National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for history sulfur content

  1. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Type Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 1.39 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.44 1.44 1985-2015 PADD 1 0.85 0.97 0.62 0.83 0.75 0.75 1985-2015 East Coast 0.78 0.91 0.51 0.76 0.68 0.67 1985-2015 Appalachian No. 1 1.57 1.62 1.71 1.59 1.61 1.65 1985-2015 PADD 2 1.44 1.46 1.40 1.33 1.54 1.55

  2. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  3. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  4. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  5. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  6. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    57.8 42.0 See footnotes at end of table. 200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  7. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.6 47.4 See footnotes at end of table. 200 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  8. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    51.8 See footnotes at end of table. 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  9. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics Isotopes History History Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe....

  11. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History History Print Photos 20th Anniversary Kickoff Brunch, January 11, 2013 ALS 20th Anniversary Celebration, October 4, 2013 Videos ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (excerpts) ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (full) The ALS Beamline Clock Articles BRIGHT BEAMS: The Advanced Light Source LBL Research Review (Spring 1993) A history of the ALS, From Cyclotron to Synchrotron Interactive Timeline ALS History: The First 20 Years

  12. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History History A repository for images about our legacy as a Laboratory. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Publications PHOTOS BY TOPIC Careers Community Visitors Environment History Science The Lab Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Back in the day Back in the day LA bridge in Los Alamos LA bridge in Los Alamos 1945 Army-Navy

  13. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Print Photos 20th Anniversary Kickoff Brunch, January 11, 2013 ALS 20th Anniversary Celebration, October 4, 2013 Videos ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (excerpts) ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (full) The ALS Beamline Clock Articles BRIGHT BEAMS: The Advanced Light Source LBL Research Review (Spring 1993) A history of the ALS, From Cyclotron to Synchrotron Interactive Timeline ALS History: The First 20 Years

  14. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    several contributions over SRS's history, including large-scale production of aluminum-lithium alloys; production of kilogram quantities of radioactive waste glass; materials...

  15. history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  16. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics » Isotopes » History History Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. History isotopes Proton-induced nuclear reactions at 800 and 100 megaelectronvolts (MeV). At energies of up to 100 MeV, protons cause the release of one or several neutrons and sometimes the release of a proton or an alpha particle in addition to neutrons. At 800 MeV, protons include spallation reactions that break apart

  17. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 - HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS February 18, 2010 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 18.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................1 PAGINATION TABLE.....................................................................................................................................1 18.0 HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS

  18. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  19. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS January 4, 2016 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ....................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 CRITICAL LIFT DETERMINATION

  20. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program and Book of Abstracts Contents Organizers i-ii Detailed Program iii-viii Oral presentations 1-38 Posters P1-P27 Program Schematic back cover The LAPD Symposium brings together scientists from laser physics, low- temperature plasma chemistry and physics, and nuclear fusion. The Symposium is an important, unique, and fruitful source for cross-fertilization between these fields. Major topics include laser-aided diagnostics for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, and environmental

  1. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 August 2005 Contents Bechtel Nevada achieves 5 million hours! 1 WSI graduates fresh members of security 1 protective forces Handling radiation emergencies 2 SiteLines features a new editor 2 Rocky Flats survey 3 NTS Swift Water Rescue Team practices on the 3 Colorado River Drilling Program overcomes challenges at the NTS 3 Toastmasters: making effective communication a 4 worldwide reality Atomic Testing Museum update 4 Two more successful shots at JASPER 5 Hazardous Substance Inventory users 5

  2. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 June/July 2005 Contents Fires burn Nevada Test Site in June NNSA/NSO and Department of Homeland Security break ground at the Nevada Test Site U1h ribbon cutting marks the remarkable New training grounds dedicated at NTS Changes enhance the EAP Unicorn subcritical experiment completes key milestone New communication system takes flight SiteLines goes online DNFSB visits U1a Funnel clouds at the Nevada Test Site Community Environmental Monitor receives EPA award Take Our Daughters and Sons to

  3. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  5. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be ...

  6. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the

  7. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  8. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  9. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  10. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  11. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  12. Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as

  13. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  14. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  15. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  16. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  17. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  18. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  19. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  20. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  1. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  2. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  3. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  4. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  5. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  6. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    globally distributed sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the deep sea carry bacterial genes for the oxidation of elemental sulfur. Although such observations are common in...

  7. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  8. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  9. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid...

  10. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur...

  11. History Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Images Los Alamos History in Images Los Alamos has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people of the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best scientific and engineering solutions to many of the nation's most crucial security challenges. Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Back in the day Back in the day LA bridge in Los

  12. History Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Gallery History Gallery Exhibits in this gallery capture Laboratory's history of the secret town of Los Alamos and its role with the Manhattan Project. August 18, 2014 museum plan showing the history gallery Los Alamos, once the site of a boys' ranch school, became the focus of the secret project to develop a new weapon, one that derived its power from splitting the atom. The Atomic Age begins The conflict that darkened Europe in the late 1930s at first cast no shadow here on the sunny

  13. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  14. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  15. ORISE: History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a national leader in science education and research, with programs dating back to 1946 and having served as an...

  16. Workshop History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop History The 2014 event is the seventh joint workshop held by the EFCOG ESH Electrical Safety subgroup. The first "joint" Electrical Safety Workshop was held in the summer...

  17. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  18. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfurmore » were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.« less

  19. Beam History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam History Print Beamline History Request Form To request a beam current histograph from the ALS storage ring beam histograph database, select the year, month, and day, then click on "Submit Request". Histographs are available as far back as February 2, 1994. Year 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Day 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

  20. Beam History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Status Beam History Print Beamline History Request Form To request a beam current histograph from the ALS storage ring beam histograph database, select the year, month, and day, then click on "Submit Request". Histographs are available as far back as February 2, 1994. Year 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Day 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13

  1. Beam History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam History Print Beamline History Request Form To request a beam current histograph from the ALS storage ring beam histograph database, select the year, month, and day, then click on "Submit Request". Histographs are available as far back as February 2, 1994. Year 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Day 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

  2. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing

  3. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in LiS battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S42 and S52 species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82 and S62 for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  4. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  5. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  6. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  7. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur Print Friday, 07 November 2014 10:49 On the Earth's surface, plants use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into food. In the deep oceans, however, where no light penetrates, microbes (e.g., bacteria) use chemosynthesis-chemical reactions involving inorganic materials like sulfur-to power the production of the organic compounds necessary for life. Such microbes drive key biogeochemical cycles that impact all life on earth.

  8. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  9. SCADA History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  11. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  12. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS ...

  13. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  14. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  15. Making History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    YGG 05-0181 Making History It's hard to imagine . . . . . . an entire city existing in secret. . . . 60,000 acres set aside for one, top-secret purpose. . . . a discovery so huge it could end a World War. It's hard to imagine - but it's true. Ray Smith * Y-12 Projects Division; Historian * oak riDge, tennessee Calutron: Designed by ernest orlando (e.o.) Lawrence to separate the isotopes of Uranium 235 (U-235) from naturally occurring uranium, where the majority is Uranium 238 (U-238). U-235 is

  16. A History

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Volume II 1947/1952 Morale /Meld Richard G. Hewlett / Francis Duncan 1972 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission CONTENTS FOREWORD BY THE CHAIRMAN, HISTORICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE xi PREFACE xiii 1 THE TERRIBLE RESPONSIBILITY 1 Historical setting; the confirmation hearings, Janu- ary-March 1947. 2 UNCERTAIN MANDATE 15 Initial organization and staffing; initial policy con- siderations in weapons, production, and research; the report to the President, April 3,

  17. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  18. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic...

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic...

  1. Influence of sulfur and welding conditions on penetration in thin strip stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheller, P.R. ); Brooks, R.F.; Mills, K.C. . Division of Materials Metrology)

    1995-02-01

    Welding trials and surface tension measurements have been carried out on 304 stainless steels with sulfur (S) contents between 20 and 100 ppm. Surface tension measurements, determined by the levitated drop method, indicated that the temperature coefficient of surface tension (d[gamma]/dT) changed from negative to positive values at S contents exceeding approximately 50 ppm. Strips with a thickness of approximately 1 mm were GTA welded on both single-electrode, small-scale and multi-electrode industrial-scale units. Welding speeds of 1 to 2 m min[sup [minus]1] were used on the small-scale unit and up to 5 m min[sup [minus]1] on the industrial unit. The weld penetration was found to increase, for both full and partial penetration welds, with (1) increasing sulfur contents; and (2) increasing linear energy. On the small scale-unit markedly higher penetration was observed in heats with S contents > 60 ppm. But the influence of S contents was only of minor importance for welds obtained on the industrial unit. It was found that the similar weld geometry could be obtained for both low ([<=] 60 ppm) and high (> 60 ppm) sulfur contents by careful adjustment of welding parameters. The observed changes in weld geometry are consistent with the proposition that the fluid flow in the weld pool is dominated by thermo-capillary (Marangoni) forces during the GTA welding of thin strips.

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Daily","3/14/2016","1/2/1986" ,"Data 2","Conventional Gasoline",2,"Daily","3/14/2016","6/2/1986" ,"Data 3","RBOB Regular Gasoline",1,"Daily","3/14/2016","3/11/2003" ,"Data 4","No. 2 Heating Oil",1,"Daily","3/14/2016","6/2/1986" ,"Data 5","Ultra-Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Weekly","3/11/2016","1/3/1986" ,"Data 2","Conventional Gasoline",2,"Weekly","3/11/2016","6/6/1986" ,"Data 3","RBOB Regular Gasoline",1,"Weekly","3/11/2016","9/12/2003" ,"Data 4","No. 2 Heating Oil",1,"Weekly","3/11/2016","6/6/1986" ,"Data 5","Ultra-Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel

  4. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  5. Newmark-Hall synthetic history development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1990-11-01

    The methodology used to develop synthetic acceleration time histories with spectral content that envelopes the Newmark-Hall spectra is described. Six acceleration time histories are developed for two conditions of foundation and 3 critical damping factors. The target spectra corresponds to the mediam centered probability level.

  6. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es105_liang_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:05 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10272015 9:02:06 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPV...

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input" "Sourcekey","MTTRIUS1","MCRRIU... "Date","U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum ...

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...201982" ,"Data 2","Refiner and Blender Net Inputs",6,"Weekly","3182016","49... "Back to Contents","Data 2: Refiner and Blender Net Inputs" "Sourcekey","WBCRINUS2","W...

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production" "Sourcekey","MTTRPUS1","M... "Date","U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production of Crude Oil and Petroleum ...

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contents","Data 1: Spot Price" "Sourcekey","RNGWHHD","NGMEPG0PLCNUSDMMBTU" "Date","Henry Hub Natural Gas Spot Price (Dollars per Million Btu)","U.S. Natural Gas Liquid ...

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NBRDMCF"...

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJAMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJADMCF"...

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NJADMCF"...

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ..."Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262016 2:17:08 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Natural Gas Underground Storage ...

  18. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  19. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo (Ames, IA); Squires, Thomas G. (Gilbert, IA); Venier, Clifford G. (Ames, IA)

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  1. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. History of Hydropower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of Hydropower History of Hydropower

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Consumption of Heat Content of Natural Gas (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  4. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  5. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  6. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  7. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore » cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  8. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur ...

  9. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur ...

  10. National Women's History Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NATIONAL WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH is an annual declared month that highlights the contributions of women to events in history and contemporary society.

  11. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  12. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  13. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  14. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

  15. Workbook Contents

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    mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_psup_dc_nus_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:54:27 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

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    mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_exp_dc_nus-z00_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:56:04 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

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    mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_imp_dc_nus-z00_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 3:35:39 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

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    Consumers",52,"Monthly","12/2015","01/15/2012" ,"Data 2","Heat Content of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers",52,"Annual",2015,"06/30/2003" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm25vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web

  19. Workbook Contents

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    mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_psup_dc_nus_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:54:26 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Product Supplied for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

  20. Workbook Contents

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    mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_exp_dc_nus-z00_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:56:03 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_imp_dc_nus-z00_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 3:35:17 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products"

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  16. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  2. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  3. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  4. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  5. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  6. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  7. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  8. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  10. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  12. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  13. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  14. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  15. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  16. Workbook Contents

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    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","12/2015" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Other Sectors Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016"

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumed" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","12/2015","01/15/2013" ,"Release Date:","02/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","03/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mbblpd_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbblpd_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:54:42 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production"

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_crd_crpdn_adc_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3/9/2016 2:54:41 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production"

  16. Microsoft Word - Updated Air Dispersion Modeling Table _sulfur_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIVINE STRAKE AIR DISPERSION MODELING RESULTS for SULFUR DIOXIDE The attached table is updated to include estimated sulfur dioxide concentrations resulting from the Divine Strake Experiment. Output from the POLU4WN model was used to estimate quantities of all emissions from the proposed explosive experiment. All emissions of oxides of sulfur were combined to provide input into Open Burn/Open Detonation Model (OBODM) to model the dispersion; thus overestimating the concentration of sulfur dioxide

  17. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  18. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: History: History Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS About History Reports Building a Nuclear Ordnance Engineering Lab (slides from presentation to NSF Short Course "The Birthplace and Early...

  20. History of Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Org Chart NERSC History Interactive Timeline History of Systems NERSC Stakeholders Usage and User Demographics Careers Visitor Info Web Policies Home » About » NERSC History » History of Systems History of Systems Established in 1974 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NERSC was moved to Berkeley Lab in 1996 with a goal of increased interactions with the UC Berkeley campus. NERSC Systems System Name Installed System Type CPU Computational Pool Interconnect Disk (TB) Avg. Power Linpack

  1. Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,062 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A Berkeley Lab team headed by Yuegang Zhang and Elton Cairns has developed

  2. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research Highlights >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  3. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  4. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Authors: Sutton, S.R. ; Ross, D.K. ; Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist, L.E. [1] ; ESCG Jacobs) [2] ; UC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (NASA-JSC) [NASA-JSC ( Publication Date: 2014-02-26

  5. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  6. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  7. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  8. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A.; Siwajek, L.A.; Klint, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  9. National Women's History Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During Women's History Month, we recall that the pioneering legacy of our grandmothers and great-grandmothers is revealed not only in our museums and history books, but also in the fierce...

  10. HISTORY OF BUILDING 828

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1997); and for a summary of the early history of Kirtland Air Force Base, see Don E. Alberts and Allan E. Putnam, A History of Kirtland Air Force Base 1928-1982 (Albuquerque:...

  11. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  12. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  13. Sodium/sulfur battery engineering for stationary energy storage. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, A.; Rasmussen, J.

    1996-04-01

    The use of modular systems to distribute power using batteries to store off-peak energy and a state of the art power inverter is envisioned to offer important national benefits. A 4-year, cost- shared contract was performed to design and develop a modular, 300kVA/300-kWh system for utility and customer applications. Called Nas-P{sub AC}, this system uses advanced sodium/sulfur batteries and requires only about 20% of the space of a lead-acid-based system with a smaller energy content. Ten, 300-VDC, 40-kWh sodium/sulfur battery packs are accommodated behind a power conversion system envelope with integrated digital control. The resulting design facilities transportation, site selection, and deployment because the system is quiet and non-polluting, and can be located in proximity to the load. This report contains a detailed description of the design and supporting hardware development performed under this contract.

  14. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  15. History of Wind Energy | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History of Wind Energy History of Wind Energy

  16. History of Wind Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of Wind Energy History of Wind Energy

  17. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  18. Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Heat Storage | Department of Energy Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage Project Profile: Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage General Atomics logo General Atomics, under the Baseload CSP FOA, is demonstrating the engineering feasibility of using a sulfur-based thermochemical cycle to store heat from a CSP plant and support baseload power

  19. Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00232_ID2519.pdf (729 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA sulfur/carbon composite material was prepared by heat treatment of doped mesoporous carbon and elemental sulfur

  20. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  1. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Citation Details In-Document Search...

  2. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC...

  3. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Authors: Mayer, B P ; Williams, ...

  4. Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12 Dedication, Innovation, and Courage: A Short History of Y-12 Page | i This booklet was written and compiled by Eve Whittenburg in the year 2012. Articles were written by Y-12 National Security Complex Historian D. Ray Smith. A sincere thank you goes out to everyone who contributed with historical materials. Page | ii Page | 1 Table of Contents Table of Contents

  5. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  6. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  7. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  8. History | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    About Us » History History The following is a short history recounting the evolution of the project management office within the Department of Energy: The project management office was originally called the Office of Field Management (FM) and was under the purview of the Office of the Chief Financial Officer in the 1990s. In the fiscal year 2000 Energy & Water Development Appropriations, the Senate initiated and the House concurred to eliminate funding for DOE's Office of Field Management.

  9. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  10. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Irvine, CA); Higley, Lin R. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  11. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  12. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of Air Conditioning History of Air Conditioning July 20, 2015 - 3:15pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs MORE ON AIR CONDITIONING Check out our Energy Saver 101 infographic to learn how air conditioners work. Go to Energy Saver for more tips and advice on home cooling. Stay up-to-date on how the Energy Department is working to improve air conditioning technology. We take the air conditioner for granted, but imagine what life would be

  13. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

    1988-03-31

    A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

  14. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C.; Visco, Steven J.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; Armand, Michel B.

    1989-01-01

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  15. Hanford History - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Hanford History About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us Hanford History Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The Hanford Site sits on 586-square-miles of shrub-steppe desert in southeastern Washington State. Beginning in 1943, the site was used to produce plutonium for the bomb that brought an end to World War II. After a short lull, production was ramped up in 1947 to meet the challenges of the

  16. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Energy.gov » History History What's New in History July 28, 2015: Draft Memorandum of Agreement between DOE and NPS posted July 28, 2015: Draft Memorandum of Agreement between DOE and NPS posted The NPS posts for comment the draft Memorandum of Agreement between DOE and NPS on its Planning, Environment and Public Comment (PEPC) site. The Park Service also provides a list of Frequently Asked Questions and maps with the initial properties to be included in the park. Read more May 29, 2015:

  17. Departmental History Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-03-26

    The order describes the DOE history program and establishes policy and objectives for the preservation of historical records and institutional memory for DOE and its predecessor agencies. Cancels DOE 1324.7.

  18. Black History Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During National African American History Month, we pay tribute to the contributions of past generations and reaffirm our commitment to keeping the American dream alive for the next generation. In...

  19. About SRNL - Our History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From the Director Operational Excellence Leadership Directorates Our History Visiting SRNL SRNL Home SRNL historic image SRNL historic image About SRNL Our History Evolution of SRNL's Department of Energy Role The Savannah River Site was constructed to produce the basic materials necessary in the fabrication of nuclear weapons, primarily tritium and plutonium-239. Five reactors were also built in an effort to produce these materials for our nation's defense programs. In support of these efforts,

  20. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History History The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program was first announced by Vice President Biden as "Retrofit Ramp-Up" on April 21, 2010. The program presented initial awards of $452 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or Recovery Act) funding to 25 state and local governments to "ramp up" energy efficiency building retrofits. The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program then distributed a total of $508 million to support hundreds of communities served

  1. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About » History History This timeline features the key innovations that have advanced the solar industry in the United States. Learn more about these key events from 1955 to present. To see more details, either drag the timeline to the left or right or click the (+) icons. Solar Achievements Timeline INSTRUCTIONS Instructional graphic for mouse use. Click and drag screen or scroll mouse wheel to navigate through timeline. 2011 INDUSTRY Graphic of the U.S. Department of Energy logo. A yellow,

  2. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History History 2015 JULY Mark McCall hired as Executive Director, Loan Programs Office JUNE Loan guarantees issued for Vogtle (MEAG Power) MARCH Conditional commitment for ATVM loan offered to Alcoa FEBRUARY Powering New Markets: Utility-scale Photovoltaic Solar report released 2014 DECEMBER Agua Caliente awarded 2014 Top Plant (Solar) - POWER Magazine Ivanpah awarded Renewable Energy Project of the Year - Pennwell Crescent Dunes awarded Project of the Year, Best Energy/Industrial &

  3. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1996 ... 72.3 79.1 78.8 80.6 76.7 67.3 68.7 75.9 78.4 73.2 63.9 1997 January ... 76.6 82.7 84.1 83.7 81.2 71.0 73.8...

  4. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1996 January ... 62.7 68.1 69.9 69.7 67.1 57.5 59.9 66.9 68.8 64.1 55.1 February ... 64.2 70.1 70.7 71.2 68.3 59.3 61.1 67.8 69.6...

  5. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - - - October ... 69.9 76.6 78.3 80.3 75.5 66.9 63.5 70.3 74.5 68.0 61.9 November ... 61.2 66.1 73.6 69.2 66.7 59.9 59.2 62.0 66.3...

  6. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    67.3 67.4 64.2 54.2 55.3 62.9 64.6 59.8 51.9 1995 January ... 56.9 63.4 65.6 64.6 62.1 51.4 54.0 60.9 64.4 58.4 49.7 February ......

  7. Table 17. U.S. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    January ... 56.1 62.5 64.2 63.3 60.9 50.7 53.3 59.8 60.9 57.4 48.6 February ... 59.5 66.2 67.5 66.2 64.1 54.4 55.2 62.6 62.9 59.2...

  8. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  9. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  10. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Orientation: ARM Orientation: Overview and History Overview and History Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 2 ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  11. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  12. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  13. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  14. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  15. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  16. Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_24_peden.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  17. ESnet IPv6 History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers ESnet IPv6 History ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Network Performance Tools The ESnet Engineering Team Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net ESnet IPv6

  18. LANSCE | About | History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History The History of LANSCE Since 1972, the 800-million-electron-volt (MeV) accelerator and its attendant facilities at Technical Area 53 (TA-53, often referred to as "the Mesa") at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been a resource to a broad international community of scientific researchers. The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), as it was originally called, hosted about 1000 users per year to to perform medium energy physics experiments. In 1977, a pulsed spallation

  19. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History History Although they are tiny, atoms have a large amount of energy holding their nuclei together. Certain isotopes of some elements can be split and will release part of their energy as heat. This splitting is called fission. The heat released in fission can be used to help generate electricity in powerplants. Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the isotopes that fissions easily. During fission, U-235 atoms absorb loose neutrons. This causes U-235 to become unstable and split into two light

  20. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History History The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began acquiring land, in the area that became Oak Ridge, in October 1942 for the Manhattan Project. By March 1943, 56,000 acres were sealed behind fences and major industrial facilities were under construction. The K-25, S-50, and Y-12 plants were all built to separate the fissile isotope uranium-235 from uranium-238, while the X-10 site was established as a pilot plant for the Graphite Reactor. Throughout the next six decades the three major

  1. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  2. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  3. Thermochemical and kinetic aspects of the sulfurization of Cu-Sb and Cu-Bi thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombara, Diego; Peter, Laurence M.; Rogers, Keith D.; Hutchings, Kyle

    2012-02-15

    CuSbS{sub 2} and Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} are being investigated as part of a search for new absorber materials for photovoltaic devices. Thin films of these chalcogenides were produced by conversion of stacked and co-electroplated metal precursor layers in the presence of elemental sulfur vapour. Ex-situ XRD and SEM/EDS analyses of the processed samples were employed to study the reaction sequence with the aim of achieving compact layer morphologies. A new 'Time-Temperature-Reaction' (TTR) diagram and modified Pilling-Bedworth coefficients have been introduced for the description and interpretation of the reaction kinetics. For equal processing times, the minimum temperature required for CuSbS{sub 2} to appear is substantially lower than for Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}, suggesting that interdiffusion across the interfaces between the binary sulfides is a key step in the formation of the ternary compounds. The effects of the heating rate and sulfur partial pressure on the phase evolution as well as the potential losses of Sb and Bi during the processes have been investigated experimentally and the results related to the equilibrium pressure diagrams obtained via thermochemical computation. - Graphical Abstract: Example of 3D plot showing the equilibrium pressure surfaces of species potentially escaping from chalcogenide films as a function of temperature and sulfur partial pressure. Bi{sub (g)}, Bi{sub 2(g)}, and BiS{sub (g)} are the gaseous species in equilibrium with solid Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3(s)} considered in this specific example. The pressure threshold plane corresponds to the pressure limit above which the elemental losses from 1 {mu}m thick films exceeds 10% of the original content per cm{sup 2} area of film and dm{sup 3} capacity of sulfurization furnace under static atmosphere conditions. The sulfurization temperature/sulfur partial pressure boundaries required to minimise the elemental losses below a given value can be easily read from the 2D projection of the intersection curves into the T-p{sub S2} plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Sulfurization of Sb-Cu and Bi-Cu metal precursors for thin film PV applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Kinetics shows the rate determining step to be the interdiffusion of binary sulfides. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Phase evolution is consistent with Pilling-Bedworth coefficients of Cu, Sb and Bi. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Elemental losses can be minimised via the use of equilibrium pressure diagrams.

  4. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  5. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  6. CONTENT MODEL HOW-TO

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003241MLTPL00 Content Model Guidelines https://github.com/usgin/usginspecs/wiki/Content-Model-Guidelines

  7. Building 9213s earliest history … Bill Sergeant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9213's earliest history - Bill Sergeant One of the joys of writing early history of Y-12 and Oak Ridge is the periodic phone calls I get from Bill Sergeant. Bill's memory is amazing. When I write about the times when Bill was "living the experiences," he often adds valuable content to the history. Such is the case with Building 9213. First, let's look at a bit of background on Bill's career. Bill says, "In my Manhattan District days my energy was concentrated on guarding the

  8. Celebrating the History of Women in STEM | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the History of Women in STEM Celebrating the History of Women in STEM March 1, 2016 - 11:30am Addthis Celebrating the History of Women in STEM Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer How can I participate? Follow the Energy Department on Instagram. On Thursday mornings in March, we'll post a new illustrated portrait of an important woman in a STEM field. Guess who she is, then look for the answer at 3

  9. Energy/Water History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. History - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Lawrence's original Cyclotron, for which he received a patent and the Nobel Prize. Lawrence's original cyclotron design was limited to energies where relativistic effects were not important. The third generation cyclotron included "sector-focusing" to allow higher energies to be obtained. The 88-Inch Cyclotron was based on Lawrence's design of a sector-focused cyclotron for the MTA project at Livermore. 1500 man-hours of work were necessary to assemble the trim coils which help

  11. History of the Lightbulb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lightbulb History of the Lightbulb Read more about the History of the Light Bulb.

  12. Insight into Sulfur Reactions in LiS Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Nie, Anmin; Reza, Shahbazian-Yassar; Lu, Jun; Li, James C.M.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-09

    Understanding and controlling the sulfur reduction species (Li2Sx, 1 ? x ? 8) under realistic battery conditions are essential for the development of advanced practical LiS cells that can reach their full theoretical capacity. However, it has been a great challenge to probe the sulfur reduction intermediates and products because of the lack of methods. This work employed various ex situ and in situ methods to study the mechanism of the LiS redox reactions and the properties of Li2Sx and Li2S. Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis used to characterize dry powder deposits from lithium polysulfide solution suggests that the new crystallite phase may be lithium polysulfides. The formation of Li2S crystallites with a polyhedral structure was observed in cells with both the conventional (LiTFSI) electrolyte and polysulfide-based electrolyte. In addition, an in situ transmission electron microscopy experiment observed that the lithium diffusion to sulfur during discharge preferentially occurred at the sulfur surface and formed a solid Li2S crust. This may be the reason for the capacity fade in LiS cells (as also suggested by EIS experiment in Supporting Information). The results can be a guide for future studies and control of the sulfur species and meanwhile a baseline for approaching the theoretical capacity of the LiS battery.

  13. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  14. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  15. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  16. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  17. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 14 Where did ARM come from? Where did ARM come from? A nutshell history A nutshell history ICRCCM-1: Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models...

  18. Fermilab Today - Related Content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Content Subscribe | Contact Fermilab Today | Archive | Classifieds Search GO Classifieds Director's Corner Physics in a Nutshell Frontier Science Result Tip of the Week...

  19. Table of Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION J. B. Natowitz, Director SECTION I: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE, FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS AND ASTROPHYSICS SECTION II: HEAVY ION REACTIONS SECTION III: NUCLEAR...

  20. Our History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History Our History Our History The history of Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) begins in August 2003, when the Department created two offices to provide focus in several critical areas: the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution (TD), which included elements from the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy office and the DOE Policy and International Affairs office, to advance the technologies needed to ensure a reliable, robust and modern U.S. electricity

  1. History Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History Publications History Publications History Publications Since its establishment in 1957, the Office of History and Heritage Resources (OHHR) has consistently sought to maintain a level of excellence in its publications that meets all scholarly standards and yet is accessible to the general public. At the same time, OHHR has partnered with DOE program offices and field sites to provide historical products that are useful and fill specific departmental needs. In this effort, OHHR has

  2. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W.; Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P.

    1993-08-01

    The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

  3. Final Report - Management of High Sulfur HLW, VSL-13R2920-1, Rev. 0, dated 10/31/2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I. L.; Feng, Z.; Gan, H,; Joseph, I.; Matlack, K. S.

    2013-11-13

    The present report describes results from a series of small-scale crucible tests to determine the extent of corrosion associated with sulfur containing HLW glasses and to develop a glass composition for a sulfur-rich HLW waste stream, which was then subjected to small-scale melter testing to determine the maximum acceptable sulfate loadings. In the present work, a new glass formulation was developed and tested for a projected Hanford HLW composition with sulfate concentrations high enough to limit waste loading. Testing was then performed on the DM10 melter system at successively higher waste loadings to determine the maximum waste loading without the formation of a separate sulfate salt phase. Small scale corrosion testing was also conducted using the glass developed in the present work, the glass developed in the initial phase of this work [26], and a high iron composition, all at maximum sulfur concentrations determined from melter testing, in order to assess the extent of Inconel 690 and MA758 corrosion at elevated sulfate contents.

  4. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  5. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  6. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  7. Method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.P.; Hurst, T.B.

    1984-06-05

    An improved method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas by introducing the gas into a first compartment of a spray drying reactor chamber for settleable particulate removal, by then directing the gas to a second compartment of the reactor chamber wherein the gas is contacted with an atomized alkali slurry for sulfur oxide removal by formation of a dry mixture of sulfite and sulfate compounds, by removing a portion of the dry mixture from the gas in the second compartment and by passing the gas from the second compartment to a dry particle collection zone for removal of substantially all of the remaining gas entrained dry mixture.

  8. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage - FY13 Q1 | Department of Energy Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this General Atomics project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013. PDF icon progress_report_baseload_generalatomics_fy13_q1.pdf More Documents & Publications Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with

  9. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AC05-00OR22800 TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page # TOC - i SECTION A - SOLICITATION/OFFER AND AWARD ......................................................................... A-i SECTION B - SUPPLIES OR SERVICES AND PRICES/COSTS ........................................................ B-i B.1 SERVICES BEING ACQUIRED ....................................................................................B-2 B.2 TRANSITION COST, ESTIMATED COST, MAXIMUM AVAILABLE FEE, AND AVAILABLE FEE (Modification 295,

  10. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  11. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  12. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  13. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application | Department of Energy Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application PDF icon deer09_cheng.pdf More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite

  14. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of sulfur in gasoline (Tier 2 standards). Separate standards were set for different entities, such as large refiners, small refiners, importers, downstream wholesalers, etc. In March 2014, Tier 3 standards were finalized by

  15. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es125_wang_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

  16. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  18. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  19. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  20. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  1. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  2. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  3. Contents.key

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paul Clavin Contents Combustion Waves and Fronts in Flows P. Clavin and G. Searby Cambridge University Press (to appear) Orders of magnitude 2 Lecture 1: 1-1: Overall...

  4. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    008 High Temperature Superconductivity for Electric Systems Peer Review Final Report i TABLE OF CONTENTS High Temperature Superconductivity for Electric Systems Program Overview ...... 1 The Peer Review................................................................................................................ 3 Review Criteria ................................................................................................................. 5 Guidelines

  5. Table_of_Contents

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Table of Contents 1. Physical Security .............................................................................................................................. 1-1 101. Headquarters Security Badges ........................................................................................ 101-1 102. HSPD-12 Badges and the PIV Process ........................................................................... 102-1 103. Prohibited Articles

  6. History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security April 6, 2015 - 2:58pm Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More Check out the cutting-edge nuclear research going on at the National Labs. Learn more about the history of the National Nuclear Security

  7. ARM - Climate Change Through History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Through History Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Climate Change Through History Scientists know that there have been many climatic changes throughout the earth's history. For example, the overall temperature across the globe is at least 5.5 degrees Celsius (10 degrees

  8. Our History | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    About Us » Our History Our History The Office of Hearings and Appeals is the central adjudicative forum for the Department of Energy. The Secretary of Energy has delegated to the OHA Director the authority to act for him in many different areas. The OHA Director's decision typically serves as final agency action. During it's over 30-year history, OHA has had broad-ranging subject matter jurisdiction. Originally, OHA's primary function was to consider exceptions and other petitions related to

  9. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  10. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  11. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 1580 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.043.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 1580 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 47. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.043.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  12. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  13. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  14. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  15. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  16. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  17. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  18. Utilizing the market to control sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeher, C.F. III

    1995-12-01

    Environmental policy in the United States is evolving; command and control approaches are being slowly replaced with market-based incentives. Market-based regulation is favorable because it provides the regulated community with flexibility in choosing between pollution control options. A recent application of a market-based approach is Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This paper evaluates the advantages of utilizing market-based incentives to control sulfur dioxide emissions. The evaluation embodies an extensive methodology, which provides an overview of the policy governing air quality, discusses pollution control philosophies and analyzes their associated advantages and limitations. Further, it describes the development and operation of a market for emissions trading, impediments to the market, and recommends strategies to improve the market. The evaluation concludes by analyzing the results of five empirical simulations demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of employing market-based incentives versus command-and-control regulation for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions. The results of the evaluation indicate that regulatory barriers and market impediments have inhibited allowance trading. However, many of these obstacles have been or are being eliminated through Federal and state regulations, and through enhancement of the market. Results also demonstrate that sulfur dioxide allowance trading can obtain identical levels of environmental protection as command-and-control approaches while realizing cost savings to government and industry.

  19. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  20. Table of Contents

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    COMMUNICATIONS REQUIREMENTS OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES October 5, 2010 i Table of Contents I. Introduction and Executive Summary.......................................................... 1 a. Overview of Smart Grid Benefits and Communications Needs................. 2 b. Summary of Recommendations .................................................................... 5 II. Federal Government Smart Grid Initiatives ................................................ 7 a. DOE Request for Information

  1. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  3. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  4. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  5. Our History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History Our History Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve Circa 1920s Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve Circa 1920s The Office of Fossil Energy has the longest directly-traceable history of any organization in the Department of Energy. While the nuclear energy program can look back to the Manhattan Project of World War II for its origins, the Federal Government's involvement in fossil fuel resources began several decades earlier, in the early 1900s. Oil Dominates Early Concerns The U.S.S. Colorado,

  6. Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month Each February Americans celebrate Black History Month, also known as African American History Month, to recognize the importance of Black history in American history. We profile three employees - Jackie Scoggins, Matt Rice, and Thierry Nouidui - who tell their stories of how they came to Berkeley Lab.

  7. Contents TRU Waste Celebration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 September 2005 A publication for all members of the NNSA/NSO family Contents TRU Waste Celebration by Katherine Schwartz On July 28, 2005, Bechtel Nevada hosted a function to commemorate the dedication and hard work of every Joanne Norton of meeting the milestone of completion of characterization of all legacy waste drums stored at the NTS for 30 years." , assistant general manager for Environmental Management at BN, was equally pleased. making direct contact with it. the dedicated

  8. NESEA Newsletter Content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NESEA Newsletter Content Middle School Curriculum Created by Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) Click on the links below to take you to the Chapter heading: Solar Panels: The Basics Solar Cells: P-N Junction Solar Panels: Amps, Volts and Power Solar Panels: Manufacture Solar Panels: PV Applications & More Parts of a Solar Cell Getting Started with Gears 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123 PREMIER MIDDLE SCHOOL MODEL SOLAR

  9. Y-12 and uranium history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    did happen six days after he was given the assignment. The history of uranium at Y-12 began with that decision, which will be commemorated on September 19, 2012, at...

  10. history | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    history | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home

  11. Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System | Department of Energy Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System effect and performance recovery studies at system level with typical diesel emission control consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst, catalyzed soot filter, and selective catalytic reduction PDF icon deer11_tang.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR

  12. DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distillate | Department of Energy Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate DOE Will Convert Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve to Ultra Low Sulfur Distillate February 1, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The current inventory of the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve will be converted to cleaner burning ultra low sulfur distillate to comply with new, more stringent fuel standards by some Northeastern states, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) said

  13. A 15 Year History of Growth and Development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments A 15 Year History of Growth and Development Introduction The DOE R&D Accomplishments website was developed to improve the visibility of DOE accomplishments by broadening and integrating access to important advances made possible by past DOE/predecessor research and development. It showcases the proud heritage of the Department's research and development and highlights benefits that are being realized now. Selection of electronic documents and Web page content is

  14. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Strategic Petroleum Reserve History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve July 1, 2015 - 11:34am Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs The Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, is a complex of four locations that stockpile emergency oil in deep underground storage caverns created in salt domes along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts. Although the idea of stockpiling emergency oil arose as early as 1944, it took the oil embargo of 1973-74

  15. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  16. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  17. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  18. Sulfur in the Timbers of Henry VIII's Warship Mary Rose: Synchrotrons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sulfur in the Timbers of Henry VIII's Warship Mary Rose: Synchrotrons Illuminate Conservation Concerns Magnus Sandstrm,1 Farideh Jalilehvand,2 Emiliana Damian,1 Yvonne Fors,1...

  19. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  20. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  1. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  2. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  3. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  4. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report No. 1, [September--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1994-11-30

    This project is being coordinated with an ongoing project at Western Kentucky University that is being supported by the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program through the Tennessee Valley Authority. Fluidized bed combustion tests will be performed on municipal solid waste blended with high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals in a laboratory scale combustor. The purpose of the tests is to evaluate combustion performance, the extent of the inorganic acid gases (HCl and SO{sub x}) and chlorinated organic compound formation, the effect of chlorine species on SO{sub 2} removal with a sorbent, and the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organic compounds from MSW for a range of bed temperatures, excess air levels, MSW/coal ratios, and S/Cl ratios. Flue gas samples will be collected and analyzed at three locations: free board, cyclone inlet, and cyclone outlet. Analytical methods used will include ion chromatography, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Waste stream ash samples will be collected from the cyclone catch and analyzed for unburned carbon, chlorine, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated phenols, dioxins, furans, and metal content. Major, minor, and trace elements in the ash will be determined by x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Accomplishments for the first quarter are presented.

  5. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  6. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-11-05

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  7. Microsoft Word - contents

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    GJO-2001-272-TAR MAC-GWDUR 1.1 UMTRA Ground Water Project Site Observational Work Plan for the Durango, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site January 2002 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW 511-0006-10-000 Document Number U0143200 Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335 This page intentionally left blank Document Number U0143200 Contents DOE/Grand Junction Office Site Observational Work Plan -Durango, Colorado January

  8. Tag: History | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Tag: History Displaying 1 - 10 of 119... Category: About Deputy Secretary meets two calutron girls When the Deputy Secretary of Energy, Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, was in...

  9. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  10. The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimont, Z.; Smith, Steven J.; Cofala, Janusz

    2013-01-09

    Evolution of global and regional anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the last decade has been estimated through a bottom-up calculation for recent years. After a strong increase in emissions that peaked about 2006, we estimate a declining trend continuing until 2011. However, there is a strong spatial variability with North America and Europe continuing to reduce emissions with an increasing role of Asia and international shipping. China remains a key contributor but the introduction of stricter emission limits followed by an ambitious program of installing flue gas desulfurization on power plants resulted in significant decline in emissions from energy sector and stabilization of Chinese SO2 emissions. Comparable mitigation strategies are not yet present in several other Asian countries and industrial sectors in general, while emissions from international shipping are expected to start declining soon following agreed reduction of sulfur content of fuel oil. Estimated trends in global SO2 emissions are within the range of RCP projections and uncertainty calculated for the year 2005.

  11. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  12. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  13. Agenda of critical issues: coal price and availability. Final report. [Includes effect of legislation, sulfur content and rail transport costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tennican, M.L.; Wayland, R.E.; Weinstein, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Temple, Barker, and Sloane, Inc. developed an agenda of critical issues regarding future coal prices and coal availability for EPRI. TBS interviewed nearly 50 utility, coal company, and railroad officials, academic experts, and coal consultants; held a one-day participatory workshop; and conducted a literature review and follow-up interviews with selected utilities. TBS found four causes of uncertainty in the utility industry over future coal prices. First, the acid deposition proposals in Congress vary in terms of the structure of the legislation, the costs of compliance, and the impact on coal prices; in turn these uncertainties impede utility fuel planning and decision making. Second, powerplant-specific factors will have a major impact on whether utilities switch or scrub in response to acid deposition legislation; existing analyses do not capture these factors. The most important powerplant-specific factors are matching unit characteristics with coal specifications, retrofit scrubber costs, and differing state regulatory environments. Third, TBS found that utility fuel managers have great uncertainty over the availability and future cost of compliance coal. TBS estimated that the existing production capacity of eastern compliance coal is at least twice as high as current production. Fourth, TBS concluded that uncertainty over future coal transportation rates was a major reason for utilities' uncertainty over future delivered prices of coal. Critical transportation-related issues are the strategic and tactical response of eastern coal producers to the Staggers Act; the impact on rail rates of the sale of Conrail, of possible transcontinental mergers, and of multi-modal mergers; and the future pricing policies that eastern railroads will adopt in response to imports of Colombian coal. 21 references.

  14. Women in Los Alamos History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Women in Los Alamos History Women in Los Alamos History WHEN: Mar 03, 2016 5:30 PM - 8:00 PM WHERE: Los Alamos Golf Course Clubhouse SPEAKER: Jill Tietjen CONTACT: Sarah Terrill (505) 709-0089 CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Tietjen is a well-known speaker on the topic of gender issues in the work place, and a motivational speaker for young women working toward educations and careers in science, engineering, technology and math (STEM). The community is invited to

  15. Drop History? No! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drop History? No! February 29, 2012 When I was in high school in England, especially in the smaller country schools, teachers were scarce and schedules, therefore, constrained. Further, the English style is for students to choose directions, and therefore subjects, at a relatively early age. So, at age 13, I had to choose between Physics and Chemistry on the one hand, and Latin and History on the other. Of course, I chose Physics and Chemistry, but thereby lost two subjects in which I was

  16. Table of Contents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U U . . S S . . D D E E P P A A R R T T M M E E N N T T O O F F E E N N E E R R G G Y Y O O F F F F I I C C E E O O F F I I N N S S P P E E C C T T O O R R G G E E N N E E R R A A L L Semiannual Report toCongress DOE/IG-0065 April 1 - September 30, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS From the Desk of the Inspector General ..................................................... 2 Impacts Key Accomplishments ............................................................................................... 3

  17. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  18. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of New Mexico PDF icon 2004_deer_hammache.pdf More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System

  19. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  20. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  2. The history of the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-05-11

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  3. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Albuquerque Operations Office with other NNSA operations offices into the NNSA Service Center located in Albuquerque. OTS was renamed the Office of Secure Transportation...

  4. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LES 9, both launched together on March 14, 1976. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) DOE first supported the use of radioisotope power systems on National Aeronautics and ...

  5. History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 7, 2011, the President signed H.R. 6523 (111th), the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/hr6523) which became...

  6. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  7. Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

    1995-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

  8. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  9. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  10. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  11. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, Ragnar P. (Birmingham, MI); Winterbottom, Walter L. (Farmington Hills, MI); Wroblowa, Halina S. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1987-01-01

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector (14) for a sodium/sulfur battery (10). The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material (16) formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500-1000 angstroms.

  12. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  13. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  14. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  15. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  16. Well Record or History | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Record or History Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Well Record or HistoryLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: About Sandia: History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History View as list Resources Sandia's government owned/contractor operated (GOCO) heritage Sandia history reports and publications Always/Never: The Quest for Safety, Control & Survivability For more information, contact the Corporate Historian Rebecca Ullrich.

  18. The Manhattan Project National Security History Series

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Manhattan Project National Security History Series 5 Visit our Manhattan Project web site: http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm 5 DOE/MA-0002 Revised F. G. Gosling Offce of History and Heritage Resources Executive Secretariat Offce of Management Department of Energy January 2010 The Manhattan Project National Security History Series 5 National Security History Series Volume I: The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Volume II: Building the Nuclear Arsenal: Cold War Nuclear

  19. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This timeline explores the history of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, from conception through current events.

  20. NTS_History.indd | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NTS_History.indd NTS_History.indd PDF icon NTS_History.indd More Documents & Publications Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I origins.indd Fehner and Gosling, Origins of the Nevada Test Site

  1. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Sulfur gas sensor using a calcium fluoride solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toniguchi, M.; Wakihara, M.; Uchida, T.; Hirakawa, K.; Nii, J.

    1988-01-01

    The sulfur gas potentials in the H/sub 2/S + H/sub 2/ buffer gases were measured by a galvanic cell Ps/sub 2/(g),Au(Pt)/(MoS/sub 2/ + CaS)/CaF/sub 2//(Cu + Cu/sub 2/S + CaS)/Au(Pt) in the temperature range from 650/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C and Ps/sub 2/ region from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -10/ atm. A quick response time (within 5 to 10 min) in emf with the change of Ps/sub 2/ at a given temperature was observed by placing a MoS/sub 2/ and CaS mixed pellet auxiliary electrode at the bottom of the cylindrical single-crystal CaF/sub 2/ electrolyte. The observed emf's agreed well with with those calculated from the Nernst equation. Using this sensor, Ps/sub 2/ values in the SO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/S gas system were also evaluated from the measured emf at 827/sup 0/C and were found to be in close agreement with those calculated from the thermochemical tables.

  3. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  4. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 68 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 68 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UVvis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  5. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  6. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  7. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison

  8. Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites from Urine Samples and Analysis by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) Authors: Mayer, B P ; Williams, A M ; Leif, R N ; Udey, R N ; Vu, A K

  9. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that

  10. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at

  11. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, under a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.

  12. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, undermore » a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.« less

  13. Sulfur oxidation to sulfate coupled with electron transfer to electrodes by Desulfuromonas strain TZ1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T; Bain, TS; Barlett, MA; Dar, SA; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-01-02

    Microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur with an electrode serving as the electron acceptor is of interest because this may play an important role in the recovery of electrons from sulfidic wastes and for current production in marine benthic microbial fuel cells. Enrichments initiated with a marine sediment inoculum, with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and a positively poised (+300 mV versus Ag/AgCl) anode as the electron acceptor, yielded an anode biofilm with a diversity of micro-organisms, including Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Desulfuromonas species. Further enrichment of the anode biofilm inoculum in medium with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, followed by isolation in solidified sulfur/Fe(III) medium yielded a strain of Desulfuromonas, designated strain TZ1. Strain TZ1 effectively oxidized elemental sulfur to sulfate with an anode serving as the sole electron acceptor, at rates faster than Desulfobulbus propionicus, the only other organism in pure culture previously shown to oxidize S with current production. The abundance of Desulfuromonas species enriched on the anodes of marine benthic fuel cells has previously been interpreted as acetate oxidation driving current production, but the results presented here suggest that sulfur-driven current production is a likely alternative.

  14. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  15. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  16. JOBAID-LAUNCHING ONLINE CONTENT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this jobaid you will learn how to launch Online Content "Items" or Courses. In the LMS you can launch most anything as an "item": documents, courses, webpages and track users that have completed...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Ice water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (mass/vol) of ice water particles in a cloud. Categories Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  18. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water content The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded

  19. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    responsible contractor's processes and, as a minimum, shall be signed and dated by the following: 1. Technical Approver (see Appendix A for definition) 2. Manager responsible...

  20. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results shall be reported based on calculated concentration or activity values (whether negative, positive, or zero) using the appropriate blank for each nuclide (see Section...

  1. Contents

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Wages and salaries 2 1,575 1,596 1,566 Social security costs 126 120 116 Pension costs ... contracts represent mark-to-market movements on certain physical and financial ...

  2. contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    signal is often digitized to around 12 bits of information at the RTU. The communication media between the supervisory site and the RTUs are designed to handle packets of this...

  3. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    organization (such as Safety or Quality Assurance). Depending upon the site-specific organizational structure, the following reviewapprovals are recommended: DOERL-92-36,...

  4. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effective Date: 6107 Vol. 2: iv LIST OF TERMS ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials CFR Code of Federal Regulations CWP...

  5. Contents

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ® ALOHA A R E A L L O C A T I O N S O F H A Z A R D O U S A T M O S P H E R E S User's Manual M A R C H 2 0 0 4 c a e o ® C O M P U T E R - A I D ED M A N A G E M E N T O F E M E R G E N C Y O P E R A T I O N S * U N IT E D STA T E S * E N V IR O N M E N T A L P R O TE C T I O N A G E N C Y NAT I ONA L O C E A N IC A ND ATMOSPH ER IC A D M IN IST RATION U .S . D E P A R TM ENT OF CO M M E R C E U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION Chemical

  6. History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History of Regulatory Oversight History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL 1943-1950: Manhattan Project Era Few environmental regulations Best available protection technologies employed, though rudimentary 1950s-1970s: Cold War Era Laboratory moved from townsite to current location Advent of national environmental protection laws Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1980s-1990s: Non-proliferation/Stockpile Reduction LANL

  7. Space Nuclear MIssion History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Systems » Space Nuclear MIssion History Space Nuclear MIssion History A HISTORY OF MISSION SUCCESSES For over fifty years, the Department of Energy has enabled space exploration on 27 missions by providing safe reliable radioistope power systems and radioisotope heater units for NASA, Navy, Air Force, DOE. Mission Year Launched Agency Regions Explored Transit 4a 1961 Navy Earth- Navy Navigation Satelitte Transit 4B 1961 Navy Earth - Navigation Satelitte Transit 5-BN-1 1963 Navy Earth -

  8. DOE History Timeline | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE History Timeline DOE History Timeline DOE History Timeline The Department of Energy is one of the most interesting and diverse agencies in the Federal Government. Activated on October 1, 1977, the twelfth cabinet-level department brought together for the first time within one agency two programmatic traditions that had long coexisted within the Federal establishment: 1) defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons dating from the Manhattan

  9. Commemorating Black History: Contributions of African Americans...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Speak of the Nation's History General Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer are pictured here at the Trinity Test site in New Mexico, 1945. New Manhattan Project ...

  10. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  11. Power of the River History Book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power-of-the-River-BPA-History-Book Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  12. Employee Women's History Month Celebration (DC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Celebrate Women's History Month with the Department of Energy headquarters, and hear from remarkable game-changing women and leading DOE engagement programs.

  13. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore » turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ≈ P2O5 > Na2O ≈ B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ≈ SnO2 > Others ≈ SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  14. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  15. EERE Website Content Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EERE Website Content Checklist EERE Website Content Checklist This checklist is a tool to guide EERE content developers and editors in creating and reviewing content for websites. Microsoft Office document icon EERE Website Content Checklist More Documents & Publications Plain Language Compliance Report (2012) Templates and Examples - Statistics and Search Log Analysis DOE-STD-1029-92

  16. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  17. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2011-02-28

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

  18. Effect of morphology of sulfurized materials in the retention of mercury from gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guijarro, M.I.; Mendioroz, S.; Munoz, V.

    1998-03-01

    Mercury pollution sources are chloralkali industries, metal sulfide ore smelting, gold refining, cement production, industrial applications of metals, and, especially, fossil fuel combustion and incineration of sewage sludge or municipal garbage. The retention of mercury vapor by sulfur supported on sepiolite has been studied, and the utility of sepiolite as a dispersant for the active phase, sulfur, has been thoroughly ascertained. Samples with 10% S supported on sepiolite of varying size and shape have been prepared from powders sulfurized by reaction/deposit, and their efficiency in depurating air streams with 95 ppm mercury has been tested in a dynamic system using a fixed-bed glass reactor and fluid velocities ranging from 3.1 to 18.9 cm/s. From breakthrough curves under various sets of conditions, the importance of mass transfer under the process conditions has been proven. The progress of the reaction is limited by the resistance to reactant diffusion inside the solid through the layer of product formed. Sulfur reaction to HgS is reduced to an external zone of the solid, giving rise to an egg-shell deposit whose extension is related to sulfur dispersion and porosity of the adsorbent. Then, conversion and capacity of the samples are related to their porosity and S/V ratio. The use of SEM helps to confirm those statements. The 10% S samples compare well with the more conventional S/activated carbon, with their use being advantageous for the low price and abundance of the substrate.

  19. Content of System Design Descriptions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-STD-3024-2011 August 2011 ________________________ Superseding DOE-STD-3024-98 DOE STANDARD CONTENT OF SYSTEM DESIGN DESCRIPTIONS U.S. Department of Energy AREA EDCO Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-3024-2011 ii Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards web page at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/ DOE-STD-3024-2011 iii CONTENTS PAGE Foreword

  20. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  1. Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

    1981-01-01

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  2. Radioactivity and health: A history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-10-01

    This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.

  3. Atomic power in space: A history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. PAFC History and Successes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History and Successes PAFC History and Successes Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon mcfc_pafc_workshop_ferro.pdf More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report PAFC Cost Challenges Fuel Cell Development Status

  5. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Determination of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in SRC-II process development Unit P-99 gas streams. [Impure hydrogen in recycle gas and low pressure gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.A.; Galli, R.D.; McCracken, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    A knowledge of the identity and concentration of trace hydrocarbon, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds in the various gas streams of the SRC-II Coal Liquefaction Process is needed in order to design the recycle gas purification and low pressure gas processing systems in large-scale plants. This report discusses the results of an experimental study to identify and quantify trace compounds in the various high and low pressure gas streams of SRC-II Process Development Unit P-99. A capillary column trace hydrocarbon analysis has been developed which can quantify 41 hydrocarbons from methane to xylenes in SRC-II gas streams. With more work a number of other hydrocarbons could be quantified. A fixed gas analysis was also developed which can be integrated with the hydrocarbon analysis to yield a complete stream analysis. A gas chromatographic procedure using a flame photometric detector was developed for trace sulfur compounds, and six sulfur compounds were identified and quantified. A chemiluminescence method was developed for determination of NO and NO/sub 2/ down to 10 ppB in concentration. A gas chromatographic procedure using an electron capture detector was developed for HCN analysis down to 5 ppM. Drager tube analyses gave semiquantitative data on HCl and NH/sub 3/ content of the gas streams.

  6. NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1992-09-15

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

  7. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  8. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1992-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  9. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effects | Department of Energy Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications The Next Regulatory Chapter for Commercial Vehicles Review of Diesel

  10. NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1993-08-31

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  11. A reanalysis of carbonyl sulfide as a source of stratospheric background sulfur aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, M.; Davis, D.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-20

    The authors present an analysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the earth`s atmosphere, with the objective being to assess its role in the formation of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. They review the amount of OCS in the atmosphere, its distribution between the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimated source term for emission to the atmosphere, and from one-dimensional model calculations infer a stratospheric lifetime to photochemical reactions of ten years. Calculations infer a sulfur production rate from OCS oxidation which is a factor of 2 to 5 less than recent sulfur aerosol estimates would infer. They discuss a number of possible explanations for the discrepancy.

  12. Performance and economics of a spray-dryer FGD system used with high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1986-04-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. Uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. This paper summarizes 4 years, operating and research experience with that system and describes the current research program, which includes an indepth characterization of an industrial scale dry scrubber with 3.5% sulfur coal.

  13. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  14. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithium/sulfur cell: a multifaceted approach to enhancing cell performance," NanoLetters, November 12, 2013 (web). (437 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab battery researchers led by Elton Cairns has

  15. Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel Ultra-Low Sulfur diesel Update & Future Light Duty Diesel Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_leister.pdf More Documents & Publications Fueling U.S. Light Duty Diesel Vehicles Biodiesel_Fuel_Management_Best_Practices_Report.pdf A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select

  16. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  17. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  18. SECTION J - TABLE OF CONTENTS

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conformed to Mod 0108 DE-NA0000622 Section J Page i PART III - LIST OF DOCUMENTS, EXHIBITS, AND OTHER ATTACHMENTS SECTION J LIST OF APPENDICES TABLE OF CONTENTS Appendix A Statement of Work (Replaced by Mod 002; Modified Mod 016; Replaced Mod 029) Appendix B Performance Evaluation Plan (Replaced by Mods 002, 016, 020, 029, 0084) Appendix C Contractor's Transition Plan Appendix D Sensitive Foreign Nations Control Appendix E Performance Guarantee Agreement(s) Appendix F National Work Breakdown

  19. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  20. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2006-06-27

    Reduced sulfur gas species (e.g., H.sub.2S, COS and CS.sub.2) are removed from a gas stream by compositions wherein a zinc titanate ingredient is associated with a metal oxide-aluminate phase material in the same particle species. Nonlimiting examples of metal oxides comprising the compositions include magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, nickel oxide, etc.

  1. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  2. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  3. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  4. grid history | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  5. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  6. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Amo; R.W. Baker; V.D. Helm; T. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala; I. Pinnau; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; L. Toy; J.G. Wijmans

    1998-01-29

    A significant fraction of U.S. natural gas reserves are subquality due to the presence of acid gases and nitrogen; 13% of existing reserves (19 trillion cubic feed) may be contaminated with hydrogen sulfide. For natural gas to be useful as fuel and feedstock, this hydrogen sulfide has to be removed to the pipeline specification of 4 ppm. The technology used to achieve these specifications has been amine, or similar chemical or physical solvent, absorption. Although mature and widely used in the gas industry, absorption processes are capital and energy-intensive and require constant supervision for proper operation. This makes these processes unsuitable for treating gas at low throughput, in remote locations, or with a high concentration of acid gases. The U.S. Department of Energy, recognizes that exploitation of smaller, more sub-quality resources will be necessary to meet demand as the large gas fields in the U.S. are depleted. In response to this need, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has developed membranes and a membrane process for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural gas. During this project, high-performance polymeric thin-film composite membranes were brought from the research stage to field testing. The membranes have hydrogen sulfide/methane selectivities in the range 35 to 60, depending on the feed conditions, and have been scaled up to commercial-scale production. A large number of spiral-wound modules were manufactured, tested and optimized during this project, which culminated in a field test at a Shell facility in East Texas. The short field test showed that membrane module performance on an actual natural gas stream was close to that observed in the laboratory tests with cleaner streams. An extensive technical and economic analysis was performed to determine the best applications for the membrane process. Two areas were identified: the low-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region and the high-flow-rate, high-hydrogen-sulfide-content region. In both regions the MTR membrane process will be combined with another process to provide the necessary hydrogen sulfide removal from the natural gas. In the first region the membrane process will be combined with the SulfaTreat fixed-bed absorption process, and in the second region the membrane process will be combined with a conventional absorption process. Economic analyses indicate that these hybrid processes provide 20-40% cost savings over stand-alone absorption technologies.

  7. History of SPR Releases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History of SPR Releases History of SPR Releases The Strategic Petroleum Reserve exists, first and foremost, as an emergency response tool the President can use should the United States be confronted with an economically-threatening disruption in oil supplies. A Presidentially-directed release has occurred three times under these conditions. First, in 1991, at the beginning of Operation Desert Storm, the United States joined its allies in assuring the adequacy of global oil supplies when war

  8. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heating Oil Reserve History Heating Oil Reserve History Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson to establish a two million barrel home heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast. The intent was to create a buffer large enough to allow commercial companies to compensate for interruptions in supply during severe winter weather, but not so large as to

  9. Environmental Justice History | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Justice History Environmental Justice History The exact start of the environmental justice movement in America is not clear. Local groups have complained about unwanted land uses for decades. Prior to the early eighties, these local protests were considered isolated and protesting communities were complaining by themselves and not associated with others similarly situated in other communities. This isolated protesting all changed in the early 1980's and the environmental justice movement became

  10. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- FRMAC History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office FRMAC History Photo of Three Mile Island Following the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant in March 1979, the President and Congress directed the impacted federal agencies to develop a plan to provide for an integrated federal response to radiological emergencies. It was recognized that when a major radiological incident impacts the public, the state(s) may need federal assistance to characterize and assess

  11. DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Origami: A History and Current Perspective Authors: Nangreave, J., Han, D., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective Source: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Pages: 608-615 ABSTRACT: Researchers have been using DNA for the rational design and construction of nanoscale objects for nearly 30 years. Recently, [`]scaffolded DNA origami' has emerged as one of the most promising assembly techniques in DNA nanotechnology with a broad range of

  12. SPEAR History | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPEAR History Experimental Facilities : The SPEAR Storage Ring Stanford University has a long history of involvement in the development and use of colliding-beam storage rings for particle physics research. The first such machine at Stanford was a small electron-electron collider, shaped like a figure eight, located on the main campus. A collaborative effort between physicists from Princeton and Stanford Universities, this project produced the first physics results ever obtained with the

  13. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  14. History and Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliance & Equipment Standards » About » History and Impacts History and Impacts Appliance and equipment efficiency standards have served as one of the nation's most effective policies for improving energy efficiency. The first standards were enacted at the state level in California in 1974. At the national level, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) was enacted in 1975, and established a federal program consisting of test procedures, labeling, and energy targets for consumer

  15. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  16. CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST All visit requests are required to be submitted via JPAS according to AFI 31-101 and the NISPOM. Our SMO code is KV1MFSCC6. Please do not send an annual visit request for the conference. Use the dates of the conference for the duration of the visit. Please list Bing Serafico, 505-853-0451 as the Point of Contract for the visit. NOTE: Only use the following information if your companies DO NOT have access to JPAS. All faxed visit request for personnel that are in JPAS

  17. Utah Division of State History | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    History Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Utah Division of State History Name: Utah Division of State History Address: 300 S. Rio Grande St. Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84101...

  18. Y-12 History Center | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 History Center Y-12 History Center Located within the New Hope Center at Y-12, the History Center houses a fascinating collection of informational materials and historical...

  19. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) with highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.

  20. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore » highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  1. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,040 1,040 1,048 1,046 983 959 2007-2014...

  2. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,011 965 989 996 996 997 2013

  3. Labs and Field Site Histories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Labs and Field Site Histories Labs and Field Site Histories Labs and Field Site Histories Note: Every effort is made to keep these links current and updated. Yet as many of the links below point to sites not under our direct control, some may stop working without warning . National Laboratories & Technology Centers Operations Offices & Field Sites Ames Laboratory (Iowa) -- History Chicago Office (Illinois) -- History Argonne National Laboratory (Illinois) -- Laboratory History and

  4. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stabilization of the {beta}-form for a sulfur content greater than or equal to 5 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition by sulfur exsolution induced by thermal treatment or ball-milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction or even cancellation of the distortive thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of conductance at high T involved by the low thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C.

  5. Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and...

  6. Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement: Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates Chronological History of Federal...

  7. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

    1993-04-13

    A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

  8. Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Mitchell R. (Troy, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A process and system for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous The government of the United States of America has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC 23174 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Energy.gov Content Management System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy.gov Content Management SystemEERE's websites are hosted in Energy.gov's Drupal content management system (CMS), which is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Public Affairs Office.

  10. Template:ContentAssist | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ContentAssist Jump to: navigation, search This is the ContentAssist template. It is intended for inclusion on any page and will highlight extracted energy-related terms from the...

  11. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  12. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Sulfur Tolerant Pd/Cu and Pd/Au Alloy Membranes for H2 Separation with High Pressure CO2 for Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Hua Ma; Natalie Pomerantz; Chao-Huang Chen

    2008-09-30

    The effect of H{sub 2}S poisoning on Pd, Pd/Cu, and Pd/Au alloy composite membranes prepared by the electroless deposition method on porous Inconel supports was investigated to provide a fundamental understanding of the durability and preparation of sulfur tolerant membranes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies showed that the exposure of pure Pd to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures caused bulk sulfide formation at lower temperatures and surface sulfide formation at higher temperatures. Lower temperatures, longer exposure times, and higher H{sub 2}S concentrations resulted in a higher degree of sulfidation. In a Pd membrane, the bulk sulfide formation caused a drastic irrecoverable H{sub 2} permeance decline and an irreparable loss in selectivity. Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes exhibited permeance declines due to surface sulfide formation upon exposure to 50 ppm H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} gas mixtures. However in contrast to the pure Pd membrane, the permeances of the Pd/Cu and Pd/Au alloy membranes were mostly recovered in pure H{sub 2} and the selectivity of the Pd alloy layers remained essentially intact throughout the characterization in H{sub 2}, He and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} mixtures which lasted several thousand hours. The amount of irreversible sulfur poisoning decreased with increasing temperature due to the exothermicity of H{sub 2}S adsorption. Longer exposure times increased the amount of irreversible poisoning of the Pd/Cu membrane but not the Pd/Au membrane. Pd/Au coupon studies of the galvanic displacement method showed that higher Au{sup 3+} concentrations, lower pH values, higher bath temperatures and stirring the bath at a rate of 200 rpm yielded faster displacement rates, more uniform depositions, and a higher Au content within the layers. While 400 C was found to be sufficient to form a Pd/Au alloy on the surface, high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) studies showed that even after annealing between 500-600 C, the Pd/Cu alloys could have part or all of the surface in the less sulfur resistant {beta} phase.

  14. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium oxides by CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Kato, Shintaro; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    For the recovery of nuclear materials from the spent nuclear fuel, the sulfide process has been proposed and the voloxidation of spent fuel and selective sulfurization rare-earth elements has been proposed. In this paper, cerium was used as a stand-in of plutonium and sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium dioxide by CS{sub 2} was studied. UO{sub 2} was oxidized to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in air, while the Ce doped UO{sub 2} solid solution was formed in the presence of CeO{sub 2} by the heat treatment in air. The effect of heating time, temperature and the ratio of uranium to cerium on the formation of solid solution was analyzed. The results were also compared with those of thermodynamic consideration. (authors)

  16. ZnO-based regenerable sulfur sorbents for fluid-bed/transport reactor applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slimane, Rachid B.; Abbasian, Javad; Williams, Brett E.

    2004-09-21

    A method for producing regenerable sulfur sorbents in which a support material precursor is mixed with isopropanol and a first portion of deionized water at an elevated temperature to form a sol mixture. A metal oxide precursor comprising a metal suitable for use as a sulfur sorbent is dissolved in a second portion of deionized water, forming a metal salt solution. The metal salt solution and the sol mixture are mixed with a sol peptizing agent while heating and stirring, resulting in formation of a peptized sol mixture. The metal oxide precursor is dispersed substantially throughout the peptized sol mixture, which is then dried, forming a dry peptized sol mixture. The dry peptized sol mixture is then calcined and the resulting calcined material is then converted to particles.

  17. ALS History: The First 20 Years

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History: The First 20 Years Print Below is an interactive timeline covering highlights of the first 20 years of ALS history. By no means exhaustive, it is meant to provide a broad overview of the people and events that have helped shape the ALS as well as a sense of the breadth of the science that has been done here. Click on items to see more detail. Slide the blue rectangle at bottom to move forward or backward in time. Color Key: Science Highlights (green); People and Events (orange);

  18. History of the DOE Human Genome Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the DOE Human Genome Program The following history is taken from the U.S. Department of Energy 1991-91 Human Genome Program Report (June 1992). This is an archived item. A brief history of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Genome Program will be useful in a discussion of the objectives of the DOE program as well as those of the collaborative U.S. Human Genome Project. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of DOE and its predecessor agencies--the Atomic Energy

  19. Introduction to Y-12's history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12's History This article marks the beginning of a series that will focus on the history of the Y-12 National Security Complex. Y-12 has employed from 22,000 at its peak to 8,000 in the 1980's during the winning of the Cold War and for the past several years has held an average of about 4,500. It is one of three major Manhattan Project sites in Oak Ridge. Y-12 is the nation's sole storage location for weapons grade uranium, is the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  20. The History of DEER | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The History of DEER The History of DEER Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_eberhardt.pdf More Documents & Publications Update on Progress of APBF-DEC EGR/DPF/SCR Demonstration Program at SwRI After Petroleum Fuels of the Future for Cars and Trucks

  1. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

  2. Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.

    1992-11-17

    An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

  3. Effects on crystal structure of CZTS thin films owing to deionized water and sulfurization treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadi, Samia Ahmed; Chelvanathan, Puvaneswaran; Islam, M. A.; Sopian, Kamruzzaman; Yusoff, Yulisa; Amin, Nowshad

    2015-05-15

    To condense the cost and increase the production, using abundantly obtainable non-toxic elements, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) seem to be a strong contender among the photovoltaic thin film technologies. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering system. CZTS were sputtered on Molybdenum (Mo) coated soda lime glass (SLG) using a single target sputtering technique. The sputtering parameters (base pressure, working pressure, Argon (Ar) flow rate, RF power and sputtering time) were kept same for all three types of films. For sulfurization, the temperature used was 500 C. Finally, As-deposited film was immersed in DIW before undergoing identical sulfurization profile. As-deposited film (Sample A), sulfurized films (Sample B) and sulfurized plus DIW treated (Sample C) were compared in terms of their structural properties by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Sample B and C showed peak of (1 1 2) planes of CZTS which are characteristics of stannite structure. Post deposition treatment on CZTS films proved to be beneficial as evident from the observed enhancement in the crystallinity and grain growth. Significant difference on grain size and area roughness could be observed from the AFM measurement. The roughness of Sample A, B and C increased from 5.007?nm to 20.509?nm and 14.183?nm accordingly. From XRD data secondary phases of Cu{sub x}MoS{sub x} could be observed.

  4. COS-forming reaction between CO and sulfur: A high-temperature intrinsic kinetics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1998-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide is formed in the front end (i.e., the reaction furnace and the waste heat boiler) of Claus plants which are commonly used to recover sulfur from acid gases. Moreover, COS along with CS{sub 2}, are recognized as the problematic sulfur compounds that contribute significantly to plant sulfur emissions. Further, there is limited kinetic information on the important reaction for the formation of these two compounds. Now, it is well-known that one of the important COS-forming reactions is that between CO and sulfur. In this laboratory, the authors conducted an experimental study to measure the intrinsic kinetics of this homogeneous gas-phase reaction in the temperature range of 600--1150 C and over a residence time of 0.5--2.0 s. The overall reaction was found to be second order with a reaction rate constant k{sub f} = (3.18 {+-} 0.36) {times} 10{sup 5} exp[{minus}(6700 {+-} 108 K)/T] m{sup 3}/(kmol{center_dot}s). In addition, a kinetic model was developed to account for both the COS formation and the COS decomposition reactions. And, finally, for the reverse reaction, the COS decomposition reaction rate constant (k{sub r}) was regressed to match the equilibrium data of experiments at high temperatures giving a second-order reaction rate constant as k{sub r} = (2.18 {+-} 1.12) {times} 10{sup 9} exp[{minus}(21630 {+-} 160 K)/T] m{sup 3}/(kmol{center_dot}s).

  5. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the carbonyl sulfide ion with momentum analysis of the sulfur product ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclide 12-90-G mass spectrometer was modified for use as a photofragment momentum spectrometer. The resultant apparatus was capable of obtaining both absolute cross sections for photodissociation with respect to wavelength and relative cross sections for photodissociation with respect to kinetic energy release. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the nitrous oxide cation (leading to the production of the nitric oxide cation and the nitrogen atom), was studied at 3080.4 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3381.4 [angstrom]. When a nitrogen atom was produced in the [sup 4]S state, the nitric oxide cation was found to be formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Nitrogen atoms were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state when it was energetically feasible at 3371.3 [angstrom] and 3080.4 [angstrom]. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the carbonyl sulfide cation (leading to the production of carbon monoxide and a sulfur cation), was studied at 2822.2 [angstrom], 2921.8 [angstrom], 2991.0 [angstrom], 2991.9 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], 3104.3 [angstrom], 3127.9 [angstrom], 3184.9 [angstrom], 3351.8 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3393.0 [angstrom]. When sulfur cations were produced in the [sup 4]S state, the carbon monoxide products were formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Sulfur cations were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state from hot bands at 3351.8 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], and 2991.9 [angstrom]. Sulfur cations were also produced in the [sup 2]D state at 2921.8 [angstrom] and 2822.2 [angstrom], where it was energetically feasible from the ground state of carbonyl sulfide cations.

  6. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  7. Hybrid sulfur cycle operation for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorensek, Maximilian B

    2015-02-17

    A hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process for the production of hydrogen is provided. The process uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) SO.sub.2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) for the low-temperature, electrochemical reaction step and a bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step The process can be operated at lower temperature and pressure ranges while still providing an overall energy efficient cycle process.

  8. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1999-06-22

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  9. HYBRID SULFUR FLOWSHEETS USING PEM ELECTROLYSIS AND A BAYONET DECOMPOSITION REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; William Summers, W

    2008-05-30

    A conceptual design is presented for a Hybrid Sulfur process for the production of hydrogen using a high-temperature nuclear heat source to split water. The process combines proton exchange membrane-based SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer technology being developed at Savannah River National Laboratory with silicon carbide bayonet decomposition reactor technology being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Both are part of the US DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The flowsheet otherwise uses only proven chemical process components. Electrolyzer product is concentrated from 50 wt% sulfuric acid to 75 wt% via recuperative vacuum distillation. Pinch analysis is used to predict the high-temperature heat requirement for sulfuric acid decomposition. An Aspen Plus{trademark} model of the flowsheet indicates 340.3 kJ high-temperature heat, 75.5 kJ low-temperature heat, 1.31 kJ low-pressure steam, and 120.9 kJ electric power are consumed per mole of H{sub 2} product, giving an LHV efficiency of 35.3% (41.7% HHV efficiency) if electric power is available at a conversion efficiency of 45%.

  10. Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

  11. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  12. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 C to ~750 C may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  13. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes which face each other

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (Lafayette, CA); Orr, Thomas Robert (Castro Valley, CA); Greene, Charles Maurice (Oakland, CA); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (Orinda, CA); Berman, Samuel Maurice (San Francisco, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  14. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, G.; Orr, T.R.; Greene, C.M.; Crawford, D.G.; Berman, S.M.

    1998-10-20

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance. 17 figs.

  15. RF driven sulfur lamp having driving electrodes arranged to cool the lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gabor, George (820 Skywood Rd., Lafayette, CA 94549); Orr, Thomas Robert (2285 Vestal, Castro Valley, CA 94546); Greene, Charles Maurice (6450 Regent St., Oakland, CA 94618); Crawford, Douglas Gordon (33 Longridge Rd., Orinda, CA 94563); Berman, Samuel Maurice (2832 Union St., San Francisco, CA 94123)

    1998-01-01

    A high intensity discharge lamp without mercury is disclosed radiating a selected spectrum of which can be almost entirely in the visible range from an envelope that contains a sulfur containing substance. The lamp utilizes a signal source that generates an excitation signal that is externally coupled to the exterior surface of the envelope to excite the enclosed sulfur containing substance. Various embodiments of the lamp use electrodes adjacent the envelope to couple the excitation signal thereto with the face of the electrodes shaped to complement the shape of the exterior surface of the envelope. Two shapes discussed are spherical and cylindrical. To minimize filamentary discharges each envelope may include an elongated stem affixed to the exterior thereof whereby a rotational subsystem spins the envelope. In yet another embodiment the envelope has a Dewar configuration with two electrodes, one positioned near the external curved side surface of the body, and a second to the inner surface of the hole through the envelope. Further, the envelope may contain a backfill of a selected inert gas to assist in the excitation of lamp with that backfill at a pressure of less than 1 atmosphere, wherein the backfill pressure is directly related to the increase or decrease of peak output and inversely related to the increase and decrease of the emitted spectrum from the envelope. The emitting fill can be less than 6 mg/cc, or at least 2 mg/cc of the envelope of a sulfur containing substance.

  16. A class of polysulfide catholytes for lithium-sulfur batteries: energy density, cyclability, and voltage enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, XW; Manthiram, A

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-phase polysulfide catholytes are attracting much attention in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as they provide a facile dispersion and homogeneous distribution of the sulfur active material in the conductive matrix. However, the organic solvents used in lithium-polysulfide (Li-PS) batteries play an important role and have an impact on the physico-chemical characteristics of polysulfides. For instance, significantly higher voltages (similar to 2.7 V) of the S/S-n(2-) (4 <= n <= 8) redox couple are observed in Li-PS batteries with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvents. Accordingly, high power Li-PS batteries are presented here with the catholyte prepared with NMP solvent and operated with the highly reversible sulfur/long-chain polysulfide redox couple. On the other hand, a remarkable cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS battery is observed with the long-chain, ether-based tetraglyme (TEGDME) solvent. The voltage enhancement and the cyclability enhancement of the Li-PS batteries are attributed to the solvation effect, viscosity, and volatility of the solvents. Finally, highly concentrated polysulfide catholytes are successfully synthesized, with which high energy density Li-PS batteries are demonstrated by employing a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) fabric electrode.

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  18. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  19. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  20. Airborne measurements of total sulfur gases during NASA global tropospheric experiment/chemical instrumentation test and evaluation 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; MacTaggart, D.L.; Chatham, W.H.

    1995-04-20

    A metal foil collection/flash desorption/flame photometric detection (MFC/FD/FPD) technique was used by investigators from the University of Idaho (UI) to measure ambient total sulfur gas concentrations from an aircraft platform during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (GTE/CITE 3) program. The MFC/FD/FPD technique allowed rapid quantitation of tropospheric background air masses using sample integration times of 1-3 min with little or no gap between measurements. The rapid and continual sampling nature of this technique yielded data covering approximately 75% of the entire CITE 3 program`s air track. Ambient air measurement data obtained during northern hemisphere (NH) flights often exhibited relatively high total sulfur gas values (up to 19 ppb) and an extremely high degree of sample heterogeneity, especially in coastal locations. Data from southern hemisphere (SH) flights typically exhibited relatively low total sulfur gas concentrations and a low degree of sample heterogeneity. A bimodal interhemispheric total sulfur gas gradient was observed using data obtained during transit flights between the two CITE 3 program ground bases. Comparisons were made of UI total sulfur gas measurements with composite sulfur gas values generated using speciated sulfur gas measurements from other CITE 3 participants. Only a relatively small number of overlap periods for comparison were obtained from all the available CITE 3 data because of large differences in measurement integration times and lack of synchronization of sample start/stop times for the various investigators. These effects were compounded with extreme sample heterogeneity in the NH and the speed at which the aircraft traversed the air masses being sampled. Comparison of NH UI total with composite sulfur gas values showed excellent correlation and linear curve fit, indicating substantial qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission - written by Alice L. Buck Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, July 1983. 41 pp. PDF icon AEC History.pdf More Documents & Publications The History of Nuclear Energy The Manhattan Project Hewlett and Holl - Atoms for Peace and War

  2. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  3. Women's History Month: Women of Geothermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When it comes to equality in employment for women, EERE's Geothermal Technologies Office is leading the way, literally. Guided by Dr. Susan Hamm as acting director, the program has equal representation of women in the office's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) positions. EERE celebrates the Women of Geothermal in Women's History Month.

  4. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by concentration of the sulfuric acid. Various cell configurations were examined with respect to the deposition of electrocatalyst and use of conductive carbon materials such as carbon cloth and carbon paper. Findings from these evaluations and the results of the membrane and electrocatalyst testing, we prepared three different membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for electrolyzer testing. The first MEA consisted of a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane with platinum electrocatalyst deposited on carbon cloths, which were heat pressed onto the membrane, an assembly identical to those used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The second MEA also used a Nafion membrane with the electrocatalysts deposited directly onto the membrane. The third MEA proved similar to the second but utilized a PBI membrane in place of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane. Tailor of the membrane and catalysts properties for the SDE system was concluded as a required step for the technology to move forward. It was also recommended the evaluation of the tested and new developed materials at conditions closer to the SDE operating conditions and for longer period of time.

  5. Kinetics of Direct Oxidation of H2S in Coal Gas to Elemental Sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-11-01

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced Vision 21 plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These Vision 21 plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppm and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation Vision 21 plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and 400 square cells/inch{sup 2}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-wash-coated monolithic catalyst, and various reactors such as a micro packed-bed reactor, a micro bubble reactor, and a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam.

  6. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,035 1,030 1,025 1,022 1,020 1,020 2013-2015...

  7. Maine Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,046 1,044 1,047 1,032 1,030 1,029 2007-2014...

  8. Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 954 947 959 990 1,005 1,011 2013-2015...

  9. Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,030 1,032 1,029 1,028 1,030 1,044 2007-2014...

  10. Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Feb-15 Mar-15 Apr-15 May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,054 1,060 1,062 1,065 1,069 1,070 2013-2015...

  11. Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,073 1,069 1,076 1,069 1,060 1,051 2013

  12. Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,044 1,044 1,043 1,051 1,051 1,049 2013

  13. Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,026 1,024 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,023 2013

  14. Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,026 1,027 2013

  15. Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,034 1,028 1,024 1,033 1,035 1,041 2013

  16. Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 1,030 2013

  17. Indiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,043 1,044 1,041 1,039 1,034 1,033 2013

  18. Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,059 1,059 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 2013

  19. Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,040 1,042 1,039 1,037 1,035 1,031 2013

  20. Kentucky Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Delivered to Consumers 1,024 1,015 1,020 1,024 1,021 1,024 2013