Sample records for hill deep anode

  1. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  2. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  3. Hille Paakkunainen Philosophy Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Hille Paakkunainen Philosophy Department Syracuse University 541 Hall of Languages Syracuse, NY 2011- Assistant Professor of Philosophy, Syracuse University Education 2011 PhD, Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh 2003 MA (first class honors), Philosophy, University of Glasgow, UK Areas of Specialization Ethics

  4. Results from a pilot cell test of cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Strachan, D M; Henager, Jr, C H; Greenwell, E N [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Alcorn, T R [Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal was to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes for Hall-Heroult cells used to produce Al metal. The anodes were made from a ceramic/metal composite consisting of NiO and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and a Cu/Ni metal phase. Thirteen cermet anodes were tested at Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL. All anodes corroded severely during the pilot test. Electrolyte components were found deep within the anodes. However, there were many deficiencies in the pilot cell test, mainly the failure to maintain optimal operating conditions. It is concluded that there is a variety of fabrication and operational considerations that need to be addressed carefully in any future testing. 118 figs, 16 tabs, 17 refs.(DLC)

  5. Anode performance | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRedAndreasAnode performance Anode performance

  6. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  7. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  8. See Map 143 (A) Forest Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    Warwick Wiangaree Beenleigh Toowoomba Cleveland Redcliffe Urbenville Woodenbone Beaudesert Forest Hill

  9. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Black Hills Energy- Solar Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy has a performance-based incentive (PBI) for photovoltaic (PV) systems up to 100 kilowatts (kW) in capacity. In exchange for these incentives, Black Hills Energy earns the right...

  11. anodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  12. anodization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 25 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  13. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  14. GEORGE WATTS HILL ALUMNI CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    BR IN KH O U S- BU LLITT CHILLER BUILDING F KENAN STADIUM GEORGE WATTS HILL ALUMNI CENTER EHRINGHAUS FIELD DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY C AR PEN TRY SH O P CHILLER BUILDING NEURO SCIENCES WATER TOWER ITS MANNING CHILLER BUILDING PUBLIC SAFETY BLDG. MORRISON RIDGEROAD EHRINGHAUS BOSHAMER BASEBALL STADIUM

  15. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  16. Hill County Secondary Data Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    prevalence (Heart Attack) 4.0% 4.1% 6.0% All Sites Cancer 461.9 (Region 2) 455.5 543.2 1 Community) Leading Causes of Death County1 Montana1,2 Nation2 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Unintentional Injuries** 1. Cancer 2. Heart Disease 3.CLRD* 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. CLRD* #12; Hill County

  17. Microsoft Word - ThurstonHills_CX.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dorie Welch Project Manager - KEWM-4 Proposed Action: Thurston Hills property funding Fish and Wildlife Project No.: 2011-003-00, BPA-007071 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from...

  18. Black Hills Power- Commercial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Power provides rebates for its commercial customers who install energy efficient heat pumps, motors, variable frequency drives, lighting, and water heaters. Custom rebates for approved...

  19. Black Hills Power- Residential Customer Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Power offers cash rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment in their homes. Incentives exist for water heaters, demand control units, air...

  20. Trinity Hills | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective:Toyo AluminiumCity LightHills Jump to:

  1. Glacier Hills | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to: navigation,GigaCrete Inc Jump to: navigation,GillardHills Jump

  2. Laurel Hill | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone CleanLaton, California: Energy ResourcesHill Jump

  3. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory Investigates Fenton Hill to Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) completed sampling soil at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains this month. Fenton Hill, known to the...

  5. Loess Hills and Southern Iowa Development and Conservation (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Loess Hills Development and Conservation Authority, the Loess Hills Alliance, and the Southern Iowa Development and Conservation Authority are regional organizations with representatives from...

  6. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling-Computer Simulations At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Decker, 1983) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique...

  7. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site CH2M Hill Plateau...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company - November 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company - November 2012 November 2012 Review of the...

  8. Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Nanotube Fabrication byNanotube Fabrication by Anodic Aluminum Oxide,Anodic Aluminum Oxide, Self-regulating phenomena in materials science: Self-assembly of nanopores during anodic oxidation of aluminum (AAO) Self combined anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanostructures with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate

  9. Peering Deep inside Nongraphitic Anodes with Synchrotron Microtomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven AshbyDepartment ofGE's E.GilmanKurt'sPeacefulHow Magnetic

  10. Fabrication of advanced design (grooved) cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Huettig, F.R. (Ceramic Magnetics, Inc., Fairfield, NJ (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts were made to fabricate full-size anodes with advanced, or grooved, design using isostatic pressing, slip casting injection molding. Of the three approaches, isostatic pressing produced an anode with dimensions nearest to the target specifications, without serious macroscopic flaws. This approach is considered the most promising for making advanced anodes for aluminum smelting. However, significant work still remains to optimize the physical properties and microstructure of the anode, both of which were significantly different from that of previous anodes. Injection molding and slip casting yielded anode materials with serious deficiencies, including cracks and holes. Injection molding gave cermet material with the best intrinsic microstructure, i.e., the microstructure of the material between macroscopic flaws was very similar to that of anodes previously made at PNL. Reason for the similarity may have to do with amount of residual binder in the material prior to sintering.

  11. Microbial fuel cell with improved anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing a microbial fuel cell, wherein the method includes: (i) inoculating an anodic liquid medium in contact with an anode of the microbial fuel cell with one or more types of microorganisms capable of functioning by an exoelectrogenic mechanism; (ii) establishing a biofilm of the microorganisms on and/or within the anode along with a substantial absence of planktonic forms of the microorganisms by substantial removal of the planktonic microorganisms during forced flow and recirculation conditions of the anodic liquid medium; and (iii) subjecting the microorganisms of the biofilm to a growth stage by incorporating one or more carbon-containing nutritive compounds in the anodic liquid medium during biofilm formation or after biofilm formation on the anode has been established.

  12. CX-001227: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 114 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 03162010 Location(s): Big Hill, Texas Office(s):...

  13. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    long life and improved Safety for PHEV and EV applications. Objectives Develop a low cost synthesis methods to prepare high energy anodes Full structural and...

  14. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  15. Deep Web Web Deep Web Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep Web 100872 Deep Web Web Deep Web Web Web Deep Web Deep Web TP391 A Uncertain Schema Matching in Deep Web Integration Service JIANG Fang-Jiao MENG Xiao-Feng JIA Lin-Lin (School of Information, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872) Abstract: With increasing of Deep Web, providing

  16. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  17. Interactions of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing arsenic. Interactions of nickelzirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes with coal gas containing...

  18. Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium-ion Batteries Establish and Expand Commercial Production of Graphite Anode Materials...

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Anode Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE...

  20. anodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is analyzed Nielsen, Mads Pagh 27 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Physics Websites Summary: Polymeric anodes for...

  1. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Fenton Hill HDR Reservoir Donald W. Brown (1994) How to Achieve a Four-Fold Productivity Increase at Fenton Hill Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.org...

  2. Town of Chapel Hill- Energy Conservation Requirements for Town Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Town of Chapel Hill’s energy-conservation ordinance requires that all town-owned buildings be designed to achieve a goal of achieving a Silver level certification as defined by the Green...

  3. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers its residential Iowa customers incentives to encourage energy efficiency in their homes. Black Hills Energy offers a free home energy evaluation to customers (both owners...

  4. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  5. Vehicle route to Stag Hill Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    HILL COURT (1­44) UNIVERSITY COURT (45­66) SCS HC Yorkie's Bridge Rising Barrier Path to Ridgemount MILLENNIUMHOUSE SE AQA Car Park AQA Car Park PM Barrier Entrance Exit IAC LC Senate Car Park Guildford Railway 18 16 21 19 14 23 22 20 R Chancellors SU Mole 23 W Bourne 22 Black Water 21 Wey 27 Thames 24 Wandle

  6. Ecology, Silviculture, and Management of Black Hills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    . Battaglia United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-97 September 2002 #12;Shepperd, Wayne D.; Battaglia, Michael A. 2002. Ecology in Arizona, and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Michael A. Battaglia is a research associate with METI

  7. Anodizing of High Electrically Stressed Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, P. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Hogge, K. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Naffziger, C. [NSTec; Codova, S. R. [SNL; Ormond, E. U. [SNL

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodizing creates an aluminum oxide coating that penetrates into the surface as well as builds above the surface of aluminum creating a very hard ceramic-type coating with good dielectric properties. Over time and use, the electrical carrying components (or spools in this case) experience electrical breakdown, yielding undesirable x-ray dosages or failure. The spool is located in the high vacuum region of a rod pinch diode section of an x-ray producing machine. Machine operators have recorded decreases in x-ray dosages over numerous shots using the reusable spool component, and re-anodizing the interior surface of the spool does not provide the expected improvement. A machine operation subject matter expert coated the anodized surface with diffusion pump oil to eliminate electrical breakdown as a temporary fix. It is known that an anodized surface is very porous, and it is because of this porosity that the surface may trap air that becomes a catalyst for electrical breakdown. In this paper we present a solution of mitigating electrical breakdown by oiling. We will also present results of surface anodizing improvements achieved by surface finish preparation and surface sealing. We conclude that oiling the anodized surface and using anodized hot dip sealing processes will have similar results.

  8. Improvement of four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel Salam, F. W.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M. [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P. No. 13759 (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, an improved form of a saddle field ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of four anode rods made from copper and two copper cathode discs. The two cathode discs are placed symmetrically on both sides of the four anode rods. The electrical discharge and output ion beam characteristics were measured at different pressures using argon gas. The optimum distance between each two anode rods was determined. Also the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc was obtained. It was found that the optimum distance between each two anode rods equal to 6 mm, while the optimum distance between the four anode rods and any cathode disc equal to 16 mm, where a stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current can be obtained. The effect of negative extraction voltage applied to both the extractor electrode and Faraday cup on the output ion beam current was studied. The sputter yield of copper and aluminum targets using argon ions of different energies was determined.

  9. EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE’s Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, was preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action had been implemented, Western would have interconnected the proposed facility to an existing transmission line. This project has been canceled.

  10. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 ?m or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  11. 3D Model of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    The McGinness Hills geothermal system lies in a ~8.5 km wide, north-northeast trending accommodation zone defined by east-dipping normal faults bounding the Toiyabe Range to the west and west-dipping normal faults bounding the Simpson Park Mountains to the east. Within this broad accommodation zone lies a fault step-over defined by north-northeast striking, west-dipping normal faults which step to the left at roughly the latitude of the McGinness Hills geothermal system. The McGinness Hills 3D model consists of 9 geologic units and 41 faults. The basal geologic units are metasediments of the Ordovician Valmy and Vininni Formations (undifferentiated in the model) which are intruded by Jurassic granitic rocks. Unconformably overlying is a ~100s m-thick section of Tertiary andesitic lava flows and four Oligocene-to-Miocene ash-flow tuffs: The Rattlesnake Canyon Tuff, tuff of Sutcliffe, the Cambell Creek Tuff and the Nine Hill tuff. Overlying are sequences of pre-to-syn-extensional Quaternary alluvium and post-extensional Quaternary alluvium. 10-15º eastward dip of the Tertiary stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Geothermal production comes from two west dipping normal faults in the northern limb of the step over. Injection is into west dipping faults in the southern limb of the step over. Production and injection sites are in hydrologic communication, but at a deep level, as the northwest striking fault that links the southern and northern limbs of the step-over has no permeability.

  12. 3D Model of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The McGinness Hills geothermal system lies in a ~8.5 km wide, north-northeast trending accommodation zone defined by east-dipping normal faults bounding the Toiyabe Range to the west and west-dipping normal faults bounding the Simpson Park Mountains to the east. Within this broad accommodation zone lies a fault step-over defined by north-northeast striking, west-dipping normal faults which step to the left at roughly the latitude of the McGinness Hills geothermal system. The McGinness Hills 3D model consists of 9 geologic units and 41 faults. The basal geologic units are metasediments of the Ordovician Valmy and Vininni Formations (undifferentiated in the model) which are intruded by Jurassic granitic rocks. Unconformably overlying is a ~100s m-thick section of Tertiary andesitic lava flows and four Oligocene-to-Miocene ash-flow tuffs: The Rattlesnake Canyon Tuff, tuff of Sutcliffe, the Cambell Creek Tuff and the Nine Hill tuff. Overlying are sequences of pre-to-syn-extensional Quaternary alluvium and post-extensional Quaternary alluvium. 10-15º eastward dip of the Tertiary stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Geothermal production comes from two west dipping normal faults in the northern limb of the step over. Injection is into west dipping faults in the southern limb of the step over. Production and injection sites are in hydrologic communication, but at a deep level, as the northwest striking fault that links the southern and northern limbs of the step-over has no permeability.

  13. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  14. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1st 2005 to February 28th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  15. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME June 1st 2006 to August 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  16. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME September 1st 2006 to November 30th 2006.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  17. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME December 1, 2006 ­ February 28, 2007...................................................................................................................... 7 Wind Speed Time Series............................................................................................................. 8 Wind Speed Distributions

  18. WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND DATA REPORT Camden Hills Regional High School, ME March 1st 2006 to May 31th 2006 Prepared.................................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Time Series........................................................................................................... 10 Wind Speed Distributions

  19. Core Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brookins &...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Core Analysis Activity Date - 1983 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes See linked...

  20. Cuttings Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Laughlin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Laughlin, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity...

  1. Conceptual Model At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Grigsby & Tester, 1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Conceptual Model At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby & Tester,...

  2. Black Hills Energy (Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers rebates for residential Colorado customers who purchase energy efficient residential equipment. This program offers rebates for customers who purchase and install...

  3. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers commercial and industrial customers incentives to encourage energy efficiency in eligible businesses. Prescriptive rebates are available for furnace and boiler...

  4. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers multiple programs for Colorado commercial and industrial customers to save natural gas in eligible facilities. The commercial prescriptive rebate program provides...

  5. Black Hills Energy (Electric)- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers multiple programs for its Colorado commercial and industrial customers to save electricity in their facilities. The commercial prescriptive rebate program provides...

  6. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers a variety of rebates for residential Colorado customers who purchase and install energy efficient natural gas appliances, heating equipment and insulation materials....

  7. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration...

  8. Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Surface Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Goff & Janik, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  9. Nanocomposite protective coatings for battery anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmon, John P; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified surfaces on metal anodes for batteries can help resist formation of malfunction-inducing surface defects. The modification can include application of a protective nanocomposite coating that can inhibit formation of surface defects. such as dendrites, on the anode during charge/discharge cycles. For example, for anodes having a metal (M'), the protective coating can be characterized by products of chemical or electrochemical dissociation of a nanocomposite containing a polymer and an exfoliated compound (M.sub.a'M.sub.b''X.sub.c). The metal, M', comprises Li, Na, or Zn. The exfoliated compound comprises M' among lamella of M.sub.b''X.sub.c, wherein M'' is Fe, Mo, Ta, W, or V, and X is S, O, or Se.

  10. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids production on a remote part of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation. Much of the natural gas and natural gas liquids are being produced from the Wingate Formation, which to our knowledge has never produced commercially anywhere. Another large percentage of the natural gas is being produced from the Entrada Formation which has not previously produced in this part of the Uinta Basin. In all, at least nine geologic formations are contributing hydrocarbons to these wells. This survey has clearly established the fact that high-quality data can be obtained in this area, despite the known obstacles.

  11. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

  12. Record Hill Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015 |Rebecca Matulka AboutEnergy Practice forRecord Hill

  13. Chandler Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarreis aCallahanWindSyracuse,CER.png El CERChaiIL)Chandler Hills

  14. Smoky Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement,SmartestEnergy Ltd JumpSmoky Hills

  15. Sunny Hill Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g GrantAtlas (PACAOpenSummerside WindSolar Energy Jump to:Sunny Hill

  16. Wilmont Hills Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place:ReferenceEdit JumpWill County, Illinois: FacilityWilmont Hills

  17. Deep drilling technology for hot crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal systems at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico site has required the drilling of four deep boreholes into hot, Precambrian granitic and metamorphic rocks. Thermal gradient holes, four observation wells 200 m (600 ft) deep, and an exploration core hole 800 m (2400 ft) deep guided the siting of the four deep boreholes. Results derived from the exploration core hole, GT-1 (Granite Test No. 1), were especially important in providing core from the granitic rock, and establishing the conductive thermal gradient and heat flow for the granitic basement rocks. Essential stratigraphic data and lost drilling-fluid zones were identified for the volcanic and sedimentary rocks above the contact with the crystalline basement. Using this information drilling strategies and well designs were then devised for the planning of the deeper wells. The four deep wells were drilled in pairs, the shallowest were planned and drilled to depths of 3 km in 1975 at a bottom-hole temperature of nearly 200/sup 0/C. These boreholes were followed by a pair of wells, completed in 1981, the deepest of which penetrated the Precambrian basement to a vertical depth of 4.39 km at a temperature of 320/sup 0/C.

  18. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  19. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stability of Si-based anode. 4 Milestones * Synthesize and characterize TiO 2 Graphene and SnO 2 Graphene nano-composite as anode for Li-ion batteries. - on going *...

  20. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Antusch; David Nolde; Stefano Orani

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 'hilltop inflation', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the 'hilltop') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the 'hill', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses 'over the top of the hill' towards the 'wrong vacuum'. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: Rather than durable domain walls, these regions form oscillon-like structures (i.e. localized bubbles that oscillate between the two vacua) which should be included in a careful study of preheating in hilltop inflation.

  1. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antusch, Stefan; Orani, Stefano

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 'hilltop inflation', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the 'hilltop') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the 'hill', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses 'over the top of the hill' towards the 'wrong vacuum'. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: Rather t...

  2. CITY Of MORGAN HILL DEVELOPMENT SERVIC ES CENTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or the green point threshold required. Thank you for considering Morgan Hill's Sustainable Building Ordinance Street Sacramento, Ca 95814-5514 Re: City of Morgan Hill Sustainable Building Ordinance and the Building staff presented the Sustainable Building Ordinance and the Energy Cost Effective Study to the City

  3. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  4. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  5. Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water-Gas Sampling At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Janik & Goff, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Water-Gas...

  6. Case Study- Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy savings performance contracting at Hill Air Force Base generated much interest during a recent training session on energy management that downlinked 12 Department of Defense sites. Energy systems in 940 buildings on the Base will be upgraded under an 18-year ESPC between the Government and the energy service company, CES/Way. Improvements are distributed over five task orders that will be completed in five years, with CES/Way providing $2.5 million in up-front costs for the first two task orders. Utah Power & Light will provide $8 million in rebates to help cover the contractor's initial investment, maintenance services, and interest costs. The remainder of the costs will be reimbursed from the Government's share of energy savings.

  7. Deep Research Submarine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woertz, Jeff

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deep Sea Research Submarine (Figure 1) is a modified VIRGINIA Class Submarine that incorporates a permanently installed Deep Sea Operations Compartment (Figure 2). Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of the Deep ...

  8. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  9. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  10. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Residential New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy offers new construction rebates for home builders in the eligible service area. Rebates between $800 and $5,000 are available for a range of efficiency measures incorporated into...

  11. Farmington Hills Partners With Michigan Saves With Eyes on the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the camera via Skype. Better Buildings Residential Network member Farmington Hills, Michigan, held a January kick-off event to announce its plans to launch a host of programs...

  12. Town of Chapel Hill- Land-Use Management Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003, the Town of Chapel Hill adopted a land-use management ordinance that includes prohibitions against neighborhood or homeowners association covenants or other conditions of sale that...

  13. Town of Kill Devil Hills- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In October 2007, the town of Kill Devil Hills adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any individual or organization wishing to install a wind-energy...

  14. Jobtong Deep Web Web""Surface WebDeep Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jobtong Deep Web Web Web Web""Surface WebDeep Web Surface WebDeep Web Web[1] 20007BrightPlanet.comDeep Web[2] Web43,000-96,000Web7,500TB(Surface Web500) UIUC5Deep Web[3]2004Deep Web 307,000366,000-535,000"" Deep Web""Google Yahoo32%Deep Web WAMDMWebDeep WebJobtong Deep Web (Jobtong) Jobtong(, http

  15. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

  17. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for rechargeable lithium batteries. J. Power Sources 139,for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,nano-anodes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Novel Anode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about novel anode...

  19. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  20. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  1. Hybrid phosphazene anodes for energy storage applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Dufek; Mark L. Stone; Kevin L. Gering; Frederick F. Stewart; David Jamison; Aaron D. Wilson; Lucia M. Petkovic; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hybrid cyclic phosphazene polymer/graphite anodes, where the phosphazene serves as distributed loci for Li deposition, has been investigated. Capacity within the hybrid system was found to occur reversibly in distinct regions. At the most positive voltages, above 0.06 V vs Li/Li+, the capacity was associated mostly with Li+ intercalation into graphite. In the most negative region, deposition of Li within the polymer was the predominate mechanism. A transitional region is inferred by the data whereby bulk aggregation or clustering of Li atoms occurs in proximity to the phosphazene sites that then serve as a template for more widespread population of Li within the anode at higher voltages, akin to a nucleation process. In full cells with a mixed oxide cathode, controlling the extent of Li deposition by limiting the charging voltage to 4.45 V enabled repeated cycling with no loss in capacity. Capacities as high as 183 mAh g-1 have been achieved for systems containing as little as 10% graphite while retaining coulombic efficiencies of 98% over 50 cycles. This level of cycling equates to the deposition of 7.4 Li per cyclic phosphazene.

  2. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  3. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  4. CX-011224: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Deep-Anode Ground Bed Sites for Big Hill Cavern 104 and Site Unit 1 "A", and BC Cavern 18 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 10012013...

  5. CX-005369: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination Replacement of Big Hill Deep Anode Ground Bed Site for Cavern 103 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02222011 Location(s): Texas Office(s): Strategic...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode supported planar Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science ; Engineering 27 Polymeric anodes for improved polymer light-emitting diode performance S. A. Cartera) Summary: Polymeric anodes for improved polymer...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodizing aluminum sections Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anodizing aluminum sections Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anodizing aluminum sections Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ENS'05 Paris,...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode image sensor Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arc enters the anode is referred... and behavior of the anode spot under typical plasma cutting conditions. III. ... Source: Settles, Gary S. - Department of Mechanical and...

  9. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A. [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)] [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  10. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwan, Thomas J. T. (Los Alamos, NM); Snell, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  11. Deep Web video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  12. Deep Web video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None Available

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To make the web work better for science, OSTI has developed state-of-the-art technologies and services including a deep web search capability. The deep web includes content in searchable databases available to web users but not accessible by popular search engines, such as Google. This video provides an introduction to the deep web search engine.

  13. Co2 Deep Store Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin: Energy ResourcesInformationWindpowerHill,Deep Store Ltd

  14. Analysis of Subsidence Data for the Big Hill Site, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The elevation change data measured at the Big Hill SPR site over the last 10 years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate at Big Hill is low in comparison with other Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites and has decreased with time due to the maintenance of higher operating pressures and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. A model was developed to project subsidence values 20 years into the future; no subsidence related issues are apparent from these projections.

  15. Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

  16. Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

  17. Piecewise Linear Hypersurfaces using the Marching Cubes Jonathan C. Roberts a and Steve Hill b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Hill b a University of Kent at Canterbury, Computing Laboratory, Canterbury, England, UK. b Radan steve.hill@uk.radan.com #12; A two dimensional contour on a map, representing a particular height above

  18. Town of Chapel Hill- Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE) Homes and Buildings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapel Hill is using money made available to it from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to help subsidize energy efficiency improvements in Chapel Hill homes. Qualified homeowners...

  19. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Ushikubo a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Hills lithium weathering continental crust Hadean In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios (7 Li=-19 to+13) about five

  20. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Type #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Pointers are convenient in some cases struct NodeGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. E.g. Buffer overflow problem Particularly troublesome in C as points and array are regarded

  1. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Semantics (2) #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 7.1 Motivation 7.2 ExpressionGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Ways to express program semantics · Operational semantics: Whatever happens when the program

  2. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Parser #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Quick Review ­ LL & LR Grammar and Parser · A calculation ­ algorithm for computing the nullable sets #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

  3. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Regular Expression and Lexer #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Review * Compiler;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 3.1 Chomsky Hierarchy 3.2 Lexical Analysis 3

  4. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Lambda Calculus in Further Depth #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Lambda Calculus parameter specify the function body #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. #12;Copyright

  5. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Semantics #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 7.1 Motivation 7.2 Expression.7 Exception Handling Semantics #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7.1 Motivation To provide

  6. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Scope #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4.1 Syntactic Issues 4.2 Variables 4.3 Scope 4;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Recall that the term binding is an association between

  7. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parallel Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Noemi

    Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parallel Programming in C with MPI and OpenMP Michael J. Quinn #12;Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies;Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Learning

  8. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Lambda Calculus in Further Depth #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Quick Review: Lambda Calculus ­ Syntax ­ Semantics #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. #12;Copyright

  9. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Grammars (2) Xipeng Shen #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 2.1 Grammars ! 2.5.2 Abstract Syntax Trees #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. BNF Grammar Set of productions

  10. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Parser #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Recursive Descent Parser (cont.) Outline with an example · Basic coding · Output abstract syntax tree #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

  11. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. CSC312 Principles of Programming Languages : Syntax (4) Xipeng Shen #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Review: Extended BNF (EBNF;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Fig. 2.7 Clite Grammar: Statements Program int main

  12. Copyright 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Object Oriented Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xipeng

    Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 13 Object Oriented Programming #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 13.1 Prelude: Abstract Data Types 13.2 The Object Model 13.4 Java #12;Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 13.1 Prelude: Abstract Data Types

  13. Inert Anode Life in Low Temperature Reduction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, Donald R.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of aluminum metal by low temperature electrolysis utilizing metal non-consumable anodes and ceramic cathodes was extensively investigated. Tests were performed with traditional sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride composition electrolytes, potassium fluoride-- aluminum fluoride electrolytes, and potassium fluoride--sodium fluoride--aluminum fluoride electrolytes. All of the Essential First-Tier Requirements of the joint DOE-Aluminum Industry Inert Anode Road Map were achieved and those items yet to be resolved for commercialization of this technology were identified. Methods for the fabrication and welding of metal alloy anodes were developed and tested. The potential savings of energy and energy costs were determined and potential environmental benefits verified.

  14. Adhesion of anodic films on aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeldon, P.; Zhou, X.; Thompson, G.E.; Wood, G.C. (Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre); Habazaki, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research); Shimizu, K. (Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan). University Chemical Lab.)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During anodizing of certain binary Al alloys, the growing anodic oxide film detaches from the alloy substrate, subsequently allowing access of the electrolyte to the underlying bare metal and re-anodizing at a high current density. An Al-3% Li alloy was shown to reveal these phenomena, which are associated with the development of voids at the alloy/film interface as the film thickens. The development of voids, assisting the film detachment, was attributed to the reduced volume of lithium oxide (Li[sub 2]O) formed at the alloy/film interface and compared to that of alumina (Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]).

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Christopher E. Hill S. Elizabeth Campbell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Christopher E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Christopher E. Hill á S. Elizabeth Campbell J. Cully Nordby á John M. Burt á: +1-206-6853157 S.E. Campbell á J.C. Nordby á J.M. Burt á M.D. Beecher Department of Psychology sharing is correlated with mating success in brown-headed c

  16. MeteorologicalObservationsin Support of a Hill Cap Cloud Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark July 1998 #12;Abstract Humid air flows form a hill cap this cloud forma- tion to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based

  17. Kentucky River Pleasant Hill/ S.R.33 Burgin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkel, Raphael

    Lexington U.S.68 S.R.1268 Wilmore S.R. 33 Kentucky River Mt. Zion Church Pleasant Hill/ S.R.33 Lexington on US 68 heading SSW. Drive across the Kentucky River ­ down palisades and up the other side, Mercer Co. Ky The church is located between the Kentucky River and Shaker Village. There is no indoor

  18. anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  19. advanced anodic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode materia.l1-9 These materials have been showed large-14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15-20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21-25 have been Cho,...

  20. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with...

  1. Microbial Community Composition Is Unaffected by Anode Potential Xiuping Zhu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHE).2,6 This voltage can be produced by an external power source, or through insertion of a reverse electrodialysis stack between the electrodes.7,8 The anode potential can influence the performance of BESs.9

  2. Virus-Enabled Silicon Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel three-dimensional Tobacco mosaic virus assembled silicon anode is reported. This electrode combines genetically modified virus templates for the production of high aspect ratio nanofeatured surfaces with electroless deposition to produce an integrated nickel current collector followed by physical vapor deposition of a silicon layer to form a high capacity silicon anode. This composite silicon anode produced high capacities (3300 mAh/g), excellent charge?discharge cycling stability (0.20% loss per cycle at 1C), and consistent rate capabilities (46.4% at 4C) between 0 and 1.5 V. The biological templated nanocomposite electrode architecture displays a nearly 10-fold increase in capacity over currently available graphite anodes with remarkable cycling stability.

  3. anode cathodic protection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  4. anodic tantala films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Materials Science Websites Summary: to be an efficient anode for organic light-emitting diode OLED X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, H. J. Peng, Z. G. Meng, M. Wong an ultrathin...

  5. anode interfacial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OLEDs have been fabricated using a new anode-cathode-layer (ACL) that connects light emitting diode (OLED) 1, much development has been made to improve this device for...

  6. Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Why Silicon Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries Are Fast to Discharge but Slow to Charge December 02, 2014 Measured and calculated rate-performance of a Si thin-film (70...

  7. Molybdenum Dioxide As A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    its strength. Application of the cathode occurs next. An LSCF or similar powder is mixed allowing the water to evaporate from the LSCF, the half-cell is sintered again. The anode is applied

  8. Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

  9. Porous anodic aluminum oxide scaffolds; formation mechanisms and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) can be created with pores that self-assemble into ordered configurations. Nanostructured metal oxides have proven to be very useful as scaffolds for growth of nanowires and nanotubes ...

  10. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University 200,000 Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Coated Layered SiO x -Graphene Nanocomposite Anodes J-G Zhang and J. Liu Pacific Northwest National Laboratory...

  11. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, E.

    1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  12. Fuel cell having dual electrode anode or cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findl, Eugene (Coram, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell that is characterized by including a dual electrode anode that is operable to simultaneously electro-oxidize a gaseous fuel and a liquid fuel. In alternative embodiments, a fuel cell having a single electrode anode is provided with a dual electrode cathode that is operable to simultaneously reduce a gaseous oxidant and a liquid oxidant to electro-oxidize a fuel supplied to the cell.

  13. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12;The addition of other metals to Platinum improves its fuel cell performance Pt alone is easily

  14. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  15. Process for anodizing a robotic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, William T. (Weston, MA)

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic device has a base and at least one finger having at least two links that are connected in series on rotary joints with at least two degrees of freedom. A brushless motor and an associated controller are located at each joint to produce a rotational movement of a link. Wires for electrical power and communication serially connect the controllers in a distributed control network. A network operating controller coordinates the operation of the network, including power distribution. At least one, but more typically two to five, wires interconnect all the controllers through one or more joints. Motor sensors and external world sensors monitor operating parameters of the robotic hand. The electrical signal output of the sensors can be input anywhere on the distributed control network. V-grooves on the robotic hand locate objects precisely and assist in gripping. The hand is sealed, immersible and has electrical connections through the rotary joints for anodizing in a single dunk without masking. In various forms, this intelligent, self-contained, dexterous hand, or combinations of such hands, can perform a wide variety of object gripping and manipulating tasks, as well as locomotion and combinations of locomotion and gripping.

  16. Fracturing alliance improves profitability of Lost Hills field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, M. (Schlumberger Dowell, Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Stewart, D. (Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Gaona, M. (Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    About 2 billion bbl of oil-in-place are present in the massive diatomite deposits of California's Lost Hills field, about 45 miles north-west of Bakersfield, Calif. Massive hydraulic fracturing treatments, 2,500-3,000 lb of proppant/net perforated ft, are an integral part of developing these reserves. An exclusive fracturing alliance initiated in 1990 between Chevron U.S.A. and Schlumberger Dowell has improved profitability of the Los Hills field. the paper describes the geology, the field before 1987, the 1987--90 period when hydraulic fracturing stimulation was found to be very costly, and after 1990 when the alliance was formed. The paper also describes the fracturing fluid, proppants, engineering evaluation, and execution of the job.

  17. In situ characterization of nanoscale catalysts during anodic redox processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Renu [National Institute of Standards and Technology] National Institute of Standards and Technology; Crozier, Peter [Arizona State University] Arizona State University; Adams, James [Arizona State University] Arizona State University

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling the structure and composition of the anode is critical to achieving high efficiency and good long-term performance. In addition to being a mixed electronic and ionic conductor, the ideal anode material should act as an efficient catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dry hydrocarbons without de-activating through either sintering or coking. It is also important to develop novel anode materials that can operate at lower temperatures to reduce costs and minimized materials failure associated with high temperature cycling. We proposed to synthesize and characterize novel anode cermets materials based on ceria doped with Pr and/or Gd together with either a Ni or Cu metallic components. Ceria is a good oxidation catalyst and is an ionic conductor at room temperature. Doping it with trivalent rare earths such as Pr or Gd retards sintering and makes it a mixed ion conductor (ionic and electronic). We have developed a fundamental scientific understanding of the behavior of the cermet material under reaction conditions by following the catalytic oxidation process at the atomic scale using a powerful Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (ESTEM). The ESTEM allowed in situ monitoring of structural, chemical and morphological changes occurring at the cermet under conditions approximating that of typical fuel-cell operation. Density functional calculations were employed to determine the underlying mechanisms and reaction pathways during anode oxidation reactions. The dynamic behavior of nanoscale catalytic oxidation of hydrogen and methane were used to determine: ? Fundamental processes during anodic reactions in hydrogen and carbonaceous atmospheres ? Interfacial effects between metal particles and doped ceria ? Kinetics of redox reaction in the anode material

  18. North Druid Hills, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(Utility Company) Jump to:City)Norristown,BraddockDruid Hills, Georgia: Energy

  19. Laguna Hills, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington: Energy Resources Jump to:Hills, California: Energy Resources

  20. Laguna Hills, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington: Energy Resources Jump to:Hills, California: Energy

  1. Lea Hill, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville, MN)Lauderhill,5. ItLea Hill, Washington: Energy

  2. Lexington Hills, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey, Washington:Lakeville,LeightonLeola,Meadow,LevyLexington Hills,

  3. Black Hills Power Inc (Montana) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE ISJump to: navigation,Black Hills

  4. Moreland Hills, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  5. Penn Hills, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,OrleansPassadumkeag, Maine:PawneeASPemiscotPenderPengchengHills,

  6. Pleasant Hills, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine: EnergyPierceJump81647°Pleak, Texas: EnergyPleasant Hill

  7. Jefferson Hills, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (botOpen6 Climate Zone Subtype A. Registered EnergyJefferson Hills

  8. City of Rich Hill, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDITOhioOglesby, Illinois (UtilityPortland Place:Radium, KansasRensselaer,Hill,

  9. City of Rock Hill, South Carolina (Utility Company) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDITOhioOglesby, Illinois (UtilityPortlandInformation Hill, South Carolina

  10. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  11. Experimental plan and construction guidance for Hanford Protective Barrier Test at Hill AFB, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, R.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permanent isolation surface barriers are needed to fully isolate buried waste materials for long periods of time from the general environment. Multi-layer surface barriers that use natural earthen materials overlying bio-intrusion layers of rock and/or asphalt are expected to reduce infiltration or deep percolation to less than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of water. The layering also reduces root penetration, preventing uptake and translocation of hazardous materials to the surface vegetation. The opportunity exists to test the Hanford Barrier in a wetter, colder climate at an existing lysimeter facility located at Hill Air Force Base near Salt Lake, Utah. The use of an existing lysimeter facility simplifies the construction effort and allows comparison of the Hanford Protective Barrier with an existing US Environmental Protection Agency-Resource Conservation and Recovery Act clay cap already undergoing tests at the lysimeter site. This document presents the experimental plan for testing the Hanford Protective Barrier in a wetter, colder climate.

  12. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  13. The possibility of forming a sacrificial anode coating for Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Juchuan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sacci, Robert L [ORNL; Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mg is the most active engineering metal, and is often used as a sacrificial anode/coating to protect other engineering metals from corrosion attack. So far no sacrificial anode coating has been developed or considered for Mg. This study explores the possibility of forming a sacrificial coating for Mg. A lithiated carbon coating and a metaphosphated coating are applied on the Mg surface, respectively, and their open-circuit-potentials are measured in saturated Mg(OH)2 solution. They exhibit more negative potentials than bare Mg. SEM reveals that the metaphosphated coating offers more effective and uniform protection for Mg than the lithiated carbon coating. These preliminary results indicate that development of a sacrificial anode coating for Mg is indeed possible.

  14. Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

  15. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

  16. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  17. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  18. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail ShareRedAndreasAnode performance Anode

  19. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Co., Inc., Hanford – Jan 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Co., Inc., Hanford is performing at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  20. GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION ASSESSMENT AND INTERPRETATION, KLAMATH BASIN, OREGON-SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    survey of the Swan Lake Valley area, Oregon: Geonornicssurvey of the Swan Lake Valley Area, Oregon: GeonomicsKLAMATH BASIN, OREGON SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA M.

  1. GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION ASSESSMENT AND INTERPRETATION, KLAMATH BASIN, OREGON-SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KLAMATH BASIN, OREGON SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA M.survey of the Swan Lake Valley area, Oregon: Geonornicssurvey of the Swan Lake Valley Area, Oregon: Geonomics

  2. GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION ASSESSMENT AND INTERPRETATION, KLAMATH BASIN, OREGON-SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KLAMATH BASIN, OREGON SWAN LAKE AND KLAMATH HILLS AREA M.of the Swan Lake-Yonna Valley area, Klamath County, Oregon:

  3. Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po-Chun

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    applications of micro/nano structures; (2) novel processes to innovate anodic aluminum oxide nanotube template; (3) the supercapacitor applications of anodic titanium oxide. First, the extremely high surface area AAO coated microneedle and microneedle array...

  4. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  5. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries. Enhanced performance of graphite anode materials by AlF3 coating for lithium-ion batteries....

  6. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodized ti-metal substrates Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion medium CDM , serves as a methanol... from the cathode into the anode to offset the water dragged by electro-osmosis. The new MEA, consisting... of a CDM anode, a...

  8. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of NiZirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin . Abstract: Surface...

  9. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode wire grids Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Fig. 12. Zinc thruster data while operating using a consumable anode. The same four-grid RPA used... consumable anodes that were machined from solid magnesium and zinc, which...

  11. Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

  12. Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

  13. Kirtland Hills, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (botOpen6Kentwood,George County isKingstonKirkland,Kirtland Hills,

  14. Loess Hills Wind Energy Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarListLiveFuels Inc JumpLoess Hills Wind Energy

  15. Loess Hills Wind Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolarListLiveFuels Inc JumpLoess Hills Wind

  16. Mars Hill (2006) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay(HeldManhattan,andMars Hill (2006) Wind Farm Jump to:

  17. Mars Hill (2007) Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay(HeldManhattan,andMars Hill (2006) Wind Farm Jump

  18. Clyde Hill, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin: Energy ResourcesInformationWindpowerHill, Washington:

  19. Agoura Hills, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitecAWS OceanInformationAvoidJumpAgoura Hills,

  20. Vine Hill, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformation UCOpenVerona,Hampton Place:PlymouthWoodvilleVinalhaven,VineHill,

  1. Waite Hill, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformationSEDS data Jump to:WabaunseeWadenaWaimalu,WairakeiWaite Hill,

  2. Walton Hills, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformationSEDS data JumpWakulla County,Wall,|WalthallHills, Ohio: Energy

  3. Hickory Hills, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHi Gtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:HickamHills is a city in

  4. Hidden Hills, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHi Gtel Jump to: navigation, search Name:HickamHills is aHidden

  5. Hill Airforce Base Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHi Gtel Jump to:County, Ohio: EnergyHiles, Wisconsin: EnergyHill

  6. Auburn Hills, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 EastMaine: Energy Resources JumpAspen Aerogels05. ItJumpAtraverda Ltd°Auburn Hills,

  7. Brewster Hill, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Area Solar EnergyBradbury,BraytonOpenBrentwood is aBrewer,Hill,

  8. Black Hills Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE ISJump to: navigation,Black Hills Electric

  9. Smoky Hills II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardtonManagement,SmartestEnergy Ltd JumpSmoky Hills II

  10. Settlers Hill Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation, search| Open EnergySermatec JumpSestaSettlers Hill Gas

  11. Shorewood Hills, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Pvt Ltd Jump to:Shenzhen79.Shokan, NewShorewood Hills,

  12. Society Hill, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,PvtSouthInformation SnohomishHome'sHill, New

  13. McGraw Hill Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellisMcDonald is a borough in AlleghenyMcGraw Hill

  14. West Hill, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative Jump to: navigation, search Name: WestDundee isHill, Ohio: Energy

  15. West Hills, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative Jump to: navigation, search Name: WestDundee isHill, Ohio:

  16. West Lake Hills, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative Jump to: navigation, search Name: WestDundee isHill,Hurley

  17. Pleasant Hill, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine: EnergyPierceJump81647°Pleak, Texas: EnergyPleasant Hill is a

  18. Pleasant Hill, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoadingPenobscot County, Maine: EnergyPierceJump81647°Pleak, Texas: EnergyPleasant Hill is

  19. Cookson Hills Elec Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derivedCoReturnCookson Hills Elec Coop, Inc

  20. CH2M Hill Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBoston Areais3: Crystalline Rock - BasementCEPIS JumpCETC SolarCEZM Hill

  1. Cimarron Hills, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:Energy InformationLake SouthChroma ATE IncCimarron Hills, Colorado: Energy

  2. City of Hill City, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:Energy Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to:Hill City Place: Kansas References:

  3. Far Hills, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37.California: Energy Resources Jump4748456°,Fallon NavalFangFar Hills, New

  4. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37.California: Energy Resources Jump4748456°,FallonBranch,Farmington Hills,

  5. In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ reduction and evaluation of anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells D.05.118 #12;Abstract Single chamber anode-supported fuel cells are investigated under several methane under methane-to-oxygen ratio (Rmix) of 2. Anode-supported fuel cells are investigated regarding

  6. Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Informational Subject Introduction of a second copper-anode XRF system Module in samples collected after 12/1/01 have been determined by XRF analysis using a Cu-anode tube as the source/1/05 will be reported with an added indicator of the Cu- anode XRF system used in analysis, the first (1) or the second

  7. Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    Posting type Advisory Subject Shifts in Mo-anode XRF element calibration factors Module/Species A@crocker.ucdavis.edu Supporting information A molybdenum-anode XRF instrument is used to analyze the heavier elements (Ni, Cu, Zn with lighter deposits were acquired and used in the Mo-anode XRF system. The new calibration foils resulted

  8. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  9. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  10. Novel carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to synthesize disordered carbons used as anodes in lithium ion batteries, where the porosity and surface area are controlled. Both parameters are critical since the irreversible capacity obtained in the first cycle seems to be associated with the surface area (an exfoliation mechanism occurs in which the exposed surface area continues to increase).

  11. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  12. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  13. anode electrode materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anode electrode materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Nanostructured Electrode...

  14. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  15. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Grant Reference Principal Investigator Research Organisation Project Title NE/J013544/1 Professor B Hubbard Aberystwyth University Extended-range optical televiewer imaging of the NEEM deep ice borehole, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant Reference Principal Investigator Research Organisation Project Title NE/J013544/1 Professor B Hubbard Aberystwyth University Extended-range optical televiewer imaging of the NEEM deep ice borehole/1 Dr A Bedford Edge Hill University Late Holocene temperature reconstruction from Hawes Water northwest

  17. Microwave Pickup on the Crawford Hill 7-meter Jeff McMahon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microwave Pickup on the Crawford Hill 7-meter Telescope Jeff McMahon Project Advisor: Suzanne-Meter Telescope The Crawford Hill 7-meter telescope located at Bell labs in Holmdel, New Jersey is being considered for use in the CapMAP project. This antenna is a 7-meter offset Cassegrain reflector antenna

  18. FIRE HISTORY AT THE EASTERN GREAT PLAINS MARGIN, MISSOURI RIVER LOESS HILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    FIRE HISTORY AT THE EASTERN GREAT PLAINS MARGIN, MISSOURI RIVER LOESS HILLS Michael C. Stambaugh-Columbia Columbia, MO 65211 stambaughm@missouri.edu and Daniel C. Dey United States Forest Service, North Central Hills of northwest Missouri. We sampled 33 bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), chinkapin oak (Q

  19. Extratropical cyclone occlusion Journal: McGraw Hill 2008 Yearbook of Science & Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Justin

    ://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/yearbook McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2008 #12;ForReview EXTRATROPICAL CYCLONE OCCLUSIONForReview Extratropical cyclone occlusion Journal: McGraw Hill 2008 Yearbook of Science & Technology Manuscript ID: draft Manuscript Type: Yearbook Article Date Submitted by the Author: n/a Complete

  20. Sulfur-tolerant anode materials for solid oxide fuel cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, M. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Liu, X. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Trembly, J.; Johnson, C.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the degradation mechanisms for SOFC anodes in the presence of sulfur and recent developments in sulfur-tolerant anodes. There are two primary sulfur-degradation mechanisms for the anode materials: physical absorption of sulfur that blocks the hydrogen reaction sites, and chemical reaction that forms nickel sulfide. The sulfur-tolerant anodes are categorized into three kinds of materials: thiospinels and metal sulfides, metal cermets, and mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the combined application of available materials to serve as different functional components in anodes through proper design may be effective to achieve a balance between stability and performance.

  1. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

  2. Dean Brown, Thanks for your kind invitation to contribute stories about the Hofmann Forest and The Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckel, Jeffrey A.

    and The Hill Forest/Slocum Camp for the evening of April 29, and morning of April 30. I live in an assisted of discharged veterans appeared at the Hill Forest. Most of us had about 1-2 years of college before the call of the faculty in May. Dean Hofmann strongly advised me to attend the Hill Forest Camp before entering classes

  3. OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

    2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

  4. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  5. Developing High Capacity, Long Life Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Company AgreesDesireeDepartmentLife Anodes Developing

  6. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  7. Report on the source of the electrochemical impedance on cermet inert anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Stice, N.D.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Inert Electrode Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anode surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The electrochemical impedances of cermet inert anodes in alumina-saturated molten cryolite as a function of frequency, current density, and time indicated that a significant component of the impedance is due to the gas bubbles produced at the anode during electrolysis. The data also showed a connection between surface structure and impedance that appears to be related to the effects of surface structure on bubble flow. Given the results of this work, it is doubtful that a resistive film contributes significantly to the electrochemical impedances on inert anodes. Properties previously assigned to such a film are more likely due to the bubbles and those factors that affect the properties and dynamics of the bubbles at the anode surface. 12 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Fox Hills Formation (Late Cretaceous), Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fox Hills Formation (Late Cretaceous, Maestrichtian) was investigated where it crops out along the southern flank of the Williston basin and in the subsurface over the central portion of the basin, using 300 well logs. The formation is conformable and gradational with the underlying Pierre formation and can be either conformable or unconformable with the overlying Hell Creek Formation. The Fox Hills Formation is younger, thicker, and stratigraphically more complex to the east and is comprised of marginal marine sediments deposited during the final Cretaceous regression. To the west, the Fox Hills Formation is an upward-coarsening unit generally 30 to 45 m thick and usually contains three members: from the base, Trail City, Timber Lake, and Colgate. The lower Fox Hills (Trail City, Timber Lake) is generally dominated by hummocky bedding and contains a variety of trace fossils, most notably Ophiomorpha. The upper Fox Hills (Colgate), where present, is characterized by cross-bedding. To the east, including the type area, the section is generally 80 to 100 m thick and contains four members: from the base, Trail City, Timber Lake, Iron Lightning (Colgate and Bullhead lithofacies), and Linton. In contrast to the section in the west, this section is as much as three times thicker, contains abundant body fossils, generally lacks hummocky bedding, and contains the Bullhead and Linton strata. In the west, the strata represent lower shoreface deposits, predominantly of storm origin (lower Fox Hills), overlain by upper shoreface and fluvial deposits (upper Fox Hills). In the east, the lower Fox Hills contains deposits of the lower shoreface (Trail City) and a barrier bar complex (Timber Lake), overlain by the deltaic deposits of the upper Fox Hills (Iron Lightning, Linton).

  9. The Naming, Identification, and Protection of Place in the Loess Hills of the Middle Missouri Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, David Thomas

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    tool for field work in physical geography. The only time I have carried a gun with lethal intent was in the Loess Hills of northern Missouri. A coworker and I drove into the hills just south of St. Joseph and walked, on a crisp fall morning, up.... 5 One part of the perceptual story about the Hills is their location. This study will approach that question from two perspectives. It first will offer a traditional analysis using physical data on soil, bedrock, elevation, and slope...

  10. Anode-supported tubular SOFC at low temperature using Ni, Fe, GDC, and YSZ based anode support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fujishiro, Y.; Awano, M.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO-GDC, NiO-YSZ, NiO-Fe2O3-GDC, NiO-Fe2O3-YSZ anode tube supported tubular fuel cells was fabricated at the co-sintering temperature from 1250 C to 1400 C to investigate how the co-sintering temperature affect the open-circuit voltage. To focus on the changing of anode tube, all the tubular fuel cells support a ScSZ electrolyte layer and a LSCF cathode layer. The microstructure of the electrolyte layer sintered under 1300 C included pores inside it, and the densification of the electrolyte completed at the sintering temperatures above 1300 C. Furthermore, the shrinkage both in length and in diameter of a tubular fuel cell reaches as much as 20% at co-sintering temperature of 1400 C. The densification of ScSZ electrolyte layer and shrinkage of anode tube will result in the changing of open-circuit voltage of fuel cell from 1.0 V to 1.1 V.

  11. The Prairie Naturalist 46:2133; 2014 Multi-scale Habitat Use of Male Ruffed Grouse in the Black Hills National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hills National Forest CASSANDRA L. MEHLS1 , KENT C. JENSEN, MARK A. RUMBLE, and MICHAEL C. WIMBERLY) for aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Black Hills National Forest (Black Hills). Our objective increased stem densities. KEY WORDS aspen, Black Hills National Forest, Bonasa umbellus, display areas

  12. Analysis of cadmium in undissolved anode materials of Mark-IV electro-refiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Tae-Sic; Fredrickson, G.L.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B. [Separation Department, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mark-IV electro-refiner (Mk-IV ER) is a unit process in the FCF (Fuel Conditioning Facility), which is primarily assigned to treating the used driver fuels. Mk-IV ER contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation. (authors)

  13. Analysis of Cadmium in Undissolved Anode Materials of Mark-IV Electrorefiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tae-Sic Yoo; Guy L. Fredrickson; DeeEarl Vaden; Brian R. Westphal

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mark-IV electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER) contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation.

  14. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  15. Spacer for deep wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, G. D.

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A spacer for use in a deep well that is to have a submersible pump situated downhole and with a string of tubing attached to the pump for delivering the pumped fluid. The pump is electrically driven, and power is supplied via an armored cable which parallels the string of tubing. Spacers are clamped to the cable and have the tubing running through an eccentrically located passage in each spacer. The outside dimensions of a spacer fit freely inside any casing in the well.

  16. Process and apparatus for recovery of fissionable materials from spent reactor fuel by anodic dissolution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Orland Park, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Wolson, Raymond D. (Lockport, IL); Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical process and apparatus for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent metal clad fuel pins is disclosed. The process uses secondary reactions between U.sup.+4 cations and elemental uranium at the anode to increase reaction rates and improve anodic efficiency compared to prior art processes. In another embodiment of the process, secondary reactions between Cd.sup.+2 cations and elemental uranium to form uranium cations and elemental cadmium also assists in oxidizing the uranium at the anode.

  17. Intern experience at CH?M Hill, Inc.: an internship report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, William John, 1949-

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the author's internship experience with CH?M HILL, Inc. during the period September 1975 through May 1976 is presented. During this nine month internship the author worked as an Engineer II in the Industrial Processes...

  18. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems I. Fluid...

  19. Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions in the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems II....

  20. Restructuring the urban neighborhood : the dialogue between image and ideology in Phoenix Hill, Louisville, Kentucky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isaacs, Mark Andrew

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the problems of restructuring the urban neighborhood as specifically applied to the Phoenix Hill community in Louisville, Kentucky. Theory and concepts are briefly presented as a basis for design ...

  1. SEP Success Story: Turkey Hill Dairy: Where Energy is Not Left...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flapping in the Wind December 21, 2011 - 11:57am Addthis These two General Electric wind turbines, erected in January 2011 on the Frey Farm landfill adjacent to Turkey Hill Dairy's...

  2. ICFT- An Initial Closed-Loop Flow Test of the Fenton Hill Phase...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ICFT- An Initial Closed-Loop Flow Test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: ICFT- An Initial...

  3. Constraints on the Age of Heating at the Fenton Hill Site, Valles...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Constraints on the Age of Heating at the Fenton Hill Site, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract Subsurface samples and...

  4. Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150...

  5. Traditionally Protected Forests´ Role within Transforming Natural Resource Management Regimes in Taita Hills, Kenya.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himberg, Nina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In Taita Hills, south-eastern Kenya, remnants of indigenous mountain rainforests play a crucial role as water towers and socio-cultural sites. They are pressurized due to… (more)

  6. EIS-0266: Glass Mountain/Four Mile Hill Geothermal Project, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The EIS analyzes BPA's proposed action to approve the Transmission Services Agreements (TSAs) and Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) with Calpine Siskiyou Geothermal Partners, L.P. (Calpine) to acquire output from the Fourmile Hill Geothermal Development Project (Project).

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative anode reaction Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Operating Power Including Nitrogen... is presented that describes the steady state profile of anode nitrogen ... Source: Wetton, Brian - Department of Mathematics, University...

  8. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  9. A MORE EFFICIENT ANODE MICROSTRUCTURE FOR SOFCs BASED ON PROTON CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainwater, Ben H; Liu, Mingfei; Liu, Meilin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the desired microstructure of the state-of-the-art Ni-YSZ anode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on YSZ is well known, the anode microstructure for a SOFC based on a proton conductor is yet to be optimized. In this study, we examined the effect of anode porosity on the performance of a SOFC based on BaZr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3??} (BZCYYb), a mixed ion (proton and oxygen anion) conductor with high ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. Three cells with Ni-BZCYYb cermet anodes of different porosities (37%, 42%, and 50%) and identical electrolytes and cathode components were fabricated and tested. Under typical fuel cell operating conditions, the cell with anode of the lowest porosity (37%), prepared without pore former, achieved the highest performance, demonstrating a peak power density of 1.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 750 °C. This is radically different from the results of Ni-YSZ anodes for YSZ based cells, where high anode porosity (?55%) is necessary to achieve high performance. The observed increase in performance (or electrocatalytic activity for anode reactions) is attributed primarily to the unique microstructure of the anode fabricated without the use of pore forming precursors.

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodically bonded glass-based Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science 32 APPLICATION OF MEMS TECHNOLOGY TO MICRO DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL Xiaowei Liu* Summary: , and anodic bonding. The starting material were two pieces of 3 in....

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic films formed Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thin film electrolyte is sintered at a temperature of 1400 C for 4 h... anode support SOFC cross-section, (b) microwave ... Source: Kasagi, Nobuhide - Department of Mechanical...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic reaction kinetics Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CELLS Summary: with electrochemical kinetics in active regions of anode and cathode of a SOFC. In the following section, the model... occurs by the following reactions. Oxidation...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic stripping square Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Sample search results for: anodic stripping square Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 554 (2005) 291299 Characteristics of...

  14. Organic Light Emitting Diodes Using a Ga:ZnO Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the application of gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) films as anodes in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Pulsed laser deposited GZO films of differing Ga composition are examined. Bilayer OLEDs using GZO and indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes are then compared. Relative to ITO, the GZO anodes have slightly better sheet resistance and transparency in the visible spectral region. Device data suggest GZO results in more effective hole injection into an aromatic triamine hole transporting layer. Indium free anodes are expected toimprove OLED stability while lowering the cost per unit area, crucial for OLED based lighting applications.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode dielectric coating Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10-5 Table 1. Dielectric parameters for anodic oxide, shunt capacitance... Josephson junction geometry with minimal volume of lossy isolation ... Source: Martinis, John M. -...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-supported solid oxide Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: , "Microstructure Optimization Designs for Anode-Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells," ASME Journal of Fuel Cell... ., "Optimization design of electrodes for...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum anodic oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxidation at the anode and material is being removed. D S b k June... Oxidation Reduction ... Source: Montana State University, Chemical and Biological Engineering...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic aluminum oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxidation at the anode and material is being removed. D S b k June... Oxidation Reduction ... Source: Montana State University, Chemical and Biological Engineering...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic aluminium oxide Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Warwick Collection: Engineering 8 Characterisation of Oxidised Aluminium Powder: Validation of a new Anodic Oxidation Bench Nicolas Gascoin* Summary: 137...

  20. Pitch Production Using Solvent Extraction of Coal: Suitability as Carbon Anode Precursor.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Ali Pour, Mehdi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Albertan coal has been used to produce extracts as precursor for production of anode coke. Coal extractability was studied using digestion with Tetralin in a… (more)

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode x-ray source Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from measurements of the kinetic energy and intensity of the photoelectrons emitted... carbon film (conver- ter) illuminated by X-rays emitted by an aluminium- magnesium anode. For...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxygen-transfer reactions Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 57 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells Summary: primarily on the anode side of...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-supported high power Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anode ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode current response Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen is produced, and there- fore the current and power are very low. In this regime, the anode... understanding the physical processes responsible for SCFC ... Source:...

  5. Peer Review of the Hot Dry Rock Project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly describes the history of the hot dry rock experiment project conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Laboratory at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, from about 1971 through 1995. The authors identify the primary lessons learned and techniques developed during the course of the Fenton Hill project, and summarize the extent to which these technologies have been transferred to the U.S. geothermal industry.

  6. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  7. World Wide WebWWWDeep Web Web Deep Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep Web Web World Wide WebWWWDeep Web Web Deep Web Deep Web Deep Web Deep Web Deep Web 1 World Wide Web [1] Web 200,000TB Web Web Web Internet Web Web Web "" Surface Web Deep Web Surface Web 21.3% Surface Web Deep Web [2] Deep Web Web Crawler Deep Web 1 Web

  8. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  9. A deep earthquake goes supershear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R. Mark

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic analysis of an aftershock off Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula offers evidence that deep earthquakes are more complicated than geoscientists realized.

  10. West Short Pine Hills field, Harding County, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strothman, B.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Short Pine Hills field is a shallow gas field that produces from the Shannon Sandstone Member, on the Camp Crook anticline in southwestern Harding County, South Dakota. The Alma McCutchin 1-17 Heikkila discovery was drilled in the NW1/4, Sec. 17, T16N, R2E, to a depth of 1600 ft and completed in October 1977 for 600 MCFGD from perforations at 1405-1411 ft. To date, 40 gas wells have been completed with total estimated reserves of more than 20 bcf. The field encompasses 12,000 ac, with a current drill-site spacing unit of 160 ac. The field boundaries are fairly well defined, except on the south edge of the field. The wells range in depth from 1250 to 2200 ft, and cost $60,000-$85,000 to drill and complete. Core and log analyses indicate that the field has 70 ft of net pay, with average porosity of 30% and average permeability of 114 md. Most wells have been completed with nitrogen-sand frac. Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company of Bismarck, North Dakota, operates a compressor station and 2.5 mi of 4-in. line that connects the field to their 160 in. north-south transmission line to the Rapid City area. Currently, producers are netting $1.10-$1.25/million Btu. The late Mathew T. Biggs of Casper, Wyoming, was the geologist responsible for mapping and finding this gas deposit.

  11. Forming gas treatment of lithium ion battery anode graphite powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contescu, Cristian Ion; Gallego, Nidia C; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer, III, Harry M; Payzant, Edward Andrew; Wood, III, David L; Yoon, Sang Young

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method of making a battery anode in which a quantity of graphite powder is provided. The temperature of the graphite powder is raised from a starting temperature to a first temperature between 1000 and 2000.degree. C. during a first heating period. The graphite powder is then cooled to a final temperature during a cool down period. The graphite powder is contacted with a forming gas during at least one of the first heating period and the cool down period. The forming gas includes H.sub.2 and an inert gas.

  12. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I.Program InformationBibliographicAnode Catalysts

  13. Method of deep drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colgate, Stirling A. (4616 Ridgeway, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  14. Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Yocky, David A.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially Interpolated Nonlinear Anodization in Synthetic Aperture Original formulation of spatially variant anodization for complex synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery oversampled at twice the Nyquist rate (2.OX). Here we report a spatially interpolating, noninteger-oversampled SVA sidelobe. The pixel's apparent IPR location is assessed by comparing its value to the sum of its value plus weighted comparable for exact interpolation. However, exact interpolation implies an ideal sine interpolator3 and large components may not be necessary. Note that P is the summation of IPR diagonal values. The value of a sine IPR on the diagonals is a sine-squared; values much less than cardinal direction (m, n) values. This implies that cardinal direction interpolation requires higher precision than diagonal interpolation. Consequently, we employed a smaller set. The spatially interpolated SVA used an 8-point/4-point sine interpolator described above. Table 1 shows the Table 1 results show a two-times speed-up using the 1.3x oversampled and spatially interpolated SVA over the Figure 1d. Detected results of 1.3x oversampled sine interpolated spatially variant

  15. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a reinforced rigid anode monolith and fuel and product of such method. The method includes providing a solution of organic aerogel or xerogel precursors including at least one of a phenolic resin, phenol (hydroxybenzene), resorcinol(1,3-dihydroxybenzene), or catechol(1,2-dihydroxybenzene); at least one aldehyde compound selected from the group consisting of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and furfuraldehyde; and an alkali carbonate or phosphoric acid catalyst; adding internal reinforcement materials comprising carbon to said precursor solution to form a precursor mixture; gelling said precursor mixture to form a composite gel; drying said composite gel; and pyrolyzing said composite gel to form a wettable aerogel/carbon composite or a wettable xerogel/carbon composite, wherein said composites comprise chars and said internal reinforcement materials, and wherein said composite is suitable for use as an anode with the chars being fuel capable of being combusted in a molten salt electrochemical fuel cell in the range from 500 C to 800 C to produce electrical energy. Additional methods and systems/compositions are also provided.

  16. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  17. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    resistance and solid state diffusion through the bulk of the nanowires. The surface process is dominatedImpedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Riccardo Ruffo, Seung Sae Hong as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured by using impedance

  18. Graphenesponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel Xing Xie,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Graphene­sponges as high-performance low-cost anodes for microbial fuel cells Xing Xie,ab Guihua Yu February 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ee03583a A high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was con- structed. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the metabolism of exoelec- trogens, microorganisms that mediate

  19. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

  20. Crumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    efficiency. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and Charge Transport Silicon is a promising highCrumpled Graphene-Encapsulated Si Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Jiayan Luo, Xin Zhao improved performance as Li ion battery anodes in terms of capacity, cycling stability, and Coulombic

  1. Edge-Enriched Graphitic Anodes by KOH Activation for Higher Rate Capability Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Batteries D. Zakhidov,1,2 R. Sugamata,3 T. Yasue,3 T. Hayashi,3 Y. A. Kim,3 and M. Endo4 1 successful anode for lithium ion batteries due to its low cost, safety, and ease of fabrication, but higher are expected to surpass conventional graphite anodes due to larger number of edges for lithium ion

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium

  3. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  4. ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December 2005 CONTROL POROUS PATTERN OF ANODIC ALUMINUM OXIDE BY FOILS simpler, and low cost method to fabricate porous pattern of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) based on the aluminum foils laminate approach were carried out. During our experiments, it was found that the pores

  5. 386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    386 Anal. Chem. 1987, 59,386-389 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film treatment of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a mercury film electrode Is presented. Nu- merlcal) frequency ( f ) and amount of metal depostted In the mercury layer (9R) and glves a response 6 tlmes

  6. The Mars Hill Terrane: An enigmatic southern Appalachian terrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, L.A.; Johnson, P.A. (Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mars Hill Terrane (MHT) in the Appalachian Blue Ride Belt is bordered by complex, locally reactivated thrust and strike-slip faults. On the east, the MHT is bounded by the allochthonous, ensimatic Toe Terrane (TT) across the diachronous, ductile Holland Mountain-Soque River Fault System. The MHT is separated on the northwest from ensialic Laurentian basement (LB), by the Fries-Hayesville Fault System. On the south, the MHT is truncated by the Shope Fork Fault. The MHT is characterized by migmatitic biotite-pyroxene-hornblende gneiss, but contains 1--1.8 b.y. old quartz-feldspar gneisses, plus ultramafic rocks, calc-silicate rocks, mica schists and gneisses, and Neoproterozoic Bakersville gabbros. This rock assemblage contrasts with that of the adjoining terranes. The only correlative units between the MHT and adjoining terranes are Neoproterozoic gabbro, Ordovician-Devonian granitoid plutons, and ultramafic rocks. Gabbro links the MHT with LB rocks. Apparently similar calc-silicate rocks differ petrographically among terranes. During Taconic or Acadian events, both the TT and MHT reached amphibolite to granulite metamorphic grade, but the LB did not exceed greenschist grade. The data conflict. The O-D plutons, ultramafic rocks, and metamorphic histories suggest that the TT had docked with the MHT by Ordovician time. The premetamorphic character of the Holland Mtn.-Soque River Fault System supports that chronology. Neoproterozoic gabbros suggest a MHT-LB link by Cambrian time, but the LB experienced neither O-D plutonism nor Paleozoic amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphism.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL- AND PETROLEUM-DERIVED BINDER PITCHES AND THE INTERACTION OF PITCH/COKE MIXTURES IN PRE-BAKED CARBON ANODES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder.… (more)

  8. Deep Maps”: A Brief for Digital Palimpsest Mapping Projects (DPMPs, or “Deep Maps”)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fishkin, Shelley Fisher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEEP  MAPS”:  A  Brief  for   Digital  Palimpsest  DPMPs,  or  “Deep  Maps”)   SHELLEY  FISHER  FISHKIN  paintings,   drawings,   maps,   photos,   books,  

  9. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  10. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  11. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR); Ramsey, James A. (The Dalles, OR)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  12. Anode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    on the anode, producing a complex response in fuel cell power output. Under optimized gas compositions and flowAnode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12 Zongping of anode-supported, thin-film, single chamber fuel cells (SCFCs) have been investigated. Cells, in which Ni

  13. OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

  14. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  15. Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

  16. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  17. Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

  19. U.S. strategic petroleum reserve Big Hill 114 leak analysis 2012.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses recent well integrity issues related to cavern 114 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. DM Petroleum Operations, M&O contractor for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, recognized an apparent leak in Big Hill cavern well 114A in late summer, 2012, and provided written notice to the State of Texas as required by law. DM has since isolated the leak in well A with a temporary plug, and is planning on remediating both 114 A- and B-wells with liners. In this report Sandia provides an analysis of the apparent leak that includes: (i) estimated leak volume, (ii) recommendation for operating pressure to maintain in the cavern between temporary and permanent fixes for the well integrity issues, and (iii) identification of other caverns or wells at Big Hill that should be monitored closely in light of the sequence of failures there in the last several years.

  20. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

  1. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Fox Hills Formation in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fox Hills Formation (Maestrichtian), representing part of a regressive wedge deposited during the withdrawal of the sea from the Western Interior at the close of the Cretaceous, consists of marginal marine strata transitional between the offshore deposits of the underlying Pierre Shale and the terrestrial deltaic and coastal deposits of the overlying Hell Creek Formation. An investigation of outcrops of the Fox Hills Formation along the western and southern flanks of the Williston basin and study of over 300 oil and gas well logs from the central part of the basin indicate that the formation can be divided both stratigraphically and areally. Stratigraphically, the Fox Hills can be divided into lower and upper sequences; the lower includes the Trail City and Timber Lake Members, and the upper sequence includes the Colgate Member in the west and the Iron Lightning and Linton Members in the east. Areally, the formation can be divided into a northeastern and western part, where the strata are 30-45 m thick and are dominated by the lower sequence, and into a southeastern area where both the lower and upper sequences are well developed in a section 80-130 m thick. Typically, the lower Fox Hills consists of upward-coarsening shoreface or delta-front sequences containing hummocky bedding and a limited suite of trace fossils, most notably Ophiomorpha. In the southeast, however, these strata are dominated by bar complexes, oriented northeast-southwest, composed of cross-bedded medium to very fine-grained sand with abundant trace and body fossils. The upper Fox Hills represents a variety of shoreface, deltaic, and channel environments. The strata of the Fox Hills Formation exhibit facies similar to those reported for Upper Cretaceous gas reservoirs in the northern Great Plains.

  2. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  3. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  4. Development of metal-coated ceramic anodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandkar, A.C.; Elangovan, S.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the developmental efforts on metal coating of various ceramic substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and LiFeO{sub 2}) and the critical issues associated with fabricating anodes using metal-coated LiAlO{sub 2} substrates. Electroless Ni and Cu coating technology was developed to achieve complete metal coverage on LiAlO{sub 2} powder substrates. Metal coated SrTiO{sub 3} powders were fabricated into anodes by a process identical to that reported in the GE literature. Microstructural examination revealed that the grains of the ceramic had fused together, with the metal having dewetted from the surface of the ceramic. Alternate substrates that might allow for better wetting of the metal on the ceramic such as LiFeO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} were identified. Cu/Ni-coated (50:50 mol ratio, 50 w/o metal loading) LiFeO{sub 2} anodes were optimized to meet the MCFC anode specifications. Metal-coated gamma-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates were also developed. By using suitable chemical surface modification methods, the gamma-UAlO{sub 2} substrate surface may be modified to allow a stable metal coated anode to be fabricated. Creep testing of the metal coated ceramic anodes were conducted at IGT. It was determined that the predominant creep mechanism is due to particle rearrangement. The anode porosity, and mean pore size had significant effect on the creep of the anode. Lower porosity and pore size consistent with performance criteria are desired to reduce creep. Lower metal loading with uniformity of coverage will result in lower creep behavior of the anode. Of the two substrates evaluated, LiFeO{sub 2} in general exhibited lower creep which was attributed to superior metal adhesion.

  5. MULTISCALE RESOURCE SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA AND WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MULTISCALE RESOURCE SELECTION OF RUFFED GROUSE IN THE BLACK HILLS NATIONAL FOREST OF SOUTH DAKOTA) in the Black Hills National Forest (BHNF). Due to this status the U.S. Forest Service and the South Dakota and Parks, United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, South Dakota State University

  6. Inert Anode/Cathode Program: Fiscal Year 1986 annual report. [For Hall-Heroult cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenden, B.B.; Davis, N.C.; Koski, O.H.; Marschman, S.C.; Pool, K.H.; Schilling, C.H.; Windisch, C.F.; Wrona, B.J.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of the program is to develop long-lasting, energy-efficient anodes, cathodes, and ancillary equipment for Hall-Heroult cells used by the aluminum industry. The program is divided into four tasks: Inert Anode Development, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development. To devise sensors to control the chemistry of Hall-Heroult cells using stable anodes and cathodes. This report highlights the major FY86 technical accomplishments, which are presented in the following sections: Management, Materials Development, Materials Evaluation, Thermodynamic Evaluation, Laboratory Cell Tests, Large-Scale Tests, Cathode Materials Evaluation, Cathode Bonding Development, and Sensor Development.

  7. The effects of microstructure on the corrosion of glycine/nitrate processed cermet inert anodes: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, Jr, C F; Chick, L A; Maupin, G D; Stice, N D

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes of the US Department of Energy and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under the study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (a) to evaluate the anode material in a scaled-up, pilot cell facility, (b) to investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (c) to develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report covers the results of a portion of the studies on anode reaction mechanisms. The anode mechanism studies were focused in four areas in FY 1990 and FY 1991: (a) the determination of whether a film formed on cermet inert anodes and (if it existed) the characterization of this film, (b) the determination of the sources of the anode impedance, (c) the evaluation of the effects of silica and a precorroded state on anode corrosion, and (d) a preliminary study on the effect of microstructure on the corrosion properties of the anodes. This report discusses the results of the microstructure studies. 6 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. DEEP Summer Academy 2015 Request for Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    DEEP Summer Academy 2015 Request for Proposals Deadline: November 30th 2014 Primary Contact: DEEP Request for Proposals: DEEP Summer Academy 2015 About the Engineering Outreach Office The Engineering Office, visit: http://outreach.engineering.utoronto.ca/aboutus.htm Overview of DEEP Summer Academy

  9. WebDeep Web Surface Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Web WebWeb WebWeb WebHTML Web WebDeep Web Surface Web " " Deep Web21 Dot-ComWebWeb2.0 WebWeb ""Web WebWeb Deep Web WebWeb SNS Web WebWeb 20017BrightPlanet.comDeep Web Web43,000-96,000Web7,500TB(Surface Web500) UIUCDeep Web2004Deep Web 307,000366,000-535,000 WebDeep Web "" Deep Web 1 Web Web #12

  10. Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel carbonate of large herbivores from the Tugen1 Hills deposits: palaeoenvironmental context of the earliest Kenyan hominids2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Stable isotope analyses of tooth enamel carbonate of large herbivores from the Tugen1 Hills the Tugen Hills12 13 Keywords: stable isotopes, tooth enamel, Tugen Hills, Neogene, large herbivores that the earliest Kenyan hominids, including Orrorin tugenensis, are associated with forest21 landscapes

  11. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

  12. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback was a four-fold increase over the prestimulation rate with production essentially returning to prestimulation rates after 30 days. The physical stimulation was conducted over a 14-day period. Problems with the stimulation injection resulted in a coal bed fire that was quickly quenched when production was resumed. The poststimulation, stabilized production was three to four times the prestimulation rate. The methane content was approximately 45% after one day and increased to 65% at the end of 30 days. The gas production rate was still two and one-half times the prestimulation rate at the end of the 30-day test period. The field results were a good match to the numerical simulator predictions. The physical stimulation did increase the production, but did not produce a commercial rate.

  13. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  14. Stability of Iridium Anode in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for Ironmaking: Influence of Slag Basicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hojong

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is a carbon-neutral, electrochemical technique to decompose metal oxide directly into liquid metal and oxygen gas upon use of an inert anode. What sets MOE apart from other technologies is ...

  15. P-230 / X. Yu P-230: Novel Electrical-Chemically Polished Stainless Steel Anode Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    time, top emission OLEDs with evaporated aluminum anode on glass (called Devices AA) were fabricated be widely used in ceiling lighting illuminator and automotive application in the future. High work

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode supported solid Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at ScienceDirect Summary: methanol fuel cells--Effect of anode diffusion media Fuqiang Liu1 , Chao-Yang Wang Departments of Materials... March 2008 Keywords: Direct methanol...

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode-cathode microbial fuel Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Visions on Energy Production Technologies for Finland up to 2030 Summary: turbine G G After- burner Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) Anode...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - anode catalysts prepared Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cells, by modifying both the anode and the cathode catalysts that will enable PEM fuel cell... catalyst as a separate phase - as nanoparticles. 2. ... Source: DOE Office of...

  19. Amorphous Metallic Glass as New High Power and Energy Density Anodes For Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    We have investigated the use of aluminum based amorphous metallic glass as the anode in lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Amorphous metallic glasses have no long-range ordered microstructure; the atoms are less closely ...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum anodization process Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum anodization process Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ENS'05 Paris, France, 14-16 December...

  1. A study of certain trace metals in sea water using anodic stripping voltammetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, William Francis, 1926-

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a thin film mercury composite graphite electrode has been evaluated and applied for the direct analysis of the metals, Zn,J Cu, Pb, and Cd in sea water. The electrode was observed to ...

  2. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosquera, Martín A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide coatings Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for fuel oxidation and the cathode chamber for oxygen... - Synthesize electrolyte powder Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Step 2 - Fabricate anode powder Nickel Oxide + Electrolyte Step......

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic oxide overlayer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for oxygen... - Synthesize electrolyte powder Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 Step 2 - Fabricate anode powder Nickel Oxide + Electrolyte Step... Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Victoria A. Liem and...

  5. The Fabrication of Titanium Dioxide Based Anode Material Using Aerosol Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy, rechargeable Li-ion battery based on carbon nanotubewith Sb and SnSb0.5 as Li-ion battery anodes. Carbon, 2003.Li, A review of application of carbon nanotubes for lithium ion battery

  6. Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Shirley Y.

    Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

  7. Argonne and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CalBattery strike deal for silicon-graphene anode material By Angela Hardin * February 25, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint LEMONT, Ill. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - anodal transcranial direct Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    111:796806, 2009 796 J Neurosurg Volume 111 October 2009 Summary: of rTMS over the Trains of transcranial direct current stimulation antagonize motor cortex... of anodal tran-...

  9. Corrosion of Metals in Composite Cements Anthony Setiadi*, J. Hill and N. B. Milestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Corrosion of Metals in Composite Cements Anthony Setiadi*, J. Hill and N. B. Milestone. However, there may be issues regarding the corrosion of some of the metal components which arise from reprocessing and decommissioning due to the alkaline environment in the cement grouts. The corrosion

  10. Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnick, Roberta L.

    Lithium isotopic systematics of granites and pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota Fang compositions may reflect Li isotopic fractionation resulting from extensive crystal-melt fractionation. Lithium fractionation in the near­surface environment of > 60 (Tomascak, 2004). Lithium isotopic fractionation has been

  11. Concept Acquisition: How to get something from nothing Dan Ryder, UNC Chapel Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Dan

    get concepts from something that's not concepts. Suppose we get concepts from other concepts, that is the goal of a blank slate, we need to show that it's possible to derive concepts from something thatConcept Acquisition: How to get something from nothing Dan Ryder, UNC ­ Chapel Hill [Blank overhead

  12. Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anomalous electron density events in the quiet summer ionosphere at solar minimum over Millstone region ionosphere over Millstone Hill with calculations from the IZMIRAN model for solar minimum layer. This phenomenon occurs frequently in the quiet ionosphere at solar minimum during summer

  13. ROBOTICS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SCOTT TURNER AND GARY HILL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Gary

    ROBOTICS WITHIN THE TEACHING OF PROBLEM-SOLVING SCOTT TURNER AND GARY HILL DIVISION OF COMPUTING-solving approaches, are tasks using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step of a previous robot problem. Results of student evaluation and feedback will be presented and the use of two

  14. EA-1967: Hills Creek-Lookout Point Transmission Line Rebuild, Lane County, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to assess potential environmental impacts of the proposed rebuild of its 26-mile 115 kilovolt (kV) wood-pole Hills Creek-Lookout Point transmission line, which is generally located between Lowell and Oakridge, in Lane County, Oregon.

  15. Inside Energy February 3, 2003Page 16 Copyright 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unchanged. -- Cathy Landry U.S. defers March oil deliveries to strategic reserve RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENTInside Energy February 3, 2003Page 16 © Copyright 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. OIL In an effort to keep as much oil on the market as possible during the continued labor turmoil in Venezuela

  16. Active folding of fluvial terraces across the Siwaliks Hills, Himalayas of central Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe

    Active folding of fluvial terraces across the Siwaliks Hills, Himalayas of central Nepal J. Lave´1 of central Nepal, south of the Kathmandu Basin. The Main Frontal Thrust fault (MFT), which marks the southern analysis, complemented by geological investiga- tions in central Nepal. Active deformation in the Himalaya

  17. Ambient noise seismic imaging Journal: McGraw Hill 2008 Yearbook of Science & Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritzwolle, Mike

    ForReview Ambient noise seismic imaging Journal: McGraw Hill 2008 Yearbook of Science & Technology List of Authors: Ritzwoller, Michael Keywords: ambient noise, seismology, seismic tomography, Rayleigh wave, Love wave, surface wave Abstract: A recent innovation in seismic imaging based on using long time

  18. Search for Harmonic tremor in the Galapagos Jonathan M. Lees, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geist, Dennis

    Search for Harmonic tremor in the Galapagos Jonathan M. Lees, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Harmonic volcano tremor can provide details of conduit physics during magma flow and volcano.71.2 Hz. Harmonic tremor has not been reported on Galapagos volcanoes, possibly because seismic

  19. Department of Computer Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill August 2007 The Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitton, Mary C.

    Department of Computer Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill August 2007 to stability, temporal and spatial scales, and domain representations. This work explores the phenomena of high-energy simulation methods for this type of interaction are better suited for lower energy scales; this work aims

  20. Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meju, Max

    Magnetotelluric images of the crustal structure of Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya V. Sakkas volcanic chain on the eastern flank of the Kenya Rift in East Africa. Transient electromagnetic (TEM flank of the Kenya Rift deduced from wide-angle P-wave data. In: Fuchs, K., Altherr, R., Muller, B

  1. Designer carbons as potential anodes for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.; Thiyagarajan, P. [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbons are the material of choice for lithium secondary battery anodes. Our objective is to use designed synthesis to produce a carbon with a predictable structure. The approach is to pyrolyze aromatic hydrocarbons within a pillared clay. Results from laser desorption mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and small angle neutron scattering suggest that we have prepared disordered, porous sheets of carbon, free of heteroatoms. One of the first demonstrations of template-directed carbon formation was reported by Tomita and co-workers, where polyacrylonitrile was carbonized at 700{degrees}C yielding thin films with relatively low surface areas. More recently, Schwarz has prepared composites using polyfurfuryl alcohol and pillared clays. In the study reported here, aromatic hydrocarbons and polymers which do not contain heteroatoms are being investigated. The alumina pillars in the clay should act as acid sites to promote condensation similar to the Scholl reaction. In addition, these precursors should readily undergo thermal polymerization, such as is observed in the carbonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Deep Vadose Zone - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeep ReactiveDeep

  3. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  4. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  5. Koch`s experience with deep in situ combustion in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.J. [Koch Exploration Co., Wichita, KS (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Koch Exploration Company has been active with the combustion process in the Williston basin of North and South Dakota since 1979. Koch has three ongoing combustion projects in the basin. The Medicine Pole Hills Unit (MPHU) and the Capa Madison Unit (CMU) are located in the North Dakota, while the Buffalo Unit is situated in South Dakota. Because of low primary recovery from these deep carbonate reservoirs, studies were conducted to determine how the large volume of remaining oil could be recovered, and decisions were made to initiate an in situ combustion by air injection, pressure maintenance project in these reservoirs. The principal objective of this talk is to review the past performance of these combustion projects and discuss some of the operating problems we encountered. The other objectives are to outline the economics of the projects and to speculate on the future of in situ combustion technology as Koch sees it.

  6. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Deep-web search engine ranking algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Brian Wai Fung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep web refers to content that is hidden behind HTML forms. The deep web contains a large collection of data that are unreachable by link-based search engines. A study conducted at University of California, Berkeley ...

  8. DELAYED COKING OF SOLVENT EXTRACTED COAL FOR PRODUCTION OF ANODE GRADE COKE: CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PRODUCTS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karri, Vamsi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study investigates the feasibility of using high temperature solvent extraction of coal to produce feedstock for the production of anode grade coke through delayed… (more)

  9. Integrated petrographic and petrophysical study of the Smackover formation, Womack Hill field, Clarke and Choctaw counties, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Tiffany Lynn

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to describe depositional and diagenetic characteristics of the Oxfordian (Jurassic) Smackover formation in Womack Hill field, Alabama, as part of an integrated reservoir description program. In order to understand...

  10. Advisor/Dean Approval Form (For UNC-Chapel Hill undergraduate students who are academically ineligible or not currently attending)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Advisor/Dean Approval Form (For UNC-Chapel Hill undergraduate students who are academically ineligible or not currently attending) Complete this form with the signature of your academic advisor or dean_________________ Alternate 2___________________ Alternate 3_________________ Advisor/Dean signature

  11. Croatian Language and Cultural Maintenance in the Slavic-American Community of Strawberry Hill, Kansas City, Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, Holly Hood

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate levels of immigrant language retention among Croatian-Americans in the Slavic diaspora community of Strawberry Hill in Kansas City, Kansas. There have been three major waves of Croatian...

  12. Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

    2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

  13. Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    near-infrared laser pulses of 804-nm wavelength for PA excitation to achieve deep penetration-frequency PAM system. To achieve deep penetration of light, we chose the 804-nm near-infrared wavelengthDeep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue Kwang Hyun Song and Lihong V. Wang

  14. Deep Web Entity Monitoring Mohammadreza Khelghati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Deep Web Entity Monitoring Mohammadreza Khelghati Database Group University of Twente, Netherlands. This data is defined as hidden web or deep web which is not accessible through search engines. It is estimated that deep web contains data in a scale several times bigger than the data accessible through

  15. Sampling the National Deep Web Denis Shestakov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Sampling the National Deep Web Denis Shestakov Department of Media Technology, Aalto University pages filled with information from myriads of online databases. This part of the Web, known as the deep a problem of deep Web characterization: how to estimate the total number of online databases on the Web? We

  16. Surface Radiation Survey at the Shepley’s Hill Remediation Site, Devens, Massachusettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. R. Giles; C. P. Oertel; L. G. Roybal

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site, near Devens, MA. The technical support included the completion of a radiation survey of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at Shepley’s Hill, Shepley’s Hill landfill cover, and Red Cove areas. The objective of the radiation survey was to assess the ability of the INL backpack sodium iodide spectroscopy (BaSIS) system to detect elevated levels of NORM that may be associated with radon-222 emanation from near surface and subsurface fractures in the area. It is postulated that these fracture zones provide subsurface conduits for the transport of environmental contaminants. As such, location of these fracture sets will proved EPA Region 1 with the means for completing the development of an accurate site conceptual model. The results of the radiological survey show that some of the radiological anomalies correlate with currently mapped rock outcrops; however, not all of the rock outcrops in the surveyed area have been mapped. As such, it is not conclusive that all of the radiological anomalies correspond with surface rock outcrops. EPA Region 1 intends to perform a more comprehensive correlation of the radiation data collected with the BaSIS system with additional data sets such as detailed bedrock structural mapping, 2-dimensional resistivity profiling, and high-resolution topographic mapping. The results of this effort will be used in consideration of designing a potential follow-on effort for mapping of radon.

  17. Active Cores in Deep Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Hasinger; A. Mueller

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep field observations are an essential tool to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this context, X-ray deep fields provide information about some of the most energetic cosmological objects: active galactic nuclei (AGN). Astronomers are interested in detecting sufficient numbers of AGN to probe the accretion history at high redshift. This talk gives an overview of the knowledge resulting from a highly complete soft X-ray selected sample collected with ROSAT, XMM-Newton and Chandra deep fields. The principal outcome based on X-ray luminosity functions and space density evolution studies is that low-luminosity AGN evolve in a dramatically different way from high-luminosity AGN: The most luminous quasars perform at significantly earlier cosmic times and are most numerous in a unit volume at cosmological redshift z~2. In contrast, low-luminosity AGN evolve later and their space density peaks at z~0.7. This finding is also interpreted as an anti-hierarchical growth of supermassive black holes in the Universe. Comparing this with star formation rate history studies one concludes that supermassive black holes enter the cosmic stage before the bulk of the first stars. Therefore, first solutions of the so-called hen-egg problem are suggested. Finally, status developments and expectations of ongoing and future extended observations such as the XMM-COSMOS project are highlighted.

  18. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China) [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  19. Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

  20. Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion resistant anodized coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Washington, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75.degree. C. with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm.sup.2 of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

  1. Method for providing uranium articles with a corrosion-resistant anodized coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, F.B.; Washington, C.A.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium articles are provided with anodized oxide coatings in an aqueous solution of an electrolyte selected from the group consisting of potassium phosphate, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, and a mixture of potassium tetraborate and boric acid. The uranium articles are anodized at a temperature greater than about 75/sup 0/C with a current flow of less than about 0.036 A/cm/sup 2/ of surface area while the pH of the solution is maintained in a range of about 2 to 11.5. The pH values of the aqueous solution and the low current density utilized during the electrolysis prevent excessive dissolution of the uranium and porosity in the film or watering. The relatively high temperature of the electrolyte bath inhibits hydration and the attendant deleterious pitting so as to enhance corrosion resistance of the anodized coating.

  2. Analysis of the Massive Salt Fall in Big Hill Cavern 103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUNSON, DARRELL E.; BAUER, STEPHEN J.; RAUTMAN, CHRISTOPHER A.; EHGARTNER, BRIAN L.; SATTLER, ALLAN R.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes recent reviews, observations, and analyses believed to be imperative to our understanding of the recent two million cubic feet salt fall event in Big Hill Cavern 103, one of the caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The fall was the result of one or more stress driven mechanical instabilities, the origins of which are discussed in the report. The work has lead to important conclusions concerning the engineering and operations of the caverns at Big Hill. Specifically, Big Hill, being the youngest SPR site, was subjected to state-of-the-art solutioning methods to develop nominally well-formed, right-circular cylindrical caverns. Examination of the pressure history records indicate that operationally all Big Hill SPR caverns have been treated similarly. Significantly, new three-dimensional (3-D) imaging methods, applied to old (original) and more recent sonar survey data, have provided much more detailed views of cavern walls, roofs, and floors. This has made possible documentation of the presence of localized deviations from ''smooth'' cylindrical cavern walls. These deviations are now recognized as isolated, linear and/or planar features in the original sonar data (circa early 1990s), which persist to the present time. These elements represent either sites of preferential leaching, localized spalling, or a combination of the two. Understanding the precise origin of these phenomena remains a challenge, especially considering, in a historical sense, the domal salt at Big Hill was believed to be well-characterized. However, significant inhomogeneities in the domal salt that may imply abnormalities in leaching were not noted. Indeed, any inhomogeneities were judged inconsequential to the solution-engineering methods at the time, and, by the same token, to the approaches to modeling the rock mass geomechanical response. The rock mass was treated as isotropic and homogeneous, which in retrospect, appears to have been an over simplification. This analysis shows there are possible new opportunities regarding completing an appropriate site characterization for existing operating cavern fields in the SPR, as well as expansion of current sites or development of new sites. Such characterization should first be consistent with needs identified by this report. Secondly, the characterization needs to satisfy the input requirements of the 3-D solutioning calculational methods being developed, together with 3-D geomechanical analyses techniques which address deformation of a salt rock mass that contains inhomogeneities. It seems apparent that focusing on these important areas could preclude occurrence of unexpected events that would adversely impact the operations of SPR.

  3. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  4. A Patterned 3D Silicon Anode Fabricated by Electrodeposition on a Virus-Structured Current Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X L; Gerasopoulos, K; Guo, J C; Brown, A; Wang, Chunsheng; Ghodssi, Reza; Culver, J N

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical methods were developed for the deposition of nanosilicon onto a 3D virus-structured nickel current collector. This nickel current collector is composed of self-assembled nanowire-like rods of genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV1cys), chemically coated in nickel to create a complex high surface area conductive substrate. The electrochemically depo­sited 3D silicon anodes demonstrate outstanding rate performance, cycling stability, and rate capability. Electrodeposition thus provides a unique means of fabricating silicon anode materials on complex substrates at low cost.

  5. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  6. Scalable air cathode microbial fuel cells using glass fiber separators, plastic mesh supporters, and graphite fiber brush anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioelectrochemical Microbial fuel cell Biofuels Separators a b s t r a c t The combined use of brush anodes and glass was 75 ± 1 W/m3 . Removing the separator decreased power by 8%. Adding a second cathode increased power into the anode chamber. The use of a cloth separator (J-cloth, JC) substan- tially improved power generation

  7. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and ultrahigh power lithium-ion batteries. Simply AlF3-treated Li4Ti5O12 composite anode materials for stable and...

  8. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been

  9. Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial Suqin Ci a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decorating anode with bamboo-like nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for microbial fuel cells Suqin Ci November 2011 Available online 20 November 2011 Keywords: Carbon nanotubes Nitrogen doping Anode Microbial. Introduction Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical systems that directly convert chemical energy

  10. Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Highly Reversible Li-Ion Intercalating MoP2 Nanoparticle Cluster Anode for Lithium Rechargeable, metal phosphides MPn, M = transition metal ions as attractive Li-ion anode materials have received lithium reactions, i MPn LixMPn simple Li-ion interca- lation and ii MPn M LixM + LixP alloying followed

  11. Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA); Smith, David F. (Boulder Creek, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  12. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  13. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphiticKeywords: Sn/C; Lithium Batteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave

  14. Deep Reactive Ion Etching | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeep Reactive Ion

  15. Deep forest rebounds from H...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOffice ofINL isSeparationsRelevantDeepSUBSCRIBE:

  16. Pumped Storage Hydropower (Project Development Support)—Geotechnical Investigation and Value Stream Analysis for the Iowa Hill Pumped-Storage Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (Project Development Support)—Geotechnical Investigation and Value Stream Analysis for the Iowa Hill Pumped-Storage Development

  17. Observation of Quantum Motion of a Nanomechanical Resonator Amir H. Safavi-Naeini, Jasper Chan, Jeff T. Hill, Thiago P. Mayer Alegre, Alex Krause, and Oskar Painter*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Oskar

    -optomechanics" Jeff T. Hill,1 Amir H. Safavi-Naeini,1 Jasper Chan,1 and O. Painter1 1 Kavli Nanoscience Institute

  18. Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia-Xin Sun,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pure Aluminum as the Anode in Top Emission OLED Xiao-Ming Yu, Hua-Jun Peng, Xiu-Ling Zhu, Jia (TOLED) with pure aluminum metal layer as the bottom anode has been fabricated. The brightness as high as that of the TOLED with additional high work function silver deposited on aluminum as the anode

  19. Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

  20. Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries of the composite. The composite material has been studied for specific discharge capacity, coulombic efficiency for the Li-ion battery. Of various carbon materials that have been tried, graphite is favored because it (i

  1. Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Jixin Chen,*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cell Dead-Ended Anode Operations Jixin Chen,*,z Jason B. Siegel on the electrode carbon corrosion of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A reduced order isothermal model. This model explains, and can be used to quantify, the carbon corrosion behavior dur- ing DEA operation

  2. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

  3. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canulescu, S., E-mail: stec@fotonik.dtu.dk; Schou, J. [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Rechendorff, K.; Pleth Nielsen, L. [Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Alle 29, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Borca, C. N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Bordo, K.; Ambat, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at.?%. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms are not located in a TiO{sub 2} unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2?eV (300–135?nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a direct band gap of 7.3?eV, which is about ?1.4?eV lower than its crystalline counterpart (single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Upon Ti-alloying, extra bands appear within the band gap of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mainly caused by Ti 3d orbitals localized at the Ti site.

  4. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  5. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells Vanessa Lanas, Bruce E. Logan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected (You et al., 2007), carbon cloth (Wang et al., 2009), and activated carbon fiber felt (Zhu et al., 2011 27 August 2013 Available online 5 September 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Carbon brush anode

  6. Microbial Power-Generating Capabilities on Micro-/Nano-Structured Anodes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an alternative electricity gen- erating technology and efficient method-/Nano-Structured Anode Materials, Microbial Fuel Cell 1 Introduction The last three decades have witnessed significant develop- ments and performance improvements in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology [1]. These advances

  7. Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    ARTICLE Impact of Initial Biofilm Growth on the Anode Impedance of Microbial Fuel Cells Ramaraja P: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the behavior of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) during: microbial fuel cells; biofilm; internal resis- tance; electrochemical impedance; polarization resistance

  8. Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Degradation phenomena in PEM fuel cell with dead-ended anode Toyoaki Matsuura, Jixin Chen*, Jason B of Energy (DOE) target of 30 $/kW for automotive application by 2015 [1], cost reduction in both fuel cell currently ac- counts for around 50% of the fuel cell system cost, is also essential [1]. Conventional fuel

  9. Porous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    in energy storage has stimulated significant interest in lithium ion battery research. The lithium ion battery is one of the most promising systems which is efficient in delivering energy, light in weightPorous Doped Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Anode with Long Cycle Life Mingyuan Ge

  10. Phase transformations and microstructural design of lithiated metal anodes for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limthongkul, Pimpa, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been great recent interest in lithium storage at the anode of Li-ion rechargeable battery by alloying with metals such as Al, Sn, and Sb, or metalloids such as Si, as an alternative to the intercalation of graphite. ...

  11. Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Arrays of Sealed Silicon Nanotubes As Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Taeseup Song, Jianliang Xia ABSTRACT Silicon is a promising candidate for electrodes in lithium ion batteries due to its large reversible capacity and long-term cycle stability. KEYWORDS Lithium ion battery, silicon, nanotubes

  12. MicroScale Modeling of an AnodeSupported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Micro­Scale Modeling of an Anode­Supported Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell P. Chinda1 , W. Wechsatol A micro ­ scale model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) involving the mass transfer together the available literatures. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, Micro ­ Scale Model, Mass Transfer, Electrochemical

  13. AN ELECTROANALYTICAL STUDY OF ELECTRODE REACTIONS ON CARBON ANODES DURING ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF ALUMINUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    OF ALUMINUM Hongmin Zhu and Donald R. Sadoway Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts production of aluminum the anodic reactions have been studied on carbon microelectrodes by voltammetry electrolysis in a laboratory-scale aluminum reduction cell. When the voltage exceeds a critical value (about 3

  14. Conduction in Multiphase ParticulateFibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitectured carbon networks, typically in the form electronically February 7, 2003. Several promising Li-ion battery technologies incorporate nanoarchitecturedConduction in Multiphase ParticulateÃ?Fibrous Networks Simulations and Experiments on Li-ion Anodes

  15. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    to achieve high-performance silicon electrodes using a low-cost/facile route. Up to now, great attentions of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China. Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial

  16. Conductive Anodic Filament Enhancement the Presence of a Polyglycol -Containing Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gisele

    Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 Under certain environmental conditions, printed wiring boards (CAF), is a result of an electrochemical corrosion process that initiates at the anode and proceeds process involves two steps [2]. The first is a physical degradation of the fibedepoxy bond

  17. Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

  18. Performance of Deep Geothermal Energy Systems .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation… (more)

  19. . . . . . 85 . . . . . International Deep Drawing Research Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . 85 . . . . . International Deep Drawing Research Group IDDRG 2009 International 20899-855 USA e-mail: mark.iadicola@nist.gov, Web page: www

  20. Mystical design in Dorothy Richardson's Pilgramage: the case of Dimple Hill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Laura Jane

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    meeting appears in Revolvin Li hts (III 324-29) . Here, she realizes that her witnessing of Quaker worship is a "deeply engraved memory, " more powerful "than any of the bright remembered things that had seemed so good as they came" (III 324). 40... transformation to follow. By the time Miriam reaches Dimple Hill, she has already traveled a great distance on the road to her "true identity. " When her journey begins, Miriam, at seventeen, has a keen, rapidly maturing intellect and a predisposition...

  1. CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, NEL-2014-01

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South42.2 (AprilBiden SaysEnergy Office FY144 1.DOE F ProvisionCH2M HILL

  2. Slip and Dilation Tendency Anlysis of McGinness Hills Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Faulds, James E.

    Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005) as well as local stress information if applicable. For faults within these focus systems we applied either a normal faulting stress regime where the vertical stress (sv) is larger than the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (sv>shmax>shmin) or strike-slip faulting stress regime where the maximum horizontal stress (shmax) is larger than the vertical stress (sv) which is larger than the minimum horizontal stress (shmax >sv>shmin) depending on the general tectonic province of the system. Based on visual inspection of the limited stress magnitude data in the Great Basin we used magnitudes such that shmin/shmax = .527 and shmin/sv= .46, which are consistent with complete and partial stress field determinations from Desert Peak, Coso, the Fallon area and Dixie valley (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2011; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012). Slip and dilation tendency for the McGinness Hills geothermal field was calculated based on the faults mapped McGinness Hills area (Siler 2012, unpublished). The McGinness Hills area lies in the Basin and Range Province, as such we applied a normal faulting stress regime to the McGinness area faults, with a minimum horizontal stress direction oriented 115, based on inspection of local and regional stress determinations, as explained above. Under these stress conditions north-northeast striking, steeply dipping fault segments have the highest dilation tendency, while north-northeast striking 60° dipping fault segments have the highest tendency to slip. The McGinness Hills geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a north-northeast striking west-dipping fault system wit...

  3. Operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasma in front of a positively biased electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Dang, Jeong-Jeung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability of an anode spot plasma, which is an additional high density plasma generated in front of a positively biased electrode immersed in ambient plasma, is a critical issue for its utilization to various types of ion sources. In this study, operating conditions for the generation of stable anode spot plasmas are experimentally investigated. Diagnostics of the bias current flowing into the positively biased electrode and the properties of ambient plasma reveal that unstable nature of the anode spot is deeply associated with the reduction of double layer potential between the anode spot plasma and the ambient plasma. It is found that stability of the anode spot plasma can be improved with increasing the ionization rate in ambient plasma so as to compensate the loss of electrons across the double layer or with enlarging the area of the biased electrode to prevent electron accumulation inside the anode spot. The results obtained from the present study give the guideline for operating conditions of anode spot plasmas as an ion source with high brightness.

  4. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified.

  5. Golden Hills

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGet AssistanceCatalytic Sites . | EMSLAbout

  6. Radon in Soil Gas Above Bedrock Fracture Sets at the Shepley’s Hill Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.R. Giles; T.L. McLing; M.V. Carpenter; C.J. Smith; W. Brandon

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site near Devens, MA (Figure 1). The technical support was requested as follow-on work to an initial screening level radiation survey conducted in 2008. The purpose of the original study was to assess the efficacy of the INL-developed Backpack Sodium Iodide System (BaSIS) for detecting elevated areas of natural radioactivity due to the decay of radon-222 gases emanating from the underlying fracture sets. Although the results from the initial study were mixed, the BaSIS radiation surveys did confirm that exposed bedrock outcrops have higher natural radioactivity than the surficial soils, thus a high potential for detecting elevated levels of radon and/or radon daughter products. (INL 2009) The short count times associated with the BaSIS measurements limited the ability of the system to respond to elevated levels of radioactivity from a subsurface source, in this instance radon gas emanating from fracture sets. Thus, it was postulated that a different methodology be employed to directly detect the radon in the soil gases. The CR-39 particle track detectors were investigated through an extensive literature and technology search. The relatively long deployment or “detection” time of several days, as well as the sensitivity of the measurement and robustness of the detectors made the CR-39 technology promising for deployment at the Shepley’s Hill site.

  7. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina hills of northeastern North Dakota. Resource pub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faanes, C.A.; Andrew, J.M.

    1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value. During 1981 the authors studied the avifauna of the upper valley of the Pembina River in the Pembina Hills. Field work extended from 20 April to 23 July; breeding bird censuses were conducted 7 June to 2 July. Of the 120 bird species recorded during the study period, 79 species were recorded during the breeding season. The total breeding population was estimated at nearly 76,000 breeding pairs. The wood warblers (Parulidae) were the most numerous family, accounting for about 28,000 breeding pairs. The yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia) was the most abundant breeding species, making up 19.4% of the population. American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) was second in abundance, accounting for 10.5% of the breeding population. Largest breeding densities occurred in the willow (Salix sp.) shrub community.

  8. Heat extracted from the long term flow test in the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Robinson, Bruce

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-term flow test was carried out in the Fenton Hill HDR Phase-2 reservoir for 14 months during 1992-1993 to examine the potential for supplying thermal energy at a sustained rate as a commercial demonstration of HDR technology. The test was accomplished in several segments with changes in mean flowrate due to pumping conditions. Re-test estimates of the extractable heat content above a minimum useful temperature were based on physical evidence of the size of the Fenton Hill reservoir. A numerical model was used to estimate the extent of heat extracted during the individual flow segments from the database of measured production data during the test. For a reservoir volume of 6.5x10{sup 6}m{sup 3}, the total heat content above a minimum temperature of 150{degree} C was 1.5x10{sup 15}J. For the total test period at the three sustained mean flowrates, the integrated heat extracted was 0.088x10{sup 15}J, with no discernable temperature decline of the produced fluid. The fraction of energy extracted above the abandonment temperature was 5.9%. On the basis of a constant thermal energy extraction rate, the lifetime of the reservoir (without reservoir growth) to the abandonment temperature would be 13.3 years, in good agreement with the pre-test estimate of 15.0 years for the given reservoir volume.

  9. Educators' Guide Lessons from the Deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Educators' Guide Lessons from the Deep: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico's Deep-Sea Ecosystems Horizon sunk 36 hours later, and resulted in a massive release of crude oil that is now considered the greatest environmental disaster in U.S. history. The total volume of oil released into the Gulf of Mexico

  10. Deep into Pharo ESUG 2013 Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deep into Pharo ESUG 2013 Edition Alexandre Bergel Damien Cassou Stéphane Ducasse Jannik Laval #12;ii This book is available as a free download from http://rmod.lille.inria.fr/deep of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page: creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-sa/3

  11. HILL: The High-Intensity Laser Laboratory Core Team's Reply to Questions from the NNSA Experimental Facilities Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, B J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Question 1 - The type of physics regimes that HILL can access for weapons studies is quite interesting. The question that arises for the proposal team is what priority does this type of experimental data have versus data that can be obtained with NIF, and Z. How does HILL rank in priority compared to MARIE 1.0 in terms of the experimental data it will provide? We reiterate that isochoric heating experiments to be conducted with HILL are complementary to the high energy density physics experiments at NIF and Z and uniquely access states of matter that neither other facility can access. It is our belief that HILL will enable several important questions, e.g., as related to mix morphology, radiation transfer from corrugated surfaces, and equations of state, to be run to ground through carefully diagnosed, 'unit-physics' experiments. Such experiments will substantially improve confidence in our computer models and provide a rigorous science basis for certification. Question 2 - A secondary question relates to the interests of LLNL and SNL in the physics that HILL can address. This should be spelled out clearly. I would like to see the other labs be part of the discussion regarding how important this capability would be if built. Both sister Labs have a keen interest in the physics enabled by high-intensity, high-energy lasers, as evinced by the Z Petawatt and NIF ARC upgrades to their signature facilities. LANL scientists have teamed with scientists from both Laboratories in high-intensity laser 'first experiments' envisioned for HILL and we fully intend to continue these profitable discussions going forward. In the preparation of the HILL proposal, feedback was solicited from the broader HEDP and weapons science communities. The consensus view was that HILL filled a critical gap and that there was a need for a facility like HILL to address outstanding questions in weapons science. It was recognized that co-location of HILL with a facility such as MaRIE 1.0, Z, NIF, or Omega may offer additional advantages and we would expect these to be explored and evaluated during the CD process. Question 3 - A laser/optics experts group should review this proposal to ensure the level of R&D is reasonable to provide a sufficient chance of success (>50%). In the preparation of the HILL proposal, we sent our proposal and cost estimates to laser designers/scientists across the complex. Though risks were identified with our design, the prevailing view of those we engaged was that the risks were appropriately represented by the TRL levels assigned and that the enabling R&D planned in our proposal was adequate for risk mitigation. Question 4 - More data and peer review is needed from its sister facilities around the world. It is our specific intent to conduct both scientific and technical workshops with the user community if the High Intensity Science field is further encouraged as part of the NNSA Roadmap. Question 5 - Does HILL have to be co-located with MARIE 1.0? Is that feasible from the point of view of TA-53 real estate? Multiple siting options were considered for HILL, including co-location with MaRIE 1.0 (the most cost-effective and flexible option), as well as in a separate, stand-alone building and in a retro-fitted existing building. The cost estimate included these contingencies and candidate locations for HILL in TA-53 were identified. There is actually significant space at TA-53 on the hill in the northeast end of the mesa. Question 6 - What would be the impact on the weapons program if this facility were NOT built? An inability to elucidate aspects of weapons science in the dense plasma regime and validate computer models for same. This will lead to reduced confidence in the computer tools used for certification. Question 7 - Will HILL allow some of the x-ray vulnerability studies proposed by SPARC? If so what does Sandia's vulnerability group think of this method versus SPARC. It is possible that some of the scope envisioned for SPARC could be achieved on HILL, although likely that the energy produced at HILL not bei

  12. The use of narrative during the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill hearings October 11, 12, 13, 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willson, Marilee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE USE OF NARRATIVE DURING THE CLARENCE THOMAS-ANITA HILL HEARINGS OCTOBER 11, 12, 13, 1991 A Thesis by MARILEE WILLSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of' Master of Arts August 1993 Major Subject: Speech Communication THE USE OF NARRATIVE DUING THE CLARENCE THOMAS-ANITA HILL HEARINGS OCTOBER 1 1 ~ 12 ' 13 g 1991 A Thesis by MARILEE WILLSON Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

  13. Amer J of Potato Res (2006) 83:249-257 249 Furrow vs Hill Planting of Sprinkler-Irrigated Russet Burbank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Dean D.

    Amer J of Potato Res (2006) 83:249-257 249 Furrow vs Hill Planting of Sprinkler-Irrigated Russet Burbank Potatoes on Coarse-Textured Soils Dean D. Steele1 *, Richard G. Greenland2 , and Harlene M Surface water runoff from the hill, where potatoes are planted, to the furrow may exacerbate potato

  14. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative environment that leverages technology and scientific expertise from DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, and the broad scientific research community. As project manager for the DVZ-AFRI, I have had the privilege this past year to team with creative, talented members of the scientific community nationwide to develop effective long-term solutions to address deep vadose zone contamination. This report highlights how the DVZ-AFRI project team is delivering results by achieving significant programmatic accomplishments, and developing and field-testing transformational technologies to address the nation's most pressing groundwater and vadose zone contamination problems.

  15. Chemisorption and anodic oxidation of aromatic molecules on Pd electrode surfaces: studies by UHV-EC-STM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaole

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemisorption and anodic oxidation of hydroquinone (H2Q) and benzoquinone (BQ) at palladium electrode surfaces was studied by a combination of electrochemistry (EC), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron...

  16. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  17. Ni coarsening in the three-phase solid oxide fuel cell anode - a phase-field simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hsun-Yi; Cronin, J Scott; Wilson, James R; Barnett, Scott A; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni coarsening in Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell anodes is considered a major reason for anode degradation. We present a predictive, quantative modeling framework based on the phase-field approach to systematically examine coarsening kinetics in such anodes. The initial structures for simulations are experimentally acquired functional layers of anodes. Sample size effects and error analysis of contact angles are examined. Three phase boundary (TPB) lengths and Ni surface areas are quantatively identified on the basis of the active, dead-end, and isolated phase clusters throughout coarsening. Tortuosity evolution of the pores is also investigated. We find that phase clusters with larger characteristic length evolve slower than those with smaller length scales. As a result, coarsening has small positive effects on transport, and impacts less on the active Ni surface area than the total counter part. TPBs, however, are found to be sensitive to local morphological features and are only i...

  18. Anode microbial communities produced by changing from microbial fuel cell to microbial electrolysis cell operation using two different wastewaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    libraries, anode communities in reactors fed acetic acid decreased in species richness and diversity), as well as water desalination (Cao et al., 2009). The production of hydrogen from non-fermentable sub

  19. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    formations, including oil and gas reservoirs and deep salineGCS consist mainly of oil and gas reservoirs and deep salinebelow the caprock in oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline

  20. A microfocus x-ray source based on a nonmetal liquid-jet anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuohimaa, T.; Ewald, J.; Schlie, M.; Hertz, H. M.; Vogt, U. [Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Fernandez-Varea, J. M. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate stable operation of a nonmetallic anode in an electron-impact x-ray source. A high-brightness electron beam is focused on a {approx}70 m/s speed, {approx}10 {mu}m diameter methanol jet producing stable x-ray emission with peak spectral brightness at {approx}5.4x10{sup 5} photons/(sx{mu}m{sup 2}xsrx0.1%BW). The jet is fully evaporated in the interaction point. The shape of a simulated spectrum using Monte Carlo methods shows good agreement with experimental data, and the theoretical brightness values give an upper limit for the achievable x-ray emission from jets with very high velocities. Using this anode concept, all compounds and elements found in liquid form are potentially usable for x-ray generation.

  1. Improving dielectric performance in anodic aluminum oxide via detection and passivation of defect states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mibus, M.; Zangari, G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Jensen, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Hu, X.; Reed, M. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Knospe, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and ionic transports in 32–56?nm thick anodic aluminum oxide films are investigated before and after a 1-h anneal at 200–400?°C in argon. Results are correlated to their defect density as measured by the Mott-Schottky technique. Solid state measurements show that electronic conduction upon annealing is hindered by an increase in the Schottky emission barrier, induced by a reduction in dopant density. Using an electrochemical contact, the films fail rapidly under cathodic polarization, unless defect density is decreased down to 10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3}, resulting in a three order of magnitude reduction in current and no visible gas evolution. Under anodic polarization, the decrease in defect density delays the onset of ionic conduction as well as further oxide growth and failure.

  2. Adsorbate-induced corrosion: anodic dissolution of palladium induced by chemisorbed iodine in halide-free acid solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schimpf, Janemarie A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as to style and content by: M. P. ria (Chair Co ittee) G. Vigh (Member) R. G. Anthony (Member) M. B. Hall (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT Adsorbate-Induced Corrosion: Anodic Dissolution of Palladium Induced by Chemisorbed Iodine... not anodically dissolve to an appreciable extent. Approach This investigation employed polycrystalline palladium foils, wires, and rods. Experimental measurements utilized a combination of conventional electrochemical techniques including voltammetry and...

  3. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Portici Research Centre, p.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 ?m thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  4. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  5. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  6. Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes for cathodic protection of steel-reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; McGill, Galen E. (Oregon Dept. of Transportation)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are being used in Oregon in impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for reinforced concrete bridges. The U.S. Department of Energy, Albany Research Center, is collaborating with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) to evaluate the long-term performance and service life of these anodes. Laboratory studies were conducted on concrete slabs coated with 0.5 mm (20 mil) thick, thermal-sprayed zinc anodes. The slabs were electrochemically aged at an accelerated rate using an anode current density of 0.032 A/m2 (3mA/ft2). Half the slabs were preheated before thermal-spraying with zinc; the other half were unheated. Electrochemical aging resulted in the formation at the zinc-concrete interface of a thin, low pH zone (relative to cement paste) consisting primarily of ZnO and Zn(OH)2, and in a second zone of calcium and zinc aluminates and silicates formed by secondary mineralization. Both zones contained elevated concentrations of sulfate and chloride ions. The original bond strength of the zinc coating decreased due to the loss of mechanical bond to the concrete with the initial passage of electrical charge (aging). Additional charge led to an increase in bond strength to a maximum as the result of secondary mineralization of zinc dissolution products with the cement paste. Further charge led to a decrease in bond strength and ultimately coating disbondment as the interfacial reaction zones continued to thicken. This occurred at an effective service life of 27 years at the 0.0022 A/m2 (0.2 mA/ft2) current density typically used by ODOT in ICCP systems for coastal bridges. Zinc coating failure under tensile stress was primarily cohesive within the thickening reaction zones at the zinc-concrete interface. There was no difference between the bond strength of zinc coatings on preheated and unheated concrete surfaces after long service times.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

  8. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  9. Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge films for high capacity Li ion battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudawski, N. G.; Darby, B. L.; Yates, B. R.; Jones, K. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States); Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); Volinsky, A. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa Florida 33620 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured ion beam-modified Ge electrodes fabricated directly on Ni current collector substrates were found to exhibit excellent specific capacities during electrochemical cycling in half-cell configuration with Li metal for a wide range of cycling rates. Structural characterization revealed that the nanostructured electrodes lose porosity during cycling but maintain excellent electrical contact with the metallic current collector substrate. These results suggest that nanostructured Ge electrodes have great promise for use as high performance Li ion battery anodes.

  10. Developing High Capacity, Long Life, and High Power Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Company AgreesDesireeDepartmentLife Anodes

  11. Developing a new high capacity anode with long life | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent Companya new high capacity anode with long life

  12. Mitigation action plan sale of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills) Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1, also called {open_quotes}Elk Hills{close_quotes}), a Federally-owned oil and gas production field in Kern County, California, was created by an Executive Order issued by President Taft on September 2, 1912. He signed another Executive Order on December 13, 1912, to establish Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2), located immediately south of NPR-1 and containing portions of the town of Taft, California. NPR-1 was not developed until the 1973-74 oil embargo demonstrated the nation`s vulnerability to oil supply interruptions. Following the embargo, Congress passed the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976 which directed that the reserve be explored and developed to its fall economic potential at the {open_quotes}maximum efficient rate{close_quotes} (MER) of production. Since Elk Hills began full production in 1976, it has functioned as a commercial operation, with total revenues to the Federal government through FY 1996 of $16.4 billion, compared to total exploration, development and production costs of $3.1 billion. In February 1996, Title 34 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 (P.L. 104-106), referred to as the Elk Hills Sales Statute, directed the Secretary of Energy to sell NPR-1 by February 10, 1998.The Secretary was also directed to study options for enhancing the value of the other Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserve properties such as NPR-2, located adjacent to NPR-1 in Kern County- Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) located in Natrona County, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserves No. 1 and No. 3 (NOSR-1 and NOSR-3) located in Garfield County, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) located in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The purpose of these actions was to remove the Federal government from the inherently non-Federal function of operating commercial oil fields while making sure that the public would obtain the maximum value from the reserves.

  13. A novel method for preparing anode cermets for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciun, R.; Park, S.; Gorte, R.J.; Vohs, J.M.; Wang, C.; Worrell, W.L.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for fabrication of metal-cermet anodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been developed. Highly porous, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were prepared using a mixture of zircon fibers (YSZp, Si-stabilized, and {lt}0.3% Si) and normal YSZ powders (YSZd). The films remained highly porous following calcination up to 1,550 C, after which either Cu or Ni could be incorporated by impregnation with the nitrate salts. For Cu cermets, the performance increased with metal loading to at least 40% Cu. At 800 C using H{sub 2} as the fuel and a 230 {micro}m, YSZ electrolyte, the current-voltage (I-V) curves for either a Cu- or Ni-cermet anode formed using this new method were found to be identical to the I-V curve for a Ni cermet formed using traditional methods. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the anode films remained porous even with addition of Cu, so that additional modification was possible. Tests of this concept through the addition of ceria by impregnation with the Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} led to an additional increase in the cell performance.

  14. Composite solid oxide fuel cell anode based on ceria and strontium titanate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marina, Olga A. (Richland, WA); Pederson, Larry R. (Richland, WA)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An anode and method of making the same wherein the anode consists of two separate phases, one consisting of a doped strontium titanate phase and one consisting of a doped cerium oxide phase. The strontium titanate phase consists of Sr.sub.1-xM.sub.xTiO.sub.3-.delta., where M is either yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc), or lanthanum (La), where "x" may vary typically from about 0.01 to about 0.5, and where .delta. is indicative of some degree of oxygen non-stoichiometry. A small quantity of cerium may also substitute for titanium in the strontium titanate lattice. The cerium oxide consists of N.sub.yCe.sub.1-yO.sub.2-.delta., where N is either niobium (Nb), vanadium (V), antimony (Sb) or tantalum (Ta) and where "y" may vary typically from about 0.001 to about 0.1 and wherein the ratio of Ti in said first phase to the sum of Ce and N in the second phase is between about 0.2 to about 0.75. Small quantities of strontium, yttrium, and/or lanthanum may additionally substitute into the cerium oxide lattice. The combination of these two phases results in better performance than either phase used separately as an anode for solid oxide fuel cell or other electrochemical device.

  15. Passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coating on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenja, S.; Pan, J.; Wallinder, I.O.; Leygraf, C.; Kulu, P.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The passivation and anodic oxidation of duplex TiN coatings deposited by arc ion plating onto prenitrided AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky measurements in 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.05 M HCl. The chemical composition of the oxidized surface film atop TiN was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Up to 1.2 V/SHE the TiN coating exhibits passive behavior, which is attributed to the formation of a TiO{sub 2}-like film of nanometer thickness which grows linearly with anodic potential at a rate of 2.4 nm/V. Above 1.2 V/SHE enhanced anodic oxidation of TiN is observed at a rate of 17.7 nm/V, and the overall corrosion performance is governed both by the oxidized TiN coating and by a metallic Ti interlayer atop the nitrided stainless steel substrate. At all potentials the TiO{sub 2} film is characterized by relatively high donor densities and is, furthermore, terminated by a hydroxylated surface.

  16. SciTech Connect: Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternative Waste Forms and Borehole Seals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Borehole Disposal Research:...

  17. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and...

  18. Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Project Profile: Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids Halotechnics...

  19. FEASIBILITY OF WIND TO SERVE UPPER SKAGIT'S BOW HILL TRIBAL LANDS AND FEASIBILITY UPDATE FOR RESIDENTIAL RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RICH, LAUREN

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A two year wind resource assessment was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a community scale wind generation system for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe?s Bow Hill land base, and the project researched residential wind resource technologies to determine the feasibility of contributing renewable wind resource to the mix of energy options for our single and multi-family residential units.

  20. CO2 percolation experiment through chlorite/zeolite-rich sandstone (Pretty Hill Formation Otway BasinAustralia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    CO2 percolation experiment through chlorite/zeolite-rich sandstone (Pretty Hill Formation ­ Otway November 2011 Editor: D.B. Dingwell Keywords: CO2 storage Clay precipitation Carbon Permeability Reactive transport Underground CO2 sequestration is highly recommended as an effective means of significantly

  1. Final Report to the Joseph Hill Foundation: Calorespirometry: a novel approach to predicting energy requirements of greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Final Report to the Joseph Hill Foundation: Calorespirometry: a novel approach to predicting energy January 24, 2008 Greenhouse heating requires considerable energy for nearly all greenhouse flower crops. The combination of high energy costs and strong competition has caused a number of flower growers to go out

  2. Exploring links between physical and probabilistic models of volcanic eruptions: The Soufrie`re Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Charles

    ] Probabilistic methods play an increasingly important role in volcanic hazards forecasts. Here we show stiffening and gas exsolution, and depressurization due to development of permeability and gas escape. Our experience with the Soufrie`re Hills Volcano eruption sequence suggests that volcanic eruption forecasts

  3. Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications on pre-eruptive conduit conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications of the eruptive products. We used quantitative analysis of water content in residual glasses (matrix glass. To better link water content to structural level, we performed new water solubility experiments at low

  4. 148 USDA Forest Service RMRS-P-53CD. 2008. The Hill Plots: A Rare Long-Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of soil types and elevations. Materials associated with the Hill plots in- clude historical data, plant, historical personnel who worked on them, threats they have experienced, ecological insights they haveCoconinoNationalForest(J.Rolf,pers.comm.).Codes:PB=prescribed burn;PCT=pre-commercialthinning;PL=power/phonelinebuiltt

  5. The Impact of Coastal Boundaries and Small Hills on the Precipitation Distribution across Southern Connecticut and Long Island, New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    Connecticut and Long Island, New York BRIAN A. COLLE Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres simulations of moist airflow over 400-m hills (Bader and Roach 1977). Precipitation enhancement over Pennsylvania (Barros and Ku- Corresponding author address: Dr. Brian A. Colle, Marine Sci- ences Research

  6. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

  7. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill: Progress report, 1983 and 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Becker, N.M.; Williams, M.C.; Maes, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface and groundwater stations at and in the vicinity of Fenton Hill (Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Demonstration Site) located in the Jemez Mountains. This is part of a continued program of environmental studies. There has been a slight variation in chemical quality of water from the surface and groundwater stations; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. Water supply at the site is pumped from the aquifer in the Abiquiu Tuff. Cumulative production from 1976 through 1984 has been 41.5 x 10/sup 6/ gal. The water level in the supply well declined from 365 ft in 1976 to 379 ft in 1984.

  8. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills): Supplemental environmental impact statement. Record of decision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations, which implement the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, and the US Department of Energy National Environmental Policy Act regulations, the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, is issuing a Record of Decision on the continued operation of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The Department of Energy has decided to continue current operations at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and implement additional well drilling, facility development projects and other activities necessary for continued production of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in accordance with the requirements of the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976. The final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, entitled ``Petroleum Production at Maximum Efficient Rate, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (Elk Hills), Kern County, California (DOE/SEIS-0158),`` was released on September 3, 1993.

  9. Television interference measurements near the MOD-2 WT array at Goodnoe Hills, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the MOD-2 wind turbine (WT) array at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, was studied by means of detailed measurements at a number of test sites in the vicinity of the WT array. The commercial television signals available in the area were used as the radio frequency sources during the measurements. The dynamic measurements indicated that varying amounts of TVI were produced at all sites and on some or all of the available TV channels; with the directional antenna in use, most of the backward region interference produced video distortion that was judged to be acceptable; at one test location about 1-1/2 miles from the WT array site, forward region interference was observed; when the blades of the WTs rotate in synchronism, they tend to increase the amplitude of the interference pulses, thereby producing more TVI effects; and when the blades do not rotate in synchronism, each WT produces interference effects individually.

  10. Measurement of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA from the Fukushima I reactor accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMullin, S; Green, M P; Henning, R; Holmes, R; Vorren, K; Wilkerson, J F

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of airborne fission products in Chapel Hill, NC, USA, from 62 days following the March 11, 2011, accident at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. Airborne particle samples were collected daily in air filters and radio-assayed with two high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The fission products I-131 and Cs-137 were measured with maximum activities of 4.2 +/- 0.6 mBq/m^2 and 0.42 +/- 0.07 mBq/m^2 respectively. Additional activity from I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-136, Cs-137 and Te-132 were measured in the same air filters using a low-background HPGe detector at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF).

  11. Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site Selection Guidelines, Borehole Seals Design, and RD&D Needs The U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating deep borehole disposal as one alternative for the disposal...

  12. Technological review of deep ocean manned submersibles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaskov, Alex Kikeri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    James Cameron's dive to the Challenger Deep in the Deepsea Challenger in March of 2012 marked the first time man had returned to the Mariana Trench since the Bathyscaphe Trieste's 1960 dive. Currently little is known about ...

  13. Fabrication and Performance of Ni-YSZ Anode Supported Cell for Coal Derived Syngas Application by Tape Casting and Spin Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Mingyang (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Jiang, Yinglu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Johnson, C.D.; Xingbo, Liu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-YSZ anode supported cell has been developed for direct utilization of coal derived syngas as fuel in the temperature range of 700-850° C. The porous Ni-YSZ anode substrate was prepared based on processes of slip casting and lamination of anode tape. Then thin-film YSZ electrolyte was deposited on pre-sintered anode substrate via a colloidal spin coating technique and an optimized final sintering route. Dense and crackfree YSZ electrolyte was successfully obtained after sintering at 1440C for 4hrs. Processing factors like pre-sintering of anode, solvent, coating cycles and sintering route on the final properties of YSZ film was studied. A power density of 0.62W/cm2 has been achieved for the anode supported cell tested in 97%H2/3%H2O at 800°C. EIS test results indicated the cell performance was essentially influenced by interfacial resistance and charge transfer process.

  14. Test plan for the pilot cell test of inert anodes: Report on the June 1991 meeting at the Reynolds Metals Company facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Alcorn, T.R.; Tabereaux, A.T. (Reynolds Metals Co., Muscle Shoals, AL (United States). Mfg. Technology Lab.)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inert Electrodes Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supported by the Office of Industrial Processes (OIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is aimed at improving the energy efficiency of Hall-Heroult cells through the development of inert anodes. The inert anodes currently under study are composed of a cermet material of the general composition NiO-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Cu. The program has three primary objectives: (1) evaluate the anode material in a pilot cell facility, (2) investigate the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions at the anodes surface, and (3) develop sensors for monitoring various anode and/or electrolyte conditions. This report discusses a test plan that has been developed for the pilot cell test of the inert anodes. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode with Au doped ultrathin n-Si film anode and bottom Al mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Z.; Xu, W. J.; Ran, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, G. G. [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials, CAS, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a highly efficient top-emission Si-based phosphor organic light emitting diode (PhOLED) with an ultrathin polycrystalline n-Si:Au film anode and a bottom Al mirror. This anode is formed by magnetron sputtering followed by Ni induced crystallization and then Au diffusion. By optimizing the thickness of the n-Si:Au film anode, the Au diffusion temperature, and the other parameters of the PhOLED, the highest current and power efficiencies of the n-Si:Au film anode PhOLED reached 85{+-}9 cd/A and 80{+-}8 lm/W, respectively, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 21{+-}2% and a power conversion efficiency of 15{+-}2%, respectively, which are about 60% and 110% higher than those of the indium tin oxide anode counterpart and 70% and 50% higher than those of the bulk n{sup +}-Si:Au anode counterpart, respectively.

  16. Sharp transition between two regimes of operation of dc discharge with two anodes and thermionic emission from cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustafaev, A. S.; Grabovskiy, A. [National Mineral Resources University “Gorniy,” St. Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation)] [National Mineral Resources University “Gorniy,” St. Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a dc discharge plasma with two anodes and thermionic emission from cathode, the two anodes are used for plasma control. The main anode is placed between the cathode and the other auxiliary anode has a circular opening for passing electron current from the cathode to the second anode. It is experimentally demonstrated that a plasma may exhibit a sudden transition between two quasi-stable conditions as one increases the cathode-electron current collected by the auxiliary anode through an aperture, i.e., hole, in the main anode. In one regime, a bright glowing “ball-shaped double layer” appears on the plasma side having a potential drop of 10–15?eV and concomitant ionization in the neighboring region attached to the opening. The second regime is characterized by a uniform potential profile in plasma and an absence of the ball-shaped double layer. The transition between these regimes is accompanied by a significant change in plasma properties, such as the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Controlling the EEDF is a valuable capability in technological applications. Increasing the gas pressure leads to the elimination of the first regime for sufficiently high gas pressure, the threshold being a few Torr. The disappearance of a regime transition can be explained by invoking an EEDF transition, from being nonlocal at low pressure to becoming local at high pressure. Local EEDF is determined by local values of electric field. Nonlocal EEDF is determined by electric field values elsewhere, and the electron can travel without energy loss over a path much longer than the discharge dimension.

  17. A new deep sea species of Paramphinome (Polychaeta: Amphinomidae) from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paiva, Paulo Cesar de

    Paramphinome Sars, 1872 includes small deep-water species which are often very abundant in quantitative deep, mainly in deep waters and is characterized by the presence of one, two or three pairs of small notopodial made by PETROBRAS (Brazilian Petroleum Company) under the scope of the project `Campos Basin Deep

  18. Government Information Interest Group (GIIG) Rolling in the Deep Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Government Information Interest Group (GIIG) Rolling in the Deep Web: Mining free resources;Most Science Info Is in the Deep Web Federated Searching Federated search drills down to the deep web where scientific databases reside Students and researchers need information from the deep web. Unlike

  19. Deep Beams and Slabs The purpose of skin reinforcement in a deep beam is to limit the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Deep Beams and Slabs Deep Beams The purpose of skin reinforcement in a deep beam is to limit require different amounts of skin reinforcement. The purpose of our experiment is to compare beams designed with the different amounts of skin reinforcement required by these codes. 3 deep beams following

  20. Use of non-quadratic yield surfaces in design of optimal deep-draw blank geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar anisotropy in the deep-drawing of sheet can lead to the formation of ears in cylindrical cups and to undesirable metal flow in the blankholder in the general case. For design analysis purposes in non-linear finite-element codes, this anisotropy is characterized by the use of an appropriate yield surface which is then implemented into codes such as DYNA3D . The quadratic Hill yield surface offers a relatively straightforward implementation and can be formulated to be invariant to the coordinate system. Non-quadratic yield surfaces can provide more realistic strength or strain increment ratios, but they may not provide invariance and thus demand certain approximations. Forms due to Hosford and Badat et al. have been shown to more accurately address the earning phenomenon. in this work, use is made of these non-quadratic yield surfaces in order to determine the optimal blank shape for cups and other shapes using ferrous and other metal blank materials with planar anisotropy. The analyses are compared to previous experimental studies on non-uniform blank motion due to anisotropy and asymmetric geometry.

  1. DeepPose: Human Pose Estimation via Deep Neural Networks Alexander Toshev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomkins, Andrew

    benchmarks of diverse real-world images. 1. Introduction The problem of human pose estimation, defined-world problems. In this work we ascribe to this holistic view of human pose estimation. We capitalize on recentDeepPose: Human Pose Estimation via Deep Neural Networks Alexander Toshev toshev@google.com Google

  2. Effect of Nickel-Phosphorus Interactions on Structural Integrity of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated experimental/modeling approach was utilized to assess the structural integrity of Ni - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) porous anode supports followed the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation on coal gas containing trace amounts of phosphorus impurities. Phosphorus was chosen as a typical impurity exhibiting strong interactions with the nickel followed by second phase formation. Tests were performed using Ni-YSZ anode-supported button cells exposed to 0.5-10 ppm of phosphine in synthetic coal gas at 700-800oC. The extent of Ni-P interactions was determined by a post-test scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Severe damage to the anode support due to nickel phosphide phase formation and extensive crystal coalescence was revealed, resulting in electric percolation loss. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual anode support microstructures to assist in degradation mechanism explanation. Volume expansion induced by the Ni phase alteration was found to produce high stress levels such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode became possible under the operating conditions. These results emphasize the need for extensive coal gas cleanup when used as a fuel for SOFCs.

  3. Harnessing the Deep Web: Present and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Jayant; Antova, Lyublena; Halevy, Alon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past few years, we have built a system that has exposed large volumes of Deep-Web content to Google.com users. The content that our system exposes contributes to more than 1000 search queries per-second and spans over 50 languages and hundreds of domains. The Deep Web has long been acknowledged to be a major source of structured data on the web, and hence accessing Deep-Web content has long been a problem of interest in the data management community. In this paper, we report on where we believe the Deep Web provides value and where it does not. We contrast two very different approaches to exposing Deep-Web content -- the surfacing approach that we used, and the virtual integration approach that has often been pursued in the data management literature. We emphasize where the values of each of the two approaches lie and caution against potential pitfalls. We outline important areas of future research and, in particular, emphasize the value that can be derived from analyzing large collections of potenti...

  4. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  5. In situ formation of micron-scale Li-metal anodes with high cyclability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arruda, Thomas M [ORNL] [ORNL; Lawton, Jamie S [ORNL] [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning probe microscopy methods have been used to fabricate and cycle micron-scale Li anodes deposited electrochemically under nanofabricated Au current collectors. An average Li volume of 5 10^8 nm3 was deposited and cycled with 100 % coulombic efficiency for ~ 160 cycles. Integrated charge/discharge values agree with before/after topography, as well as in situ dilatometry, suggesting this is a reliable method to study solid-state electrochemical processes. In this work we illustrate the possibility to deposit highly cyclable nanometer thick Li electrodes by mature SPM and nanofab techniques which can pave the way for inexpensive nanoscale battery arrays.

  6. Electrocatalytic Materials and Techniques for the Anodic Oxidation of Various Organic Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Everett Treimer

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis was first to characterize and improve the applicability of Fe(III) and Bi(V) doped PbO{sub 2} film electrodes for use in anodic O-transfer reactions of toxic and waste organic compounds, e.g. phenol, aniline, benzene, and naphthalene. Further, they investigated the use of alternative solution/electrode interfacial excitation techniques to enhance the performance of these electrodes for remediation and electrosynthetic applications. Finally, they have attempted to identify a less toxic metal oxide film that may hold promise for future studies in the electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis of O-transfer reactions using metal oxide film electrodes.

  7. Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W.A. Parrott, and D. D. Pope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Wayne

    Ergopeptine Alkaloid Production by Endophytes in a Common Tall Fescue Genotype iN. s. Hill,* W the plantwithaddedvigor,developmentof endophyte-infectedtall fescuepopulationsthatareincapableof producingergopeptineal thatwasinfectedbytwodifferentendophyteisolatesthatexpress differentlevels of alkaloidswhenin theirhostplants.Endophyte- free tall fescueGenotypePDN2

  8. mail: Sitterson Hall CB3175, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175; phone: (919) 962-1700; email: lastname@cs.unc.edu.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Gary

    mail: Sitterson Hall CB3175, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175; phone: (919) 962-1700; email: lastname and to swim around as the user moves. In a 1986 paper on Adaptive Refinement, Bergman, Fuchs, Grant, and Spach

  9. The use of logistic regression to model the probability of oak wilt occurrence in the Texas hill country using forest stand and site characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dignum, David Rory

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE USE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION TO MODEL THE PROBABILITY OF OAK MILT OCCURRENCE IN THE TEXAS HILL COUNTRY USING FOREST STAND AND SITE CHARACTERISTICS A Thesis by DAVID RORY DIGNUM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Afdi University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Maj or Subj cot: Forestry THE USE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION TO MODEL THE PROBABILITY OF OAK WILT OCCURRENCE IN THE TEXAS HILL COUNTRY USING FOREST STAND AND SITE...

  10. Lithium/organosulfur redox cell having protective solid electrolyte barrier formed on anode and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Meilin (Albany, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Vevey, CH)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithium/organosulfur redox cell is disclosed which comprises a solid lium anode, a liquid organosulfur cathode, and a barrier layer formed adjacent a surface of the solid lithium anode facing the liquid organosulfur cathode consisting of a reaction product of the lithium anode with the organosulfur cathode. The organosulfur cathode comprises a material having the formula (R(S).sub.y).sub.N where y=1 to 6, n=2 to 20 and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the linear chain may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  11. Nuclear effects in deep inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Benhar; V.R. Pandharipande; I. Sick

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors extend the approach used to treat quasi-elastic inclusive electron-nucleus scattering to the deep inelastic region. They provide a general approach to describe lepton scattering from an off-shell nucleon, and calculate the ratio of inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross sections to the deuteron for nuclear matter and helium (EMC-effect). They find that the consistent inclusion of the binding effects, in particular the ones arising from the short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction, allows to describe the data in the region of x > 0.15 where binding fully accounts for the deviation of the cross section ratios from one.

  12. Summary of Degas II performance at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David K. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil stored at the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) requires mitigation procedures to maintain oil vapor pressure within program delivery standards. Crude oil degasification is one effective method for lowering crude oil vapor pressure, and was implemented at the Big Hill SPR site from 2004-2006. Performance monitoring during and after degasification revealed a range of outcomes for caverns that had similar inventory and geometry. This report analyzed data from SPR degasification and developed a simple degas mixing (SDM) model to assist in the analysis. Cavern-scale oil mixing during degassing and existing oil heterogeneity in the caverns were identified as likely causes for the range of behaviors seen. Apparent cavern mixing patterns ranged from near complete mixing to near plug flow, with more mixing leading to less efficient degassing due to degassed oil re-entering the plant before 100% of the cavern oil volume was processed. The report suggests that the new cavern bubble point and vapor pressure regain rate after degassing be based on direct in-cavern measurements after degassing as opposed to using the plant outlet stream properties as a starting point, which understates starting bubble point and overstates vapor pressure regain. Several means to estimate the cavern bubble point after degas in the absence of direct measurement are presented and discussed.

  13. ICFT: An initial closed-loop flow test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, Z.V. (ed.); Aguilar, R.G.; Dennis, B.R.; Dreesen, D.S.; Fehler, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; House, L.S.; Ito, H.; Kelkar, S.M.; Malzahn, M.V.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 30-day closed-loop circulation test of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was conducted to determine the thermal, hydraulic, chemical, and seismic characteristics of the reservoir in preparation for a long-term energy-extraction test. The Phase II heat-extraction loop was successfully tested with the injection of 37,000 m/sup 3/ of cold water and production of 23,300 m/sup 3/ of hot water. Up to 10 MW/sub t/ was extracted when the production flow rate reached 0.0139 m/sup 3//s at 192/degree/C. By the end of the test, the water-loss rate had decreased to 26% and a significant portion of the injected water was recovered; 66% during the test and an additional 20% during subsequent venting. Analysis of thermal, hydraulic, geochemical, tracer, and seismic data suggests the fractured volume of the reservoir was growing throughout the test. 19 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  14. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  15. Observations of wake characteristics at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The array of three MOD-2 wind turbines and two meteorological towers at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, provides an opportunity to evaluate turbine and wake interactions in a real environment. The triangular arrangement of the three turbines provides opportunities to study the effect of wakes on the performance of a downwind turbine at three different distances: 5, 7, and 10 rotor diameters (D), where 1 D is 300 ft. The information obtained from this test configuration is critical to future wind farm activities and is a key objective of the MOD-2 test program. This report describes the analysis of data measured at the turbines and towers from August 29 to November 12, 1982. The data are 2-min averages of 1-s values. Background flow characteristics were also examined to determine if flow variations across the site could mask wake measurements. For this analysis, one year's data gathered at the meteorological towers were analyzed. The results show some differences between characteristics measured at the towers, but these differences were not great enough to consider in evaluating wakes at the towers.

  16. Interface modeling to predict well casing damage for big hill strategic petroleum reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil leaks were found in well casings of Caverns 105 and 109 at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. According to the field observations, two instances of casing damage occurred at the depth of the interface between the caprock and top of salt. This damage could be caused by interface movement induced by cavern volume closure due to salt creep. A three dimensional finite element model, which allows each cavern to be configured individually, was constructed to investigate shear and vertical displacements across each interface. The model contains interfaces between each lithology and a shear zone to examine the interface behavior in a realistic manner. This analysis results indicate that the casings of Caverns 105 and 109 failed by shear stress that exceeded shear strength due to the horizontal movement of the top of salt relative to the caprock, and tensile stress due to the downward movement of the top of salt from the caprock, respectively. The casings of Caverns 101, 110, 111 and 114, located at the far ends of the field, are predicted to be failed by shear stress in the near future. The casings of inmost Caverns 107 and 108 are predicted to be failed by tensile stress in the near future.

  17. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  18. Modeling Electrochemical Decomposition of Fluoroethylene Carbonate on Silicon Anode Surfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Leung; Susan B. Rempe; Michael E. Foster; Yuguang Ma; Julibeth M. Martinez del la Hoz; Na Sai; Perla B. Balbuena

    2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) shows promise as an electrolyte additive for improving passivating solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) films on silicon anodes used in lithium ion batteries (LIB). We apply density functional theory (DFT), ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), and quantum chemistry techniques to examine excess-electron-induced FEC molecular decomposition mechanisms that lead to FEC-modified SEI. We consider one- and two-electron reactions using cluster models and explicit interfaces between liquid electrolyte and model Li(x)Si(y) surfaces, respectively. FEC is found to exhibit more varied reaction pathways than unsubstituted ethylene carbonate. The initial bond-breaking events and products of one- and two-electron reactions are qualitatively similar, with a fluoride ion detached in both cases. However, most one-electron products are charge-neutral, not anionic, and may not coalesce to form effective Li+-conducting SEI unless they are further reduced or take part in other reactions. The implications of these reactions to silicon-anode based LIB are discussed.

  19. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL] [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.] [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  20. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.