally extreme rainfall amounts. Of particular interest ...

Russ S. Schumacher

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing costs.

232

Plenary lecture 7: fuzzy identification problem for the stationary discrete extremal fuzzy dynamic system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work deals with the problem of the Stationary Discrete Extremal Fuzzy Dynamic System (SDEFDS) identification and briefly discusses the results developed by G. Sirbiladze. The fuzzy process with possibilistic uncertainty, the source of which is expert ...

Gia Sirbiladze

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thermally Forced Stationary Axisymmetric Flow on the f Plane in a Nearly Frictionless Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates stationary axisymmetric balanced flow of a stably stratified dry non-Boussinesq atmosphere on the f plane. The circulation is forced in the troposphere through thermal relaxation toward a specified equilibrium temperature ...

Volkmar Wirth

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Stationary Fuel Cell System Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes stationary fuel cell system composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Understanding the Seasonality of Orographically Forced Stationary Waves: Interaction between Mechanical and Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Idealized simulations of the atmospheres stationary response to the Rockies, Tibetan Plateau, and the Greenland Ice Sheet are made using a nonlinear, quasigeostrophic model and are compared to observations. Observational data indicate low-level ...

Todd D. Ringler; Kerry H. Cook

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

On the Maintenance of Stationary Eddies in Terms of the Streamfunction Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upper-level seasonal-mean eddy streamfunction (??E) is often used to portray atmospheric stationary eddies. A budget analysis of the 200 mb ??E field simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model revealed that a quadrature relationship exists ...

Tsing-Chang Chen; Jau-Ming Chen

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Do Stationary Waves Drive the Zonal-Mean Jet Anomalies of the Northern Winter?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of zonal-mean zonal flow (u) perturbations in generating anomalous stationary waves has been acknowledged since the 1939 study by Rossby and his collaborators. However, the dynamical mechanisms, which in turn produce the u anomalies, are ...

Eric DeWeaver; Sumant Nigam

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Economically and ecologically sustainable adoption of stationary fuel cells in the USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy in various forms is essential to all human activity, be it leisure or business. Currently employed stationary energy generation technology is marked by relatively high emissions of pathogenic chemicals such as carbon ...

Bhaumick, Benjamin, 1967-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Structure and Maintenance of Stationary Waves in the Winter Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies of extratropical stationary waves in the winter Northern Hemisphere (NH) often focused on effects of orography and landocean thermal contrast on the formation, structure, and maintenance of these waves. In contrast, research ...

Tsing-Chang Chen

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Relationship between Zonal Mean Flow and Quasi-Stationary Waves in the Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The degree to which quasi-stationary midtropospheric flow is consistent with linear, potential vorticity conservation is investigated. The linear theory suggests there should be a well defined relationship between the zonal mean component of ...

Grant Branstator

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Forced, Stationary Waves in a Linear, Stratified, Quasi-Geostrophic Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Smagorinsky (1953) problem involving forced stationary waves in a linear stratified atmosphere with a constant zonal shear is re-examined with a numerical model and WKB analysis. Modifications to Smagorinsky's conclusions regarding the ...

John O. Roads

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Status of Automotive Fuel Cell Development: Applicability to Stationary Fuel Cell Generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Developers of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology -- targeting the automotive as well as the stationary markets -- are making significant strides in performance improvements and cost reductions. In concept, PEMFC systems could either replace internal combustion engine drivetrains or power auxiliary loads that would otherwise be powered by propulsion power plants. This report describes how automotive PEMFC development and stationary power PEMFC development will complement each other.

2002-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

244

Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Sector Fred Joseck U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop (TSPI) Transportation and Stationary Power Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop (TSPI) Integration Workshop (TSPI) Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 2 Why Integration? * Move away from conventional thinking...fuel and power generation/supply separate * Make dramatic change, use economies of scale,

245

Learning Geo-Temporal Non-Stationary Failure and Recovery of Power Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smart energy grid is an emerging area for new applications of machine learning in a non-stationary environment. Such a non-stationary environment emerges when large-scale failures occur at power distribution networks due to external disturbances such as hurricanes and severe storms. Power distribution networks lie at the edge of the grid, and are especially vulnerable to external disruptions. Quantifiable approaches are lacking and needed to learn non-stationary behaviors of large-scale failure and recovery of power distribution. This work studies such non-stationary behaviors in three aspects. First, a novel formulation is derived for an entire life cycle of large-scale failure and recovery of power distribution. Second, spatial-temporal models of failure and recovery of power distribution are developed as geo-location based multivariate non-stationary GI(t)/G(t)/Infinity queues. Third, the non-stationary spatial-temporal models identify a small number of parameters to be learned. Learning is applied to two ...

Wei, Yun; Galvan, Floyd; Couvillon, Stephen; Orellana, George; Momoh, James

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

PEM and Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

February 18, 2010. Room: 211. Location: Washington State Convention Center Session Chair: ... This presentation will give an overview for a materials science...

247

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Darlene Steward/ Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Integrated Stationary Power and Transportation Workshop Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Introduction Goal: Develop a cost analysis tool that will be flexible and comprehensive enough to realistically analyze a wide variety of potential combined heat and power/hydrogen production scenarios Approach: Rely on the H2A discounted cash flow methodology to develop a new stationary systems model With the help of industry partners, develop and analyze a range of realistic case studies for tri-generation systems. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

248

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage - David Ofer, Tiax  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sodium Intercalation Battery for Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) Peer Review and Update Meeting 2012 David Ofer Ofer.david@tiaxllc.com Washington DC, September 27, 2012 Sodium Intercalation Battery for Stationary Storage Background and Purpose 2 Large-scale stationary energy storage for integration with renewables and for off-peak energy capture is a new application requiring new rechargeable batteries. * New combination of requirements - Long cycle life under deep cycling use profile - High cycling efficiency - Moderate rate capability - Very low cost - No requirement for particularly high specific energy or energy density * TIAX is developing a novel Na-ion battery - Leverages teachings of Li-ion technology - Targets novel low-cost chemistry and cell design

249

Optimal estimation of free energies and stationary densities from multiple biased simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When studying high-dimensional dynamical systems such as macromolecules, quantum systems and polymers, a prime concern is the identification of the most probable states and their stationary probabilities or free energies. Often, these systems have metastable regions or phases, prohibiting to estimate the stationary probabilities by direct simulation. Efficient sampling methods such as umbrella sampling, metadynamics and conformational flooding have developed that perform a number of simulations where the system's potential is biased such as to accelerate the rare barrier crossing events. A joint free energy profile or stationary density can then be obtained from these biased simulations with weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM). This approach (a) requires a few essential order parameters to be defined in which the histogram is set up, and (b) assumes that each simulation is in global equilibrium. Both assumptions make the investigation of high-dimensional systems with previously unknown energy landscape ...

Wu, Hao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations This document lists codes and standards typically used for Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems projects. To determine which codes and standards apply to a specific project, you need to identify the codes and standards currently in effect within the jurisdiction where the project will be located. Some jurisdictions also have unique applicable ordinances or regulations. Learn about codes and standards basics at www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/codes_standards_basics.html. Find Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems codes and standards in these categories:

251

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Product-Form Stationary Distributions for Deficiency Zero Chemical Reaction Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract We consider stochastically modeled chemical reaction systems with massaction kinetics and prove that a product-form stationary distribution exists for each closed, irreducible subset of the state space if an analogous deterministically modeled system with mass-action kinetics admits a complex balanced equilibrium. Feinbergs deficiency zero theorem then implies that such a distribution exists so long as the corresponding chemical network is weakly reversible and has a deficiency of zero. The main parameter of the stationary distribution for the stochastically modeled system is a complex balanced equilibrium value for the corresponding deterministically modeled system. We also generalize our main result to some non-mass-action kinetics.

David F. Anderson; Gheorghe Craciun; Thomas G. Kurtz

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Synoptic-scale nonlinear stationary magnetized Rossby waves in the ionospheric E-layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetized Rossby waves are produced by a dynamo electric field and represent the ionospheric generalization of tropospheric Rossby waves in a rotating atmosphere with a spatially inhomogeneous geomagnetic field. They are described by the modified Charney-Obukhov equation with a Poisson-bracket convective nonlinearity. This type of equation has solutions in the form of synoptic-scale nonlinear solitary dipole vortex structures of 1000-3000 km in diameter. With the use of equivalence conditions, various stationary nonlinear solutions are obtained and investigated analytically. The basic characteristics of stationary vortex structures for magnetized Rossby waves are investigate000.

Kaladze, T. D. [Tbilisi State University, I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics (Georgia); Horton, W. [University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Fusion Studies (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Status and Challenges in Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies for Stationary Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are a number of EES technologies that exist and are potential candidates for the stationary applications. Among the most promising ones are batteries that store electrical energy via electrochemical conversion and release it according to demands. But all the exiting battery technologies are facing challenges in cost and performance for the particular applications. To advance the technology and accelerate market penetration requires substantial progress in advanced materials and chemistries, along with design and engineering. Given this is a relative new field to the materials community, this issue JOM includes a topic on the stationary electrical energy storage, with focus on the needs, requirements and status and challenges in technologies.

Yang, Zhenguo

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

254

"Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities region including Charlotte, Greenville, and Columbia. Such events allowed for H2 Education Material to be presented, and recruit attendees for future sessi

Dever, Thomas J.

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

255

Non-stationary t-distribution prior for image source separation from blurred observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a non-stationary spatial image model for the solution of the image separation problem from blurred observations. Our model is defined on first order image differentials. We model the image differentials using t-distribution with space varying ...

Koray Kayabol; Ercan E. Kuruoglu

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Blind separation of non-stationary sources using continuous density hidden Markov models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blind source separation (BSS) has attained much attention in signal processing society due to its 'blind' property and wide applications. However, there are still some open problems, such as underdetermined BSS, noise BSS. In this paper, we propose a ... Keywords: Blind source separation, Continuous density hidden Markov model, Expectation-maximization, Gaussian mixture model, Non-stationary

Fanglin Gu, Hang Zhang, Desheng Zhu

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modeling and Optimization of Commercial Buildings and Stationary Fuel Cell Systems (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes the Distributed Generation Building Energy Assessment Tool (DG-BEAT) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of California Irvine. DG-BEAT is designed to allow stakeholders to assess the economics of installing stationary fuel cell systems in a variety of building types in the United States.

Ainscough, C.; McLarty, D.; Sullivan, R.; Brouwer, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Suppression of Stationary Planetary Waves by Internal Gravity Waves in the Mesosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The suppression of stationary planetary waves by internal gravity waves in the mesosphere is treated using a quasi-geostrophic model on a midlatitude beta-plane. The drag forces due to internal gravity waves are parameterized based on the wave ...

Saburo Miyahara

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Market Feasibility for Nickel Metal Hyride and Other Advanced Electric Vehicle Batteries in Selected Stationary Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Governments in the United States and other countries, as well as the automotive, battery, and utility industries, have spent millions to demonstrate the viability of next generation of batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). An important question remains unanswered: "What value might these EV and HEV batteries add when employed in stationary and secondary use applications?"

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

260

Equipment PHM using non-stationary segmental hidden semi-Markov model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Health monitoring and prognostics of equipment is a basic requirement for condition-based maintenance (CBM) in many application domains where safety, reliability, and availability of the systems are considered mission critical. As a key complement to ... Keywords: Aging factor, Hazard rate, Non-stationary segmental hidden semi-Markov model, PHM, Remaining useful life

Ming Dong; Ying Peng

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Non-stationary Signal Forecasting by Neural Network with Modified Neurons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the non-stationary power signal forecasting by using a neural network with modified neurons for PJM data set provided by Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO). In this data set, the load information is the sum of power load ... Keywords: load, forecasting, neural model, modified neurons

Chih-Chien Huang; Yi-Ching Lin; Yu-Ju Chen; Shuming T. Wang; Rey-Chue Hwang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fast and exact synthesis of stationary multivariate Gaussian time series using circulant embedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast and exact procedure for the numerical synthesis of stationary multivariate Gaussian time series with a priori prescribed and well controlled auto- and cross-covariance functions is proposed. It is based on extending the circulant embedding technique ... Keywords: Circulant embedding, Multivariate Gaussian series, Numerical synthesis, Stationarity, Time-reversibility

Hannes Helgason; Vladas Pipiras; Patrice Abry

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Areas of the Event Horizon and Stationary Limit Surface for a Kerr Black Hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an elementary evaluation of the surface areas of the event horizon and stationary limit surface for an uncharged Kerr black hole. The latter appears not to have been previously given in the literature, and permits us to suggest new geometrical / physical interpretations of these areas.

Pickett, C A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Three-Dimensional Steady Circulation in a Homogenous Ocean Induced by a Stationary Hurricane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the classical Ekman layer theory, a simple analytical solution of the steady flow induced by a stationary hurricane in a homogenous ocean is discussed. The model consists of flow converging in an inward spiral in the deeper layer and ...

Zhu Min Lu; Rui Xin Huang

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Matching pursuit by undecimated discrete wavelet transform for non-stationary time series of arbitrary length  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe how to formulate a matching pursuit algorithm which successively approximates a periodic non-stationary time series with orthogonal projections onto elements of a suitable dictionary. We discuss how to construct such dictionaries derived ... Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform, matching pursuit, undecimated discrete wavelet transform

A. T. Walden; A. Contreras Cristan

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Solving of non-stationary heat transfer in a plane plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present software application destined for study of heat transfer problems that is a part of education of subject Process engineering taught at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin. The application we use as a teaching aid for calculation ... Keywords: maple, non-stationary heat transfer, software application, temperature field

Dagmar Jan?ov; Hana Charvtov; Karel Kolomaznk; Vladimr Vaek; Pavel Mokrej

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Control of Parallel-Connected Bidirectional AC-DC Converters in Stationary Frame for Microgrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Parallel-Connected Bidirectional AC-DC Converters in Stationary Frame for Microgrid-- With the penetration of renewable energy in modern power system, microgrid has become a popular application worldwide. In this paper, parallel-connected bidirectional converters for AC and DC hybrid microgrid application

Teodorescu, Remus

268

Overview of DOE's large stationary Stirling engine development program  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results to date of a program, sponsored by DOE's Office of Fossil Energy, to develop large stationary Stirling engine power systems. Primary applications for such power plants include cogeneration and total energy systems, with a major advantage being their ability to employ solid coal and other non-scarce fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. 8 refs.

Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Bunker, W.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A different approach to obtain Mayer's extension to stationary single particle Wigner distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the stationary collisionless single-particle Wigner equation in one dimension containing quantum corrections at the lowest order is satisfied by a distribution function that is similar in form to the Maxwellian distribution with an effective mass and a generalized potential. The distribution is used to study quantum corrections to electron hole solutions.

Bose, Anirban [Serampore College, Serampore, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Janaki, M. S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, I/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

An incremental learning algorithm based on the K-associated graph for non-stationary data classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Non-stationary classification problems concern the changes on data distribution over a classifier lifetime. To face this problem, learning algorithms must conciliate essential, but difficult to gather, attributes like good classification performance, ... Keywords: Concept drift, Graph-based learning, Incremental learning, K-associated graph, Non-stationary classification, Purity measure

JoO Roberto Bertini, Jr, Liang Zhao, Alneu A. Lopes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Regulation of Emissions from Stationary Diesel Engines (released in AEO2007)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On July 11, 2006, the EPA issued regulations covering emissions from stationary diesel engines New Source Performance Standards that limit emissions of NOx, particulate matter, SO2, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons to the same levels required for nonroad diesel engines. The regulation affects new, modified, and reconstructed diesel engines. Beginning with MY 2007 [16], engine manufacturers must specify that new engines less than 3,000 horsepower meet the same emissions standard as nonroad diesel engines. For engines greater than 3,000 horsepower, the standard will be fully effective in 2011. Stationary diesel engine fuel will also be subject to the same standard as nonroad diesel engine fuel, which reduces the sulfur content of the fuel to 500 parts per million by mid-2007 and 15 parts per million by mid-2010.

Information Center

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

272

System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary or rotating substrates includes a combination of some or all of the elements including a photodiode sensor for detecting the intensity of incoming light and converting it to a measurable current, a lens for focusing the RHEED pattern emanating from the phosphor screen onto the photodiode, an interference filter for filtering out light other than that which emanates from the phosphor screen, a current amplifier for amplifying and converting the current produced by the photodiode into a voltage, a computer for receiving the amplified photodiode current for RHEED data analysis, and a graphite impregnated triaxial cable for improving the signal-to-noise ratio obtained while sampling a stationary or rotating substrate. A rotating stage for supporting the substrate with diametrically positioned electron beam apertures and an optically encoded shaft can also be used to accommodate rotation of the substrate during measurement. 16 figs.

Sheldon, P.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

273

Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: Procuring Fuel Cells for Stationary Power: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers OCTOBER 2011 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 October 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily

274

Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9072 9072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology, LLC National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-560-49072 September 2010 Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis Robert Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology, LLC Prepared under Task No. H278.7210

275

Batteries for stationary standby and cycling applications :Part 5: maintenance and testing standards.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existing IEEE stationary battery maintenance and testing standards fall into two basic categories: those associated with grid-tied standby applications and those associated with stand-alone photovoltaic cycling applications. These applications differ in several significant ways, which in turn influence their associated standards. A review of the factors influencing the maintenance and testing of stationary battery systems provides the reasons for the differences between these standards and some of the hazards of using a standard inappropriate to the application. This review also provides a background on why these standards will need to be supplemented in the future to support emerging requirements of other applications, such as grid-tied cycling and photovoltaic hybrid applications.

Chamberlin, Jay L.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Batteries for stationary standby and cycling applications. Part 5, Maintenance and testing standards.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existing IEEE stationary battery maintenance and testing standards fall into two basic categories: those associated with grid-tied standby applications and those associated with stand-alone photovoltaic cycling applications. These applications differ in several significant ways, which in turn influence their associated standards. A review of the factors influencing the maintenance and testing of stationary battery systems provides the reasons for the differences between these standards and some of the hazards of using a standard inappropriate to the application. This review also provides a background on why these standards will need to be supplemented in the future to support emerging requirements of other applications, such as grid-tied cycling and photovoltaic hybrid applications.

Chamberlin, Jay L.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Thermodynamics analogue for self-trapped spinning-stationary Madelung fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss two-dimensional Madelung fluid dynamics whose irrotational case reduces into the Schr\\"odinger equation for a free single particle. We show that the self-trapped spinning-stationary Madelung fluid reported in the previous paper can be analogically identified as an equilibrium thermodynamics system. This is done by making correspondence between Shannon entropy over Madelung density and internal energy to be defined in the main text, respectively with thermal-entropy and thermal-internal energy of equilibrium thermodynamics system. This leads us to identify a Madelung fluid analog of thermal-temperature at the vanishing value of which the stationary Madelung fluid will be no more spinning and is equal to the quantum mechanical ground state of a particle trapped inside a cylindrical tube external potential.

Agung Budiyono

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Generation of Strong Magnetic Fields in Axisymmetry by the Stationary Accretion Shock Instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We begin an exploration of the capacity of the stationary accretion shock instability (SASI) to generate magnetic fields by adding a weak, stationary, and radial (but bipolar) magnetic field to a spherically symmetric fluid configuration that models a stalled shock in the post-bounce supernova environment. Upon perturbation the SASI develops, and its lateral flows alternately advect the initially radial magnetic field towards and away from the polar regions. Lateral flows into the polar regions result in partially radial outflows along the symmetry axis, and over several SASI cycles the magnetic field parallel to the axis grows--{\\em even in the absence of rotation}--to dynamical significance ($\\gtrsim 10^{15}$ G), finally saturating upon local equipartition in the polar regions. While the resulting field configuration creates low-density `funnels' and enables energy transport along the field through MHD waves, it does not induce qualitatively new features in the global evolution of the shock.

Endeve, Eirik; Budiardja, Reuben D; Mezzacappa, Anthony

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Non-Stationary Star and the Trajectory of a Circulating Test Body  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple model of a spherically symmetric, pulsating star is calculated. The application to the Sun gives a 166-min radial pulsation. The theory of gravitation in flat space-time implies for a spherically symmetric, nonstationary star small time-dependent exterior gravitational effects. The perturbed equations of motion of a test body moving around the non-stationary star are given. The test body moves away from the center during the epoch of collapsing star and moves towards the center during the epoch of expanding star but the converse is also possible under some conditions. The application to the Sun-Earth system is too small to be measured. This effect may be measurable for very compact, non-stationary objects circulated of a nearby test body.

Walter Petry

2010-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Scaling laws for the tropical cyclone derived from the stationary atmospheric vortex equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results of a numerical study of the differential equation governing the stationary states of the two-dimensional planetary atmosphere and magnetized plasma (within the Charney Hasegawa Mima model). The results show an interesting similarity with the morphology of a tropical cyclone. Quantitative comparisons are also favorable and several scaling laws can be formulated connecting the charactersistic physical parameters of the tropical cyclone.

Spineanu, F; Spineanu, Florin; Vlad, Madalina

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Stationary Battery Guide: Design, Application, and Maintenance: Revision of TR-100248  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stationary batteries provide backup to various dc control systems in power plants, substations, telecommunication facilities, and other applications that require a safe and orderly shutdown in the event of primary power loss. Batteries are expected to be fully capable and ready in the event of a power emergency such as a loss of ac power. This guide has been revised by EPRI's Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center to reflect design, application, and maintenance recommendations that will be helpful to us...

2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

Gas Turbine Superalloy Materials Property Handbook for Stationary Parts and Discs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Published material property data on alloys used in the stationary components, such as combustors, transition pieces, and nozzles (vanes), as well as rotating discs used in land-based gas turbines, is meager and widely scattered in the literature. This handbook provides a comprehensive resource of all available material property data for iron-containing, as well as nickel- and cobalt-based superalloys. Such data are critical for use in remaining life assessment calculations, failure analysis, comparison o...

2002-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Battery Performance Monitoring by Internal Ohmic Measurements: Application Guidelines for Stationary Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Battery internal ohmic measurements offer a viable method of performance monitoring for stationary batteries. Ohmic measurements have demonstrated the ability to identify degraded cells and to baseline the general health of a battery. This report presents the results of research to correlate battery capacity with internal ohmic measurements. The report provides guidelines to assist users with the implementation of this relatively new battery test technology.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Technical and Economic Feasibility of Applying Used EV Batteries in Stationary Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying used electric vehicle (EV) batteries in stationary applications was evaluated in this study. In addition to identifying possible barriers to EV battery reuse, steps needed to prepare the used EV batteries for a second application were also considered. Costs of acquiring, testing, and reconfiguring the used EV batteries were estimated. Eight potential stationary applications were identified and described in terms of power, energy, and duty cycle requirements. Costs for assembly and operation of battery energy storage systems to meet the requirements of these stationary applications were also estimated by extrapolating available data on existing systems. The calculated life cycle cost of a battery energy storage system designed for each application was then compared to the expected economic benefit to determine the economic feasibility. Four of the eight applications were found to be at least possible candidates for economically viable reuse of EV batteries. These were transmission support, light commercial load following, residential load following, and distributed node telecommunications backup power. There were no major technical barriers found, however further study is recommended to better characterize the performance and life of used EV batteries before design and testing of prototype battery systems.

CREADY, ERIN; LIPPERT, JOHN; PIHL, JOSH; WEINSTOCK, IRWIN; SYMONS, PHILIP

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Phantom of Higgs Boson Versus Hierarchy of Stationary States of Superhigh Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As is known, the Standard Model mainly ideologically and qualitatively focuss the experimenters in their search of new mass states (of EP- elementary particles). The exact quantitative prognosis of their properties, especially of masses, lays outside opportunities of the usual theory. Model of Stationary states of EP within the framework of the Wave Universe Concept [Chechelnitsky, 1980-2001] points on existence of Hierarchy of physically distinguished - stationary (elite, dominant) states described by the mass formulas, in particular, in a range 10-210 Gev/c^2. The states close to: ..., 101.5; 107.3; 112.76-113; 139.5-143; 147.6; 202 Gev/c^2 should be observed. Apparently, the experiment already confirms this prognosis in a range up to 100 Gev/c^2. You see preferable states, observable already now in experiment, it - not rejected by the usual theory as the candidates in constituents of Standard model (for example, not holding Higgs bosons), but quite real displays of stationary (first of all, -dominant) mass states. Last data of L3 (CERN) Collaboration really specify displays of new mass states and close to 103.7; 108.9; 114.5 Gev/c^2.

A. M. Chechelnitsky

2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

286

Efficient Bayesian estimation of Markov model transition matrices with given stationary distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct simulation of biomolecular dynamics in thermal equilibrium is challenging due to the metastable nature of conformation dynamics and the computational cost of molecular dynamics. Biased or enhanced sampling methods may improve the convergence of expectation values of equilibrium probabilities and expectation values of stationary quantities significantly. Unfortunately the convergence of dynamic observables such as correlation functions or timescales of conformational transitions relies on direct equilibrium simulations. Markov state models are well suited to describe both, stationary properties and properties of slow dynamical processes of a molecular system, in terms of a transition matrix for a jump process on a suitable discretiza- tion of continuous conformation space. Here, we introduce statistical estimation methods that allow a priori knowledge of equilibrium probabilities to be incorporated into the estimation of dynamical observables. Both, maximum likelihood methods and an improved Monte Carlo sampling method for reversible transition ma- trices with fixed stationary distribution are given. The sampling approach is applied to a toy example as well as to simulations of the MR121-GSGS-W peptide, and is demonstrated to converge much more rapidly than a previous approach in [F. Noe, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 244103 (2008)

Benjamin Trendelkamp-Schroer; Frank Noe

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Generation and Manipulation of Multi-Color Stationary Light Field Using Electromagnetically Induced Transperancy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic control of a weak quantum probe light pulse for the generation and quantum manipulations of a stationary multi-color (MC-) light field in a resonant coherent atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency is proposed. The manipulations have been analyzed based on the analytical solution of the adiabatic limit in the evolution of MC-light fields resulting from interaction of the slow probe light with the new fields generated in the nondegenerate multi-wave mixing scheme. We have found a critical stopping condition for the MC-light fields where the group velocity of light should reduce down to zero. Semiclassical dynamics and behavior of specific quantum correlations of the MC-light fields have been studied in detail for particular initial quantum states of the probe pulse. The stationary MC-field dynamics are treated in terms of dark MC-polariton states constructed for the studied multi-wave mixing processes. We have found the conditions for optimal manipulation of the MC-light while preserving the delicate quantum correlations of the initial probe light pulse. The quantum manipulations leading to the frequency and direction switching of the initial probe light pulse as well as to the quantum swapping of probe light into the new multi-frequency light fields have been proposed. The possibilities of the interaction time lengthening and enhancement of the electric field amplitudes of the stationary MC-light are also discussed for enhancement of the interactions with weak quantum fields in the spatially limited media.

S. A. Moiseev; B. S. Ham

2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

288

Demonstrating Economic and Operational Viability of 72-Hour Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems to Support Emergency Communications on the Sprint Nextel Network - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Kevin Kenny Sprint Nextel 12000 Sunrise Valley Drive MS: VARESQ0401-E4064 Reston, VA 20191 Phone: (703) 592-8272 Email: kevin.p.kenny@sprint.com DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: James Alkire Phone: (720) 356-1426 Email: James.Alkire@go.doe.gov Contract Number: EE-0000486 Project Partners: * Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (Fuel Project Partner) * Altergy Systems, Folsum, CA (PEM Fuel Cell Project Partner) * Black & Veatch Corporation, Overland Park, KS (A&E

289

Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The Simulation of Stationary and Transient Geopotential-Height Eddies in January and July with a Spectral General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the characteristics of stationary and transient eddies in the geopotential-height field as simulated by a spectral general circulation model. The model possesses a realistic distribution of continents and oceans and realistic, but ...

Robert C. Malone; Eric J. Pitcher; Maurice L. Blackmon; Kamal Puri; William Bourke

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

NAM Model Forecasts of Warm-Season Quasi-Stationary Frontal Environments in the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a composite procedure, North American Mesoscale Model (NAM) forecast and observed environments associated with zonally oriented, quasi-stationary surface fronts for 64 cases during JulyAugust 200608 were examined for a large region ...

Shih-Yu Wang; Adam J. Clark

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile  

SciTech Connect

By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Photon Statistics of a Non-Stationary Periodically Driven Single-Photon Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the photon statistics of a single-photon source that operates under non-stationary conditions. The photons are emitted by shining a periodic sequence of laser pulses on single atoms falling randomly through a high-finesse optical cavity. Strong antibunching is found in the intensity correlation of the emitted light, demonstrating that a single atom emits photons one-by-one. However, the number of atoms interacting with the cavity follows a Poissonian statistics so that, on average, no sub-Poissonian photon statistics is obtained, unless the measurement is conditioned on the presence of single atoms.

M. Hennrich; T. Legero; A. Kuhn; G. Rempe

2004-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

294

Pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons from stationary magnetic waves: Continuous Markov process and quasilinear theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a Markov process theory of charged particle scattering from stationary, transverse, magnetic waves. We examine approximations that lead to quasilinear theory, in particular the resonant diffusion approximation. We find that, when appropriate, the resonant diffusion approximation simplifies the result of the weak turbulence approximation without significant further restricting the regime of applicability. We also explore a theory generated by expanding drift and diffusion rates in terms of a presumed small correlation time. This small correlation time expansion leads to results valid for relatively small pitch angle and large wave energy density - a regime that may govern pitch angle scattering of high-energy electrons into the geomagnetic loss cone.

Lemons, Don S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Local decay of waves on asymptotically flat stationary space-times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we study the pointwise decay properties of solutions to the wave equation on a class of stationary asymptotically flat backgrounds in three space dimensions. Under the assumption that uniform energy bounds and a weak form of local energy decay hold forward in time we establish a $t^{-3}$ local uniform decay rate for linear waves. This work was motivated by open problems concerning decay rates for linear waves on Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds, where such a decay rate has been conjectured by R. Price. Our results apply to both of these cases.

Tataru, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Local decay of waves on asymptotically flat stationary space-times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we study the pointwise decay properties of solutions to the wave equation on a class of stationary asymptotically flat backgrounds in three space dimensions. Under the assumption that uniform energy bounds and a weak form of local energy decay hold forward in time we establish a $t^{-3}$ local uniform decay rate for linear waves. This work was motivated by open problems concerning decay rates for linear waves on Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds, where such a decay rate has been conjectured by R. Price. Our results apply to both of these cases.

Daniel Tataru

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

SPECIFICATIONS AND FABRICATION PROCEDURES FOR APPR-1 CORE II STATIONARY FUEL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel-base fuel components of thin plate-typs construction and containing a dispersion of enriched UO/sub 2/ have been successfully employed in powering the Army package Power Reactor. The stationary fuel compcnent proposed for operation in the second core loading of the reactor is discussed. The component is designed for radioactive service in pressurized water at 4504DEF and consists of eighteen composite fuel plates joined into an Integral unit or assembly by brazing. Design specifications covering the material and dimensional requirements as well as the operating conditions are discussed. Step-by-step procedures developed and utilized in manufacturing the component are presented in detail. (auth)

Cunningham, J.E.; Beaver, R.J.

1958-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

299

Stationary entanglement of photons and atoms in a high-finesse resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We predict that the collective excitations of an atomic array become entangled with the light of a high-finesse cavity mode when they are suitably coupled. This entanglement is of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type, it is robust against cavity losses and is a stationary property of the coupled system. It is generated when the atomic array is aligned along the cavity axis and driven transversally by a laser, when coherent scattering of photons into the cavity mode is suppressed because of phase-mismatching. We identify the parameter regimes under which entanglement is found and show that these are compatible with existing experimental setups.

Hessam Habibian; Stefano Zippilli; Fabrizio Illuminati; Giovanna Morigi

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Performance and testing of a stationary concentrating collector. [Compound parabolic concentrators coupled to tubular evacuated receivers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of nonimaging solar collectors for heating and cooling applications is reported. A totally stationary concentrating collector has been designed, built, and tested. The collectors employ compound parabolic concentrators coupled to tubular evacuated receivers. Performance of the collector is substantially better than flat plate collectors, and the collectors are suitable for powering mechanically driven air conditioning systems as well as conventional absorption cycle machines. This collector concept was awarded an IR-100 award by Industrial Research Magazine as one of the 100 most significant new developments in 1977.

Cole, R L; Allen, J W; Levitz, N M; McIntire, W R; Schertz, W W

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Collisionless kinetic regimes for quasi-stationary axisymmetric accretion disc plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the kinetic treatment of quasi-stationary axisymmetric collisionless accretion disc plasmas. The conditions of validity of the kinetic description for non-relativistic magnetized and gravitationally bound plasmas of this type are discussed. A classification of the possible collisionless plasma regimes which can arise in these systems is proposed, which can apply to accretion discs around both stellar-mass compact objects and galactic-center black holes. Two different classifications are determined, which are referred to, respectively, as energy-based and magnetic field-based classifications. Different regimes are pointed out for each plasma species, depending both on the relative magnitudes of kinetic and potential energies and the magnitude of the magnetic field. It is shown that in all cases, there can be quasi-stationary Maxwellian-like solutions of the Vlasov equation. The perturbative approach outlined here permits unique analytical determination of the functional form for the distribution function consistent, in each kinetic regime, with the explicit inclusion of finite Larmor radius-diamagnetic and/or energy-correction effects.

Cremaschini, C. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) and INFN, Trieste (Italy); Tessarotto, M. [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Stationary and protable instruments for assay of HEU (highly enriched uranium) solids holdup  

SciTech Connect

Two NaI(Tl)-based instruments, one stationary and one portable, designed for automated assay of highly enriched uranium (HEU) solids holdup, are being evaluated at the scrap recovery facility of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The stationary instrument, a continuous monitor of HEU within the filters of the chip burner exhaust system, measures the HEU deposits that accumulate erratically and rapidly during chip burner operation. The portable system was built to assay HEU in over 100 m of elevated piping used to transfer UO/sub 3/, UO/sub 2/, and UF/sub 4/ powder to, from, and between the fluid bed conversion furnances and the powder storage hoods. Both instruments use two detector heads. Both provide immediate automatic readout of accumulated HEU mass. The 186-keV /sup 235/U gamma ray is the assay signature, and the 60-keV gamma ray from an /sup 241/Am source attached to each detector is used to normalize the 186-keV rate. The measurement geometries were selected for compatibility with simple calibration models. The assay calibrations were calculated from these models and were verified and normalized with measurements of HEU standards built to match geometries of uniform accumulations on the surfaces of the process equipment. This instrumentation effort demonstrates that simple calibration models can often be applied to unique measurement geometries, minimizing the otherwise unreasonable requirements for calibration standards and allowing extension of the measurements to other process locations.

Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Brumfield, T.L.; Gunn, C.S.; Watson, D.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A statistical analysis of avalanching heat transport in stationary enhanced core confinement regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a statistical analysis of heat transport in stationary enhanced confinement regimes obtained from flux-driven gyrofluid simulations. The probability density functions of heat flux in improved confinement regimes, characterized by the Nusselt number, show significant deviation from Gaussian, with a markedly fat tail, implying the existence of heat avalanches. Two types of avalanching transport are found to be relevant to stationary states, depending on the degree of turbulence suppression. In the weakly suppressed regime, heat avalanches occur in the form of quasi-periodic (QP) heat pulses. Collisional relaxation of zonal flow is likely to be the origin of these QP heat pulses. This phenomenon is similar to transient limit cycle oscillations observed prior to edge pedestal formation in recent experiments. On the other hand, a spectral analysis of heat flux in the strongly suppressed regime shows the emergence of a 1/f (f is the frequency) band, suggesting the presence of self-organized criticality (SOC)-like episodic heat avalanches. This episodic 1/f heat avalanches have a long temporal correlation and constitute the dominant transport process in this regime.

Tokunaga, S.; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

From Focus to Context and Back: Combining Mobile Projectors and Stationary Displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 1: Mobile projections add focus and context areas on a display. The projection automatically adjusts to the needed size and level of detail by the distance of the user to the display. In (a) the mobile projector provides context, while in (b) it provides focus. Focus plus context displays combine high-resolution detail and lower-resolution overview using displays of different pixel densities. Historically, they employed two fixed-size displays of different resolutions, one embedded within the other. In this paper, we explore focus plus context displays using one or more mobile projectors in combination with a stationary display. The portability of mobile projectors as applied to focus plus context displays contributes in three ways. First, the projectors projection on the stationary display can transition dynamically from being the focus of ones interest (i.e. providing a high resolution view when close to the display) to providing context around it (i.e. providing a low resolution view beyond the displays borders when further away from it). Second, users can dynamically reposition and resize a focal area that matches their interest rather than repositioning all content into a fixed high-resolution area. Third, multiple users can manipulate multiple foci or context areas without interfering with one other. A proof-of-concept implementation illustrates these contributions. AUTHOR KEYWORDS Focus plus context, portable projectors, multiple users, multiple displays. Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).

Martin Weigel; Saul Greenberg; Anthony Tang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Supplement a to compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Fifth edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Supplement to AP-42 addresses pollutant-generating activity from Bituminous and Subbituminous Coal Combustion; Anthracite Coal Combustion; Fuel Oil Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion in Boilers; Lignite Combustion; Waste Oil Combustion: Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and all Stationary Dual-fuel engines; Natural Gas Processing; Organic Liquid Storage Tanks; Meat Smokehouses; Meat Rendering Plants; Canned Fruits and Vegetables; Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables; Pickles, Sauces and Salad Dressing; Grain Elevators and Processes; Cereal Breakfast Foods; Pasta Manufacturing; Vegetable Oil Processing; Wines and Brandy; Coffee Roasting; Charcoal; Coal Cleaning; Frit Manufacturing; Sand and Gravel Processing; Diatomite Processing; Talc Processing; Vermiculite Processing; paved Roads; and Unpaved Roads. Also included is information on Generalized Particle Size Distributions.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Technology evaluation of the Stirling engine for stationary power generation in the 500 to 2000 horsepower range  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a study undertaken to assess the potential and development status of the Stirling engine and recommendations are made for a possible program to develop 500 to 2000 hp stationary Stirling engines for commercial introduction by the late 1980's. Information is included on the operation, performance, historical development, and design of Stirling engines; requirements and characteristics of associated combustion systems; economics; technology advances needed; and the technological risks involved in developing Stirling engines for stationary power generation. (LCL)

Hogland, L.C.; Percival, W.H.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range  

SciTech Connect

Initial work in a project on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal-derived fuels in a large stationary stirling engine. High thermal efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended. (LCL)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Capture and Sequestration of CO2 From Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capture and Sequestration of CO Capture and Sequestration of CO 2 From Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae Takashi Nakamura (nakamura@psicorp.com; 925-743-1110) Constance Senior (senior@psicorp.com; 978-689-0003) Physical Sciences Inc Andover, MA 01810 Miguel Olaizola (molaizola@aquasearch.com; 808-326-9301 Michael Cushman (mcushman@aquasearch.com; 808-326-9301) Aquasearch Inc. Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 Stephen Masutani (masutan@wiliki.eng.hawaii.edu; 808-956-7388) University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI 96822 Introduction Emissions of carbon dioxide are predicted to increase this century 1 leading to increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. While there is still much debate on the effects of increased CO 2 levels on global climate, many scientists agree that the projected increases could have a

309

Visualizing Spacetime Curvature via Frame-Drag Vortexes and Tidal Tendexes II. Stationary Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When one splits spacetime into space plus time, the Weyl curvature tensor (which equals the Riemann tensor in vacuum) splits into two spatial, symmetric, traceless tensors: the tidal field $E$, which produces tidal forces, and the frame-drag field $B$, which produces differential frame dragging. In recent papers, we and colleagues have introduced ways to visualize these two fields: tidal tendex lines (integral curves of the three eigenvector fields of $E$) and their tendicities (eigenvalues of these eigenvector fields); and the corresponding entities for the frame-drag field: frame-drag vortex lines and their vorticities. These entities fully characterize the vacuum Riemann tensor. In this paper, we compute and depict the tendex and vortex lines, and their tendicities and vorticities, outside the horizons of stationary (Schwarzschild and Kerr) black holes; and we introduce and depict the black holes' horizon tendicity and vorticity (the normal-normal components of $E$ and $B$ on the horizon). For Schwarzschil...

Zhang, Fan; Nichols, David A; Chen, Yanbei; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Matthews, Keith D; Owen, Robert; Thorne, Kip S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Kinetics of the direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Direct electric heating by passing an electrical current directly through a bed of adsorbent may prove to be an efficient means of regenerating activated charcoal in continuous and batch adsorption processes. Obvious advantages of this type of regeneration are its almost complete lack of inertia, which makes it possible to reduce the number and dimensions of the adsorbers, and its highly efficient use of energy due to the small number of steps in the conversion of the energy, as well as the reduction of heat losses involved in warming the structure and making up for losses to the surroundings. The authors consider the kinetics of direct electric heating of a stationary bed of activated charcoal not containing adsorbed substances.

Marfin, M.N.; Shumyatskii, Yu.I.

1987-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

311

The Quasi-stationary Structure of Radiating Shock Waves; 1, The One-temperature Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the quasi-stationary structure of a radiating shock wave propagating through a spherically symmetric shell of cold gas by solving the time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics on an adaptive grid. We show that this code successfully resolves the shock wave in both the subcritical and supercritical cases and, for the first time, we have reproduced all the expected features -- including the optically thin temperature spike at a supercritical shock front -- without invoking analytic jump conditions at the discontinuity. We solve the full moment equations for the radiation flux and energy density, but the shock wave structure can also be reproduced if the radiation flux is assumed to be proportional to the gradient of the energy density (the diffusion approximation), as long as the radiation energy density is determined by the appropriate radiative transfer moment equation. We find that Zel'dovich and Raizer's analytic solution for the shock wave structure accurately describes a subcritical...

Sincell, M W; Mihalas, D L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R. [Multiple Dynamics Corp., Southfield, MI (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

DEVELOPMENT OF A PEM ELECTROLYZER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-mail: tom@chem.psu.edu; jmr31@psu.edu The development of efficient but inexpensive solar cells solar cells. Moreover, relaxed lattice matching requirements in nanowires allow one to make epitaxial applica- tions. Indeed, nanocrystal hybrid PVs9 and nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells10-13 have already

314

PEM and Other Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2009 ... Program Organizers: Prabhakar Singh, University of Connecticut; Abdul-Majeed Azad, University of Toledo; Donald Collins, Western Research...

315

NIST: NIF - PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fuel cells are operationally equivalent to a battery. The reactants or fuel in a fuel cell can be replaced unlike a standard disposable or rechargeable ...

316

Progress in PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The U.S. Department of...

317

Interdecadal Variations of the East Asian Winter Monsoon and Their Association with Quasi-Stationary Planetary Wave Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interdecadal variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and their association with the quasi-stationary planetary wave activity are analyzed by using the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis dataset and the ...

Lin Wang; Ronghui Huang; Lei Gu; Wen Chen; Lihua Kang

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Effect of the Interference of Traveling and Stationary Waves on Time Variations of the Large-Scale Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is hypothesized that the interference of stationary and traveling waves of the same longitudinal can cause some of the observed time variations in the large-scale circulation. To explore this hypothesis the eight-winter average structure of a ...

Roland A. Madden

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Upper bounds for the yearly energy delivery of stationary solar concentrators and the implications for concentrator optical design  

SciTech Connect

Compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type collectors have been viewed as the optimal design for totally stationary concentrators. However the CPC is ideal only for uniform incident solar flux averaged over the energy collection period. The actual yearly-averaged incident flux map turns out to be highly non-uniform, as a function of projected incidence angle, which implies that concentration can be increased markedly if optical collection efficiency is compromised. The question then becomes: what concentrator angular acceptance function is best matched to nature`s radiation flux input, and how much energy can such a concentrator deliver? The recently-invented tailored edge-ray concentrator (TERC) approach could be used to determine optimal reflector contours, given the optimal acceptance angle function. We demonstrate that totally stationary TERCs can have around three times the geometric concentration of corresponding optimized stationary CPCs, with greater energy delivery per absorber area, in particular for applications that are currently being considered for stationary evacuated concentrators with the latest low-emissivity selective coating, e.g., solar-driven double-stage absorption chillers (at around 170{degree}C) and solar thermal power generation (at around 250{degree}C). 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Gordon, J.M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel)]|[Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheva (Israel); Lasken, M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Ries, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2001 in which Aquasearch tested 24 different species of microalgae for growth at three different temperatures. Eleven species were analyzed for the presence of high-value pigments. Most of the algae analyzed were good sources of industrially valuable pigments. Analysis of the methods for introducing and dissolving CO{sub 2} in the commercial bioreactor was begun this quarter.

Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Asymptotic Approximations for Stationary Distributions of Many-Server Queues with Abandonment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A many-server queueing system is considered in which customers arrive according to a renewal process, and have service and patience times that are drawn from two independent sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables. Customers enter service in the order of arrival and are assumed to abandon the queue if the waiting time in queue exceeds the patience time. The state $Y^{(N)}$ of the system with $N$ servers is represented by a four-component process that consists of the backward recurrence time of the arrival process, a pair of measure-valued processes, one that keeps track of the waiting times of customers in queue and the other that keeps track of the amounts of time customers present in the system have been in service, and a real-valued process that represents the total number of customers in the system. Under general assumptions, it is first shown that $Y^{(N)}$ is a Feller process, admits a stationary distribution and is ergodic. The main result shows that when the associated fluid...

Kang, Weining

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Visualizing Spacetime Curvature via Frame-Drag Vortexes and Tidal Tendexes II. Stationary Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When one splits spacetime into space plus time, the Weyl curvature tensor (which equals the Riemann tensor in vacuum) splits into two spatial, symmetric, traceless tensors: the tidal field $E$, which produces tidal forces, and the frame-drag field $B$, which produces differential frame dragging. In recent papers, we and colleagues have introduced ways to visualize these two fields: tidal tendex lines (integral curves of the three eigenvector fields of $E$) and their tendicities (eigenvalues of these eigenvector fields); and the corresponding entities for the frame-drag field: frame-drag vortex lines and their vorticities. These entities fully characterize the vacuum Riemann tensor. In this paper, we compute and depict the tendex and vortex lines, and their tendicities and vorticities, outside the horizons of stationary (Schwarzschild and Kerr) black holes; and we introduce and depict the black holes' horizon tendicity and vorticity (the normal-normal components of $E$ and $B$ on the horizon). For Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes, the horizon tendicity is proportional to the horizon's intrinsic scalar curvature, and the horizon vorticity is proportional to an extrinsic scalar curvature. We show that, for horizon-penetrating time slices, all these entities ($E$, $B$, the tendex lines and vortex lines, the lines' tendicities and vorticities, and the horizon tendicities and vorticities) are affected only weakly by changes of slicing and changes of spatial coordinates, within those slicing and coordinate choices that are commonly used for black holes. [Abstract is abbreviated.

Fan Zhang; Aaron Zimmerman; David A. Nichols; Yanbei Chen; Geoffrey Lovelace; Keith D. Matthews; Robert Owen; Kip S. Thorne

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI delivered its coal reactor to Aquasearch. Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started their effort on economic analyses of commercial scale photobioreactor. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Dr. Takashi Nakamura

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Dr. Takashi Nakamura

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI conducted preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae and developed a design concept for photobioreactors for biofixation of CO{sub 2} and photovoltaic power generation. Aquasearch continued their effort on characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration and preparation for pilot scale demonstration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Dr. T. Nakamura

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The phase delay and its complex time: From stationary states up to wave packets  

SciTech Connect

Complex time is often invoked about tunneling effect where the classical phase delay is completed with a crucial filter effect. Usually the complex times are obtained by considering the flux-flux correlation function, but this can be obtained by a very simple approach using the search of the maximum of the generalized complex phase function, including the amplitude of the wave function. Various aspects of the phase delay are presented in the case of wave packets impinging on simple or resonant quantum barriers. Formal links with the classical mechanics give birth to quasi-trajectories of the quantum particle, totally compatible with the quantum mechanics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stationary phase method is extended in including the variations of the spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex phase delay leads to a complex trajectory inside and out-side the barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of quasi-trajectories are given in case of different quantum barriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase delays are specified for resonant tunneling or above-barrier wave-packets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coherence between the quasi-trajectories and quantum mechanics is shown.

Grossel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.grossel@univ-reims.fr

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period from 1 October to 31 December 2000. During this period planning of chemostat experiments at Aquasearch was initiated. These experiments will be used to select microalgae for the photobioreactor demonstrations. An initial survey of techniques for removing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas was begun. Chemical adsorption using MEA is the most mature technology and looks to be the most economically viable in the near future.

Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Stationary low power reactor No. 1 (SL-1) accident site decontamination & dismantlement project  

SciTech Connect

The Army Reactor Area (ARA) II was constructed in the late 1950s as a test site for the Stationary Low Power Reactor No. 1 (SL-1). The SL-1 was a prototype power and heat source developed for use at remote military bases using a direct cycle, boiling water, natural circulation reactor designed to operate at a thermal power of 3,000 kW. The ARA II compound encompassed 3 acres and was comprised of (a) the SL-1 Reactor Building, (b) eight support facilities, (c) 50,000-gallon raw water storage tank, (d) electrical substation, (e) aboveground 1,400-gallon heating oil tank, (f) underground 1,000-gallon hazardous waste storage tank, and (g) belowground power, sewer, and water systems. The reactor building was a cylindrical, aboveground facility, 39 ft in diameter and 48 ft high. The lower portion of the building contained the reactor pressure vessel surrounded by gravel shielding. Above the pressure vessel, in the center portion of the building, was a turbine generator and plant support equipment. The upper section of the building contained an air cooled condenser and its circulation fan. The major support facilities included a 2,500 ft{sup 2} two story, cinder block administrative building; two 4,000 ft{sup 2} single story, steel frame office buildings; a 850 ft{sup 2} steel framed, metal sided PL condenser building, and a 550 ft{sup 2} steel framed decontamination and laydown building.

Perry, E.F.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the first full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch started to model the costs associated with biomass harvest from different microalgal strains. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

Takashi Nakamura

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE  

SciTech Connect

Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Overview of DOE's large stationary Stirling-engine development program  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results to date of a program, sponsored by DOE's Office of Fossil Energy, to develop large stationary Stirling engine power systems. Primary applications for such power plants include cogeneration and total energy systems, with a major advantage being their ability to employ solid coal and other non-scarce fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. The greatest market potential is for individual engine modules in the 373 to 2238 kW range, which can be used in multiple-engine installations for cogeneration systems up to about 20 MWe. Fluidized bed coal combustors are found to be the most effective heat source for such power systems. The major effort in the Stirling engine development program was an industry-based design competition, involving three independent contractual teams. Conceptual designs for state-of-the-art coal-fired Stirling engine systems were developed and all three design teams recommended development of 373 kW modules as base units, which can be coupled together to form individual Stirling engines up to 2238 kW in size. Heat transport system design concepts were also developed for integrating engine hot-end sections with coal combustors, and a comparative discussion of the results is presented in the text of this paper.

Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Bunker, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Stationary electron velocity distribution function in crossed electric and magnetic fields with collisions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical studies and numerical simulations show that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster discharge with crossed electric and magnetic fields is not Maxwellian. This is due to the fact that the mean free path between collisions is greater than both the Larmor radius and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge channel. However in numerical models of Hall thrusters, a hydrodynamic approach is often used to describe the electron dynamics, because discharge simulation in a fully kinetic approach requires large computing resources and is time consuming. A more accurate modeling of the electron flow in the hydrodynamic approximation requires taking into account the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function and finding its moments, an approach that reflects the properties of electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields better than the commonly used Euler or Navier-Stokes approximations. In the present paper, an expression for the electron velocity distribution function in rarefied spatially homogeneous stationary plasma with crossed electric and magnetic fields and predominance of collisions with heavy particles is derived in the relaxation approximation. The main moments of the distribution function including longitudinal and transversal temperatures, the components of the viscous stress tensor, and of the heat flux vector are calculated. Distinctive features of the hydrodynamic description of electrons with a strongly non-equilibrium distribution function and the prospects for further development of the proposed approach for calculating the distribution function in spatially inhomogeneous plasma are discussed.

Shagayda, Andrey [Department of Electrophysics, Keldysh Research Centre, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

1…10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard * Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Independent Review Published for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program NREL/BK-6A10-48265 November 2010 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Thermodynamic, economic, and environmental modeling of hydrogen (H2) co-production integrated with stationary Fuel Cell Systems (FCS).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to analyze the potential for hydrogen co-production within high-temperature stationary fuel cell systems (H2-FCS) and identify novel designs with minimum CO2 and cost. Specific objectives are to (1) develop novel H2-FCS designs that release low greenhouse gas emissions; and (2) develop novel H2-FCS designs with low hydrogen production cost.

Margalef, Pere (University of California at Irvine); Brouwer, Jack (University of California at Irvine); Colella, Whitney; Rankin, Aerel; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nonlinear, stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves: Exact solutions for solitons, periodic waves, and wedge shaped waveforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of fully nonlinear stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is further developed. The existence of two fundamental constants of motion; namely, momentum flux density parallel to the background magnetic field and energy density, facilitates the reduction of the wave structure equation to a first order differential equation. For subsonic waves propagating sufficiently obliquely to the magnetic field, soliton solutions can be constructed. Importantly, analytic expressions for the amplitude of the soliton show that it increases with decreasing wave Mach number and with increasing obliquity to the magnetic field. In the subsonic, quasi-parallel case, periodic waves exist whose compressive and rarefactive amplitudes are asymmetric about the 'initial' point. A critical 'driver' field exists that gives rise to a soliton-like structure which corresponds to infinite wavelength. If the wave speed is supersonic, periodic waves may also be constructed. The aforementioned asymmetry in the waveform arises from the flow being driven towards the local sonic point in the compressive phase and away from it in the rarefactive phase. As the initial driver field approaches the critical value, the end point of the compressive phase becomes sonic and the waveform develops a wedge shape. This feature and the amplitudes of the compressive and rarefactive portions of the periodic waves are illustrated through new analytic expressions that follow from the equilibrium points of a wave structure equation which includes a driver field. These expressions are illustrated with figures that illuminate the nature of the solitons. The presently described wedge-shaped waveforms also occur in water waves, for similar 'transonic' reasons, when a Coriolis force is included.

McKenzie, J. F. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, Durban 4001 (South Africa); School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag: X54001, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Doyle, T. B. [Materials Research Division, iThemba LABS, P.O.Box 722, Somerset West, 7129, South Africa and School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag: X54001, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Rajah, S. S. [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Durban University of Technology, Steve Biko Campus, Durban 4001 (South Africa)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Power Plants and Other Large Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations apply to fossil-fuel fired stationary sources which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a...

344

A Formulation of a Phase-Independent Wave-Activity Flux for Stationary and Migratory Quasigeostrophic Eddies on a Zonally Varying Basic Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new formulation of an approximate conservation relation of wave-activity pseudomomentum is derived, which is applicable for either stationary or migratory quasigeostrophic (QG) eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. The authors utilize a ...

Koutarou Takaya; Hisashi Nakamura

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Instability of Long's Stationary Solution and the Evolution toward Severe Downslope Windstorm Flow. Part II: The Application of Finite-Amplitude Local Wave-Activity Flow Diagnostics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of severe downslope windstorm evolution, from flow conditions initially described by Long's stationary solution, is considered through the application of finite-amplitude wave-activity diagnostics. Such quantities satisfy a local ...

J. F. Scinocca; W. R. Peltier

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Investigation of non-stationary self-focusing of intense laser pulse in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the non-stationary self-focusing of Gaussian laser pulse in cold quantum plasma. In case of high dense plasma, the nonlinearity in the dielectric constant is mainly due to relativistic high intense interactions and quantum effects. In this paper, we have introduced a ramp density profile for plasma and presented graphically the behavior of spot size oscillations of pulse at rear and front portions of the pulse. It is observed that the ramp density profile and quantum effects play a vital role in stronger and better focusing at the rear of the pulse than at the front in cold quantum plasmas.

Habibi, M. [Department of Physics, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghamari, F. [Department of Physics, Khorramabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of increasing the system spatial resolution and scanning speed of Hologic Selenia Dimensions digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) scanner by replacing the rotating mammography x-ray tube with a specially designed carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array, which generates all the projection images needed for tomosynthesis reconstruction by electronically activating individual x-ray sources without any mechanical motion. The stationary digital breast tomosynthesis (s-DBT) design aims to (i) increase the system spatial resolution by eliminating image blurring due to x-ray tube motion and (ii) reduce the scanning time. Low spatial resolution and long scanning time are the two main technical limitations of current DBT technology. Methods: A CNT x-ray source array was designed and evaluated against a set of targeted system performance parameters. Simulations were performed to determine the maximum anode heat load at the desired focal spot size and to design the electron focusing optics. Field emission current from CNT cathode was measured for an extended period of time to determine the stable life time of CNT cathode for an expected clinical operation scenario. The source array was manufactured, tested, and integrated with a Selenia scanner. An electronic control unit was developed to interface the source array with the detection system and to scan and regulate x-ray beams. The performance of the s-DBT system was evaluated using physical phantoms. Results: The spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array comprised 31 individually addressable x-ray sources covering a 30 angular span with 1 pitch and an isotropic focal spot size of 0.6 mm at full width at half-maximum. Stable operation at 28 kV(peak) anode voltage and 38 mA tube current was demonstrated with extended lifetime and good source-to-source consistency. For the standard imaging protocol of 15 views over 14, 100 mAs dose, and 2 x 2 detector binning, the projection resolution along the scanning direction increased from 4.0 cycles/mm [at 10% modulation-transfer-function (MTF)] in DBT to 5.1 cycles/mm in s-DBT at magnification factor of 1.08. The improvement is more pronounced for faster scanning speeds, wider angular coverage, and smaller detector pixel sizes. The scanning speed depends on the detector, the number of views, and the imaging dose. With 240 ms detector readout time, the s-DBT system scanning time is 6.3 s for a 15-view, 100 mAs scan regardless of the angular coverage. The scanning speed can be reduced to less than 4 s when detectors become faster. Initial phantom studies showed good quality reconstructed images. Conclusions: A prototype s-DBT scanner has been developed and evaluated by retrofitting the Selenia rotating gantry DBT scanner with a spatially distributed CNT x-ray source array. Preliminary results show that it improves system spatial resolution substantially by eliminating image blur due to x-ray focal spot motion. The scanner speed of s-DBT system is independent of angular coverage and can be increased with faster detector without image degration. The accelerated lifetime measurement demonstrated the long term stability of CNT x-ray source array with typical clinical operation lifetime over 3 years.

Qian Xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily; Shan Jing; Yang Guang; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Sultana, Shabana; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Spronk, Derrek; Sprenger, Frank; Zhang Yiheng; Kennedy, Don; Farbizio, Tom; Jing Zhenxue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); XinRay Systems, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Hologic, Inc., Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making fuel cell projects easier to put into service. In this environment, federal decision makers can focus on being smart buyers of fuel cell energy instead of attempting to become experts in fuel cell technology. For agencies that want to pursue a fuel cell CHP this guide presents a four step process for a successful project. 1. Perform a preliminary screening of the energy needs energy costs and incentives. 2. Compare a detailed project plan. 3. Make a financing and contracting decision. 4. Execute the project plan including financing, installation, and operation. The simplest procurement method is designated funding for the outright purchase of the fuel cell CHP system, although this is usually not the most cost-effective option. This guide describes the following financing options: Power purchase agreement Energy savings performance contract Utility energy services contract Enhanced use lease Fuel cell CHP technology can help federal facility managers comply with agency objectives for reducing energy consumption and air pollution emissions. Fuel cells do not generate particulate pollutants, unburned hydrocarbons or the gases that produce acid rain. Fuel cells emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) than other, less efficient technologies and use of renewable fuels can make them carbon neutral. Fuel cell CHP technology can deliver reliable electricity and heat with high efficiency (70% to 85%) in a small physical footprint with little noise, making it a cost-effective option for federal facilities.

Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines  

SciTech Connect

Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

Nigel N. Clark

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978  

SciTech Connect

The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Li-ion batteries based on LiFePO4 cathode and anatase TiO2/graphene anode were investigated for possible stationary energy storage application. Fine-structured LiFePO4 was synthesized by novel molten surfactant approach. Anatase TiO2/graphene nanocomposite was prepared via self assembly method. The full cell that operated at flat 1.6V demonstrated negligible fade after more than 700 cycles. The LiFePO4/TiO2 combination Li-ion battery is inexpensive, environmentally benign, safe and stable. Therefore, it can be practically applied as stationary energy storage for renewable power sources.

Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Bae, In-Tae; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Duong, Tien Q.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

353

Growth of fuel cell applications for specialty vehicles, portable power, auxiliary power, backup power, and stationary power are expected to generate a range of new jobs in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth of fuel cell applications for specialty vehicles, portable power, auxiliary power, backup engineers · Power plant operators · Power plant maintenance staff · Bus, truck and other fleet drivers power, and stationary power are expected to generate a range of new jobs in the near term

354

Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOEs Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode development. Membranes and MEAs were supplied by team member BASF Fuel Cell (formerly PEMEAS), a manufacturer of polymer and fiber. Additional subcontractors Entegris, the University of South Carolina (USC) Fuel Cell Center, and RPIs Fuel Cell Center conducted activities with regard to stack sealing, acid modeling, and electrode development.

Vogel, John A.

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the industry-standard pressure vessel technology. The real-world performance data of SCCV under actual operating conditions is imperative for this new technology to be adopted by the hydrogen industry for stationary storage of CGH2. Therefore, the key technology development effort in FY13 and subsequent years will be focused on the fabrication and testing of SCCV mock-ups. The static loading and fatigue data will be generated in rigorous testing of these mock-ups. Successful tests are crucial to enabling the near-term impact of the developed storage technology on the CGH2 storage market, a critical component of the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. In particular, the SCCV has high potential for widespread deployment in hydrogen fueling stations.

Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ex-situ and In-situ Stability Studies of PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts: the effect of carbon type and humidification on the thermal degradation of carbon supported catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the most significant challenges for proton exchange membrane fuel cells in stationary power generation systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay in performance is desired. There are several different membrane electrode assembly (MEA) associated degradation mechanisms inhibiting MEAs from obtaining their desired lifetime targets. The focus of this research is on the loss of cathode surface area over time, which results in MEA performance losses, since MEA performance is proportional to cathode catalyst surface area. Two proposed mechanisms, support oxidation and platinum dissolution, are studied using different accelerated tests. These results are compared to cathode catalyst surface area loss data from real-time fuel cell tests in order to decouple the two degradation mechanisms.

Haugen, G. M.; Stevens, D. A.; Hicks, M. T.; Dahn, J. R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Emissions data for stationary reciprocating engines and gas turbines in use by the gas pipeline transmission industry  

SciTech Connect

A.G.A. Project PR-15-613, conducted under the sponsorship of the Pipeline Committee (PRC), involved two phases. This final report for the overall project combines both of the separate phase reports into a single document. The project was entitled ''Compilation of Emissions Data for Stationary Reciprocating Engines and Gas Turbines in Use by the Gas Pipeline Transmission Industry (Update).'' The purpose of this project was to update the 1980 edition of the Compilation of Emissions Data. Phase I involved collection of emissions data from companies in the natural gas industry and from gas engine manufacturers and recommending engine and gas turbine models for testing under Phase II. Phase I was completed in March 1987 and the findings and recommendations were included in an interim report. Phase II involved emissions testing of a number of reciprocating engines and gas turbines. Phase II was completed in April 1988 and the findings are included in this project final report. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

Fanick, E.R.; Dietzmann, H.E.; Urban, C.M.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 4: Low Temperature Fuel Cell System BOP & FUEL Processors For Stationary and Automotive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY AND AUTOMOTIVE BREAKOUT GROUP 4: LOW TEMPERATURE FUEL CELL SYSTEM BOP & FUEL PROCESSORS FOR STATIONARY AND AUTOMOTIVE PARTICIPANTS O NAME RGANIZATION Shabbir Ahmed Argonne National Laboratory Chris Ainscough NUVERA Rod Borup Los Alamos National Laboratory Vince Contini Battelle Rick Cutright PlugPower LLC David Frank Hydrogenics Jamie Holladay Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Terry Johnson Sandia National Laboratory Sridhas Kanuri UTC Power Ted Krause Argonne National Laboratory Michael McCarthy Protonex Technology Corporation Pinakin Patel FuelCell Energy Inc. Dennis Rapodios Argonne National Laboratory Eric Simpkins IdaTech LLC Anna Stefanopoulou University of Michigan Ken Stroh Los Alamos National Laboratory Olivier Verdu HELION Doug Wheeler National Renewable Energy Laboratory

359

Sandia National Laboratories High Temperature PEM  

subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administration. SAND # 2011-6955P TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY

360

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pt 3 Ni (111) Unique Adsorption Properties of Pt-Skin Surface: Pt 3 Ni(111) Agewandte Chemie 51(2012)3139 6 Experimental activity trends In situ characterized and computationally...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High Temperature PEM - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been identified as an attractive electrical power source due to it having a higher efficiency level and being an ...

362

PEM Fuel Cell Material Durability and Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Materials in Clean Power Systems V: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen...

363

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell Manhattan Project #12; Cost drivers were identified for the following: · MEA · Plates · Balance of Plant (BOP) · Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project ­ Phase 1 Note that this presentation-kilowatt reformer based FC generators #12;Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project ­ Phase 2 Manufacturing Roadmap · Projects

364

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant solar facilities design integration: plant maintenance/training manual (RADL Item 2-37). Section 2. Stationary apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stationary apparatus for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are listed, including: heat exchangers, receiver panels, tanks, vessels, and receivers, deaerator, condenser to the turbine-generator, desuperheaters, filters and strainers, demineralizers, heaters, dryers, separators, ullage gas supply and conditioning, auxiliary boilers, sewage treatment plant, expansion joints, and orifice plates. Specifications, operation and maintenance instructions are given for the heat exchangers, receiver panels, filters and strainers, separators, and especially for the ullage gas supply and conditioning. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Transportation and Stationary Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) "trigeneration" systems can hypothetically be configured to provide (1

366

Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a limited angle computed tomography technique that can distinguish tumors from its overlying breast tissues and has potentials for detection of cancers at a smaller size and earlier stage. Current prototype DBT scanners are based on the regular full-field digital mammography systems and require partial isocentric motion of an x-ray tube over certain angular range to record the projection views. This prolongs the scanning time and, in turn, degrades the imaging quality due to motion blur. To mitigate the above limitations, the concept of a stationary DBT (s-DBT) scanner has been recently proposed based on the newly developed spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technique using the carbon nanotube. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the 25-beam MBFEX source array that has been designed and fabricated for the s-DBT system. The s-DBT system records all the projection images by electronically activating the multiple x-ray beams from different viewing angles without any mechanical motion. The configuration of the MBFEX source is close to the published values from the Siemens Mammomat system. The key issues including the x-ray flux, focal spot size, spatial resolution, scanning time, beam-to-beam consistency, and reliability are evaluated using the standard procedures. In this article, the authors describe the design and performance of a distributed x-ray source array specifically designed for the s-DBT system. They evaluate the emission current, current variation, lifetime, and focal spot sizes of the source array. An emission current of up to 18 mA was obtained at 0.5x0.3 mm effective focal spot size. The experimentally measured focal spot sizes are comparable to that of a typical commercial mammography tube without motion blurring. Trade-off between the system spatial resolution, x-ray flux, and scanning time are also discussed. Projection images of a breast phantom were collected using the x-ray source array from 25 different viewing angles without motion. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed s-DBT scanner. The technology has the potential to increase the resolution and reduce the imaging time for DBT. With the present design of 25 views, they demonstrated experimentally the feasibility of achieving 11 s scanning time at full detector resolution with 0.5x0.3 mm source resolution without motion blur. The flexibility in configuration of the x-ray source array will also allow system designers to consider imaging geometries that are difficult to achieve with the conventional single-source rotating approach.

Qian Xin; Rajaram, Ramya; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Yang Guang; Phan, Tuyen; Lalush, David S.; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27659 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Lean-Burn Stationary Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine Operation with a Prototype Miniature Diode Side Pumped Passively Q-switched Laser Spark Plug  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet the ignition system needs of large bore lean burn stationary natural gas engines a laser diode side pumped passively Q-switched laser igniter was developed and used to ignite lean mixtures in a single cylinder research engine. The laser design was produced from previous work. The in-cylinder conditions and exhaust emissions produced by the miniaturized laser were compared to that produced by a laboratory scale commercial laser system used in prior engine testing. The miniaturized laser design as well as the combustion and emissions data for both laser systems was compared and discussed. It was determined that the two laser systems produced virtually identical combustion and emissions data.

McIntyre, D.L.; Woodruff, S.D.; McMillian, M.H.; Richardson, S.W.; Gautam, Mridul

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Compilation of emissions data for stationary reciprocating gas engines and gas turbines in use by the natural gas pipeline transmission industry  

SciTech Connect

This publication compiles the available exhaust emission data for stationary reciprocating engines and gas turbines used by the natural gas pipeline transmission industry into a single, easy-to-use source. Data in the original issue and the revisions were obtained from projects sponsored by the A.G.A. PRC and from inhouse projects within a number of the A.G.A. member companies. Additional data included in this reissue were obtained from additional emissions measurement projects sponsored by the A.G.A. PRC, and from A.G.A. member companies and natural gas engine manufacturers.

Urban, C.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

Mahadevan, Kathyayani

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

370

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Volume 1. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This project was Phase I of a multiphased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprised the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The development and evaluation of conceptual designs have been separated into two broad categories: the A designs which represent the present state-of-the-art and which are demonstrable by 1985 with minimum technical risk; and the B designs which involve advanced technology and therefore would require significant research and development prior to demonstration and commercialization, but which may ultimately offer advantages in terms of lower cost, better performance, or higher reliability. The majority of the effort in Phase I was devoted to the A designs.

Not Available,

1980-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

PM PEMs Pre-Measurement Allowance On-Road Evaluation and Investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This engine was not equipped with an aftertreatment systemThis engine was not equipped with an aftertreatment system

Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

results for engines without PM aftertreatment and with PMThis engine was not equipped with an aftertreatment systemThis engine was not equipped with an aftertreatment system

Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Enlarging the Potential Market for Stationary Fuel Cells Through System Design Optimization - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Chris Ainscough (Primary Contact), Sam Sprik, Michael Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401-3305 Phone: (303) 275-3781 Email: chris.ainscough@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Kathi Epping Martin Phone: (202) 586-7425 Email: Kathi.Epping@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (planned) Project Start Date: January 1, 2011 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a complete stationary fuel cell model user's * guide including: Operational details on the model with guidance on - appropriate inputs. Documentation of control strategy algorithms. -

374

An important challenge in magnetic fusion research is to obtain high energy confinement in a stationary plasma that will be co  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ways to reduce your tokamak heating bill: Gaining control of edge transport Ways to reduce your tokamak heating bill: Gaining control of edge transport barriers on Alcator C-Mod A crucial challenge in magnetic fusion is to obtain high energy confinement in a stationary plasma that is compatible with the engineering requirements of a fusion reactor. The triggering of edge transport barriers at the boundary of confined plasma is a common approach to obtaining high energy confinement, in a regime known as H-mode, which extrapolates to high performance in ITER and other burning plasma devices. However, barriers to energy transport can sometimes be self-defeating, since they also provide a strong barrier to particle transport. This can lead to enhanced confinement of impurities in the plasma core, excessive radiated power and deterioration of performance for a given

375

Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

i-ion batteries based on commercially available LiFePO4 cathode and Li4Ti5O12 anode were investigated for potential stationary energy storage applications. The full cell that operated at flat 1.85V demonstrated stable cycling for 200 cycles followed by a rapid fade. A significant improvement in cycling stability was achieved via Ketjen black coating of the cathode. A Li-ion full cell with Ketjen black modified LiFePO4 cathode and an unmodified Li4Ti5O12 anode exhibited negligible fade after more than 1200 cycles with a capacity of ~130mAh/g. The improved stability, along with its cost-effectiveness, environmentally benignity and safety, make the LiFePO4/ Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery a promising option of storing renewable energy.

Wang, Wei; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-March 1979. [Ca/sulfides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to March 1979. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium-aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte. During this six-month period, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Gould Inc., and the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International. Fabrication of a 40-kWh battery by Eagle-Picher for testing in an electric van is nearing completion. Cost and design studies for a Mark II electric-vehicle battery, which will have somewhat higher performance and use potentially low-cost materials and fabrication methods, were conducted by all three subcontractors, and contracts are being negotiated for development of Mark II batteries. Conceptual design studies continued at Rockwell International on a 100 MWh stationary energy-storage module. The present plan is to construct a module based on these designs for testing at the BEST (Battery Energy Storage Test) Facility. Work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations on developing materials and components for cells. 38 figures, 28 tables.

None

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This project is Phase I of a multi-phased program for the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range. Phase I comprises the conceptual design and associated cost estimates of a stationary Stirling engine capable of being fueled by a variety of heat sources, with emphasis on coal firing, followed by the preparation of a plan for implementing the design, fabrication and testing of a demonstration engine by 1985. The main effort in Phase I is the generation of state-of-the-art conceptual designs having greatest potential for prototype testing in 1985. The conceptual designs include a heat transport system for integrating the engine heater head with such energy sources as conventional oil/gas combustors, fluidized bed and other coal combustors, and combustors using coal-derived liquid fuels, and low/medium BTU gases. The heat transport systems being investigated include forced convection with gases or liquids, heat pipes, and direct firing. Currently, the leading choice for the solid fuel combustion system is the atmospheric fluidized bed, with low BTU gasification still a viable alternative. Both systems will continue to be evaluated further, but with greater emphasis on FBC. To date, there appears no clear choice among the heat pipe, forced convection gas loop, or direct firing as the prime candidate for the heat transport sub-system. Conceptual design and analysis will continue on all three sub-systems. Scale-up of United Stirling's P-75 engine to serve as the conceptual design of the 500 HP engine module is continuing. (LCL)

Not Available,

1980-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

379

ILZRO-sponsored field data collection and analysis to determine relationships between service conditions and reliability of VRLA batteries in stationary applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries have served in stationary applications for more than a decade, proprietary concerns of battery manufacturers and users and varying approaches to record-keeping have made the data available on performance and life relatively sparse and inconsistent. Such incomplete data are particularly detrimental to understanding the cause or causes of premature capacity loss (PCL) reported in VRLA batteries after as little as two years of service. The International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO), in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories, has initiated a multi-phase project to characterize relationships between batteries, service conditions, and failure modes; establish the degree of correlation between specific operating procedures and PCL; identify operating procedures that mitigate PCL; identify best-fits between the operating requirements of specific applications and the capabilities of specific VRLA technologies; and recommend combinations of battery design, manufacturing processes, and operating conditions that enhance VRLA performance and reliability. This paper, prepared before preliminary conclusions were possible, presents the surveys distributed to manufacturers and end-users; discusses the analytic approach; presents an overview of the responses to the surveys and trends that emerge in the early analysis of the data; and previews the functionality of the database being constructed. The presentation of this paper will include preliminary results and information regarding the follow-on workshop for the study.

Taylor, P.A. [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Moseley, P.T. [International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Butler, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

None

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems  

SciTech Connect

With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

England, G.C.; Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Chang, M.C.O.; Loos, K.R.; Hidy. G.M. [GE Energy, Santa Ana, CA (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Products based on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a unique solution to today's energy conversion storage needs. PEM products have undergone continual development since the late 1950's for many diverse applications. Rooted in rigorous aerospace applications, this technology is now ''breaking away'' to provide commercial solutions to common power, energy, and industrial gas feedstock problems. Important developments in PEM electrolyzers and various energy conversion devices (e.g. engines and fuel cells) can now be combined to form the basis for a revolutionary energy storage system that provides a much needed link to renewable resources, and offers a credible alternative for off-grid power applications. This technology operates by converting electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen as part of a water electrolysis process when excess power is available. When the primary source of power is unavailable, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy through an external combustion heat engine or other energy conversion device. The Phase II portion of this program began in May of 2000. The goal of Phase II of the project was to cost reduce the hydrogen generator as a critical link to having a fully sustainable hydrogen energy system. The overall goal is to enable the link to sustainability by converting excess renewable power into hydrogen and having that hydrogen available for conversion back to power, on demand. Furthermore, the cost of the capability must be less the $1,000 per kW (electrical power into the generator) and allow for a variety of renewable technology inputs. This cost target is based on a production volume of 10,000 units per year. To that end, Proton undertook an aggressive approach to cost reduction activities surrounding the 6kW, 40 standard cubic foot per hour (scfh) HOGEN hydrogen generator. The electrical side of the system targeted a number of areas that included approaches to reduce the cost of the power supply and associated electronics as well as improving efficiency, implementing a circuit board to replace the discreet electrical components in the unit, and evaluating the system issues when operating the unit with a variety of renewable inputs. On the mechanical side of the system the targets involved creative use of manifolds to reduce components and plumbing, overall fitting reduction through layout simplification and welded tube assemblies, and the development of an inexpensive gas drying methodology to remove moisture and improve gas purity. Lastly, activities surrounding the electrolysis cell stack focused on lower cost stack compression approaches and cost reduction of critical components. The last year of this project focused on validating the cost reductions mentioned above and advancing these cost reductions forward into a larger hydrogen generator. This larger hydrogen generator is a 60kW, 380 scfh, HOGEN hydrogen generator. Most of these efforts were in the control board and manifold development areas. The results achieved over the life of this program are in line with the goals of the Department of Energy. Proton projects that the current design of the 40 scfh generator projected to a volume of 10,000 units per year would be in the range of $1,500 per kilowatt. Furthermore, continuing efforts on materials substitution and design enhancements over the next few years should bring the cost of the system to the $1,000 per kilowatt goal for a system of this size. This report provides the technical details behind the cost reduction efforts undertaken during the Phase II portion of the program.

Proton Energy Systems

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System  

SciTech Connect

Products based on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) technology offer a unique solution to today's energy conversion storage needs. PEM products have undergone continual development since the late 1950's for many diverse applications. Rooted in rigorous aerospace applications, this technology is now ''breaking away'' to provide commercial solutions to common power, energy, and industrial gas feedstock problems. Important developments in PEM electrolyzers and various energy conversion devices (e.g. engines and fuel cells) can now be combined to form the basis for a revolutionary energy storage system that provides a much needed link to renewable resources, and offers a credible alternative for off-grid power applications. This technology operates by converting electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen as part of a water electrolysis process when excess power is available. When the primary source of power is unavailable, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy through an external combustion heat engine or other energy conversion device. The Phase II portion of this program began in May of 2000. The goal of Phase II of the project was to cost reduce the hydrogen generator as a critical link to having a fully sustainable hydrogen energy system. The overall goal is to enable the link to sustainability by converting excess renewable power into hydrogen and having that hydrogen available for conversion back to power, on demand. Furthermore, the cost of the capability must be less the $1,000 per kW (electrical power into the generator) and allow for a variety of renewable technology inputs. This cost target is based on a production volume of 10,000 units per year. To that end, Proton undertook an aggressive approach to cost reduction activities surrounding the 6kW, 40 standard cubic foot per hour (scfh) HOGEN hydrogen generator. The electrical side of the system targeted a number of areas that included approaches to reduce the cost of the power supply and associated electronics as well as improving efficiency, implementing a circuit board to replace the discreet electrical components in the unit, and evaluating the system issues when operating the unit with a variety of renewable inputs. On the mechanical side of the system the targets involved creative use of manifolds to reduce components and plumbing, overall fitting reduction through layout simplification and welded tube assemblies, and the development of an inexpensive gas drying methodology to remove moisture and improve gas purity. Lastly, activities surrounding the electrolysis cell stack focused on lower cost stack compression approaches and cost reduction of critical components. The last year of this project focused on validating the cost reductions mentioned above and advancing these cost reductions forward into a larger hydrogen generator. This larger hydrogen generator is a 60kW, 380 scfh, HOGEN hydrogen generator. Most of these efforts were in the control board and manifold development areas. The results achieved over the life of this program are in line with the goals of the Department of Energy. Proton projects that the current design of the 40 scfh generator projected to a volume of 10,000 units per year would be in the range of $1,500 per kilowatt. Furthermore, continuing efforts on materials substitution and design enhancements over the next few years should bring the cost of the system to the $1,000 per kilowatt goal for a system of this size. This report provides the technical details behind the cost reduction efforts undertaken during the Phase II portion of the program.

Proton Energy Systems

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

A Class of Stationary Sequences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define a class of sequences ${a_n}$ by $a_1=a$ and $a_{n+1}=P(a_n)$, where $P(x)$ is a polynomial with real coefficients. We then find out for which values $a$ and for which polynomials $P(x)$ these sequences will be constant after a certain rank. Then we generalize it from polynomials $P(x)$ to real functions $f(x)$.

Florentin Smarandache

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

385

Novel Batteries for Stationary Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... For broad market penetration, however, the SBB technologies need ... over several years of investigation on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at...

386

Stationary Source Division Principal Contributors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Publication does not signify that the contents reflect the views and policies of the Air Resources Board, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This Page Left Intentionally BlankAcknowledgments This report was prepared with the assistance and support from many individuals within the Air Resources Board. In addition, staff would like to acknowledge the assistance and cooperation that we have received from many individuals from other divisions and offices of the Air Resources Board, whose contributions throughout the development process have been invaluable. Finally, staff would like to acknowledge the significant contributions from the numerous State, federal, and internal governmental agencies that have provided assistance throughout the rulemaking process.

Alternative Fuels Branch; Richard Corey Chief; Kamal Ahuja; Ray Asregadoo; Michelle Buffington; Kevin Cleary; Hafizur Chowdhury; Susie Chung; James Duffy; Reza Lorestany; Carolyn Lozo; Ronald Oineza; Jose Saldana; Mike Scheible; Aubrey Sideco; Manisha Singh; Susan Solarz; Jing Yuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http:www.osti.govbridge Reports produced...

388

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

389

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate control and electrical power necessary in order toC (F) Table 5 Stock Heating Performance Electrical PowerThe electrical power needed for an APU system can be broken

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dahn, David Stevens) * Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (V. Stamenkovic, Dennis van der Vliet, Nenad Markovic) * Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA...

393

Boosting PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Utilization with Ultrafast Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Fuel Cells: Materials, Processing, Manufacturing, Balance of Plant and...

394

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents membrane fouling ...

395

Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

modifications to the engine exhaust aftertreatment emissionsfor engine regenerations and emission aftertreatment

Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Carbon composite for a PEM fuel cell bipolar plate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current major cost component for proton exchange membrane fuel cells is bipolar plate. An option being explored for replacing the current, nominal machined graphite component is a molded carbon fiber material. One face and the volume of the component will be left porous, while the opposite surface and sides are hermetically sealed via chemical vapor infiltration of carbon. This paper will address initial work on the concept.

Besmann, T.M.; Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

EFFECTS OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON PEM FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power generation with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), particularly those designed for domestic and transportation applications, will likely operate on hydrogen reformed from hydrocarbons. The primary sources of H{sub 2} can be methane (from natural gas), gasoline or diesel fuel. Unfortunately, the reforming process generates impurities that may negatively affect FC performance. The effects of CO impurity have received most of the attention. However, there are other impurities that also may be detrimental to FC: operation. Here we present the effects of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane and ethylene. Two structural domains of the membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) are usually affected by the presence of a harmful impurity. First, the impurity may decrease the ionic conductivity in the catalyst layer or in the bulk membrane. Second, the impurity may chemisorb onto the anode catalyst surface, suppressing the catalyst activity for H{sub 2} oxidation. Catalyst poisoning by CO is the best known example of this kind of effect. Fuel reforming processes [1] generally involve the reaction of a fuel source with air. The simultaneous presence of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} may generate NH{sub 3} in concentrations of 30 to 90 ppm [1]. The effect of NH{sub 3} on performance depends on the impurity concentration and the time of anode exposure [2]. Higher concentrations result in more rapid performance decreases. If the cell is exposed to ammonia for about 1 hour and then returned to neat H{sub 2}, it will recover its original performance very slowly (about 12 hrs). This behavior is quite different from that of CO, which can be quickly purged from the anode with pure H{sub 2}, resulting in complete performance restoration within a few minutes. Longer exposure times (e.g. >15 hrs) to ammonia result in severe and irreversible losses in performance. It seems that replacement of H{sup +} ions by NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions, first within the anode catalyst layer and then in the membrane, is the primary reason for cell current losses. H{sub 2}S also adversely affects FC performance. Figure 1 depicts the current density changes in a FC exposed to both 1 and 3 ppm H{sub 2}S while operating at a constant voltage of 0.5 V. As expected, the greater the contamination level the faster the current density drops. Eventually in each case the cell becomes totally disabled. The effect H{sub 2}S appears to be cumulative, because even sub-ppm H{sub 2}S levels will decrease the FC performance if the exposure is long enough. We have recorded slow current droppings to about 20% of the initial value after exposure to concentrations of H{sub 2}S of 200 parts per billion (10{sup 9}) for 650 hours. Exposure to higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S may bring catastrophic consequences. We have exposed cell anodes to H{sub 2}S burps of the order of 8 ppm, and observed that the current at 0.5 V dropped from 1.1 to 0.3 A cm{sup -2} in just few minutes. Figure 2 shows the effect of H{sub 2}S on cell polarization. Curves b and c in this figure were recorded after 4 and 21 hours of exposure to 1 ppm H{sub 2}S, respectively, while keeping the cell at a constant voltage of 0.5 V. Regardless impurity concentration and running time, replacing the contaminated fuel stream with pure H{sub 2} does not allow any recovery as observed with CO poisoning. Cyclic voltammmetry (CV) indicates that H{sub 2}S chemisorbs very strongly onto Pt catalyst surface and high voltages are required for full cleansing of the H{sub 2}S-poisoned active sites. After full anode poisoning with H{sub 2}S (curve c), the electrode was subjected to CV (up to 1.4 V) and then the polarization curve d (with neat H{sub 2}) was recorded. The complete cell performance recovery is apparent from this curve. A more extended discussion on H{sub 2}S catalyst poisoning and cleaning will be presented. We also tested methane (0.5 % by vol.) and ethylene (50 ppm) as potential fuel impurities and we found no effects on performance.

Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Mission 3 Project Objectives * Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (<3kW) - Develop...

399

Fe/N/C-based Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications Encapsulating...

400

PEM Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Questions & Answers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Summary of May 26, 2005 Questions and Answers 1 MULTI-YEAR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PLAN, TARGETS 1. What is your "vision" for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 9 10 ER 4 5 6 7 8 - Normalized FE 1 2 3 4 Fenton Test 0 12 Normalized End-Group Count vs. Normalized End-group C t f I F t ' t t diti Count for Nafion Ionomers. Fenton s...

402

Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

established industry. Engaging the power conditioner industry into transportation fuel cell applications is a pathway for advancing fuel cell power conditioning. System Controls...

403

Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by ...  

Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower emissions. Running the vehicles motor on hydrogen rather than gasoline ...

404

Available Technologies: Nanoporous PEM Fuel Cell for Enhanced ...  

IB-2013-081. APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Fuel cells for aerospace, ground transportation, and consumer electronics; Artificial photosynthesis ; ADVANTAGES:

405

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

against * steady state and transient operational cell data. Complete fuel cell water transport model improvements * and code package development to include two phase flow....

406

Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide Based Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Addressing Materials Processing Issues for USC Steam Turbines: Cast Versions of ... Co-Production of Pure Hydrogen and Electricity from Coal Syngas via the...

407

Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Direct humidification of CCM (anode side) * No cooling plates or radiator, just a condenser DOE Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, Feb 13-14, 2007 Approach DOE Kickoff Meeting,...

408

Progress and Challenges for PEM Transit Fleet Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Need to fund optimizing hybridization strategy for minimizing combined CSA and battery life-cycle costs FCPS Cost (stack, BOP, PCS) 200-300 kW * at 1000's yr...

409

Platinum-Loading Reduction in PEM Fuel Cells - Available ...  

TEM bright-field and dark-field images of a commercial Pt/C catalyst and a nanoscale Pt-embedded tantalum oxide catalyst. ... Energy & Utilities; ...

410

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a proof of concept SOFC APU. [9] This demonstration wasof which was to demonstrate SOFC technology was chosen forthe ability of the SOFC to utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels,

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trucks. This amount of battery capacity can supply a 100 Wshowed that the stock battery capacity of the truck couldCapacity Table 14 - Tank Specifications L psi kg Hawker Genesis Batteries The Genesis battery

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and standardized. Hydrogen fuel filling stations generallyat local hydrogen fill stations it was decided that filling

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Ionomer Degradation in Electrodes of PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) durability related studies have increased dramatically since 2004, studies on ionomer degradation of the composite electrodes has received far less attention than that of the proton exchange membranes, electrocatalysts, and catalyst supports. The catalyst layer ionomer unavoidably gets involved in other components degradation processes since it is subjected to exposure to different operating effects, including the presence of the catalyst, catalyst support, and the porous nature of the electrode layer which includes 2-phase flow. PEMFC durability issues cannot be fully resolved without understanding the contribution of ionomer degradation in electrode to the performance decay in life time. However, addressing the impact of changes to the catalyst layer ionomer during durability tests is experimentally difficult mainly because of the need to separate the ionomer in the electrode from other components during chemical, electrical and materials characterization. The catalyst layer ionomer is essentially chemically identical to the membrane ionomeric material, and is composed of low atomic number elements, making characterization difficult. In the present work, MEAs with different Nafion ionomer types: stabilized and non-stablized ionomer in the electrode layer (Type I) and mixed membrane/ionomer MEAs (Type II) were designed to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation, as shown in Figure (1a) and (b) respectively. Stabilized and non stabilized ionomers were 5% Nafion{reg_sign} solutions (Ion Power, New Castle, Delaware). The non-stabilized version is the typical Nafion chemical structure with carboxylic acid (-COOH) end groups; these end groups are thought to be a susceptible point of degradative peroxide attack. The stabilized version replaces the -COOH end groups with -CF{sub 3} end groups to prevent peroxide attack at the end groups. Type I MEAs were designed to compare ionomer degradation and its effect on performance decay. Since F{sup -} ions are released only from PFSA based membranes, and not from non-PFSA based membranes, Type II MEAs use a hydrocarbon membrane with no fluorine with a PFSA (Nafion{reg_sign}) ionomer in the catalyst layer for FER measurements. Any F{sup -} ions measured will then have come only for the catalyst layer ionomer during degradation experiments. Type II MEAs allow more detailed chemical characterization exclusively of the catalyst layer ionomer to better understand its degradation.

Borup, Rodney L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Platinum-Loading Reduction in PEM Fuel Cells - Energy ...  

Meanwhile, electrons move from anode to cathode to generate electric current and to reduce the oxygen at cathode.

415

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives · Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (usage Electrical Conductivity S /cm >100 >100 Resistivity ohm.cm 25

416

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of a Truck- mounted Fuel Cell APU System. Society ofEngine Idling Versus Fuel Cell APUs. Society of AutomotiveJr; 2003. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Novel Intermetallic Catalysts to Enhance PEM Membrane Durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We conclude that degradation mechanisms should be studied in real fuel cell systems, rather than in ex-situ, large electrolyte volume experiments.

Francis J. DiSalvo

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Model-based diagnosis for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems are more and more presented as a good alternative to current energy converters such as internal combustion engines. They suffer however from insufficient reliability and durability for stationary and ... Keywords: Diagnosis, Elman neural network, Flooding, PEM fuel cell, Water management

N. Yousfi Steiner; D. Candusso; D. Hissel; P. Mooteguy

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

CERIA-BASED WATER-GAS-SHIFT CATALYSTS S. Swartz, A-M. Azad, M. Seabaugh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

readings to be taken on humidified (non-reacted) gas, for subsequent conversion calculations. The reactorCERIA-BASED WATER-GAS-SHIFT CATALYSTS S. Swartz, A-M. Azad, M. Seabaugh NexTech Materials, Ltd (motive and/or auxiliary) and stationary (residential) power applications. PEM fuel cells operate either

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

420

September 2004 NREL/MP-560-36734 Summary of Electrolytic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

focuses on five companies' electrolysis units: Stuart IMET; Teledyne HM and EC; Proton HOGEN; Norsk Hydro,900 cars, 2.3 MW of electricity would be required. This electricity demand would likely preclude

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Small Business  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that can be coupled with HOGEN RE® hydrogen generators are wind, solar, hydro, and wave power. Proton backup power systems that are superior to traditional lead acid batteries and diesel generator sets

422

On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for non-stationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardio-vascular system functioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis) pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardio-vascular system (CVS). We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydro-dynamic instability leading ...

Chefranov, S G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Jennifer Smith, Gabe Stout and Mike Jansen Battelle April 16, 2013 Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Fuel Cells for Material Handling Applications 2 Presentation Outline * Background * Approach * System Design * Fuel Cell Stack Design * Stack, BOP and System Cost Models * System Cost Summary * Results Summary 3 * 10 and 25 kW PEM Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment (MHE) applications Background 5-year program to provide feedback to DOE on evaluating fuel cell systems for stationary and emerging markets by developing independent models and cost estimates * Applications - Primary (including CHP) power, backup power, APU, and material handling * Fuel Cell Types - 80°C PEM, 180°C PEM, SOFC technologies

424

Proceedings: EPRI/EPA 1995 Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control: Volume 1: Tuesday, May 16, 1995, Sessions 1, 2, 3; Volume 2: Wednesday, May 17, 1995, Sessions 4 and 5; Volume 3: Thursday, May 18, 1995, Sessions 6A, 6B, 7A, 7B; Volume ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1995 Joint Symposium Combustion NOx Controls was held in Kansas City, Missouri, May 16-19, 1995. Jointly sponsored by EPRI and EPA, the symposium was the eighth in a biennial series devoted to the international exchange of information on recent technological and regulatory developments for stationary combustion NOx control. Topics covered included active full-scale retrofit demonstrations of low-NOx combustion systems in the United States and abroad; performance and economics results from pilot- and ...

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

425

Stationary and Moving Convective Bands in Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft observations in hurricanes indicate that the hurricane vortex may be subdivided into an inner gyre where the air trajectories form closed paths and an outer envelope where they do not. In the closed gyre, a core of air moves with the ...

Hugh E. Willoughby; Frank D. Marks Jr.; Robert J. Feinberg

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Nonequilibrium stationary state for a damped rotator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perturbative construction of the nonequilibrium steady state of a rotator under a stochastic forcing while subject to torque and friction

Giovanni Gallavotti; Alessandra Iacobucci; Stefano Olla

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

427

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

demands for petroleum exceed domestic supply. * Increased energy efficiency required (oil costbbl). * Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and primary air pollutants. *...

428

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Session...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What is the light duty vehicle OEM strategy? * Are there viable renewable pathways? * biogas (WWTP) landfill gas ? * utility scale solarwind power? * Do we have the...

429

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop Attendees...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shawna Energetics Incorporated Melaina Marc NREL Moreland Greg Sentech Novachek Frank Xcel Energy Patel Pinakin FuelCell Energy Penev Michael NREL Petri Randy Versa Power Systems...

430

Transportation and Stationary Power Integration: Workshop Proceedings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fueling stations without an assured consumer demand for the hydrogen. On the other hand, vehicle manufacturers have indicated that they are unwilling to produce fuel cell vehicles...

431

Towards Non-Stationary Grid Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Despite intense research on Grid scheduling, differentiated quality of service remains an open question, and no consensus has emerged on the most promising strategy. The difficulties of experimentation might be one of the root causes of this stalling. ... Keywords: Model selection and validation, Modeling techniques, Traffic analysis

Tams ltet?; Ccile Germain-Renaud; Pascal Bondon; Michle Sebag

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Estimating Ammonia Emissions from Stationary Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a methodology that can be used to estimate ammonia releases from fossil fuel-fired, electrical power generation facilities for the purpose of reporting under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) program.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

OPTIMIZING PLACEMENT OF STATIONARY MONITORS ? 1 ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(The terms monitors and sensors can be used interchangeably, although we .... An adversary can enter the area at any node (1,j) in the first column. ...... objective function is not ascending in our search direction at a stepsize of , and is...

434

Approximating Stationary Points of Stochastic Mathematical ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 25, 2010 ... Mathematical Programs with Equilibrium Constraints via. Sample Averaging ...... of the true problem. This kind of fundamental result belongs to Rockfellar and Wets ..... Handbook of Measure Theory, Vol. I, II, pp. 617673...

435

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Transportation and Stationary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HOME ABOUT PROGRAM AREAS INFORMATION RESOURCES FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES TECHNOLOGIES MARKET TRANSFORMATION NEWS EVENTS EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Information...

436

Baroclinic Stationary Waves in Aquaplanet Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low-frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions.

Giuseppe Zappa; Valerio Lucarini; Antonio Navarra

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS ADVANCE CLASS WAIVER OF PATENT. RIGHTS FOR TECHNOLOGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCO2-03CH11137; W(C)-03- SCO2-03CH11137; W(C)-03- 001; CH-1156 The Department of Energy is providing federal assistance for research and development for fuel cells for stationary and automotive applications. The program is expected to include several technological and methodological topics including, but not limited to, the development of stationary polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for buildings, development of a back-up fuel cell systems, improving PEM stack durability, development of materials for high temperature membranes, reduction of membrane cost, development and testing of fuel processers, water and thermal management, fuel cell demonstration, platinum recycling, and development of non-precious metal catalysts. The program also contemplates at

438

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: PEMFC Manufacturing Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMFC Manufacturing Cost PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Project Summary Full Title: Manufacturing Cost of Stationary Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems Project ID: 85 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Costs; fuel cells; stationary Performer Principal Investigator: Brian James Organization: Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) Address: 3601 Wilson Blvd., Suite 650 Arlington, VA 22201 Telephone: 703-243-3383 Email: brian_james@directedtechnologies.com Period of Performance End: November 1999 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Cross-Cutting Objectives: Estimate the cost of the fuel cell system using the Directed Technologies, Inc. cost database built up over the several years under U.S. Department of Energy and Ford Motor Company contracts.

439

Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPA Emissions and Generation Integrated Database (EGRID):EGRID consolidates available plant level data for all U.S.data to the U.S. government. EGRID reports data on an annual

Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Sacred Cars? Optimal Regulation of Stationary and Non-stationary Pollution Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wholesale Electricity Industry." American Economic Review,Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, andSimilar to the electricity industry, the gasoline rening

Fowlie, Meredith; Knittel, Christopher R; Wolfram, Catherine D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. In this work binary, ternary, and quaternary platinum-based electrocatalysts were synthesized for the purpose of lowering the cost and increasing the CO tolerance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in the fuel cell. The metals Ru, Mo, W, Ir, Co and Se were alloyed with platinum on a carbon support using a modified reduction method. These catalysts were fabricated into MEAs and evaluated for electrical performance and CO tolerance with polarization experiments. The quaternary system Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir system is the most CO tolerant in the PEMFC and has a low total metal loading of 0.4 mg/cm{sup 2} in the electrode of the cell.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

presentation presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information page 1 Overview * Base Period: - 100% complete * Manufacturing costs * Materials costs (particularly precious Timeline Barriers - Feb 17, 2006 to Feb. 16, 2008 * Option year 1 of 3: - 65% complete - Started Feb 16, 2008 metal catalysts) Characteristic Units 2008 2010 2015 Stack Cost $/kW e (net) - $25 $15 - $325K (2 year base period) - $182k (opt. yr. 1) - Contractor share: $0 * Funding for FY 2008 * Extensive interaction with Collaborations System Cost $/kW e (net) - $45 $30 * Funding for FY 2008 - $182k industry/researchers to solicit design & manufacturing metrics as input to cost analysis. page 2 Started Feb 16, 2008 Budget * Total project funding DOE Cost Targets

443

Accepted Manuscript Title: Advanced computational tools for pem fuel cell design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of non-vapor water is modeled as liquid, and water movement due to the electro-osmotic drag (EOD, no deformation of the GDL under the land area due to compression). (3) Phase equilibrium of water is under compression and the transport through such regions is complicated [18,19]. Owing to the complexity

Djilali, Ned

444

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

445

Compact Single-Stage Fuel Processor for PEM Fuel Cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Based on observations during the steam reforming of ethanol, the authors conclude that carbon was forming in the steam generator due to the thermal decomposition of ethanol. Since ethanol is being thermally decomposed, they were operating the steam generator at too high of a temperature. The thermal degradation of ethanol was confirmed by using a GC with a flame ionization detector. They observed trace amounts of additional hydrocarbons other than methane in the effluent which we assume maybe ethane and ethylene. We identified the operating conditions that allowed us to steam reform ethanol for an acceptable amount of time. These conditions were a steam temperature of 200 C and a wall temperature of 400 C at the center of the reactor. The calculated ratios of CO{sub 2}/CO indicate that we can lower the potential for carbon deposition from the Boudouard further by reducing the pressure.

Rhine, Wendell E.; Ye, Neng

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

mMass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, the system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

448

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

has not been included in this study. In general, our system designs do not change with production rate, but material costs, manufacturing methods, and business-operational...

449

Effects of Fuel and Air Impurities on PEM Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approach * Fabricate and operate fuel cells under controlled impurity gases - Multi-gas mixing manifolds and FC test stations - Pre-blend impurity gases - Measure performance...

450

Low-Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates - DOE Hydrogen and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Conghua "CH" Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. 201 Washington Rd. Princeton, NJ 08543 Phone: (609) 734-3071 Email:...

451

50 kW PEM Fuel Cell System Design, Fabrication, and Test: System Design -- Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of a development program funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, Arthur D. Little, and EPRIsolutions. The effort was aimed at the conceptual design and optimization of a 50 kW commercial power system, using advanced proton exchange (or polymer electrolyte) membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and the verification of key design parameters. (Note: This design effort addresses some of the key technical issues faced by the developers of commercial-scale PEMFC...

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

452

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

453

Effect of Cathode Pore Volume on PEM Fuel Cell Cold Start Ashis Nandy,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the intraelectrode ice formation theory,5 which explains ice formation in the cathode catalyst layer CCL as the key with resulting tem- perature rise and water production or ice formation in the CCL. Ice formation in the CCL mainly through back-diffusion into the membrane and through vapor-phase transport from CCL

454

Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of cathodes using Pt supported onto graphene sheets with different contents of carbon black in the catalyst layer were prepared and characterized. Carbon black was added as a spacer between two-dimensional graphene sheets in the catalyst layer to study its effect on the performances of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Electrochemical properties and surface morphology of the cathodes with and without carbon black were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, ac-impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical polarization technique, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that carbon black effectively modifies the array of graphene supports, resulting in more Pt nanoparticles available for electrochemical reaction and better mass transport in the catalyst layer.

Park, Seh K.; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Rieke, Peter C.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Freeway Performance Measurement System (PeMS), Version 3 Phase II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kotsialos, Freeway ramp metering: an overview, Proc. IEEEon an idealized ramp-metering algorithm, and calculates theto be 60 mph. An ideal ramp-metering system would sense the

Varaiya, Pravin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period we used four Pt-based electrocatalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo/Se, Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir, Pt/Ru/Mo/W, Ptr/Ru/Mo/Co) in MEAs and these were evaluated for CO-tolerance with 20 and 100 ppm CO concentration in H{sub 2}-fuel. From current-voltage performance study, the catalytic activity was found in the increasing order of Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir > Pt/Ru/Mo/W > Pt/Ru/Mo/Co > Pt/Ru/MO/Se. From preliminary cost analysis it appears that could of the catalyst metal loading can reduced by 40% to 60% depending on the selection of metal combinations without compromising the fuel cell performance.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

457

Homogenization of a catalyst layer model for periodically distributed pore geometries in PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formally derive an effective catalyst layer model comprising the reduction of oxygen for periodically distributed pore geometries. By assumption, the pores are completely filled with water and the surrounding walls consist of catalyst particles which are attached to an electron conducting microstructure. The macroscopic transport equations are established by a multi-scale approach, based on microscopic phenomena at the pore level, and serve as a first step toward future optimization of catalyst layer designs.

Schmuck, Markus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Homogenization of a catalyst layer model for periodically distributed pore geometries in PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formally derive an effective catalyst layer model comprising the reduction of oxygen for periodically distributed pore geometries. By assumption, the pores are completely filled with water and the surrounding walls consist of catalyst particles which are attached to an electron conducting microstructure. The macroscopic transport equations are established by a multi-scale approach, based on microscopic phenomena at the pore level, and serve as a first step toward future optimization of catalyst layer designs.

Markus Schmuck; Peter Berg

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

459

A Micro-Macro Model of a PEM Fuel Cell System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing. Presentation Title, A...

460

HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hogen pem stationary" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period we synthesized several tri-metallic electrocatalysts catalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo, Pt/Ru/Ir, Pt/Ru/W, Ptr/Ru/Co, and Pt/Ru/Se on Vulcan XG72 Carbon) by ultrasonication method. These catalysts were tested in MEAs for CO tolerance at 20 and 100 ppm CO concentrations. From Galvonstatic study the catalytic activity was found in the order of: Pt/Ru/Mo/C > Pt/Ru/Ir/C > Pt/Ru/W/C > Ptr/Ru/Co/C > and Pt/Ru/Se. The catalysts performed very well at 20 ppm CO but at 100 ppm CO performance dropped significantly.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

462

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary applications), however, would yield significant energy benefits. For example, heat rejection is easier at higher temperatures, which would allow use of smaller heat exchangers in fuel cell power systems. In addition, for reformate fuel cell systems, carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance of the stack is less problematic at higher temperatures, which would reduce the size requirements or possibly eliminate the need for some CO clean-up beds in the fuel processor.

463

Fuel Cells for Buildings and Stationary Applications Roadmap Workshop  

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By 2020, fuel cells will be intimately integrated in buildings, By 2020, fuel cells will be intimately integrated in buildings, part of a flexible portfolio of options for meeting energy needs and/or supporting the grid." Workshop Proceedings April 10-11, 2002 Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction.................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Plenary Presentations.................................................................................. 4 A. Welcome & Overview of the Fuel Cells for Buildings Program........... 5 B. The Department of Energy's Fuel Cells for Transportation Program... 10 C. Hydrogen Briefing................................................................................. 18 D. The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance........................................ 27