Sample records for hiline ash mary

  1. Ash pelletization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodall, M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash pelletization is outlined under the following topics: projects with CSX involvement; US Generating (Cedar Bay), Jacksonville, FL; Hydra-Co (Salt City Project), Solvay, NY; Virginia Power, Yorktown Plant; US Generating; Indiantown, FL; Future Projects; Development of ash disposal site;s Reuse of ash product; and Utility Survey.

  2. Mary S Lipton | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pathways in key microbial species, paving the way for future widespread use for bioremediation efforts. d3j715 Primary tabs View(active tab) Track Mary S Lipton Staff Member...

  3. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  4. Activation of fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corbin, David R. (New Castle, DE); Velenyi, Louis J. (Lyndhurst, OH); Pepera, Marc A. (Northfield, OH); Dolhyj, Serge R. (Parma, OH)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  5. Sandia Energy - Mary Crawford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757Kelley Ruehl Home KelleyMary Crawford Home Mary Crawford

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Marie Guy | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marie Guy Marie Guy Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case...

  8. Mary Louise Spaeth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMappingMariaHereldMarsMary Louise Spaeth

  9. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  10. Marie Maynadier, Philippe Nird, Jean-Marie Ramirez, Anne Marie Cathiard, Nadine Platet, Monique Chambon, Marcel Garcia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Marie Maynadier, Philippe Nirdé, Jean-Marie Ramirez, Anne Marie Cathiard, Nadine Platet, Monique, Nadine Platet, Monique Chambon, Marcel Garcia Summary Estrogen receptors are overexpressed in human antiestrogen, ICI 182,780. This cell-cell adhesion was associated with an increase of the major intercellular

  11. Coal ash utilization in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalski, S.R.; Brendel, G.F.; Gray, R.E. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes methods of coal combustion product (CCP) management successfully employed in the US and considers their potential application in India. India produces about 66 million tons per year (mty) of coal ash from the combustion of 220 mty of domestically produced coal, the average ash content being about 30--40 percent as opposed to an average ash content of less than 10 percent in the US In other words, India produces coal ash at about triple the rate of the US. Currently, 95 percent of this ash is sluiced into slurry ponds, many located near urban centers and consuming vast areas of premium land. Indian coal-fired generating capacity is expected to triple in the next ten years, which will dramatically increase ash production. Advanced coal cleaning technology may help reduce this amount, but not significantly. Currently India utilizes two percent of the CCP`s produced with the remainder being disposed of primarily in large impoundments. The US utilizes about 25 percent of its coal ash with the remainder primarily being disposed of in nearly equal amounts between dry landfills and impoundments. There is an urgent need for India to improve its ash management practice and to develop efficient and environmentally sound disposal procedures as well as high volume ash uses in ash haulback to the coalfields. In addition, utilization should include: reclamation, structural fill, flowable backfill and road base.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash bottom ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: of bottom ash, 3 million tons of boiler slag, and 28 million tons of clean-coal ash materials) were produced... CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By...

  13. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  14. Ash deposit workshop: Class outline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

  15. Kaiserslautern, 9. Juni 2010 Marie-Curie-Manahmen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Karsten

    Nationalität #12;IEF Mobilitätsregel Ein deutscher Forscher lebt seit 10 Monaten in Ungarn Antragsberechtigt für ein Fellowship in Ungarn Marie Curie Individual Fellowship #12;IOF Marie Curie Individual

  16. Mary Landrieu | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMake Your Next Road Trip FuelMarilyn L. Dillon About UsMary

  17. Mary Hockaday, Cheryl Cabbil named

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMAR Os ZD15net >MartindiversityMary

  18. Mary Smalling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12Approvedof6,Projects38, 1979: ThreeOversight AnnualMarthaMary

  19. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  20. Long duration ash probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  1. Mary Ann Borina Radovich: Croatian Apple Farmer, Watsonville, California, 1918-1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Radovich, Mary Ann Borina; Knaster, Meri

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laughter) Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Apple Farmer: Familywith some Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Apple Farmer: Familyhis name? Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Apple Farmer: Family

  2. Mary Ann Borina Radovich: Croatian Apple Farmer, Watsonville, California, 1918-1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Radovich, Mary Ann Borina; Knaster, Meri

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cola over here. (laughter) Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Appleand go live with some Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Appleactually changed his name? Mary Ann Radovich, Croatian Apple

  3. ash dispersion utilizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the USA for all coal ashes was approximately 34% in the year products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much...

  4. Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

  5. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A. [University of Porto, Oporto (Portugal). Center of Geology

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  6. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  7. Utrecht University Marie Curie support grant 2013-2014 1 Utrecht University Marie Curie Support Grant 2013-2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Utrecht University Marie Curie support grant 2013-2014 1 Utrecht University Marie Curie Support Grant 2013-2014 1. Introduction Utrecht University wants to enhance successful collaboration in strategic themes (`Life Sciences', `Sustainability', `Institutions', `Youth and Identity') between Utrecht

  8. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  9. Saint Mary's University Mathematics and Computing Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S.A. lshampin@mail.smu.edu, P.H. Muir and H. Xu Department of Mathematics and Computing Science Saint Mary's University Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3, Canada muir@smu.ca, h xu@cs.stmarys.ca Abstract MIRKDC is a FORTRAN

  10. ash leachate generation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    72 Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 Materials Science Websites Summary: Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 FGD-2 Alliant Energy FGD-3 WPS Pulliam Ash 12;Center for By-Products...

  11. ash quality characterization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    78 Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 Materials Science Websites Summary: Key To Ash Sources FGD-1 MPU 8 FGD-2 Alliant Energy FGD-3 WPS Pulliam Ash 12;Center for By-Products...

  12. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  13. ash blended cement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass blends Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: , low ash partially composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC)...

  14. Development of dredged ash disposal area, Paradise fossil plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paradise Steam-Electric Plant coal-fired facility in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. This project is to construct a dredge pond near the Jacobs Creek ash pond capable of storing fly ash dredged from the ash pond. This will provide approximately 10 years of additional fly ash storage in the fly ash pond. Effluent from the dredge pond will be returned to the Jacobs Creek ash pond for discharge to Jacobs Creek. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. ashes oral biotillgaenglighet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash 1. Halima Hadiahmetovi?; D. D. Sarajevo; M. Sc; Raza Sunulahpai?; Bosnia Herzegovina 97 Leachate Geochemical Results for Ash Samples from the June 2007 Angora...

  16. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  17. Ashe County - Wind Energy System Ordinance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tribal Government Utility Program Info State North Carolina Program Type SolarWind Permitting Standards Provider Ashe County Planning Department In 2007 Ashe County...

  18. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and...

  19. ash intranasal instillation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    there is no mixing of insufficiently thermally treated material with bottom ash. Good fire control Columbia University 17 Characteristics and Uses for Ash Environmental...

  20. ash deposition propensities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environments (>3.5 km), banded iron, volcanic ashes Summary diagrams available Clastic depositional environments Harbor, David 57 Ash Dump Site Manager: EHS&RM Biology and...

  1. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash,...

  2. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission...

  3. Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ash Chemistry in MSW Incineration Plants: Advanced Characterization and Thermodynamic Introduction to Municipal Solid Waste Incineration 2 Chapter 2 Plants Considered and Samples Collected 5 Chapter 3 Mapping of Ash Chemistry in MSWI Plants 8 Chapter 4 Advanced Characterization Methods 12 4

  4. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett (Park City, UT); Akash, Akash (Salt lake City, UT); Zhao, Qiang (Natick, MA)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE), Los Alamos...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MaRIE: Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes Experimental Facility MaRIE Home MaRIE 1.0 Fission, Fusion materials Facility Accelerator Systems Making, Measuring and Modeling...

  8. ,"Sault St Marie, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sault St Marie, MI Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of...

  9. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  10. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schenone, Carl E. (Madison, PA); Rosinski, Joseph (Vanderbilt, PA)

    1984-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  11. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  12. Environmental aspects of the Brandywine ash site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simek, E.; Potera, G.; Schuller, R.; Herritt, M.; Wagner, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brandywine ash site, located in Prince Georges County, Maryland, is owned and operated by the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO). This site was designed specifically for the storage of the large quantities of coal ash produced at PEPCO's nearby Chalk Point Generating Station. Environmental Resources Management, Inc. (ERM), with assistance from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Tidewater Administration, conducted a study of this site for the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) to determine if ash constituents are adversely affecting the environment. Section 1 of this report is an introduction to coal ash and its physical/chemical characteristics. Section 2 describes the environment at the site and in adjacent areas. Within this setting, a description of the facility is presented as Section 3. Section 4 relies on the previous sections to point out any likely effects of the facility on the environment and to discount unlikely interactions. Key conclusions are presented in Section 5.

  13. INTERNSHIP FOR ACADEMIC CREDIT THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    INTERNSHIP FOR ACADEMIC CREDIT THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF UNDERGRADUATE/YEAR OF PROPOSED INTERNSHIP: NO. OF WEEKS: __________________ Spring: _________________ HOURS. These internships should provide a structured learning experience and must be evaluated by a William and Mary

  14. College of William and Mary External Paid Employment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaddle, John

    College of William and Mary External Paid Employment Procedures Guidelines College of William by guidelines in the William and Mary Policy on External Employment (http://www.wm PAID EMPLOYMENT: External paid employment is a professional activity undertaken by a faculty

  15. Changing Communication Environments in MosquitoNet Mary G. Baker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Mary G.

    Changing Communication Environments in MosquitoNet Mary G. Baker Computer Science and Electrical is funded in part by the Center for Telecom- munications at Stanford University, the Reid and Polly Anderson- mary goal of MosquitoNet, a new project at Stanford Uni- versity for investigating operating system

  16. Stabilization/solidification of TSCA incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Francis, C.L.; Morgan, I.L.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilization/solidification is a well-known waste treatment technique that utilizes different additives and processes. The Phoenix Ash Technology of the Technical Innovation Development Engineering Company is such a technique that uses Cass C fly ash and mechanical pressure to make brick waste forms out of solid wastes, such as the bottom ash from the Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. One advantage of this technique is that no volume increase over the bulk volume of the bottom ash occurs. This technique should have the same high pH stabilization for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals as similar techniques. Also, consolidation of the bottom ash minimizes the potential problems of material dispersion and container corrosion. The bottom ash was spiked with {sup 99}{Tc} to test the effectiveness of the bricks as a physical barrier. The {sup 99}{Tc} leachability index measured for these bricks was 6.8, typical for the pertechnetate anion in cementitious waste forms, indicating that these bricks have accessible porosity as high as that of other cementitious waste forms, despite the mechanical compression, higher waste form density, and water resistant polymer coating.

  17. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camilleri, Josette [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta); Sammut, Michael [Department of Pathology, St. Luke's Hospital, G'Mangia (Malta); Montesin, Franco E. [Department of Building and Civil Engineering, Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Malta, Msida (Malta)]. E-mail: franco.montesin@um.edu.mt

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes.

  18. Developmental dyslexia: The Visual attention span deficit Marie-Line Bosse*, Marie Josphe Tainturier** and Sylviane Valdois*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Developmental dyslexia: The Visual attention span deficit hypothesis Marie-Line Bosse*, Marie to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was assessed. Overall, these findings support a multi-factorial view of developmental dyslexia. In many cases

  19. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  20. Mary Garden Plant List for the St. Clare Garden Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Thomas

    , Blessed by Mary Petroselinum crispum Parsley, Our Lady's Lace BULBS Galanthus elwesii Snowdrop, Candlemas

  1. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  2. Approaches to the petrographic characterization of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhanced understanding of fly ash properties provided by petrographic analysis, a level of detail chemical analysis cannot provide, will be essential in the upgrading and utilization of fly ash produced in boilers retrofitted to meet clean air standards. Howe et al estimated that over 25% of the fly ash produced in Kentucky in 1992 would not have met the Kentucky Department of Transportation limit of 3% loss-on-ignition (LOI) for class F fly ash used as a Portland cement admixture. The conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} emission units increases fly ash carbon, hence LOI, by 150-200% rendering the fly ash unsuitable for highway construction use in concrete. The preservation of fly ash`s market share will require increased attention to the removal of excess carbon from the fly ash. In this paper, we will discuss the basic components of fly ash. An example of the petrographic analysis of fly ash from a Kentucky power plant will be used to illustrate the partitioning of fly ash components by size, as well as within the fly ash collection system.

  3. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  4. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  5. ash utilization symposium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST Report No.CBU-1996-07 July 1996 Presented and Published at the...

  6. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  7. ash solvent extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alessandro 2013-01-01 27 ASH PNEUMATIC TRANSPORT UNDER ELECTROFILTERS OF UNIT 5 THERMAL POWER PLANT TUZLA CiteSeer Summary: Ash pneumatic transport is basic on fact that at...

  8. PIER: Demand Response Research Center Director, Mary Ann Piette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 PIER: Demand Response Research Center Director, Mary Ann Piette Program Development and Outreach Response Research Plan #12;2 Demand Response Research Center Objective Scope Stakeholders Develop, prioritize, conduct and disseminate multi- institutional research to facilitate Demand Response. Technologies

  9. From Persona Poem to Person Poem: Edgar Bowers' "Mary"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Timothy

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    object first person plural. Edgar Bowers (1924-2000) Steele,From Persona Poem to Person Poem: Edgar Bowers' "Mary," 6a Generation Know Its Story: The Edgar Bowers Conference and

  10. Information Architecture: The Design Behind The Design Presenter: Mary Peterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Information Architecture: The Design Behind The Design Presenter: Mary Peterson Information architecture (often abbreviated "IA") is the practice of structuring information for a purpose. Organizing the information they require. User Centered Design Design the architecture around the needs and capabilities

  11. Re-Forming Mary in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Prints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Elissa Anderson

    2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Dutch artists portrayed the Virgin Mary in an impressively diverse and iconographically complex range of themes--particularly in the easily reproducible medium of prints. Despite the ...

  12. Instructor: Mary Ann Anderson Classroom: UTC 1.132

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    Instructor: Mary Ann Anderson Classroom: UTC 1.132 Office: CBA 3.428 Mailbox: IROM Office Phone: 512-569-2698 (C ) Office Hours: As scheduled with Teams, or by appointment. e-mail: Maryann.anderson

  13. DRH/BPE/BDCS 1er PELICHET Marie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesbah, Mounir

    12ème GAYTE Marie 13ème REY Marie-Bénédicte 14ème CONILLEAU Claire 15ème ZOUAOUI Karen 1/12 #12 FAKERI TABRIZI Ali 22e ROMERO RAMIREZ Miguel 23e CREUS TOMAS Jordi 24e DUBOIS Swan 25e MOVAHEDI Zeinab 26 8ème PIERRE Juliette 9ème FRAS François 10ème BOUDET Sophie 11ème HAMIE Ali 1er MEYER Robert 2ème

  14. MaRIE theory, modeling and computation roadmap executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The confluence of MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extreme) and extreme (exascale) computing timelines offers a unique opportunity in co-designing the elements of materials discovery, with theory and high performance computing, itself co-designed by constrained optimization of hardware and software, and experiments. MaRIE's theory, modeling, and computation (TMC) roadmap efforts have paralleled 'MaRIE First Experiments' science activities in the areas of materials dynamics, irradiated materials and complex functional materials in extreme conditions. The documents that follow this executive summary describe in detail for each of these areas the current state of the art, the gaps that exist and the road map to MaRIE and beyond. Here we integrate the various elements to articulate an overarching theme related to the role and consequences of heterogeneities which manifest as competing states in a complex energy landscape. MaRIE experiments will locate, measure and follow the dynamical evolution of these heterogeneities. Our TMC vision spans the various pillar science and highlights the key theoretical and experimental challenges. We also present a theory, modeling and computation roadmap of the path to and beyond MaRIE in each of the science areas.

  15. 2007 world of coal ash conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of the conference was science, applications and sustainability. Papers are presented under the following topics: aggregates/geotechnology; agriculture; ash facility; management; CCT products; cement and concrete; chemistry and mineralogy; emerging technology; environmental; LOI/beneficiation/handling; mercury; mining and regulations and standards. The poster papers are included as well.

  16. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  17. Properties of concrete containing wood/coal fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, D.M.; Larrimore, C.L.; Fouad, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are increasingly interested in co-firing wood with coal in existing pulverized coal units. The co-firing technology is a means of developing a relatively low-cost renewable energy resource, as well as of supporting customers and community by making energy with biomass that might otherwise have been land-filled. However, recent changes in the ASTM C618 standard for fly ash as cement replacement restrict the definition of fly ash that includes non-coal sources. As a result, wood co-firing could affect the market for the fly ash, reducing ash sales revenue, increasing ash disposal costs, and overall substantially increasing the cost of the co-firing technology. In order to address concerns about the effect of wood ash/coal ash mixtures on concrete properties, a study was conducted by University of Alabama at Birmingham, Southern Company, EPRI, and the State of Alabama. This study compared the effects on properties of concrete made with fly ash from coal and made with fly ash from co-firing up to 30% wood with coal. Fly ashes from three plants were used, with two of the ashes from actual co-firing experience and the third an artificial blend of wood and coal ash. Concrete test cylinders were made of several cement/fly ash mixes, and enough were made to allow testing periodically over a one year time period. Test measurements included workability, setting time, air content, compressive and flexural strength, rapid chloride permeability and freeze thaw. It was concluded on the basis of these tests that the wood ash content had no detrimental effect on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete.

  18. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, James G. (Collegeville, PA); Mathur, Akshay (Tampa, FL); Simpson, James C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  20. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  1. Market assessment of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

  2. Coal ash by-product reutilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muncy, J. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States); Miller, B. [DYNA Corp., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has as part of its vision and value statement that, ``We are responsible stewards of environmental and corporate resources.`` With this moral imperative in mind, a project team was charged with initiating the Coal Pile Liner Project--installing a membrane liner under the existing coal storage pile at the Morgantown Generating Station. The existing coal yard facilities were constructed prior to the current environmental regulations, and it became necessary to upgrade the storage facilities to be environmentally friendly. The project team had two objectives in this project: (1) prevent coal pile leachate from entering the groundwater system; (2) test the viability of using coal ash by-products as an aggregate substitute for concrete applications. Both objectives were met, and two additional benefits were achieved as well: (1) the use of coal ash by-products as a coal liner produced significant cost savings to the project directly; (2) the use of coal ash by-products reduced plant operation and maintenance expenses.

  3. SINGLE ELEMENT TEST PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant, Amit

    : Fly-ash is a waste product produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It is often used. Introduction Fly-ash is a fine powdery material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. Fly-ash need to dispose fly-ash from these ponds. Fly-ash is often used as structural fill in order to dispose

  4. the results MFV Kerrie Marie BM172 (New Net MK 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the results MFV Kerrie Marie BM172 (New Net MK 1) sea trials no4: ICES area VIIe Paul, the Skipper 2009 numbers of fish the nets the `new' net design (MK 1) used on the MFV Kerrie Marie The owner, skipper and crew of the Devon beam trawler `Kerrie Marie' have invested in new net designs and reduced

  5. Mercury capture by distinct fly ash carbon forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Sakulpitakphon, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon was separated from the fly ash from a Kentucky power plant using density gradient centrifugation. Using a lithium heterolpolytungstate high-density media, relative concentrations of inertinite (up to 85% vol.), isotropic carbon (up to 79% vol.), and anisotropic carbon (up to 76% vol.) were isolated from the original fly ash. Mercury concentration was lowest in the parent fly ash (which contains non-carbon components); followed by inertinite, isotropic coke, mixed isotropic-anisotropic coke fraction, and, with the highest concentration, the anisotropic coke concentrate. The latter order corresponds to the increase in BET surface area of the fly ash carbons. Previous studies have demonstrated the capture of mercury by fly ash carbon. This study confirms prior work demonstrating the varying role of carbon types in the capture, implying that variability in the carbon content influences the amount of mercury retained on the fly ash.

  6. St. Marys, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis County, Arkansas:RoadmapMaryMarys, Ohio:

  7. Determination of Ash in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ash in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 7172005 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton Technical Report NREL...

  8. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  9. ash transportation distance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash 1. Halima Hadiahmetovi?; D. D. Sarajevo; M. Sc; Raza Sunulahpai?; Bosnia Herzegovina 4 Dimensional contraction via Markov transportation distance Francois...

  10. Data Summary Report for Hanford Site Coal Ash Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulloway, H. M.

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings from sampling and analysis of five distinct areas of coal ash within the Hanford Site River Corridor

  11. ash aqueous carbonation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon content, specific surface area Aydilek, Ahmet 3 Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* Environmental Management and Restoration Websites...

  12. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  13. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy...

  14. The variability of fly ash and its effects on selected properties of fresh Portland cement/fly ash mortars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKerall, William Carlton

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the needed quality control of concrete . Another source of concern results from the recent development of lignite and sub-bituminous coal as fuel sources. The ash produced from these coals is of a different chemical composition than traditional bituminous... 50 percent to greater than 200 percent of a control test. An exhaustive literature review has revealed neglig1ble information concerning the PAI of sub- b1tuminous and lignite ashes. Research is greatly needed to determine the ash properties...

  15. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash related problems Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash related problems Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 By-Products Utilization Summary: of clean coal ash will increase. Finding practical solutions to this "ash problem" is essential...

  17. Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels used in Power Plants PSO Project No. 6356 July 2008 Renewable Energy and Transport #12;2 Utilization of Ash Fractions from Alternative Biofuels)...............................................................................7 2. Production of Ash Products from Mixed Biofuels

  18. Cell Ashing for Trace Element Analysis: A New Approach Based on Ultraviolet/Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Pupa Gelsomina De Stasio

    : synchrotron spectromicroscopy; micro- chemical analysis; MEPHISTO; ashing; incineration; trace element. Ashing ashing is based on high-temperature incineration or on the exposure to oxygen plasma (1­ 4). We adopted

  19. Utrecht University Marie Sklodowska-Curie Support Grant 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Utrecht University Marie Sklodowska-Curie Support Grant 2014 1. Introduction Utrecht University', `Institutions', `Youth and Identity') between Utrecht University and its international strategic partners. You can find an overview of these Utrecht University Partners (UUPs) in annex 1. Utrecht University also

  20. Model transformation testing: oracle issue Jean-Marie Mottu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model transformation testing: oracle issue Jean-Marie Mottu1 , Benoit Baudry1 , Yves Le Traon2 1.letraon@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract The definition of an oracle function for model transformation is challenging because of the very complex nature of models resulting from a transformation. Validating the correctness of an output model

  1. Consistent inventory control Elvira Marie B. Aske,, and Sigurd Skogestad,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Consistent inventory control Elvira Marie B. Aske,, and Sigurd Skogestad, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Abstract Inventory or material of this paper is to propose the more general local- consistency rule for evaluating inventory control systems

  2. Appendix 5-Bb THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaddle, John

    Appendix 5-Bb THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS VEHICLE USE ACKNOWLEDGMENT FORM Safe Driving Requirement ­ I acknowledge that I must operate any vehicle used on College business in a safe, responsible manner and in compliance with the law. I will use vehicles on College business only

  3. Shark Fishing Gear: A historical review by Mary Hayes Wagner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico, but prices for high-potency shark-liver oil made fishing for soupfinShark Fishing Gear: A historical review by Mary Hayes Wagner UNITED 5T ATE5 DEPART MENT.A OF l'O~I,a;RCI!,L Fr RERIES, Donald L. 'McKernan, Director · Shark Fishing Gear: A historical review

  4. Cornell Farm Services Compost Facility Mary Schwarz and Jean Bonhotal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z. Jane

    Cornell Farm Services Compost Facility Mary Schwarz and Jean Bonhotal Cornell Waste Management Institute Overview/History The compost program at Cornell University was started to manage manure from objectionable odors when spread. In 1992, Cornell Farm Services started composting the manure and bedding from

  5. Anne-Marie Arborio Universit de Provence/LEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Anne-Marie Arborio Université de Provence/LEST De l'intérim infirmier aux intermittents de la proposer quelques pistes de réflexion sur un travail que j'ai entrepris concernant l'intérim infirmier de parcours, et enquêtes en cours auprès d'un service particulier ­ le Service de Soins Infirmiers à Domicile

  6. Mary E. Lacey Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    working for the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in underwater shock testing and evaluation, advanced weapons systems, firefighting technology and nuclear weapons safety. #12;She earned a bachelor's of science degreeMary E. Lacey Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, Test & Evaluation

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash quarterly technical Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based geopolymer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash penurunan kadar Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash paving demonstration Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND DEMONSTRATION... Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash ahto lobjakas Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik... -Strength Materials (CLSM); 232, Fly Ash and Natural...

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash based gepolymer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Summary: . CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR CEMENT-BASED MATERIALS 2 The major... large amounts of conventional or...

  15. IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

  16. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  17. Biological impact studies of the Faulkner ash site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klose, P.N.; Potera, G.T.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has operated the Faulkner coal ash storage facility in southern Charles County, Maryland since 1970. This site handles all the coal ash produced at the nearby Morgantown Generating Stations. Environmental Resources Management, Inc. (ERM) produced an earlier report (Simek, et al., 1983) for PPSP entitled, Environmental Aspects of the Faulkner Ash Site. That report presented a compilation of existing data and newly-generated field information on the ash site and its influence on the local environment. Several questions remained as a result of the analyses carried out for the above study. These were: (a) Are trees downgradient of the site accumulating metals associated with the ash. (b) Is Zekiah Swamp Run being affected by dissolved or precipitated metals. (c) Are invertebrates in Zekiah Swamp Run accumulating metals from the ash site. The studies described herein present data on each of the three questions. Results indicate that no adverse effects on water quality, invertebrates, or trees are occurring. Elevated levels of aluminum, cadmium, and manganese were found throughout the watershed, both above and below the ash site, but no relationship to the ash site could be established.

  18. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  19. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  2. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  3. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  4. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of Vitrification Processing Step for Rocky Flats Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigent, W.L.; Luey, J.K.; Scheele, R.D.; Li, H.

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1997, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff developed a processing option for incinerator ash at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS). This work was performed with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Safe Sites of Colorado (SSOC). A description of the remediation needs for the RFETS incinerator ash is provided in a report summarizing the recommended processing option for treatment of the ash (Lucy et al. 1998). The recommended process flowsheet involves a calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material followed by a vitrification processing step for a mixture of glass tit and calcined incinerator ash. Using the calcination pretreatment step to remove carbonaceous material reduced process upsets for the vitrification step, allowed for increased waste loading in the final product, and improved the quality of the final product. Figure 1.1 illustrates the flow sheet for the recommended processing option for treatment of RFETS incinerator ash. In 1998, work at PNNL further developed the recommended flow sheet through a series of studies to better define the vitrification operating parameters and to address secondary processing issues (such as characterizing the offgas species from the calcination process). Because a prototypical rotary calciner was not available for use, studies to evaluate the offgas from the calcination process were performed using a benchtop rotary calciner and laboratory-scale equipment (Lucy et al. 1998). This report focuses on the vitrification process step after ash has been calcined. Testing with full-scale containers was performed using ash surrogates and a muffle furnace similar to that planned for use at RFETS. Small-scale testing was performed using plutonium-bearing incinerator ash to verify performance of the waste form. Ash was not obtained from RFETS because of transportation requirements to calcine the incinerator ash prior to shipment of the material. Because part of PNNL's work was to characterize the ash prior to calcination and to investigate the effect of calcination on product quality, representative material was obtained from LANL. Ash obtained from LANL was selected based on its similarity to that currently stored at RFETS. The plutonium-bearing ashes obtained from LANL are likely from a RFETS incinerator, but the exact origin was not identified.

  6. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, R.; Mukherjee, A. [University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India). Dept. of Botany

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals - sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significantconcentration-dependent increases in DNA damage in whole blood cells, lymphocytes, and in Nicotiana plants. The comet parameters show increases in tail DNA percentage (%), tail length (mu m), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  7. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  8. Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Summary RECOAL: Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution being used for coal ash deposits. Pollutants present in the ash can contaminate water resources and soil its research on the thermo-electric plant (TEP) and associated coal ash sites at Tuzla, Bosnia

  9. Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I to the early 1950's. The Ash Pits were also used for disposal of coal ash from various buildingsFinal Close Out Report for the Ash Pit Operable Unit I Area of Concern 2F February 5, 2004..................................................................................................2 Figure 1 - Ash Level Verification Borings

  10. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  11. Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols Leona incineration fly ash at 200 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations have been carried out ash produced by municipal waste incineration (MWI) have clearly demonstrated that MWI fly ash can

  12. Respiratory and Reproductive Characteristics of Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    ) Inhabiting a Coal Ash Settling Basin B. P. Staub, W. A. Hopkins, J. Novak, J. D. Congdon Savannah River 2002/Accepted: 29 March 2002 Abstract. Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present

  13. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national security science challenges. Our first issue of Vistas focused on our current national user facilities (the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center [LANSCE], the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Facility, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies) and the vitality they bring to our Laboratory. These facilities are a magnet for students, postdoctoral researchers, and staff members from all over the world. This, in turn, allows us to continue to develop and maintain our strong staff across the relevant disciplines and conduct world-class discovery science. The second issue of Vistas was devoted entirely to the Laboratory's materials strategy - one of the three strategic science thrusts for the Laboratory. This strategy has helped focus our thinking for MaRIE. We believe there is a bright future in cutting-edge experimental materials research, and that a 21st-century facility with unique capability is necessary to fulfill this goal. The Laboratory has spent the last several years defining MaRIE, and this issue of Vistas presents our current vision of that facility. MaRIE will leverage LANSCE and our other user facilities, as well as our internal and external materials community for decades to come, giving Los Alamos a unique competitive advantage, advancing materials science for the Laboratory's missions and attracting and recruiting scientists of international stature. MaRIE will give the international materials research community a suite of tools capable of meeting a broad range of outstanding grand challenges.

  14. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  15. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: December 2, 2013 S. Van Wychen and L. M. L. Laurens Technical Report NRELTP-5100-60956 December...

  16. ash impact sorbent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aircraft systems 1. Silicate parti- cles in the ash clouds can enter the engines and melt. In the past Oxford, University of First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8...

  17. altered volcanic ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    near the volcano. Major eruptions are much rarer. They can eject both ash and gases like sulfur dioxide high into the atmosphere-- 80,000 feet or more. Although much of...

  18. ash upptag av: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* Environmental Management and Restoration Websites...

  19. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  20. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  1. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  2. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specification required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs. 33 figs.

  3. ash particle deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging Dutta, Prabir K. 5 Particle deposition in ventilation ducts University of California...

  4. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

  5. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  6. ash cenospheres composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Composite Material Lab., Central Gupta, Nikhil 3 Journal of Composite Materials, July 2006, Vol. 40 no. 13, 1163-1174 1163 Thermal Expansion of AluminumFly Ash...

  7. Studies of fly ash using thermal analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hanxu; Shen, Xiang-Zhong; Sisk, B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved thermoanalytical methods have been developed that are capable of quantitative identification of various components of fly ash from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustion system. The thermogravimetric procedure developed can determine quantities of H{sub 2}O, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4} and carbonaceous matter in fly ash with accuracy comparable to more time-consuming ASTM methods. This procedure is a modification of the Mikhail-Turcotte methods that can accurately analyze bed ash, with higher accuracy regarding the greater amount of carbonaceous matter in fly ash. In addition, in conjunction with FTIR and SEM/EDS analysis, the reduction mechanism of CaSO{sub 4} as CaSO{sub 4} + 4H{sub 2} = CaS + 4H{sub 2}O has been confirmed in this study. This mechanism is important in analyzing and evaluating sulfur capture in fluidized-bed combustion systems.

  8. ash leaching methods: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in individualpyrite grains in Illinois6 coal at levels up 6 coal. The same trace metals were detected in pyrite and clay grains from Pittsburgh 8 coal. Ash Laughlin,...

  9. ash technical progress: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ash from the four 43 Technical Brief CiteSeer Summary: ii iiiFOREWARD The Depleted Uranium Technical Brief is designed to convey available information and knowledge about...

  10. ash corrosion resistant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    date: 02.2008 Start date of the consortium (including the Commission Services) 12;2 Handbook on treatment of coal ash disposal sites Preface 162 Nitration of Benzoapyrene...

  11. Recoverable immobilization of transuranic elements in sulfate ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash at least about 20% of which is sulfates of transuranic elements. The ash is mixed with a metal which can be aluminum, cerium, samarium, europium, or a mixture thereof, in amounts sufficient to form an alloy with the transuranic elements, plus an additional amount to reduce the transuranic element sulfates to elemental form. Also added to the ash is a fluxing agent in an amount sufficient to lower the percentage of the transuranic element sulfates to about 1% to about 10%. The mixture of the ash, metal, and fluxing agent is heated to a temperature sufficient to melt the fluxing agent and the metal. The mixture is then cooled and the alloy is separated from the remainder of the mixture.

  12. Environmental aspects of the faulkner ash site. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simek, E.M.; Hewitt, M.A.; Potera, G.T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) has owned and operated the Faulkner coal ash storage facility in southern Charles County, Maryland since 1970. This site was designed and is operated specifically to handle, in an environmentally sound manner, the large quantities of coal ash produced at the nearby Morgantown Generating Station. This report describes the site, its setting, and its interactions with the local environment.

  13. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  14. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

    2001-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

  15. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  16. Ash Reduction of Corn Stover by Mild Hydrothermal Preprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Toufiq Reza; Rachel Emerson; M. Helal Uddin; Garold Gresham; Charles J. Coronella

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as corn stover can contain high ash content, which may act as an inhibitor in downstream conversion processes. Most of the structural ash in biomass is located in the cross-linked structure of lignin, which is mildly reactive in basic solutions. Four organic acids (formic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric) were evaluated for effectiveness in ash reduction, with limited success. Because of sodium citrate’s chelating and basic characteristics, it is effective in ash removal. More than 75 % of structural and 85 % of whole ash was removed from the biomass by treatment with 0.1 g of sodium citrate per gram of biomass at 130 °C and 2.7 bar. FTIR, fiber analysis, and chemical analyses show that cellulose and hemicellulose were unaffected by the treatment. ICP–AES showed that all inorganics measured were reduced within the biomass feedstock, except sodium due to the addition of Na through the treatment. Sodium citrate addition to the preconversion process of corn stover is an effective way to reduced physiological ash content of the feedstock without negatively impacting carbohydrate and lignin content.

  17. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture.

  18. University of Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6 Doctoral School of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PHD THESIS University of Pierre et Marie Curie ­ Paris 6 Doctoral School of MECHANICS, ACOUSTICS Defended by Ilaria RENNA to obtain the title of PhD of Science University Pierre et Marie Curie ­ Paris 6: Catherine Achard - ISIR (Paris) Ryad Chellali - IIT (Genova) Examinators: Philippe Bidaud - ISIR (Paris

  19. Survival Estimates of White-tailed Deer Fawns at Fort Rucker, Alabama Angela Marie Jackson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    Survival Estimates of White-tailed Deer Fawns at Fort Rucker, Alabama by Angela Marie Jackson for the Degree of Master of Science Auburn, Alabama August 6, 2011 Keywords: White-tailed deer, fawn survival, coyote, predator-prey theory Copyright 2011 by Angela Marie Jackson Approved by Stephen S. Ditchkoff

  20. Name Title Salaries ($) Aaland, Mary* Dir of Rural Surg Support Prog 405,000.00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wen-Chen

    Name Title Salaries ($) Aaland, Mary* Dir of Rural Surg Support Prog 405,000.00 Abbas, Ata Post Doc,000.00 Altepeter, Donna Instructor 61,078.00 Ames, Forrest Professor 116,267.00 Amundson, Mary Assistant Prof 87,401.00 Anderson, Ernest Associate Professor 74,464.00 Anderson, Julie Professor 110,441.00 Anderson, Suzanne

  1. Metal recovery from fly ash generated from vitrification process for MSW ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumikawa, Chiaki [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)] [Dowa Mining Co. Ltd., Chiyoda, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-bearing wastes have to be carefully treated because heavy metals could be leached out under uncontrolled conditions when disposed of in a landfill. Consequently, heavy metals should be principally recovered and recycled forever. From this standpoint, the author has been trying to develop a technology to recover heavy metals from toxic vitrification fly ash for recycling to smelters. After a number of laboratory-scale experiments, pilot plant tests were successfully carried out and the developed process has been proven to be commercially realized. The main features of the process are that it recovers almost 100% of the heavy metals, simultaneously separating the metals which are recovered in a lead smelter from those in a zinc smelter, and that the output of the process are only metallurgical products recyclable for smelters and the effluent water which can be released into the environment. The process is considered an ideal one for the treatment of toxic fly ash from the viewpoint of not only natural resources but also environmental conservation.

  2. City of St Marys, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCity ofCity of Spencer, Iowa (UtilityCity of St Marys,

  3. City of St Marys, Ohio (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCity ofCity of Spencer, Iowa (UtilityCity of St Marys,City

  4. St. Mary Parish, Louisiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis County, Arkansas:RoadmapMary Parish,

  5. St. Mary's County, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis County, Arkansas:RoadmapMary Parish,County,

  6. St. Mary's Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis County, Arkansas:RoadmapMary

  7. Maries County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther,Jemez PuebloManteca,Marana,Maries County, Missouri: Energy

  8. Women @ Energy: Marie Rinkoski Spangler | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008Ms. KesslerKim BudilMarie Rinkoski

  9. Anne-Marie Carey | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Table 3.Energy Materials CenterAnne-Marie

  10. Women @ Energy: Marie Rinkoski Spangler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnershipsAngie CapeceFrancois Women @ Energy: MarianneMarie

  11. Study on the Volatility of Cesium in Dry Ashing Pretreatment and Dissolution of Ash by Microwave Digestion System - 13331

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)] [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the regulation of the activity concentration of Cs-137, Co-58, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, and Tc-99, and the total alpha from the radioactive waste acceptance criteria, the measurement of the activity concentration of these nuclides in low and intermediate levels of radioactive waste such as in paper, cotton, vinyl and plastic samples was investigated. A dry ashing method was applied to obtain a concentration effect of the samples. Owing to the temperature dependence of the volatility for cesium, the temperature of 300 to 650 deg. C was examined. It was found that 450 deg. C is the optimum dry ashing temperature. After dry ashing, the produced ash was dissolved with HNO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system. The ash sample, for the most part, was completely dissolved with 10 mL of HNO{sub 3}, 4 mL of HCl, and 0.25 mL of HF by a high-performance microwave digestion system using a nova high temperature rotor at 250 deg. C for 90 min until reaching 0.2 g. To confirm the reliability of cesium loss after the performance of the dry ashing procedure, a cesium standard solution for AAS and a Cs-137 standard solution for gamma spectrometry were added to a paper towel or a planchet of stainless steel, respectively. Cesium was measured by AAS, ICP-MS, and gamma spectrometry. The volatility of cesium did not occur until 450 deg. C ashing. (authors)

  12. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  13. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Rotunda, John R. (Fairmont, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  14. Fusion materials irradiations at MaRIE's fission fusion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Eric J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's proposed signature facility, MaRIE, will provide scientists and engineers with new capabilities for modeling, synthesizing, examining, and testing materials of the future that will enhance the USA's energy security and national security. In the area of fusion power, the development of new structural alloys with better tolerance to the harsh radiation environments expected in fusion reactors will lead to improved safety and lower operating costs. The Fission and Fusion Materials Facility (F{sup 3}), one of three pillars of the proposed MaRIE facility, will offer researchers unprecedented access to a neutron radiation environment so that the effects of radiation damage on materials can be measured in-situ, during irradiation. The calculated radiation damage conditions within the F{sup 3} match, in many respects, that of a fusion reactor first wall, making it well suited for testing fusion materials. Here we report in particular on two important characteristics of the radiation environment with relevancy to radiation damage: the primary knock-on atom spectrum and the impact of the pulse structure of the proton beam on temporal characteristics of the atomic displacement rate. With respect to both of these, analyses show the F{sup 3} has conditions that are consistent with those of a steady-state fusion reactor first wall.

  15. Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash, Washcoat and Regeneration Damage for DPFs New commercially...

  16. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R. [Korean Institute for Water & Environment, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Dam Safety Research Center

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing wet Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences and Ecology 4 By-Products Utilization Summary: A3, containing 20% clean coal ash and 5% wet collected Class F ash had compressive strengths... 0 Center for...

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashing dry Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shrinkage of Non-Air Entrained HRWRA Concrete -0.05% 0.00% 0.05% 0... NS3, 33% Clean Coal Ash, 5% Class F Fly Ash Fig. 15 - ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of -...

  19. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash material analisis Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was used in this work. An ASTM Class F fly ash... , and N3) were proportioned with clean coal fly ash containing 22% ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali-activated fly ash Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 12 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - activated fly ash Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering ; Materials Science 9 By-Products Utilization Summary: CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique... of...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - ashes total contents Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fly ash content for normal concrete... contained fly ash up to a maximum of 35% of clean-coal ... Source: Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of - Department of Civil Engineering and...

  3. Tephrochronology and Stratigraphy of Eocene and Oligocene Volcanic Ashes of East and Central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heintz, Mindi

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    using neutron activation analysis (NAA) of bulk ash and glass shards, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) of bulk ash, and electron microprobe analysis of both apatite phenocrysts and glass shards to characterize their geochemistry...

  4. In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical repellents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, William R.

    Erratum In vivo imaging of C. elegans ASH neurons: cellular response and adaptation to chemical neurons highlighted. From the ASH cell body, the dendrite runs anteriorly until the tip of the head ending

  5. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash at 90days ............... 38 5-13 Stress Strain Curve of 6% CaCl2+10% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-14 Stress Strain Curve of 4% CaCl2+15% Fly Ash at 90days ............... 39 5-15 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy... (E-SEM) of Class F Fly Ash ................................................................................. 40 5-16 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (E-SEM) of Control Soil after 7 Days of Curing...

  6. High-performance, high-volume fly ash concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet offers the construction professional an in-depth description of the use of high-volume fly ash in concrete. Emphasis is placed on the need for increased utilization of coal-fired power plant byproducts in lieu of Portland cement materials to eliminate increased CO{sub 2} emissions during the production of cement. Also addressed is the dramatic increase in concrete performance with the use of 50+ percent fly ash volume. The booklet contains numerous color and black and white photos, charts of test results, mixtures and comparisons, and several HVFA case studies.

  7. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  8. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  9. Coal-ash slag attack and corrosion of refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonar, J.A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY); Kennedy, C.R.; Swaroop, R.B.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion characteristics of a variety of fused-cast refractories in contact with various coal-ash slags were investigated. A fused-cast chrome-spinel refractory exhibited excellent corrosion resistance to both acidic and basic coal-ash slags at 1500/sup 0/C, even in the absence of water cooling. The slag-refractory interaction was limited to the formation of a stable band of recrystallized hercynitic spinel. Alumina-chromia refractories were superior to alumina and magnesia-chrome refractories when exposed to acidic slags.

  10. RESEARCH NEEDS IN MINERAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION: FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND SLAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in electric power plants. It is captured by either mechanical separators, electrostatic. 2.0 Research Needs Concerning Fly Ash Utilization 2.1 CLSM Fly Ash Slurry Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), as classified by ACI Committee 229, have been produced using fly ash slurry [9

  11. Correlation relations between mineralogical components in ash from Kaa-Khem coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.N. Yanchat; L.Kh. Tas-ool [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kyzyl (Russia). Tuvinian Institute for Complex Exploration of Natural Resources

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Regression analysis was used to study correlation relations between the mineral components of coals. Regularities in the variability of the concentrations of individual ash-forming elements with changing ash contents of coals and changing seam depth were found. The X-ray diffraction characteristics of coal ashes and the qualitative composition of their mineralogical components are presented.

  12. INCO-WBC-1-509173 Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 INCO-WBC-1-509173 RECOAL Reintegration of coal ash disposal sites and mitigation of pollution of coal ash disposal sites Due date of deliverable: 12.2007 Actual submission date: 02.2008 Start date of the consortium (including the Commission Services) #12;2 Handbook on treatment of coal ash disposal sites Preface

  13. TRACE ELEMENTS LEACHING FROM ORGANIC SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON FLY ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    and Se for organic soil-HCFA mixtures. Keywords: organic soil, fly ash, coal combustion products, CCPs INTRODUCTION Fly ash is a silt-size particulate collected by air pollution control systems at coal fly ashes (HCFAs) generally are disposed in landfills (Hodges and Keating 1999). However, many HCFAs

  14. Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

  15. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  18. Volcanic ash: What it is and how it forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.

    1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four basic eruption processes that produce volcanic ash: (1) decompression of rising magma, gas bubble growth, and fragmentation of the foamy magma in the volcanic vent (magmatic), (2) explosive mixing of magma with ground or surface water (hydrovolcanic), (3) fragmentation of country rock during rapid expansion of steam and/or hot water (phreatic), and (4) breakup of lava fragments during rapid transport from the vent. Variations in eruption style and the characteristics of volcanic ashes produced during explosive eruptions depend on many factors, including magmatic temperature, gas content, viscosity and crystal content of the magma before eruption, the ratio of magma to ground or surface water, and physical properties of the rock enclosing the vent. Volcanic ash is composed of rock and mineral fragments, and glass shards, which is less than 2 mm in diameter. Glass shard shapes and sizes depend upon size and shape of gas bubbles present within the magma immediately before eruption and the processes responsible for fragmentation of the magma. Shards range from slightly curved, thin glass plates, which were broken from large, thin-walled spherical bubble walls, to hollow needles broken from pumiceous melts containing gas bubbles stretched by magma flow within the volcanic vent. Pumice fragments make up the coarser-grained portions of the glass fraction. Particle sizes range from meters for large blocks expelled near the volcanic vent to nanometers for fine ash and aerosol droplets within well-dispersed eruption plumes. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Maintaining and Improving Marketability of Coal Fly Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is produced when coal is consumed by power plants Fly ash can be used beneficially in numerous applications-fired power plants work to create cleaner skies, they'll likely fill up landfills with millions more tons.05 0.05 #12;6 Challenge: Mercury Controls One approach to reducing mercury emissions from power plants

  20. Soil stabilization and pavement recycling with self-cementing coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual provides design information for self-cementing coal fly ash as the sole stabilizing agent for a wide range of engineering applications. As in any process, the application of sound engineering practices, appropriate testing, and evaluation of fly ash quality and characteristics will lend themselves to successful projects using the guidelines in this manual. Topics discussed include: self-cementing coal fly ash characteristics; laboratory mix design; stabilization of clay soils; stabilisation of granular materials; construction considerations; high sulfate ash; environmental considerations for fly ash stabilization; design considerations; state specification/guidelines/standards; and a sample of a typical stabilization specification.

  1. Irving Gill and rediscovery of concrete in California the Marie and Chauncey Clark, 1919-22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scensor, Sean

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thesis focuses on a large residence by architect Irving Gill: the house for Marie and Chauncey Dwight Clarke in Santa Fe Springs, California (1919-22). The Clarke House was only discovered as a Gill building in 1981; ...

  2. PhD position in experimental petrology MarieCurie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    PhD position in experimental petrology Marie for a research project in petrology with the main focus to investigate experimentally in Earth Sciences or a closely related discipline. Experience in petrology and geochemistry

  3. PhD position in igneous petrology MarieCurie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    PhD position in igneous petrology Marie in igneous petrology and geochemistry. The successful applicant will study rockforming processes or a closely related discipline. Experience in fieldwork, petrology, geochemistry is advantageous

  4. PhD position in experimental petrology MarieCurie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    PhD position in experimental petrology Marie for a research project in experimental petrology. The successful applicant will use HPHT experimental analysis. Thermodynamic modeling and phase petrology. Goals: Understanding the effect of meltrock

  5. Stabilize ash using Clemson`s sintering process (Part 1 -- Phase 1 results): Mixed waste fly ash stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incineration of applicable Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes has produced a secondary waste stream of radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous fly ash that also requires treatment before land disposal. Unlike bottom ash, fly ash usually contains constituents making efficient stabilization difficult. For example, fly ash from the DOE Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains volatile metals, metal salts, high concentrations of zinc, and unburned organic residues. All of these constituents can effect the stabilization process. The Department of Energy, and in particular the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of EM-50, has stated the need for improved stabilization methods would accept a higher ash waste loading while meeting waste form disposal criteria. These alternative stabilization technologies should include delivery systems to minimize worker exposure and minimize secondary waste generation, while maximizing operational flexibility and radionuclide containment. Currently, the standard practice for stabilizing ash is mixing with Portland cement at room temperature. This standard practice produces a significant increase of waste material volume or has difficulty in adequately stabilizing the components in the fly ash to ensure regulatory requirements are consistently satisfied. To address these fly ash stabilization shortcomings, the MWFA, a DOE/EM-50 program, invested in the development of several fly ash stabilization alternatives, including the Clemson University sintering method.

  6. Use of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    in the United States generate 80 million tons of fly ash as a by-product each year, primarily from coal combustion [1]. Fly ash is typically disposed in landfills, but it is preferred to convert fly ashUse of fly ash as an admixture for electromagnetic interference shielding Jingyao Cao, D.D.L. Chung

  7. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, John W. (Belle Mead, NJ); Wecharatana, Methi (Parsippany, NJ); Jaturapitakkul, Chai (Bangkok, TH); Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E. (late of Livingston, NJ)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  8. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  9. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  10. A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Reinke-Williams

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kietzman?s book is an interdisciplinary study of Mary Carleton, the daughter of a Canterbury fiddler who appeared before the Old Bailey in 1663 charged both with bigamy and with claiming to be Maria von Wolway, a German aristocrat. Carleton?s trial... attracted widespread attention and her performance in court was so convincing that she was acquitted. After the trial, Mary admitted that she was not in fact Maria von Wolway. Her confes- sion shocked London society and made her a Restoration celebrity...

  11. JV Task 6 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Erick Zacher

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP), which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCB performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 1998 to 2007 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. CARRC topical reports were prepared on several completed tasks. Specific CARRC 1998B2007 accomplishments included: (1) Development of several ASTM International Standard Guides for CCB utilization applications. (2) Organization and presentation of training courses for CCB professionals and teachers. (3) Development of online resources including the Coal Ash Resource Center, Ash from Biomass in Coal (ABC) of cocombustion ash characteristics, and the Buyer's Guide to Coal-Ash Containing Products. In addition, development of expanded information on the environmental performance of CCBs in utilization settings included the following: (1) Development of information on physical properties and engineering performance for concrete, soil-ash blends, and other products. (2) Training of students through participation in CARRC research projects. (3) Participation in a variety of local, national, and international technical meetings, symposia, and conferences by presenting and publishing CCB-related papers.

  12. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton; Hongqun Yang; Robert C. Brown; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John Erjavec; Joseph M. Okoh

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using fly ash from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was from Blacksville coal. Elemental Hg was injected upstream from samples of fly ash loaded onto filters housed in an oven at 120 or 180 C. Concentrations of oxidized and elemental Hg downstream from the filters were determined using the Ontario Hydro method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables affecting Hg oxidation. The presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were all important with respect to Hg oxidation, with NO{sub 2} and HCl being the most important. The presence of NO suppressed Hg oxidation in these tests. Although the two fly ashes were chemically and mineralogically diverse, there were generally no large differences in catalytic potential (for oxidizing Hg) between them. Similarly, no ash fraction appeared to be highly catalytic relative to other ash fractions. This includes fractions enriched in unburned carbon and fractions enriched in iron oxides. Although some differences of lesser magnitude were observed in the amount of oxidized Hg formed, levels of oxidized Hg generally tracked well with the surface areas of the different ashes and ash fractions. Therefore, although the Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, this could be due to the relatively high surface area of that ash. Similarly, for Blacksville fly ash, using nonmagnetic ash resulted in more Hg oxidation than using magnetic ash, but this again tracked well with the relative surface areas of the two ash fractions. Test results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important in Hg oxidation chemistry than the fly ash composition. Combustion tests were performed in which Blacksville and PRB fly ashes were injected into filtered (via a baghouse with Teflon bags) flue gas obtained while firing PRB coal in a 35 kW combustor. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the Hg speciation after fly ash injection. Wall effects in the combustor complicated interpretation of testing data, although a number of observations could still be made. The amount of Hg collected in the Ontario Hydro impingers was lower than anticipated, and is probably due to sorption of Hg by the fly ash. While firing PRB coal without any ash injection, the percent oxidized Hg in the gas stream was fairly high (average of 63%). The high levels of vapor phase oxidized Hg in these base line tests may be due to catalytic effects from the refractory materials in the combustor. When PRB fly ash was injected into a filtered PRB flue gas stream, the percentage of oxidized Hg in the gas stream decreased dramatically. Decreases in the percentage of oxidized Hg were also observed while injecting Blacksville fly ash, but to a lesser extent. Injecting whole Blacksville fly ash into the filtered PRB flue gas appeared to result in greater concentrations of oxidized Hg relative to the tests where whole PRB fly ash was injected. However, because the Blacksville fly ash has a relatively high surface area, this may be only a surface area effect.

  13. Read ACROSS for project teams. Amarnani,Neena Narayan Rosen,Joelle Sydney Skatter,Kelli Marie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wardrop, Robert L.

    ,Francesca Rodriguez,Evelin Song,Yoonho Dailey Jr,Michael Sztukowski,Ann Marie White,Natalie Margaret Delos Santos

  14. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions using whole fly ash samples as well as magnetic and nonmagnetic concentrates from sized fly ash. Only the Blacksville ash contained magnetic phases. The whole and fractionated fly ash samples were analyzed for morphology, chemical composition, mineralogical composition, total organic carbon, porosity, and surface area. Mineralogically, the Blacksville ash was composed predominantly of magnetite, hematite, quartz, and mullite, while the PRB ash contained mostly quartz with lesser amounts of lime, periclase, and calcium aluminum oxide. The iron oxides in the Blacksville ash were concentrated almost entirely in the largest size fraction. As anticipated, there was not a clean separation of magnetic (Fe-rich) and nonmagnetic (aluminosilicate-rich) phases for the Blacksville ash. The Blacksville ash had a significantly higher surface area and a much higher unburned carbon content than the PRB ash. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. Concentrations of total, oxidized, and elemental Hg downstream from the ash samples were determined by the Ontario Hydro Method. The gas stream composition and whether or not ash was present in the gas stream were the two most important variables. Based on the statistical analyses, the presence of HCl, NO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} and all two-way gas interactions were significant. In addition, it appears that even four-factor interactions between those gases are significant. The HCl, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2} were critical gases resulting in Hg oxidation, while the presence of NO appeared to suppress oxidation. The Blacksville fly ash tended to show slightly more catalytic activity than the PRB fly ash, but this could be largely due to the higher surface area of the Blacksville ash. Temperature was not a statistically important factor. The magnetic (Fe-rich) phases did not appear to be more catalytically active than the nonmagnetic phases, and unburned carbon did not appear to play a critical role in oxidation chemistry.

  15. The preservation potential of ash layers in the deep-sea: the example of the 1991-Pinatubo ash in the South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Andreas

    - burrowing animals re-opened their connection to the sea floor to obtain water for respiration and/or food deposited organic fluff with the underlying ash. Consequently, ash deposits thinner than 1 mm have not often of background sedimentation, the availability of benthic food on and within the sediment and pore water oxygen

  16. Construction of an embankment with a fly and bottom ash mixture: field performance study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, S.; Balunaini, U.; Yildirim, I.Z.; Prezzi, M.; Siddiki, N.Z. [Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash and bottom ash are coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) that are generated in large quantities throughout the world. It is often economical to dispose ash as mixtures rather than separately; that notwithstanding, only a few studies have been performed to investigate the behavior of fly and bottom ash mixtures, particularly those with high contents of fly ash. Also, there is very limited data available in the literature on the field performance of structures constructed using ash mixtures. This paper describes the construction and the instrumentation of a demonstration embankment built with an ash mixture (60:40 by weight of fly ash:bottom ash) on State Road 641, Terre Haute, Ind. Monitoring of the demonstration embankment was conducted for a period of 1 year from the start of construction of the embankment. The settlement of the embankment stabilized approximately 5 months after the end of its construction. According to horizontal inclinometer readings, the differential settlement at the top of the embankment is about 5 mm. Results from field quality control tests performed during construction of the demonstration embankment and monitoring data from vertical and horizontal inclinometers and settlement plates indicate that the ash mixture investigated can be considered an acceptable embankment construction material.

  17. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.M.; Hartman, R.M.; Kort, D.; Rapues, N.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This ash study investigates several aspects of Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) ash utilization to develop an alternative to the present disposal practice of landfilling in a lined monofill. Ash was investigated as a daily or final cover for municipal waste in the landfill to prevent erosion and as a road construction aggregate. Samples of eight mixtures of ash and other materials, and one sample of soil were analyzed for chemical constituents. Biological tests on these mixters were conducted, along with erosion tests and sieve analyses. A chemical analysis of each sieve size was conducted. Geotechnical properties of the most promising materials were made. Findings to this point include: all ash samples take have passed the EPA TCLP testing; chemical analysis of bottom and combined ash samples indicate less than expected variability; selected ash mixtures exhibited very low coefficients of hydraulic conductivity; all but one of the ash mixtures exhibited greater erosion resistance than the currently used landfill cover material; MWC combined analysis indicates this is a viable alternative for landfill cover; MWC ash size reactions and chemical analysis show bottom and combined ash to be a viable alternative for road construction.

  18. Differences in gasification behaviors and related properties between entrained gasifier fly ash and coal char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing Gu; Shiyong Wu; Youqing Wu; Ye Li; Jinsheng Gao [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources and Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the study, two fly ash samples from Texaco gasifiers were compared to coal char and the physical and chemical properties and reactivity of samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SEM-energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} adsorption method, and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. The main results were obtained. The carbon content of gasified fly ashes exhibited 31-37%, which was less than the carbon content of 58-59% in the feed coal. The fly ashes exhibited higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, richer meso- and micropores, more disordered carbon crystalline structure, and better CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity than coal char. Ashes in fly ashes occurred to agglomerate into larger spherical grains, while those in coal char do not agglomerate. The minerals in fly ashes, especial alkali and alkaline-earth metals, had a catalytic effect on gasification reactivity of fly ash carbon. In the low-temperature range, the gasification process of fly ashes is mainly in chemical control, while in the high-temperature range, it is mainly in gas diffusion control, which was similar to coal char. In addition, the carbon in fly ashes was partially gasified and activated by water vapor and exhibited higher BET surface area and better gasification activity. Consequently, the fact that these carbons in fly ashes from entrained flow gasifiers are reclaimed and reused will be considered to be feasible. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, R.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two recent large-scale spills of coal combustion waste have highlighted the old problem of handling the enormous quantity of solid waste produced by coal. Both spills happened at power plants run by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). In December 2008 a holding pond for coal ash collapsed at a power plant in Kingstom, Tenn., releasing coal-ash sludge onto farmland and into rivers: in January 2009 a break in a pipe removing water from a holding pond for gypsum caused a spill at Widows Creek Fossil Plant in Stevenson, Ala. The article discusses the toxic outcome of such disasters on ecosystems, quoting work by Willaim Hopkins at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and recommendations and reports of the US EPA. 2 photos.

  20. Ash reduction in clean coal spiral product circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P.

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the Derrick Corporation's Stack Sizer{trademark} technology for high capacity fine wet cleaning with long-lasting high open-area urethane screen panels. After field trials, a Stack Sizer fitted with a 100-micron urethane panel is currently processing approximately 40 stph of clean coal spiral product having about 20% ash at McCoy-Elkhorn's Bevin Branch coal preparation plant in Kentucky, USA. Product yield is about 32.5 short tons per hour with 10% ash. The material is then fed to screen bowl centrifuges for further processing. At Blue Diamond Coal's Leatherwood preparation plant similar Stacker Sizers are achieving the same results. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 2 photo.

  1. A review of "The Self-Fashioning of an Early Modern Englishwoman: Mary Carleton’s Lives." by Mary Jo Kietzman 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Reinke-Williams

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attracted widespread attention and her performance in court was so convincing that she was acquitted. After the trial, Mary admitted that she was not in fact Maria von Wolway. Her confes- sion shocked London society and made her a Restoration celebrity...

  2. Transient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Ccile Pra, Raynal Glises, Jean Marie Kauffmann and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Electrochemical modelling. 1- Introduction The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technologyTransient thermal behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell Moussa Chnani, Marie-Cécile Péra, Raynal provided by HTceramix. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; Transient thermal modelling; Fluidic

  3. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL] [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL] [ORNL; Sherrard, Rick [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)] [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  4. The reactions and ashes of thermonuclear explosions on neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Fisker; E. Brown; M. Liebendoerfer; F. -K. Thielemann; M. Wiescher

    2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the detailed rp-process reaction flow on an accreting neutron star and the resulting ashes of a type I X-ray burst. It is obtained by coupling a 298 isotope reaction network to a self-consistent one-dimensional model calculation with a constant accretion rate of dM/dt=1.0e17g/s (0.09 Eddington).

  5. Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

  6. Modeling the formation and size distribution of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of mathematical models has been developed to predict the size distribution of fly ash particles formed in pulverized coal combustion. The large particle mode of the size distribution, typically centered about 10 to 20 ..mu..m, is predicted by a simple breakup model that is based on the complete coalescence of molten mineral inclusions within fragments of the devolatilized coal char. The ultrafine particle mode, that is typically centered about 0.1 to 0.2 ..mu..m, is modeled in terms of ash volatilization, nucleation, and coagulation. Silica and alumina are reduced to volatile suboxides through reactions at the char surface. The volatile suboxides are transported from the char surface where they are oxidized back to the stable oxides in the bulk gas, and then nucleated in accordance with homogeneous nucleation theory. The ultrafine nuclei coagulate in accordance with Brownian coagulation theory. The predicted particle size spectra have been compared to measured size distributions from a pilot-scale combustor and a full-scale utility boiler. Considering the disproportionate loss of coarse particles in the pilot-scale unit, the agreement between the predicted and measured size distributions was considered reasonably good. Both the predicted ultrafine and large particle modes agreed reasonably well with the measured particle size distribution for the full scale boiler. The validated computer models were used to study the effect of changes in the coal ash content, coal particle size, and the combustion flame temperature.

  7. Respirable aerosols from fluidized bed coal combustion. 3. Elemental composition of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, S.H.; Carpenter, R.L.; Newton, G.J.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed coal combustion is a promising technology for using coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Trace elemental constituents in fly ash from an experimental atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) are reported and compared with pulverized-coal combustor (PCC) ash data and those from other fluidized bed combustors. Bulk and size-separated particles were collected and analyzed by using spark source mass spectrometry.Fluidized bed combustor ash was similar to PCC ash in minor and trace element composition. However, AFBC ash showed less size dependence of elemental composition than has been reported for PCC ash. Bulk particle elemental composition varied with sampling position within the effluent stream. Penetration of elements through each cleanup stage and elemental enrichment were a function of the cleanup stage and the element under consideration.

  8. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  9. BIOL / MARI 4900, 4901, 4902: External Honours Supervisors This is a partial list of people which have served as biology honours thesis supervisors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    BIOL / MARI 4900, 4901, 4902: External Honours Supervisors This is a partial/Neuroscience Addison, R. B.I.O Afonso, Luis NRC, Marine Biosciences Anderson, Gail Dentistry Anderson, Robert. History,St Mary'

  10. A review of ash in conventional and advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, N.T.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Process conditions are briefly described for conventional and advanced power systems. The advanced systems include both combustion and gasification processes. We discuss problems in coal-based power generation systems, including deposition, agglomeration and sintering of bed materials, and ash attack are discussed. We also discuss methods of mitigating ash problems and anticipated changes anticipated in ash use by converting from conventional to advanced systems.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  12. Respirable aerosols from fluidized bed coal combustion. 3. Elemental composition of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissman, S.H.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace element constituents in fly ash from an experimental atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) are reported and compared with pulverized coal combustor (PCC) data and those from other fluidized bed combustors. Bulk and size-separated particles were collected and analyzed using spark source mass spectrometry. Fluidized bed combustion ash was similar to PCC ash in minor and trace element composition, but AFBC ash showed less size dependence of elemental composition. Bulk particle elemental composition varied with sampling position within the effluent stream. Penetration of elements through each cleanup stage and elemental enrichment were a function of the cleanup stage and the element under consideration.

  13. Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, David Scott

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density/Ash Relationship . APPLICATION OF THE GAMMA-GAMMA DENSITY/PERCENT DRY ASH RELATIONSHIPS The Density/Ash Relationship of a South Texas Lignite Deposit Characterization of a South Texas Lignite Deposit CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 52 53 53 53... 58 64 67 6g 80 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Coal Classification by Rank. 2 Common Minerals in Coal. 3 Results of Linear Regression Analyses for a South Texas Lignite Deposit. 4 Variability of Geophysica11y-Derived Percent Dry Ash Values...

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Li, Lin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 17068 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  15. ODS Update e-newsletter September 2010 In Memoriam: Mary Frances Picciano, PhD, 1946-2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    ODS Update e-newsletter September 2010 In Memoriam: Mary Frances Picciano, PhD, 1946-2010 Mary Frances Picciano, Senior Nutrition Research Scientist at the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), died on August 29 of cancer. The staff of ODS mourns the loss of our valued colleague who was a proficient

  16. `Fascinating, unpredictable' artist to lecture at ETSU Mary B. Martin School, Art & Design to sponsor free event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    `Fascinating, unpredictable' artist to lecture at ETSU Mary B. Martin School, Art & Design, sculpture and film, to ETSU for a free public lecture Sept. 27 in Ball Hall Auditorium, Room 127, in ETSU in New York City. For information about the ETSU Mary B. Martin School of the Arts, call 423-439-TKTS

  17. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.

  18. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G. (WU)

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  19. Ash Fork, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrimArkansas County,Minnesota:Arthur,Ascent SolarAscoenergyAsh

  20. Blue Ash, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |Bleckley County,Minnesota:Open EnergyAsh, Ohio:

  1. Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of soils and bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    municipal solid waste incineration, using the comet and micronucleus tests on amphibian (Xenopus laevis ash resulting from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWIBA percolate), using amphibian larvae waste incineration bottom ash; Percolate 1. Introduction Environmental management of municipal solid

  2. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  3. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S. [Indian Institute for Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. for Civil Engineering

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  4. Site-specific study on stabilization of acid-generating mine tailings using coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Q.; Wang, H.L.; Kovac, V.; Fyfe, J. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A site-specific study on stabilizing acid-generating mine tailings from Sudbury Mine using a coal fly ash from Nanticoke Generating Station is presented in this paper. The objective of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of codisposal of the fly ash and mine tailings to reduce environmental impacts of Sudbury tailings disposal sites. The study includes three phases, i.e., characterization of the mine tailings, and coal fly ash, oxidation tests on the mine tailings and kinetic column permeation tests. The results of the experiments indicate that when permeated with acid mine drainage, the hydraulic conductivity of Nanticoke coal fly ash decreased more than three orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10{sup -6} to 1 x 10{sup -9} cm/s), mainly due to chemical reactions between the ash solids and acid mine drainage. Furthermore, the hydraulic gradient required for acid mine drainage to break through the coal fly ash is increased up to ten times (from 17 to 150) as compared with that for water. The results also show that the leachate from coal fly ash neutralizes the acidic pore fluid of mine tailings. The concentrations of trace elements in effluents from all kinetic column permeation tests indicated that coplacement of coal fly ash with mine tailings has the benefit of immobilizing trace elements, especially heavy metals. All regulated element concentrations from effluent during testing are well below the leachate quality criteria set by the local regulatory authority.

  5. Market Assessment and Technical Feasibility Study of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler Energy International, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center (METC), has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) ashes. The assessment is designed to address six applications, including: (1) structural fill, (2) road base construction, (3) supplementary cementing materials in portland cement, (4) synthetic aggregate, and (5) agricultural/soil amendment applications. Ash from low-sulfur subbituminous coal-fired Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, and ash from the high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired American Electric Power (AEP) bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC unit using low- sulfur coal and limestone sorbent (karhula ash) and high-sulfur coal and dolomite sorbents (AEP Tidd ash).

  6. Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J of the potential for carbon sequestration in degraded mine lands, we have found that based on laboratory and field and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

  7. Emission Control Technology, Performance/Durability -POSTER Effect of Accelerated Ash Loading on Performance of Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    on Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Morphology of Ash Layers Bruce G. Bunting and Todd J. Toops using a single-cylinder diesel engine has been developed for accelerated ash loading in catalyzed and non- catalyzed diesel particular filters (DPF) made of cordierite, SiC and mullite substrate

  8. MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH Waste Management (in source such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration ash, requires a knowledge of the so percolating through waste evolve over time, for a given percolation scenario (infiltration rate, waste source

  9. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    permits. To improve the aesthetic qualities of the effluent, coal ash (from local power plants_mill_discharge.jpg 2. Coal Power Plant http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2008Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power

  10. Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with Class F fly ash 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Hyung Jun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    in soil to verify the effectiveness and optimum ratio of calcium chloride and Class F fly ash in soil stabilization. Mix design was programmed at pure calcium chloride concentrations at 0% to 6% and Class F fly ash at 10 to 15%. Laboratory tests showed...

  11. Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

  12. Canopy, litter and allelopathic effects of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buchholz) on understory vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yager, Lisa Yvonne

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , subirrigated litter treatment, and surface watered litter treatment. . 87 Figure 12 Drying rates of Ashe juniper litter when watered every 2, 3, and 4 days. . 92 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Field treatments to test the influence of Ashe juniper canopy...

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    December 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Coal combustion by products Fly ash Heavy metals Leaching road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater is produced in the United States as a by-product of burning coal in electric power plants (ACAA, 2009

  14. Ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the metacarpus of hereford cows under different nutritional and physiological conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haque, Mozammel

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASH, CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS AND MAGNESIUM CONTENT OF THE METACARPUS OF HEREFORD COWS UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS A Thesis By MOZAMMEL HAQUE Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... centages of Calcium, Phosphorus snd Magnesium in Bone Ash for Cows Gi;en Different Treatments During Pre- And Post-Partum Periods 22 10 Analysis of Variance oi Calcium in Bone Ash Dun an's )tultiple tvange Test 1'or Calcium in Bone Ash. Analy...

  15. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  16. Treatment technologies for hazardous ashes generated from possible incineration of navy waste. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, T.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Navy recognizes that thermal treatment of Navy hazardous wastes (HW) should, under the terms of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, be avoided. Combustion waste disposal may nonetheless become unavoidable in certain cases, even after all possible process enhancements that avoid HW production are implemented. Even then, some toxic constituents that may be present in the waste will not be destroyed by incineration and will persist in the ash residue produced by incineration. Such incinerator ashes will have to be disposed of in HW landfills. The Navy is thus evaluating methods of treatment of such ash to remove or immobilize the toxic constituents that persist following incineration in order to render the waste treatment residue nonhazardous. Appropriate technology identified in this work can be applied to ash produced by HW combuster operated by the Navy, if any, or be required for ash produced by commercial generators handling Navy HWs.

  17. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  18. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  20. 488-D Ash Basin Vegetative Cover Treatibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Christopher; Marx, Don; Blake, John; Adriano, Domy; Koo, Bon-Jun; Czapka, Stephen

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 488-D Ash Basin is an unlined containment basin that received ash and coal reject material from the operation of a powerhouse at the USDOE's Savannah River Site, SC. They pyretic nature of the coal rejects has resulted in the formation of acidic drainage (AD), which has contributed to groundwater deterioration and threatens biota in down gradient wetlands. Establishment of a vegetative cover was examined as a remedial alternative for reducing AD generation within this system by enhanced utilization of rainwater and subsequent non-point source water pollution control. The low nutrient content, high acidity, and high salinity of the basin material, however, was deleterious to plant survivability. As such, studies to identify suitable plant species and potential adaptations, and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and/or chemical stabilization were needed. A randomized block design consisting of three subsurface treatments (blocks) and five duplicated surface amendments (treatments) was developed. One hundred inoculated pine trees were planted on each plot. Herbaceous species were also planted on half of the plots in duplicated 1-m2 beds. After two growing seasons, deep ripping, subsurface amendments and surface covers were shown to be essential for the successful establishment of vegetation on the basin. This is the final report of the study.

  1. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    inhabiting settling impoundments receiving slurried ash from a coal-fired power plant located on the U. SCoal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings Keywords: Coal fly ash basin Common Grackle Contaminants Quiscalus quiscala Selenium a b s t r a c t Birds

  2. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  3. J. Marshall Ash Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 108, No. 2. (Feb., 1990), p. 571.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ash, J. Marshall

    Erratum J. Marshall Ash Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 108, No. 2. (Feb, February 1990 ERRATUM J. MARSHALL ASH The paper "A new proof of uniqueness for multiple trigonometric series" by J. Marshall Ash, which appeared in 107(2) October 1989, should have been entitled "A new proof

  4. County looks at turning waste ash into money Two companies using grant to investigate ways to recycle incinerator byproduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    in York County generates about 160,000 tons of ash per year, and attempts to dispose of it have caused Technology Inc. will seek to use the ash in synthetic stones called Brixx, which also re-use coal wasteCounty looks at turning waste ash into money Two companies using grant to investigate ways

  5. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  6. Metal Bioavailability and Speciation in a Wetland Tailings Repository Amended with Biosolids Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate Pam S. DeVolder, Sally L. Brown,* Dean Hesterberg, and Kumi Pandya ABSTRACT tundra swans surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) and other animals found in the area have tested positive compost wood ash a low SO2 4 addition as K2SO4, and (iii) for Pb poisoning

  7. Mary Whitton_SIGGRAPH09 1 Lessons Learned from Ten Years of Studies of Virtual Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Mary Whitton_SIGGRAPH09 1 Lessons Learned from Ten Years of Studies of Virtual Environments User lessons the Effective Virtual Environments (EVE) research team learned while doing a dozen or more studies and lessons learned by another, cross-disciplinary team in the Distributed nanoManipulator project

  8. Trophicit des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Franoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-Jos BASTIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Trophicité des muqueuses digestives D. BALAS Françoise SENEGAS-BALAS Marie-José BASTIE Laboratoire. Summary. Trophicity ofthe digestive mucosae. The morphological and functional integrity of the digestive mucosae is requisite to the normal progression of the regulated digestive phases during a meal. Therefore

  9. HUMAN GENE THERAPY 16:299306 (March 2005) Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    HUMAN GENE THERAPY 16:299­306 (March 2005) © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Modified Infusion Procedures expression was equal with hepatic artery and portal vein infusion, which was higher than vector administered via peripheral venous infusion. Next, we determined how localized perfusion or changing the vec- tor

  10. Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College Mailing Address: PO Box 37100, Phoenix, AZ 85069-7100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -6350 Technology Infusion Specialist, #10708 The Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College invites applications for one full time Technology Infusion Specialist position. Duties and Responsibilities include: Under the direction of the technology infusion coordinator, the technology infusion specialist will work with MLFTC staff and faculty

  11. Laure Coquart and Jean-Marie Epitalon OASIS4-GUI User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Laure Coquart and Jean-Marie Epitalon OASIS4-GUI User Guide Technical Report, TR/CMGC/10/36 SUC at CERFACS, URA CERFACS/CNRS No1875 France #12;2 OASIS4-GUI User Guide Edited by L. Coquart (CNRS-CERFACS), J................................................................................ 12 5. Running oasis-gui.tcl to create SCC and SMIOC files

  12. William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaddle, John

    William and Mary Athletics State Vehicle / Rental Vehicle / Personal Vehicle Policies Last Update: 2/14/14 W&M's vehicle use policy requires that a driver authorization form be completed and approved before driving any vehicle (including a personal vehicle) for university business or a university

  13. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Annee universitaire 1998-1999 Varietes symplectiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ´ecanique analytique et de la M´ecanique c´eleste, avec des contributions majeures de William Rowan Hamilton (1805´eom´etrie symplectique Cours de C.-M. Marle #12;Universit´e Pierre et Marie Curie Ann´ee universitaire 1998-1999 Avant in Physics, Cambridge University press, 1984. P. Libermann et C.-M. Marle, Symplectic geometry and analytical

  14. Introduction The St. Mary's River Project (SMRP) is a state funded program that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    -DNR) throughout the St. Mary's River, Patuxent River, and numerous other water bodies in the Chesapeake Bay the Patuxent River and nearby water bodies for many years using high speed mapping techniques and continuous monitoring. They monitored the water quality in the Patuxent River after one particular storm event in June

  15. Corresponding author: mary_freeman@usgs.gov American Fisheries Society Symposium 35:255266, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    Depletion Caused by Dams MARY C. FREEMAN1 U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center been damming rivers for millennia, and our more ambitious efforts over the past century have arguably altered river ecosystems more extensively than any other anthropogenic activity. Effects of damming

  16. Occupational Health & Safety Directorate Queen Mary, University of London Fire Induction Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chittka, Lars

    Occupational Health & Safety Directorate Queen Mary, University of London ­ Fire Induction Form June 2011 Note: In order to conform with Paragraph 21-(1) Regulatory Reform (F.S) Order 2005, the Head that the necessary information has been provided. This form must be retained by the department (copied to health

  17. Ellen Marie Douglas, PE, PG, PhD Assistant Professor, Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Ellen M.

    Ellen Marie Douglas, PE, PG, PhD Assistant Professor, Hydrology Environmental, Earth and Ocean. 9758 1998 M.S. CIVIL ENGINEERING, University of New Hampshire 1994 B.S. in HYDROLOGY, University of New Hampshire, GPA 3.94/4.00 1991 Summa Cum Laude , University Honors in Hydrology AWARDS EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING

  18. Rocky PlanetsAround Cool Stars A Marie Curie Initial Training Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinfield, David J.

    planets in the same system. #12;RoPACS Past Present Future This project Study age constraining ·We can use the white dwarfs cooling ages to derive the age of the system; ·This will allow to study in more detailRocky PlanetsAround Cool Stars A Marie Curie Initial Training Network Annual Network Meeting Ro

  19. Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM Michel Moreaux, February 2, 2011 Abstract We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We

  20. Solvent-Promoted Self-Healing Epoxy Materials Mary M. Caruso, David A. Delafuente, Victor Ho,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    , which can lead to cracking of the epoxy resin.2 Microcracks are often contained deep within a structural in an epoxy resin required high-temperature conditions greater than 250 °F (121 °C).4 After fractureSolvent-Promoted Self-Healing Epoxy Materials Mary M. Caruso, David A. Delafuente, Victor Ho, Nancy

  1. Title: Weapons on Campus Effective Date: October 1, 2011 Responsible Office: William & Mary Police

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    Title: Weapons on Campus Effective Date: October 1, 2011 Responsible Office: William & Mary Police the prohibition on weapons, firearms, combustibles, and explosives. II. PURPOSE The purpose of this policy by restricting weapons possession on university property. III.DEFINITIONS "law enforcement officials" means

  2. THESE de DOCTORAT de L'UNIVERSITE PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THESE de DOCTORAT de L'UNIVERSITE PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE Sp´ecialit´e Dynamique de l'Atmosph`ere pr`ere tremp´e, avec qui j'ai ´echang´e un peu de science, mais aussi de nombreuses discussions politiques ou'´ecoulement atmosph´eri

  3. The notion of social networks in migration by Marie-Antoinette Hily1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The notion of « social networks » in migration by Marie-Antoinette Hily1 , William Berthomière2/Poitiers(UMR Miti-CNRS). 3 Associated researcher , Compas (Oxford University). 1 #12;The notion of « social networks", Kapferer, B. (1973) "Social networks and conjugal role" in Jeremy Boissevain and Clyde Mitchell (eds

  4. MFV Kerrie Marie BM172 (New Net MK 2) sea trials no11: ICES area VIIe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MFV Kerrie Marie BM172 (New Net MK 2) sea trials no11: ICES area VIIe the results John, the Skipper fishing line and replaced it with a traditional 36mm rope fishing line in the new net" (see sea trials No4). "The new net didn't dig into the fishing grounds as much and discards were reduced much more

  5. Division de la gestion de documents et des archives Marie-Victorin au Qubec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    Communiqué Division de la gestion de documents et des archives Marie-Victorin au Québec Le 10 septembre 2011 -- La Division de la gestion de documents et des archives et la Direction des bibliothèques s y verrez des paysages de la Gaspésie ou des photographies d'autochtones de la Côte-Nord ou de

  6. PhD position in igneous petrology Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    PhD position in igneous petrology Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR3) Training in igneous petrology, to work on rock-forming processes in the lower oceanic crust, through a detailed of Southampton). Methods: Petrological analysis, Microstructural analysis (EBSD), In-situ mineral chemistry (EMP

  7. The College of William and Mary FINANCIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    affect the design, conduct, or reporting of PHS funded research. Financial Conflict of Interest Working Provost Manos, on conflict of interest matters and management plans. The working group consists1 The College of William and Mary FINANCIAL CONFLICT OF INTEREST PROCEDURE The following

  8. Depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality of the Norphlet Sandstone, Mary Ann field, offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pense, G.M.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Norphlet Sandstone is a gas-prone reservoir in the subsurface of the Mobile basin. A nine-stage diagenetic history is proposed that accounts for anomalously high porosity (20%) and permeability (100 md) measured in cores taken from depths as great as 20,000 ft in the block 76-2 well of Mobil's Mary Ann field.

  9. Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Anderson Localization of Matter Waves in 3D Anisotropic Disordered Potentials Marie Piraud,1, 2, 3 (Dated: August 26, 2014) We develop a cut-off-free theory of Anderson localization in anisotropic. This phenomenon, known as Anderson localization (AL), is a widely studied problem at the fron- tier of condensed

  10. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the benefication of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7-2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash benefication have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550-750{degrees}C. The P{sub O{sub 2}} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluating the Effects of the Kingston Fly Ash Release on Fish Reproduction: Spring 2009 - 2010 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits from the spill extended 4 miles upstream of the facility to Emory River mile 6 and downstream to Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}8.5 miles downstream of the confluence of the Emory River with the Clinch River, and {approx}4 miles downstream of the confluence of the Clinch River with the Tennessee River). A byproduct of coal combustion, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be harmful to biological systems. The ecological effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to come from elevated levels of certain metals in the ash, particularly selenium, on fish reproduction and fish early life stages (Lemly 1993; Besser and others 1996). The ovaries of adult female fish in a lake contaminated by coal ash were reported to have an increased frequency of atretic oocytes (dead or damaged immature eggs) and reductions in the overall numbers of developing oocytes (Sorensen 1988) associated with elevated body burdens of selenium. Larval fish exposed to selenium through maternal transfer of contaminants to developing eggs in either contaminated bodies of water (Lemly 1999) or in experimental laboratory exposures (Woock and others 1987, Jezierska and others 2009) have significantly increased incidences of developmental abnormalities. Contact of fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash in water and sediments may also pose an additional risk to the early life stages of exposed fish populations through direct uptake of metals and other ash constituents (Jezierska and others 2009). The establishment and maintenance of fish populations is intimately associated with the ability of individuals within a population to reproduce. Reproduction is thus generally considered to be the most critical life function affected by environmental contamination. From a regulatory perspective, the issue of potential contaminant-related effects on fish reproduction from the Kingston fly ash spill has particular significance because the growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life is a specific classified use of the affected river systems. To address the potential effects of fly ash from the Kingston spill on the reproductive health of exposed fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA that include: (1) a combined field study of metal bioaccumulation in ovaries and other fish tissues (Adams and others 2012) and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill (the current report); (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (Greeley and others 2012); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence (unpublished); and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers (unpublished). The current report focuses on the reproductive condition of adult female fish in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers influenced by the fly ash spill at the beginning of the spring 2009 breeding season - the first breeding season immediately following the fly ash release - and during the subsequent spring 2010 breeding season. Data generated from this and related reproductive/early life stage studies provide direct input to ecological risk assessment efforts and complement and support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program associated with the fly ash spill.

  12. JV Task 120 - Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Loreal Heebink; David Hassett; Bruce Dockter; Kurt Eylands; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher

    2009-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium{reg_sign} (CARRC{reg_sign}, pronounced 'cars') is the core coal combustion product (CCP) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCPs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCP utilization and ensuring its successful application. The U.S. Department of Energy is a partner in CARRC through the EERC Jointly Sponsored Research Program, which provides matching funds for industrial member contributions and facilitates an increased level of effort in CARRC. CARRC tasks were designed to provide information on CCP performance, including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC technical research tasks are developed based on member input and prioritization. CARRC special projects are developed with members and nonmembers to provide similar information and to support activities, including the assembly and interpretation of data, support for standards development and technology transfer, and facilitating product development and testing. CARRC activities from 2007 to 2009 included a range of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCPs. The tasks were included in four categories: (1) Environmental Evaluations of CCPs; (2) Evaluation of Impacts on CCPs from Emission Controls; (3) Construction and Product-Related Activities; and (4) Technology Transfer and Maintenance Tasks. All tasks are designed to work toward achieving the CARRC overall goal and supporting objectives. The various tasks are coordinated in order to provide broad and useful technical data for CARRC members. Special projects provide an opportunity for non-CARRC members to sponsor specific research or technology transfer consistent with CARRC goals. This report covers CARRC activities from January 2007 through March 2009. These activities have been reported in CARRC Annual Reports and in member meetings over the past 2 years. CARRC continues to work with industry and various government agencies with its research, development, demonstration, and promotional activities nearing completion at the time of submission of this report. CARRC expects to continue its service to the coal ash industry in 2009 and beyond to work toward the common goal of advancing coal ash utilization by solving CCP-related technical issues and promoting the environmentally safe, technically sound, and economically viable management of these complex and changing materials.

  13. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  14. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  15. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaufrere, Albert H. (Huntington, NY)

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  16. Petrography and chemistry of sized fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Trimble, A.S. [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples were collected in November and December, 1994, from two units representing high- and low-sulfur feed coals at a Kentucky power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh. The dried ({approximately}40 C) fractions were then weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, mounted in epoxy and prepared as polished pellets, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The November ashes had a similar size distribution in the +325 mesh fractions. The low-sulfur hot side and cool side ashes had a similar size distribution in the November ashes. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the typical trend, the cool-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh fraction) than the hot-side ash. Carbon tends to be relatively concentrated in the coarse fractions. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes is an important consideration in the utilization potential of the fly ash.

  17. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Oxonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry LaBuz; Rui Afonso

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the fifth quarterly report and it refers to the time period from April-July 2005. (An additional month is included in this quarterly report as we have been in a data analyses mode and wanted to provide new data relative to the previous report). During this period, the project team has been reviewing and analyzing data from the onsite ozonation tests, as well as conducting additional laboratory ash and concrete tests. This report summarizes these activities including some preliminary results. No significant issues or concerns are identified.

  18. MARY CARROLL CRAIG BRADFORD: PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES TO COLORADO’S WOMEN AND CHILDREN THROUGH SUFFRAGE AND EDUCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Heather K.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is a historical biography on the life, suffrage and educational contributions of Mary Carroll Craig Bradford, a wife, mother, suffragist, teacher and educational administrator in the state of Colorado. The purpose...

  19. Maximizing Multiprocessor Performance with the SUIF Compiler Mary W. Hall y Jennifer M. Anderson Saman P. Amarasinghe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Maximizing Multiprocessor Performance with the SUIF Compiler Mary W. Hall y Jennifer M. Anderson and NSF. Jennifer Anderson is currently a researcher with Digital Equipment's Western Research Lab. 1 #12

  20. Sodium and oxygen in Nigerian coals: Possible effects on ash fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegbe, S.B.; Adetunji, J. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash fouling during heat transfers in coal power-plants has been known to be an engineering problem caused by high sodium levels of the feed-coals. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used in determining the concentration of some alkali elements (Na, Ca, Mg) associated with ash fouling for eight Nigerian coals mined at Onyeama, Ogbete, Enugu, Gombe, Okaba, Afikpo, Lafia and Asaba. Sodium levels were generally low (0.001-0.036%). Oxygen concentrations considered as an indicative measure of the wettability of each of the coals were determined. The possible effects of the concentration of these elements on ash fouling were discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A. [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called {open_quotes}Loss On Ignition{close_quotes} (LOI). The concrete producer`s day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  2. STATE-OF-THE-ART: FLY ASH, SILICA FUME AND SLAG UTILIZATION IN USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    improvement, land reclamations, slurried flowable ash, water pollution control, etc. The medium technology Backfill. 1.0 Introduction At the present time, coal fired electric power plants in the USA produce

  3. FLY ASH GENERATION AND UTILIZATION -AN OVERVIEW* Tarun R. Naik, Ph.D., P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    from conventional as well as advanced coal combustion technologies are addressed. Constructive use improvement, land reclamation, slurried flowable ash, and water pollution control. The medium technology matrix composites, polymer matrix composites, and several other filler applications. INTRODUCTION Coal

  4. PREDICTIONS FOR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF PANKI FLY-ASH USING MODIFIED CAM CLAY MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prashant, Amit

    -ash is a fine powdery silty material, produced by burning of coal at thermal power plants. It shows specific by slurry disposal technique. A series of triaxial compression tests have been performed on overconsolidated

  5. ash forming acid-resistant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ash Dieback Update Date: Tuesday 26th March 2013 Time: 1400 - 1700hrs Location: Stirling Management Centre University of Stirling Stirling FK9 4LA To attend please return the...

  6. Iron distribution among phases in high- and low-sulfur coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Dyar, M.D.; Taylor, M.E. [West Chester Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Astronomy

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, reflected-light optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, wet chemical, and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted on six fly ash samples. The fly ashes, representing the combustion by-products of coals with total sulfur contents of less than 2% to greater than 4%, ranged from 17.6 to 32.0% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by XRF analysis. Wet chemical analysis was used to determine the Fe{sup 3+}/{summation}Fe content of the ashes, which ranged from 72% to 83%. Optical analysis of the ashes indicated that the spinel, encompassing iron oxides of various compositions, ranges from 4.0 to 12.6% (vol.). Moessbauer analyses confirmed the presence of three Fe-bearing phases: magnetite, hematite (possibly of two different compositions), and glass. The variation in the Fe-oxidation state follows the variation in the sulfur, consequently pyrite, content of the feed coal.

  7. Notes on the efficacy of wet versus dry screening of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Flores, D.; Guedes, A. [Center and Department of Geology, Oporto (Portugal)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology used to obtain fly ash subsamples of different sizes is generally based on wet or dry sieving methods. However, the worth of such methods is not certain if the methodology applied is not mentioned in the analytical procedure. After performing a fly ash mechanical dry, sieving, the authors compared those results with the ones obtained by laser diffraction on the same samples and found unacceptable discrepancies. A preliminary, study of a wet sieving analysis carried out on an economizer fly ash sample showed that this method was more effective than the dry sieving. The importance of standardizing the way samples are handled, pretreated and presented to the instrument of analysis are suggested and interlaboratory reproducibility trials are needed to create a common standard methodology to obtain large amounts of fly ash size fraction subsamples.

  8. Apparatus having inductively coupled coaxial coils for measuring buildup of slay or ash in a furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Mahendra P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buildup of slag or ash on the interior surface of a furnace wall is monitored by disposing two coils to form a transformer which is secured adjacent to the inside surface of the furnace wall. The inductive coupling between the two coils of the transformer is affected by the presence of oxides of iron in the slag or ash which is adjacent to the transformer, and the application of a voltage to one winding produces a voltage at the other winding that is related to the thickness of the slag or ash buildup on the inside surface of the furnace wall. The output of the other winding is an electrical signal which can be used to control an alarm or the like or provide an indication of the thickness of the slag or ash buildup at a remote location.

  9. Lubricant-derived ash : in-engine sources and opportunities for reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Simon A. G. (Simon Andrew Glean)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are an effective means for meeting increasingly stringent emissions regulations that limit particulate matter. Over time, ash primarily derived from metallic additives in the engine oil ...

  10. Leaching of Metals from Fly ash-Amended Permeable Reactive Barriers Doina L. Morar 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    (Petzrick 2001). Unfortunately, this HCC fly ash cannot be beneficially reused in the construction industry organic and inorganic pollutants. Specific reactive materials such as wood chips, limestone, manure (USEPA

  11. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheitlin, Frank M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - ash management regulations Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    REGULATOR IN PORTLAND CEMENT 6 Traditionally about 3 to 5% gypsum is inter... of clean-coal ash (CCA) was used to replace gypsum as a setting time regulator and mineral...

  13. Review of WTE ash utilization processes under development in northwest Europe Athanasios Bourtsalas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ferrous and non-ferrous, and also minerals from incinerator bottom ash (IBA). Also, since water systems for the discharged IBA has increased metal extraction efficiency and quality of residues

  14. aluminum-fly ash metal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Journal of Composite Materials, July 2006, Vol. 40 no. 13, 1163-1174 1163 Thermal Expansion of AluminumFly Ash...

  15. Comparison of photosynthetic responses of Ashe juniper and live oak on the Edwards Plateau, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    gas exchange and water relations at the leaf level of the two dominant tree species, Ashe juniper and live oak (Quercus virginiana P. Mill. Var. fusiformis), is important to assess the impact of juniper encroachment on the aquifer. Photosynthesis...

  16. TH`ESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSITE PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    'UNIVERSIT´E PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE Sujet de la th`ese : Quantum Shot Noise in Graphene pr´esent´ee et soutenue de th`ese M. Preden ROULLEAU Invit´e #12;#12;Contents Introduction 1 I Overview of Graphene Physics and Mesoscopic Trans- port 7 1 Physical Properties of Graphene 9 1.1 Crystal Structure of Graphene

  17. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  18. Depositional environment of lower cretaceous Mitchell sandstone, St. Mary and Duty fields, Lafayette County, Arkansas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzullo, Elsa Kapitan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    County, Arkansas. Series Group Subgroup Formation Field Number Washita Fredericksburg Paluxy Mooringsport Ferry Lake Comanchean Trinity Glen Rose Shale and limestone First lower anhydrite stringer Hill Sandstone Rodessa Second lower...DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF LOWER CRETACEOUS MITCHELL SANDSTONE, ST. MARY AND DUTY FIELDS, LAFAYETTE COUNTY, ARKANSAS A Thesis by ELSA KAPITAN MAZZULLO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  19. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Piette

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Influence of age/size and grazing history on understory relationships of Ashe juniper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuhlendorf, Samuel Dean

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Rangeland Ecology and Management INFLUENCE OF AGE/SIZE AND GRAZING HISTORY ON UNDERSTORY RELATIONSHIPS OF ASHE JUNIPER A Thesis by SAMUEL DEAN FUHLENDORF Approved as to style and content by...

  1. Investigation of the potential of fly ash as an adsorbent for removal of priority pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zardkoohi, Minoo

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Aydin Akgerman Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, p-chlorophenol, 2, 4, dichlorophenol, cadmium and lead from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The value of Freundlich isotherm..., parameter n indicated that the adsorption isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable. Phenol displayed a much higher aAinity for fly ash than chlorophenol and 2, 4 dichlorophenol Adsorption isotherms for the trace metals studied were slightly...

  2. The use of sulfer modified bottom ash (SMBA) as an aggregate in asphaltic mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chimakurthy, Harshavardhan

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , bottom ash is lighter in weight and generally much cheaper than conventional quality aggregates such as limestone, sand and gravel. This research was designed to up-grade the load-bearing charactcnstics of bottom ash and maximize its usc m asphaltic... and gravel. According to a study done by Hafizuddin Ahmad in 1974, sulfur was used extensively in sand-asphalt sulfur to upgrade marginal aggregates for use in asphaltic mixtures, was developed at Texas Transportation Institute (TT1) (JO). TTI's work...

  3. Investigation of fly ash carbon by thermal analysis and optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R. [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Boral Material Technologies Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study investigated various fly ashes that had comparable loss on ignition values, but significant differences with respect to air entrainment performance. Thermal analysis data suggested that a poorly performing fly ash, with respect to air entrainment, contained a higher proportion of carbon that gasifies (oxidizes) at comparatively low temperatures. A relatively high abundance of isotropic carbon was identified in the poor-performing ash using optical microscopy. The present investigation examined a larger collection of fly ash samples to determine if thermal analysis could be used as a prognostic tool for fly ash performance. An attempt was made to correlate mortar air and foam index values for each sample with differential thermal analysis (DTA) data. Optical microscopy and BET surface area analysis were used as supportive techniques. No clear relationship could be established with the thermal or optical methods, although fly ash performance did correlate well with BET surface area. A low temperature component of the DTA exotherms was considered to be a function of inorganic catalytic species that reside on the carbon surface and lower the ignition temperature.

  4. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jürgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)] [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  5. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  6. The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  7. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. EFFECTS OF FLY ASH ON MERCURY OXIDATION DURING POST COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Norton

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed in simulated flue gas streams using two fly ash samples from the electrostatic precipitators of two full-scale utility boilers. One fly ash was derived from a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, while the other was derived from Blacksville coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 seam). The tests were performed at temperatures of 120 and 180 C under different gas compositions. Elemental mercury (Hg) streams were injected into the simulated flue gas and passed over filters (housed in a convection oven) loaded with fly ash. The Ontario Hydro method was used to determine the total amount of Hg passing through the filter as well as the percentages of elemental and oxidized Hg collected. Results indicated that substantial amounts of Hg oxidation did not occur with either fly ash, regardless of the temperature used for testing. When oxidation was observed, the magnitude of the oxidation was comparable between the two fly ashes. These results suggest that the gas matrix may be more important than the ash components with respect to the distribution of Hg species observed in gaseous effluents at coal-fired power plants.

  9. Arsenic and Bladder Cancer Mortality Kenneth G. Brown; Barbara D. Beck; Claudia Hopenhayn-Rich; Mary Lou Biggs; Allan H. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    -Rich; Mary Lou Biggs; Allan H. Smith Epidemiology, Vol. 7, No. 5. (Sep., 1996), pp. 557-558. Stable URL: http

  10. Models of neutron star atmospheres enriched with nuclear burning ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J E; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-mass X-ray binaries hosting neutron stars (NS) exhibit thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, which are powered by unstable nuclear burning of helium and/or hydrogen into heavier elements deep in the NS "ocean". In some cases the burning ashes may rise from the burning depths up to the NS photosphere by convection, leading to the appearance of the metal absorption edges in the spectra, which then force the emergent X-ray burst spectra to shift toward lower energies. These effects may have a substantial impact on the color correction factor $f_c$ and the dilution factor $w$, the parameters of the diluted blackbody model $F_E \\approx w B_E(f_c T_{eff})$ that is commonly used to describe the emergent spectra from NSs. The aim of this paper is to quantify how much the metal enrichment can change these factors. We have developed a new NS atmosphere modeling code, which has a few important improvements compared to our previous code required by inclusion of the metals. The opacities and the internal partition func...

  11. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  12. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)] [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain) [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongqi Lu; Massoud Rostam-Abadi; Ramsay Chang; Carl Richardson; Jennifer Paradis [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine fly ash samples were collected from the particulate collection devices of four full-scale pulverized coal utility boilers burning eastern bituminous coals and three cyclone utility boilers burning either Powder River Basin coals or PRB blends. As-received fly ash samples were mechanically sieved to obtain six size fractions. Unburned carbon content, mercury content, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of as-received fly ashes and their size fractions were measured. In addition, UBC particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, and thermogravimetry to obtain information on their surface morphology, structure, and oxidation reactivity. It was found that the UBC particles contained amorphous carbon, ribbon-shaped graphitic carbon, and highly ordered graphite structures. The mercury contents of the UBCs in raw ash samples were comparable to those of the UBC-enriched samples, indicating that mercury was mainly adsorbed on the UBC in fly ash. The UBC content decreased with a decreasing particle size range for all nine ashes. The mercury content of the UBCs in each size fraction, however, generally increased with a decreasing particle size for the nine ashes. The mercury contents and surface areas of the UBCs in the PRB-CYC ashes were about 8 and 3 times higher than UBCs in the EB-PC ashes, respectively. It appeared that both the particle size and surface area of UBC could contribute to mercury capture. The particle size of the UBC in PRB-CYC ash and thus the external mass transfer was found to be the major factor impacting the mercury adsorption. Both the particle size and surface reactivity of the UBC in EB-PC ash, which generally had a lower carbon oxidation reactivity than the PRB-PC ashes, appeared to be important for the mercury adsorption. 26 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Trophic structure and metal bioaccumulation differences in multiple fish species exposed to coal ash-associated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otter, Ryan [Middle Tennessee State University; Bailey, Frank [Middle Tennessee State University; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Adams, Marshall [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008 a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant near Kingston Tennessee USA failed and resulted in the largest coal ash spill in U.S. history. Coal ash, the by-product of coal combustion, is known to contain multiple contaminants of concern, including arsenic and selenium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of arsenic and selenium and to identify possible differences in trophic dynamics in feral fish at various sites in the vicinity of the Kingston coal ash spill. Elevated levels of arsenic and selenium were observed in various tissues of largemouth bass, white crappie, bluegill and redear sunfish from sites associated with the Kingston coal ash spill. Highest concentrations of selenium were found in redear sunfish with liver concentrations as high as 24.83 mg/kg dry weight and ovary concentrations up to 10.40 mg/kg dry weight at coal ash-associated sites. To help explain the elevated selenium levels observed in redear sunfish, investigations into the gut pH and trophic dynamics of redear sunfish and bluegill were conducted which demonstrated a large difference in the gut physiology between these two species. Redear sunfish stomach and intestinal pH was found to be 1.1 and 0.16 pH units higher than in bluegill, respectively. In addition, fish from coal ash-associated sites showed enrichment of 15N & 13C compared to no ash sites, indicating differences in food web dynamics between sites. These results imply the incorporation of coal ash-associated compounds into local food webs and/or a shift in diet at ash sites compared to the no ash reference sites. Based on these results, further investigation into a broader food web at ash-associated sites is warranted.

  15. Predicting the Operating Behavior of Ceramic Filters from Thermo-Mechanical Ash Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemmer, G.; Kasper, G.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable operation, in other words the achievement of a succession of uniform filtration cycles of reasonable length is a key issue in high-temperature gas filtration with ceramic media. Its importance has rather grown in recent years, as these media gain in acceptance due to their excellent particle retention capabilities. Ash properties have been known for some time to affect the maximum operating temperature of filters. However, softening and consequently ''stickiness'' of the ash particles generally depend on composition in a complex way. Simple and accurate prediction of critical temperature ranges from ash analysis--and even more so from coal analysis--is still difficult without practical and costly trials. In general, our understanding of what exactly happens during break-down of filtration stability is still rather crude and general. Early work was based on the concept that ash particles begin to soften and sinter near the melting temperatures of low-melting, often alkaline components. This softening coincides with a fairly abrupt increase of stickiness, that can be detected with powder mechanical methods in a Jenicke shear cell as first shown by Pilz (1996) and recently confirmed by others (Kamiya et al. 2001 and 2002, Kanaoka et al. 2001). However, recording {sigma}-{tau}-diagrams is very time consuming and not the only off-line method of analyzing or predicting changes in thermo-mechanical ash behavior. Pilz found that the increase in ash stickiness near melting was accompanied by shrinkage attributed to sintering. Recent work at the University of Karlsruhe has expanded the use of such thermo-analytical methods for predicting filtration behavior (Hemmer 2001). Demonstrating their effectiveness is one objective of this paper. Finally, our intent is to show that ash softening at near melting temperatures is apparently not the only phenomenon causing problems with filtration, although its impact is certainly the ''final catastrophe''. There are other significant changes in regeneration at intermediate temperatures, which may lead to long-term deterioration.

  16. On-line carbon-in-ash monitors: Survey and demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorge, J.; Larrimore, L.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash unburned carbon (UBC) level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The presence of unburned carbon in fly ash has been shown to be a function of furnace design, coal quality, the ability of the pulverizer to grind the coal, and heat release rate. Boilers are designed to take these factors into consideration. However, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 drove many utilities to switch coal supplies and install low NO{sub x} burners. Higher carbon-in-ash levels have been the result of these changes in coal quality and the staged combustion characteristics associated with low NO{sub x} burners. Over the past few years, several instruments for the on-line determination and monitoring of the unburned carbon content of ash samples have been developed. However, to date they have not been deployed widely in the U.S. despite potential uses for combustion optimization and as an aid in fly ash marketing. Based on the lack of publicly available performance and operation data available for the current CIAM (carbon-in-ash monitor) commercial offerings, Southern Company initiated a demonstration of several commercial technologies on its coal-fired units. As part of a DOE Clean Coal Project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction on NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers, the CAM, SEKAM and FOCUS systems were installed at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4. CAM and M&W instruments were also placed at Alabama Power Company`s Plant Gaston Unit 4. The testing of the instruments was conducted from November 1995 through August 1996.

  17. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

  18. Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. E

  19. GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 GROUP 5 GROUP 6 ANDERSON, JENNIFER AYENI, MARY ABATE BESSOMO, ANNA BARRETT, CIAN ADAMS, NICOLE BARTON, MICHAEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 GROUP 5 GROUP 6 ANDERSON, JENNIFER AYENI, MARY ABATE BESSOMO, ANNA ANDERSON FITZSIMONS, DENISEBINCHY, SUSAN CARLEY, JESSE CONWAY, AILBHE BROOKE, HENRY CONLAN, DEIRDRE, CAOIMHE HESKIN, CLODAGH MC GOVERN, MARIE-CLAIREMURRAY, AINE GROGAN, CLARE GERARD, ALLISON MC QUAID, RACHEL

  20. Four-year prospective study of the respiratory effects of volcanic ash from Mt. St. Helens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buist, A.S.; Vollmer, W.M.; Johnson, L.R.; Bernstein, R.S.; McCamant, L.E.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the 4-yr follow-up of 712 loggers exposed over an extended period to varying levels of fresh volcanic ash from the 1980 eruptions of Mt. St. Helens. Concerns related to the irritant effect the ash might have on the airways and also to its fibrogenic potential if exposures were intense and continued over many years. Our subjects were divided into 3 groups: high, low, and no exposure. Baseline testing was begun in June 1980, 1 month after the major eruption, and follow-up testing continued on an annual basis through 1984; 88% of the loggers have been tested at least 3 times. Analysis of lung function data showed that a significant, exposure-related decline in FEV1 occurred during the first year after the eruption. The decline was short-lived, however, and by 1984 the differences between exposure groups were no longer significant. Self-reported symptoms of cough, phlegm, and wheeze showed a similar pattern. No ash-related changes were seen in chest roentgenograms taken in 1980 and in 1984. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the inhaled ash caused mucus hypersecretion and/or airway inflammation that reversed when the exposure levels decreased. The ash levels to which the loggers were exposed were low compared with permissible occupational levels for nuisance dusts, but generally higher than the total suspended particulate levels permissible in ambient air.

  1. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  2. Investigation of MSWI fly ash melting characteristic by DSC-DTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Rundong [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)], E-mail: leerd@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tianhua; Raninger, Bernhard [Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy, Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang 110136 (China)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The melting process of MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) fly ash has been studied by high-temperature DSC-DTA experiments. The experiments were performed at a temperature range of 20-1450 deg. C, and the considerable variables included atmosphere (O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), heating rates (5 deg. C/min, 10 deg. C/min, 20 deg. C/min) and CaO addition. Three main transitions were observed during the melting process of fly ash: dehydration, polymorphic transition and fusion, occurring in the temperature range of 100-200 deg. C, 480-670 deg. C and 1101-1244 deg. C, respectively. The apparent heat capacity and heat requirement for melting of MSWI fly ash were obtained by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). A thermodynamic modeling to predict the heat requirements for melting process has been presented, and it agrees well with the experimental data. Finally, a zero-order kinetic model of fly ash melting transition was established. The apparent activation energy of MSWI fly ash melting transition was obtained.

  3. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash-water suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Ph by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH-6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Ph occurred as anionic Ph hydroxide. Anionic Ph was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Ph would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Ph when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study. 37 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fly ash-enhanced aluminum composites for automotive parts. [Reports for April to June, 1998, and July to September, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, Dean; Rohatgi, Pradeep

    1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are to produce and evaluate the use of aluminum ''ashalloys''--metal matrix composites that incorporate coal fly ash--in the commercial manufacture of cast automotive parts. Some highlights are: (1) Ashalloy ingot with ''C'' type fly ash was synthesized using stir casting techniques similar to the successful castings of ''F'' type fly ash. Agglomeration was noted. Stirring periods were increased up to 45 minutes compared to the normal 5 minutes to determine whether the shear force of stirring would disagglomerate the clusters noted with this type of fly ash. The resulting sample showed clustering. (2) The ashalloy ingots of ''C'' type fly ash were remelted and poured into permanent molds using a cloth filter to screen out clusters. There was no major reduction in clusters of fly ash particles in the composite since the filter with the mesh size larger than 1 x 1 mm was used. The composite melt would not flow through when filters with smaller openings were used. (3) The fly ash sample from Wisconsin Electric Power Company was sent for classification. (4) A 1 lb. sample of JTM-processed fly ash was sent to Wisconsin Electric Power Company for classification and 10 lb. of same fly ash was sent to The Jet Pulverizer Company for jet milling. (5) Experiments on fly ash pretreatment as well as synthesis of ash alloy are continuing. (6) Attempts are being made to apply high speed shear mixing with selected liquids to disperse the clusters noted in ashalloy with the ''C'' type fly ash base. Stir casting processes have been developed to incorporate type ''F'' fly ash of different sizes and measuring tensile data on cast bars. This data enables selection of the optimum size of fly ash to meet specific property requirements. Attempts are underway to develop stir casting techniques to incorporate ''C'' type fly ash in cast aluminum alloys. It is expected that the next milestone for making trial parts will be completed on schedule by June 1999.

  5. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Final technical report, September 30, 1992--January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung; Hoffman, D.A.; Butcher, E.K.

    1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal ash, and particularly fine fly ash, remain one of the principal practical and environmental problems in coal-based power generation. In particular, submicron aerosols are identified with direct inhalation risk. Submicron ash is thought to arise from mineral vaporization during char combustion, followed by nucleation, condensation and coagulation to yield an aerosol. While aerosols are predominantly made out of volatile alkali minerals, they also can include refractory oxides that are chemically reduced to more volatile forms within the char particle and vaporized. Most of the ash of size greater than 1 {mu}m is generated by agglomeration of mineral as the char particle bums out. These two principal mechanisms are thought to account for most of the ash generated in coal combustion. Previous research has shown that various forms of coal treatment can influence the yields of fine ash from combustion. The research reported here investigates various forms of treatment, including physical coal cleaning, aerodynamic sizing, degree of grinding, and combinations of these on both aerosol yields and on yields of fine residual ash (1-4 {mu}m). The work also includes results from the combustion of artificial chars that include individual mineral elements. This research shows that these various forms of coal treatment can significantly change ash characteristics. While none of the treatments affected the bulk of the residual ash size distribution significantly, the yield of the ash aerosol mode (d<0.5 {mu}m) and fine residual ash mode (1-4 {mu}m) are changed by the treatments.

  6. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  7. Geothermal heating project at St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota, with the assistance of the US Department of Energy, drilled a 2176 ft well into the Madison Aquifer ot secure 108/sup 0/F artesian flow water at 385 gpm (475 psig shut-in pressure). The objective was to provide heat for domestic hot water and to space heat 163,768 sq. ft. Cost savings for the first three years were significant and, with the exception of a shutdown to replace some corroded pipe, the system has operated reliably and continuously for the last four years.

  8. Mary K. Gaillard, 1988 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a New 183-GHzMAR Os ZD15netMary K. Gaillard, 1988

  9. Characterization of ash residues from 15 waste-to-energy facilities pursuant to the May, 1994 U.S. EPA ``Sampling and analysis of municipal refuse incineration ash`` guidance document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.; Lyons, M. [Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc., Hampton, NH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheelabrator Environmental Systems Inc. (Wheelabrator) currently owns and/or operates 21 power plants, 15 of which are municipal waste combustion (MWC) facilities. In response to a May, 1994 US Supreme Court decision, all MWC facilities are required by the US Environmental Protection (EPA) to determine if the facility ash residues are hazardous waste. This paper presents the results of ash characterizations done at Wheelabrator MWC facilities. All Wheelabrator MWC facilities are equipped with WES-PHix{reg_sign} ash stabilization systems. The ash from these facilities consistently yields test results well below regulatory thresholds. However, installing a state-of-the-art ash stabilization system does not guarantee that ash is accurately characterized. Proper sampling protocols and proper analytical technique are critical to insuring accurate characterization. This paper identifies typical issues encountered during sample collection, sample preparation, an toxicity test extraction procedures. The consistently low toxicity test results for ash from Wheelabrator facilities can be attributed to the effectiveness of the WES-PHix{reg_sign} ash stabilization process. The sample collection protocols developed by Wheelabrator, and proper toxicity test extraction and analytical procedures followed by the laboratories, ensure accurate characterization.

  10. The charmed circles of Mary McCarthy: a study of elitist theory and performance in her fiction.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trouard, Dawn Catherine

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CHARMED CIRCLES OF MARY McCARTHY& A STUDY OF ELITIST THEORY AND PERFORMANCE IN HER FICTION A Thesis by Dawn Catherine Trouard Submitted to the Gradu . te College of Texas AUX University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... 'pI~rove1 ~e to atyle encl cortent eye Chas man of ommittee Department &''ember ~' l~yember December 19)'~ ABSTRACT The Charmed Circles of Mary McCarthys A Study of Elitist Theory and Performance in Her Fiction. I, December 1975) Dawn...

  11. Petrography and chemistry of high-carbon fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shawnee power station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150-MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur (< 1 wt %) eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units burn medium- and high-sulfur (> 1 wt %) coal in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25 wt %. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6% to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety, but there is a portion that is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

  12. Petrography and chemistry of fly ash from the Shawnee Power Station, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Thomas, G.A.; Wild, G.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Clifford, D.S.; Eady, J.D. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shawnee Power Station in western Kentucky consists of ten 150 MW units, eight of which burn low-sulfur eastern Kentucky and central West Virginia coal. The other units bum medium and high-sulfur coal in an AFBC unit and in a research unit. The eight low-sulfur coal units were sampled in a 1992 survey of Kentucky utilities. Little between-unit variation is seen in the ash-basis major oxide and minor element chemistry. The carbon content of the fly ashes varies from 5 to 25%. Similarly, the isotropic and anisotropic coke in the fly ash varies from 6 to 42% (volume basis). Much of the anisotropic coke is a thin-walled macroporous variety but there is a portion which is a thick-walled variety similar to a petroleum coke.

  13. Ash plume properties retrieved from infrared images: a forward and inverse modeling approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerminara, Matteo; Valade, Sébastien; Harris, Andrew J L

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a coupled fluid-dynamic and electromagnetic model for volcanic ash plumes. In a forward approach, the model is able to simulate the plume dynamics from prescribed input flow conditions and generate the corresponding synthetic thermal infrared (TIR) image, allowing a comparison with field-based observations. An inversion procedure is then developed to retrieve ash plume properties from TIR images. The adopted fluid-dynamic model is based on a one-dimensional, stationary description of a self-similar (top-hat) turbulent plume, for which an asymptotic analytical solution is obtained. The electromagnetic emission/absorption model is based on the Schwarzschild's equation and on Mie's theory for disperse particles, assuming that particles are coarser than the radiation wavelength and neglecting scattering. [...] Application of the inversion procedure to an ash plume at Santiaguito volcano (Guatemala) has allowed us to retrieve the main plume input parameters, namely the initial radius $b_0$, velocity $U_...

  14. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

  15. ASHE PDC: The Quality and Patient Safety Movement Posted on: 3.15.2011 11:50:52 AM Posted by Jennifer Kovacs, Managing Editor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    ASHE PDC: The Quality and Patient Safety Movement Posted on: 3.15.2011 11:50:52 AM Posted for Patient Care and Hospital Facilities?" at the ASHE PDC Summit in Tampa, Florida. Benneyan is director

  16. Feasibility of using reject fly ash in cement-based stabilization/solidification processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poon, C.S.; Qiao, X.C.; Cheeseman, C.R.; Lin, Z.S. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Civil & Structural Engineering

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilization/solidification (s/s) has been routinely used for the final treatment of hazardous wastes prior to land disposal. These processes involve adding one or more solidifying reagents into the waste to transform it into a monolithic solid with improved structural integrity. Cement-based systems with partial replacement by pulverized fuel ash (PFA) have been widely used to minimize leaching of contaminants from hazardous wastes. The finer fraction of PFA ({lt}45 {mu} m, fine fly ash, MA), produced by passing the raw ash through a classifying process is commonly used in s/s processes. Low-grade fly ash is rejected (rFA) from the ash classifying process, and is largely unused due to high carbon content and large particle size but represents a significant proportion of PFA. This paper presents experimental results of a study that has assessed the feasibility of using rFA in the cement-based s/s of a synthetic heavy metal waste. Results were compared to mixes containing fFA. The strength results show that cement-based waste forms with rFA replacement are suitable for disposal at landfill and that the addition of heavy metal sludge can increase the degree of hydration of fly ash and decrease the porosity of samples. Adding Ca(OH){sub 2} and flue gas desulphurization sludge reduces the retarding effect of heavy metals on strength development. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and Dynamic Leach Test show that rFA can be used in cement-based s/s wastes without compromising performance of the product.

  17. Computation of probabilistic hazard maps and source parameter estimation for volcanic ash transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madankan, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pouget, S. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Singla, P., E-mail: psingla@buffalo.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Bursik, M. [Department of Geology, University at Buffalo (United States); Dehn, J. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States); Jones, M. [Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo (United States); Patra, A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Pavolonis, M. [NOAA-NESDIS, Center for Satellite Applications and Research (United States); Pitman, E.B. [Department of Mathematics, University at Buffalo (United States); Singh, T. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo (United States); Webley, P. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic ash advisory centers are charged with forecasting the movement of volcanic ash plumes, for aviation, health and safety preparation. Deterministic mathematical equations model the advection and dispersion of these plumes. However initial plume conditions – height, profile of particle location, volcanic vent parameters – are known only approximately at best, and other features of the governing system such as the windfield are stochastic. These uncertainties make forecasting plume motion difficult. As a result of these uncertainties, ash advisories based on a deterministic approach tend to be conservative, and many times over/under estimate the extent of a plume. This paper presents an end-to-end framework for generating a probabilistic approach to ash plume forecasting. This framework uses an ensemble of solutions, guided by Conjugate Unscented Transform (CUT) method for evaluating expectation integrals. This ensemble is used to construct a polynomial chaos expansion that can be sampled cheaply, to provide a probabilistic model forecast. The CUT method is then combined with a minimum variance condition, to provide a full posterior pdf of the uncertain source parameters, based on observed satellite imagery. The April 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland is employed as a test example. The puff advection/dispersion model is used to hindcast the motion of the ash plume through time, concentrating on the period 14–16 April 2010. Variability in the height and particle loading of that eruption is introduced through a volcano column model called bent. Output uncertainty due to the assumed uncertain input parameter probability distributions, and a probabilistic spatial-temporal estimate of ash presence are computed.

  18. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Apopka, FL (United States)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  19. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  20. Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Hazardous Materials B132 (2006) 244­252 Zeolite synthesis from paper sludge ash at low consists of organic fibers, inorganic clay-sized materials, and about 60% water, and is incinerated and 9. Alternative processing methods of zeolite synthesis, including the addition of ash

  1. Development of Fly Ash Derived Sorbents to Capture CO2 from Flue Gas of Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; Yinzhi Zhang; Zhe Lu

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program focused on the development of fly ash derived sorbents to capture CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas emissions. The fly ash derived sorbents developed represent an affordable alternative to existing methods using specialized activated carbons and molecular sieves, that tend to be very expensive and hinder the viability of the CO{sub 2} sorption process due to economic constraints. Under Task 1 'Procurement and characterization of a suite of fly ashes', 10 fly ash samples, named FAS-1 to -10, were collected from different combustors with different feedstocks, including bituminous coal, PRB coal and biomass. These samples presented a wide range of LOI value from 0.66-84.0%, and different burn-off profiles. The samples also spanned a wide range of total specific surface area and pore volume. These variations reflect the difference in the feedstock, types of combustors, collection hopper, and the beneficiation technologies the different fly ashes underwent. Under Task 2 'Preparation of fly ash derived sorbents', the fly ash samples were activated by steam. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms were used to characterize the resultant activated samples. The cost-saving one-step activation process applied was successfully used to increase the surface area and pore volume of all the fly ash samples. The activated samples present very different surface areas and pore volumes due to the range in physical and chemical properties of their precursors. Furthermore, one activated fly ash sample, FAS-4, was loaded with amine-containing chemicals (MEA, DEA, AMP, and MDEA). The impregnation significantly decreased the surface area and pore volume of the parent activated fly ash sample. Under Task 3 'Capture of CO{sub 2} by fly ash derived sorbents', sample FAS-10 and its deashed counterpart before and after impregnation of chemical PEI were used for the CO{sub 2} adsorption at different temperatures. The sample FAS-10 exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 17.5mg/g at 30 C, and decreases to 10.25mg/g at 75 C, while those for de-ashed counterpart are 43.5mg/g and 22.0 mg/g at 30 C and 75 C, respectively. After loading PEI, the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increased to 93.6 mg/g at 75 C for de-ashed sample and 62.1 mg/g at 75 C for raw fly ash sample. The activated fly ash, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterparts were tested for CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The activated carbon exhibited a CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of 40.3mg/g at 30 C that decreased to 18.5mg/g at 70 C and 7.7mg/g at 120 C. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity profiles changed significantly after impregnation. For the MEA loaded sample the capacity increased to 68.6mg/g at 30 C. The loading of MDEA and DEA initially decreased the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 30 C compared to the parent sample but increased to 40.6 and 37.1mg/g, respectively, when the temperature increased to 70 C. The loading of AMP decrease the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the parent sample under all the studied temperatures. Under Task 4 'Comparison of the CO{sub 2} capture by fly ash derived sorbents with commercial sorbents', the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of selected activated fly ash carbons were compared to commercial activated carbons. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of fly ash derived activated carbon, FAS-4, and its chemical loaded counterpart presented CO{sub 2} capture capacities close to 7 wt%, which are comparable to, and even better than, the published values of 3-4%.

  2. Comparative analysis of methods for determination of arsenic in coal and coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.L.; Blagojevic, N.Z.; Rajakovic, L.V. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the comparative analysis of different methods for the preparation and analysis of arsenic content in coal and coal ash have been presented. The suggested method is coal digestion method, i.e., coal ash digestion using the mixture of acids: nitric and sulphuric in presence of vanadium-pentoxide as catalyzer. The comparative analysis of different recording techniques (AAS-GH, AAS-GF and ICP-AES) has also been presented. For arsenic recording the suggested technique is AAS-GF technique. The obtained results show that the method of high precision, high sensitivity and high reproductivity has been obtained.

  3. Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raba, Gary W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structural evaluations of the subgrade and its overlying pavement layers for test sites in Texas. Six evaluations of the lime-fly ash stabilization technique, based on dual parametric results, are given in this thesis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes... FOR TEST SITE 5 H. DFFLECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR TEST SITE 8 VITA PAGE 141 141 154 160 160 172 181 181 195 202 213 213 213 215 220 227 231 238 245 252 259 268 275 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 10. 12. 13. 14. Lime-Fly Ash...

  4. Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography: Examples from a western Kentucky power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Goodman, J. [Prestonburg High School, KY (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and ten baghouse hoppers at each of twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of low-sulfur, high volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical units. The coarser mechanical fly ash showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbons and total coke; the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in ratios of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units.

  5. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  6. Conversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A. Aksay, and Wei-Heng Shih*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    and aluminum sources. Fly ash, which is a byproduct of coal burning, contains mostly aluminosilicates. Recently not only eliminates the disposal problem of fly ash but also turns an otherwise waste materialConversion of Fly Ash into Mesoporous Aluminosilicate Hsiao-Lan Chang, Chang-Min Chun, Ilhan A

  7. Multisensor data fusion for OD matrix estimation Krystyna Biletska, Marie-Hel`ene Masson, Sophie Midenet and Thierry Denoeux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multisensor data fusion for OD matrix estimation Krystyna Biletska§, Marie-H´el`ene Masson, Sophie. Generally, it is represented by an origin-destination (OD) matrix, where each element is a volume of vehicle flow between one of the OD pair of zones of a junction. This paper introduces a new method for a short

  8. ODS Update e-newsletter May 2010 American Society for Nutrition Honors ODS Nutrition Scientists Mary Frances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    ODS Update e-newsletter May 2010 American Society for Nutrition Honors ODS Nutrition Scientists) Annual Meeting in Anaheim, CA, ASN President Robert M. Russell, MD, presented two ODS scientists with distinguished service awards. Mary Frances Picciano, PhD, ODS Senior Nutrition Research Scientist, received

  9. Design Methodology for a SEAREV Wave Energy Marie Ruellan, Hamid BenAhmed, Bernard Multon, Christophe Josset, Aurelien Babarit,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Design Methodology for a SEAREV Wave Energy Converter Marie Ruellan, Hamid BenAhmed, Bernard by presenting two power take-off (PTO) technologies for the SEAREV wave energy converter (WEC) followed technologies in- tended to transform wave energy into electricity. The types of systems are twofold

  10. A review of "Milton's Places of Hope: Spiritual and Political Connections of Hope with Land" by Mary C. Fenton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreman, Sarah

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    22 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS Mary C. Fenton. Milton?s Places of Hope: Spiritual and Political Connections of Hope with Land. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006. viii + 225 pp + 3 illus. $99.50. Review by SARAH MOREMAN, SUL ROSS STATE UNIVERSITY...

  11. New side-channel attack against scan chains Jean Da Rolt, Giorgio Di Natale, Marie-Lise Flottes, Bruno Rouzeyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    New side-channel attack against scan chains Jean Da Rolt, Giorgio Di Natale, Marie-Lise Flottes jeopardize the overall security. Several scan-based attacks on cryptographic functions have been described and shown the need for secure scan implementations. These attacks assume a single scan chain. However

  12. Postdoctoral fellowship in ore-deposit geology/igneous geochemistry Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ER1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Postdoctoral fellowship in ore-deposit geology/igneous geochemistry Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ER1) Training network on reactive geological systems from the mantle to the abyssal sub-Cu-PGE deposits Requirements: Candidates must hold PhD in geology/geochemistry This fellowship is for a period

  13. Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: the Obepi surveys 1997-2006 Charles Marie-Aline 1 *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: the Obepi surveys 1997-2006 Charles Marie-Aline 1-aline.charles@inserm.fr> Abstract The objective of the study is to describe the prevalences of obesity in French adults over a 9 members of the selected households 18 years and older. Obesity was defined according to WHO criteria, BMI

  14. Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: The Obepi surveys 1997-2006 Marie-Aline Charles*, Eveline Eschwge*, Arnaud Basdevant**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monitoring the obesity epidemic in France: The Obepi surveys 1997-2006 Marie-Aline Charles*, Eveline Eschwège*, Arnaud Basdevant§¶** Short running title: Increases in the prevalence of obesity, published in "Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 16, 9 (2008) 2182-6" DOI : 10.1038/oby.2008.285 #12;2 Abstract

  15. A review of "To Repair the Ruins: Reading Milton" edited by Mary C. Fenton and Louis Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that deserve the attention he gives them. Mary C. Fenton and Louis Schwartz, eds. To Repair the Ruins: Reading Milton. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, #18;#17;#16;#18;. xii + #1;#30; pp. + #18;#18; illus. $#14;#15;.#17;#17;. Review by #8...

  16. Cloud Resource Orchestration: A Data-Centric Approach Changbin Liu Yun Mao Jacobus Van der Merwe Mary Fernndez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    Cloud Resource Orchestration: A Data-Centric Approach Changbin Liu Yun Mao Jacobus Van der Merwe Mary Fernández AT&T Labs - Research University of Pennsylvania ABSTRACT Cloud computing provides users virtualization of the underlying physical infrastructure. However, the scale and highly dynamic nature of cloud

  17. Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Effect of particle size and volume fraction on tensile properties of fly ash/polyurea composites polyurea and the polyurea matrix for the composites based on Isonate® 2143L (diisocyanate) and Versalink® P of the composites. Particle size and volume fraction were varied to study their effects on the tensile properties

  18. High temperature behavior of electrostatic precipitator ash from municipal solid waste combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    combustors Lydie Le Forestier a,*, Guy Libourel b,c a ISTO, UMR 6113 CNRS-Université d'Orléans, Polytech, a destruction of pathogenic agents and a possible recovery of energy. Whatever MSW combustor used, combustion of MSW produces two kinds of solid residues: (i) bottom ashes recovered from the primary combustor

  19. High-Carbon Fly Ash in Manufacturing Conductive CLSM and Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ; Slurries; Steel fibers; Recycling. Introduction In response to Phase II of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, many electric utilities operating coal-fired power plants installed low NOx nitrogen oxides it in nonconcrete applications. The physical characteristics of the coal fly ash vary widely and depend on the type

  20. Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 7313, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-7313, USA b Roman Cement LLC, Salt Lake City form 29 April 2011 Accepted 30 April 2011 Available online 7 May 2011 Keywords: Blended cement Design

  1. TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    TRACE METAL CONTENT OF COAL AND ASH AS DETERMINED USING SCANNINGELECTRON MICROSCOPYWITE WAVELENGTH Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 Keywords: scanning electron microscopy, trace metals, coal analysis ABSTRACT Scanningelectron microscopy with wavelength-dispersive spectrometry has been used to measure trace metals in coal

  2. The impact of conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners on ash characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robi, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Groppo, J.G.; Rathbone, R.F.; Taulbee, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research initiative focusing on the changes in coal-combustion byproducts that result from the conversion of coal-fired boilers to low-NO{sub x} burners has been implemented at the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER). This paper presents selected results from the first such study, the conversion of East Kentucky Power`s 116 MW, wall-fired unit {number_sign}1 at the John Sherman Cooper Station in Pulaski County, Kentucky. Samples of the coal feedstock and fly ash recovered in several downstream collection vessels were collected prior to and following conversion and extensively analyzed. The results presented in this report include total carbon, petrography, mineralogy, particle size, and leaching characteristics. The major changes noted in the fly-ash properties include an increase in carbon content, a slight increase in particle size, and a decrease in glassy components in the ash following conversion. Those changes induced by the conversion to low-NO{sub x} burners are evaluated in terms of the potential impact on the marketability of the fly ash.

  3. Evaluation of leaching and ecotoxicological properties of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Papadimitriou; I. Haritou; P. Samaras; A.I. Zouboulis [Technological Educational Institute of West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this work were the evaluation of sewage sludge stabilization by mixing with fly ash, the examination of the physicochemical properties of the produced materials and their leachates and the assessment of their environmental impact by the evaluation of the ecotoxic characteristics. Different ratios of fly ash and sewage sludge (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:6, and 1:9) were mixed for 48 and 72 h. After mixing, the liquid phase of the produced materials was analyzed for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, while the solid residue was dried and tested for the leaching characteristics by the application of TCLP and EN 12457-2 standard leaching methods. Furthermore, the produced leachates were analyzed for their content of specific metals, while their ecotoxicological characteristics were determined by the use of toxicity bioassays, using the marine photobacterium Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The phytotoxicity of sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures was also determined by utilizing seeds of three higher plants (one monocotyl and two dicotyls). The mixtures exhibited low metal leaching in all cases, while the ecotoxic properties increased with the increase of fly ash/sewage sludge ratio. The phytotoxicity testing showed increased root length growth inhibition.

  4. How carbon-based sorbents will impact fly ash utilization and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Hassett, D.J.; Buckley, T.D.; Heebink, L.V.; Pavlish, J.H. [Energy and Environmental Research Center (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection of activated carbon flue gas to control mercury emissions will result in a fly ash and activated carbon mixture. The potential impact of this on coal combustion product disposal and utilization is discussed. The full paper (and references) are available at www.acaa-usa.org. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  5. Fibrous Fillers to Manufacture Ultra-High Ash/Performance Paper

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to demonstrate the economic and technological viability of fibrous filler to manufacture paper containing up to 50% ash, at equal or better quality and performance than conventional alternatives and at a lower cost.

  6. Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

  7. Optimizing recovery using on-line ash analyzers or sorting for dollars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litz, P.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quest for profitability in the complex coal industry requires continual examination of common practices looking for better and more cost effective methods of performing these tasks. As the available coal reserves become more difficult to mine and the quality decreases, this examination process grows in importance. Over the past fifteen years, we have all seen major changes in the methods used to mine, clean and load coal in an attempt to increase the bottom line and proliferate a safer work place. The long wall mining method has greatly increased the profitably of the larger mines that have the reserves and the seams suitable for this method. Bigger and faster conveyor belts have increased loading capacities and decreased time spent performing the task. New technology in the cleaning and preparation of coal has also assisted in increasing yield and thus decreasing the final cost of a ton of coal. What about the smaller mines that do not have the mining conditions or reserves for a longwall or the monetary resources to upgrade belt lines and preparation plants, they to must remain profitable. The on-line ash analyzer is one answer that is not only for the smaller mines but can show quick and substantial returns for the larger operations. The on-line ash analyzer is a nuclear device that is mounted directly on the conveyor belt to produce an instantaneous ash analysis on the coal as it moves beneath the detector. The on-line ash analyzer is described.

  8. Dewatering Fly Ash Slurries Using Geotextile Containers M. E. Kutay1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    during its settlement. However, the hydraulic compatibility of a geotextile with the contact soil is also for ensuring hydraulic compatibility is that the geotextile should not be clogged during the dewatering process ash slurries. A testing program that included filter press and hanging bag tests was implemented

  9. Evaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly AshSoil Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    from coal-fired power plants, which burn over 1 billion t of coal annually (Kim 2006). This generationEvaluation of Leaching Protocols for Testing of High-Carbon Coal Fly Ash­Soil Mixtures Jason Becker: Beneficial reuse of coal combustion byproducts, e.g., in highway construction, requires an evaluation

  10. Selenium(IV) and (VI) sorption by soils surrounding fly ash management facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyun, S.; Burns, P.E.; Murarka, I.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Leachate derived from unlined coal ash disposal facilities is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of selenium to the environment. To establish a practical framework for predicting transport of selenium in ash leachate, sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) from 1 mM CaSO{sub 4} was measured for 18 soils obtained down-gradient from three ash landfill sites and evaluated with respect to several soil properties. Furthermore, soil attenuation from lab-generated ash leachate and the effect of Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations as well as pH on both Se(IV) and Se(VI) was quantified for a subset of soils. For both Se(IV) and Se(VI), pH combined with either percentage clay or dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)-extractable Fe described {gt} 80% of the differences in sorption across all soils, yielding an easy approach for making initial predictions regarding site-specific selenium transport to sensitive water bodies. Se(IV) consistently exhibited an order of magnitude greater sorption than Se(VI). Selenium sorption was highest at lower pH values, with Se(IV) sorption decreasing at pH values above 6, whereas Se(VI) decreased over the entire pH range (2.5-10). Using these pH adsorption envelopes, the likely effect of ash leachate-induced changes in soil pore water pH with time on selenium attenuation by down gradient soils can be predicted. Selenium sorption increased with increasing Ca{sup 2+} concentrations while SO{sub 4}2- suppressed sorption well above enhancements by Ca{sup 2+}. Soil attenuation of selenium from ash leachates agreed well with sorption measured from 1 mM CaSO{sub 4}, indicating that 1 mM CaSO{sub 4} is a reasonable synthetic leachate for assessing selenium behavior at ash landfill sites.

  11. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  12. Influence of conversion to low NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash petrology and mineralogy: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robl, T.L.; Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M.; Rathbone, R.F. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Medina, S.S. [East Kentucky Power Cooperative, Winchester, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The wall-fired 116 MW unit 2 at the John Sherman Cooper Station, Pulaski County, Kentucky, was converted to low-NO{sub x} combustion in the winter of 1993--1994. The fly ash from before and after conversion was studied in detail. The coal feed, which did not change significantly over the study, was from southeastern Kentucky and had an ash range of 10--12% and a sulfur range of 1.5--1.9%. The coal rank was high volatile bituminous A with a vitrinite reflectance (R{sub max}) of about 0.8%. The coal had about 17% by volume inertinite macerals (mineral-free basis). The fly ash carbon can be divided into three types: anisotropic coke, isotropic coke and inertinite. The post-conversion fly ash has nearly twice the amount of carbon as the pre-conversion ash and shows an increase in anisotropic coke. Mullite and quartz were observed petrographically to be more abundant in the post-conversion fly ash, although only the mullite increase was confirmed by XRD. The proportion of glass is slightly less in the post-conversion ash and is accompanied by one-third drop in the amount of cenospheres.

  13. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  14. Mary Fallin

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC) Richard Cowart,DepartmentBuilding andCAPITOL BUILDING ï‚Ÿ

  15. Mary Jensen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home and It'llMappingMariaHereldMars

  16. Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NO{sub x} combustion: Impact on fly ash quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Haeberlin, B.O. [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States)] [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} combustion can influence fly ash quality in terms of the amount and forms of carbon, the overall fly ash fineness, and the relative amount of glass versus crystalline inorganic phases. All of these factors can influence the potential for a fly ash to be marketed for utilization. In this study, three coal-fired combustors, two tangentially fired and one wall-fired, all burning high-sulfur Illinois coal at the same power plant, were studied before and after conversion to low-NO{sub x} combustion. In all cases, the post-conversion fly ash was higher in carbon than the pre-conversion ash from the same unit. The fly ashes in at least two of the units would appear to have post-conversion ashes which still fall within the regional guidelines for the limit of carbon (or loss on ignition).

  17. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. [Quarterly] report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first step in the integrated, mufti-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal is the production of ultra low-ash coal. Subsequent steps convert low-ash coal to high-value, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  18. Surface and bulk studies of leached and unleached fly ash using XPS, SEM, EDS and FTIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousuf, M.; Mollah, A.; Hess, T.R.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Gill Chair of Chemistry

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective chemical utilization of fly ash in environmental applications requires a detailed knowledge of the surface and bulk changes induced by leaching in acid solutions. The surface and bulk characteristics of fly ash from the combustion of Texas lignite have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of leaching with acid solutions commonly used in environmental studies have been documented using these techniques. The results of these studies reveal that the fly ash particles are relatively resistance to either chemical or physical changes due to attack by acidic leaching solutions.

  19. EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF FLY ASH EXPOSURE ON FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES: FATHEAD MINNOW EMBRYO-LARVAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Elmore, Logan R [ORNL; McCracken, Kitty [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 22, 2008, a dike containing fly ash and bottom ash in an 84-acre complex of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Steam Plant in East Tennessee failed and released a large quantity of ash into the adjacent Emory River. Ash deposits extended as far as 4 miles upstream (Emory River mile 6) of the Plant, and some ash was carried as far downstream as Tennessee River mile 564 ({approx}4 miles downstream of the Tennessee River confluence with the Clinch River). A byproduct of coal burning power plants, fly ash contains a variety of metals and other elements which, at sufficient concentrations and in specific forms, can be toxic to biological systems. The effects of fly ash contamination on exposed fish populations depend on the magnitude and duration of exposure, with the most significant risk considered to be the effects of specific ash constituents, especially selenium, on fish early life stages. Uptake by adult female fish of fly ash constituents through the food chain and subsequent maternal transfer of contaminants to the developing eggs is thought to be the primary route of selenium exposure to larval fish (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Lemly 1999, Moscatello and others 2006), but direct contact of the fertilized eggs and developing embryos to ash constituents in river water and sediments is also a potential risk factor (Woock and others 1987, Coyle and others 1993, Jezierska and others 2009). To address the risk of fly ash from the Kingston spill to the reproductive health of downstream fish populations, ORNL has undertaken a series of studies in collaboration with TVA including: (1) a field study of the bioaccumulation of fly ash constituents in fish ovaries and the reproductive condition of sentinel fish species in reaches of the Emory and Clinch Rivers affected by the fly ash spill; (2) laboratory tests of the potential toxicity of fly ash from the spill area on fish embryonic and larval development (reported in the current technical manuscript); (3) additional laboratory experimentation focused on the potential effects of long-term exposures to fly ash on fish survival and reproductive competence; and (4) a combined field and laboratory study examining the in vitro developmental success of embryos and larvae obtained from fish exposed in vivo for over two years to fly ash in the Emory and Clinch Rivers. These fish reproduction and early life-stage studies are being conducted in conjunction with a broader biological monitoring program administered by TVA that includes a field study of the condition of larval fish in the Emory and Clinch Rivers along with assessments of water quality, sediment composition, ecotoxicological studies, terrestrial wildlife studies, and human and ecological risk assessment. Information and data generated from these studies will provide direct input into risk assessment efforts and will also complement and help support other phases of the overall biomonitoring program. Fish eggs, in general, are known to be capable of concentrating heavy metals and other environmental contaminants from water-borne exposures during embryonic development (Jezierska and others 2009), and fathead minnow embryos in particular have been shown to concentrate methylmercury (Devlin 2006) as well as other chemical toxicants. This technical report focuses on the responses of fathead minnow embryos to simple contact exposures to fly ash in laboratory toxicity tests adapted from a standard fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 7-d embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test (method 1001.0 in EPA 2002) with mortality, hatching success, and the incidences of developmental abnormalities as measured endpoints.

  20. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

  1. 18 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 GENETIC TRANSFORMATION OF FRAXINUS SPP. FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in cold storage. This regeneration system provided a foundation for developing a genetic modification, the nursery and forest products industries, and the U.S. foreign trade of ash lumber and logs. This research

  2. Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumley, Michael J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

  3. Utilizing New Binder Materials for Green Building has Zero Waste by Recycling Slag and Sewage Sludge Ash 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeedan, S. R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    binding material to save energy and to produce new innovative zero materials waste . The current research aims to investigate new binder materials as alternative of Portland cement. Alkali activated slag (AAS) blended with sewage sludge ash (SSA...

  4. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  5. The nature of lubricant-derived ash-related emissions and their impact on diesel aftertreatment system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander G. (Alexander Georg)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have seen widespread use in on- and off-road applications as an effective means for meeting increasingly stringent particle emissions regulations. Over time, incombustible material or ash, ...

  6. Characterization of fly ash from low-sulfur and high-sulfur coal sources: Partitioning of carbon and trace elements with particle size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research]|[Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States); Eble, C.F. [Kentucky Geological survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Palmer, C.A.; Kolker, A. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples were collected in November and December of 1994, from generating units at a Kentucky power station using high- and low-sulfur feed coals. The samples are part of a two-year study of the coal and coal combustion byproducts from the power station. The ashes were wet screened at 100, 200, 325, and 500 mesh (150, 75, 42, and 25 {micro}m, respectively). The size fractions were then dried, weighed, split for petrographic and chemical analysis, and analyzed for ash yield and carbon content. The low-sulfur heavy side and light side ashes each have a similar size distribution in the November samples. In contrast, the December fly ashes showed the trend observed in later months, the light-side ash being finer (over 20% more ash in the {minus}500 mesh [{minus}25 {micro}m] fraction) than the heavy-side ash. Carbon tended to be concentrated in the coarse fractions in the December samples. The dominance of the {minus}325 mesh ({minus}42 {micro}m) fractions in the overall size analysis implies, though, that carbon in the fine sizes may be an important consideration in the utilization of the fly ash. Element partitioning follows several patterns. Volatile elements, such as Zn and As, are enriched in the finer sizes, particularly in fly ashes collected at cooler, light-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) temperatures. The latter trend is a function of precipitation at the cooler-ESP temperatures and of increasing concentration with the increased surface area of the finest fraction. Mercury concentrations are higher in high-carbon fly ashes, suggesting Hg adsorption on the fly ash carbon. Ni and Cr are associated, in part, with the spinel minerals in the fly ash.

  7. Concentration of carbon types from fly ash by density gradient centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the increasing amount of unburned carbon in fly ash is known to preclude the use of ash in the cement industry, very little is known about the characteristics of the unburned carbon. Three types of carbon particles have been identified microscopically: inertinite, isotropic coke and anisotropic coke. This manuscript describes a method to isolate these three types of carbon. A preliminary enrichment, followed by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) with a high-density polytungstate media (2.85 g/cm{sup 3} max), resulted in an enrichment of inertinites from a starting concentration of 3.8% to 61%, isotropic coke from 13.4% to 65%, and anisotropic coke from 19.2% to 74%. Large scale runs (LS) have been conducted to accumulate sufficient sample for subsequent analyses. The recovery weights and petrography composition of the PS and LS fractions are very similar.

  8. An examination of fly ash carbon and its interactions with air entraining agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.L. [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States)] [Monex Resources, Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Sarkar, S.L. [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)] [Sarkar and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four fly ash samples, which had previously been found to effect concrete air entrainment in a manner inconsistent with their respective loss on ignition, were investigated using several physico-chemical techniques. This study focused on characterization of the high-carbon fraction of each fly ash, obtained by a triboelectric separation process. While the four samples displayed varying reactivities toward AEA adsorption, the BET specific surface area of all four samples was determined to be essentially the same. Thermal analysis and petrographic examination revealed that the higher demand for air entraining agents exhibited by two of the samples could be directly related to the presence of a higher proportion of optically isotropic, amorphous carbon. Liquid and vapor phase adsorption analysis suggested that the surface chemistry characteristics of the isotropic carbon resulted in a higher adsorption capacity for polar compounds such as air entraining surfactants.

  9. Speciation of Major and Selected Trace Elements in IGCC Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Font,O.; Querol, X.; Huggins, F.; Chimenos, J.; Fernandez, A.; Burgos, S.; Pena, F.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation of Ga, Ge, Ni, V, S and Fe in fly ash from IGCC power plant were investigated for possible further extraction process by combining conventional mineral and chemical analysis, leaching tests, wet sequential extraction, Moessbauer and XAFS spectroscopies. The results shown that Ge occurs mainly as water-soluble species, GeS and/or GeS2 and hexagonal GeO2. Ga is present as an oxide, Ni occurs mainly as nickeline (NiAs), with minor proportions of Ni arsenates and vanadium as V(III) with minor amounts of V(IV) in the aluminosilicate glass matrix. Pyrrhotite and wurtzite-sphalerite are sulfide species containing Fe and Zn, but an important fraction of iron is also present in the aluminosilicate glass. These clear differences between the speciation of the above elements in this material and those reported for fly ash from conventional PC combustion.

  10. Task 3.15 -- Impacts of low-NO{sub x} combustion on fly ash and slagging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) focuses on the issues of entrained-ash formation and slagging for low-NO{sub x} combustion systems in general. Time-resolved combustion tests under conventional and low-NO{sub x} conditions have been conducted to note particle-size formation and slagging deposition. Results will be used to support demonstration projects at the utility boiler scale. The results from this work are yielding an increased understanding of the mechanisms of ash formation during low-NO{sub x} combustion along with methods for enhancing heat transfer and fly ash collectibility. Specific objectives of this research project include (1) determining whether initial char and ash generated under low-NO{sub x} conditions have greater tendencies for slagging than conventionally generated ash and (2) determining the differences, if any, between particle size and composition for entrained ash generated under low-NO{sub x} and conventional combustion conditions. Progress on this sub-task is presented.

  11. Geotechnical characteristics of low-NO{sub x} fly ash when used as structural fill material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnear, D.G.; Phillippi, H.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Shawville Generating Station, owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) a subsidiary of GPU-Genco, is located in north-central Pennsylvania, near the City of Clearfield. In 1990, Penlec was instructed by the Pennsylvania DEP (formerly PADER) to close the Shawville Ash Disposal site and to prepare a new facility meeting the requirements of the Chapter 287/288 regulations. Due to site limitations, an alternate plan was developed and approved wherein the existing facility was {open_quotes}closed{close_quotes} by placement of an approved liner system at the current grade with the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} landfill developed immediately above. The key to this innovative technique of piggy-backing of state-of-the-art facility on top of a closed facility was the use of a multi-layered geosynthetic zone which could act as both a cap to the old site, and a liner/leachate collection system for the new facility. And a critical component of the liner/collection zone was construction of an adequate subbase for placement of the geosynthetic materials. For this facility, the logical material for use in this subbase zone was fly ash since the PADEP considered material placed prior to installation of the liner system as part of the {open_quotes} closed{close_quotes} portion of the landfill. The disposal site has been in operation since the early 1960`s when the plant was initially constructed like a dam, with well-compacted ash material placed in an arched shape and loose ash end-dumped behind that. In the mid-1980`s Penelec began placing tighter control over the placement methods and required compaction throughout. The operation of the site is discussed.

  12. Comparison of geology of Jurassic Norphlet Mary Ann field, Mobile Bay, Alabama, to onshore regional Norphlet trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzono, M.; Pense, G.; Andronaco, P.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geology of the Mary Ann field is better understood in light of regional studies, which help to establish a depositional model in terms of both facies and thickness variations. These studies also illustrate major differences between onshore and offshore Norphlet deposits concerning topics such as diagenesis, hydrocarbon trapping, and migration. The Jurassic Norphlet sandstone was deposited in an arid basin extending from east Texas to Florida by a fluvial-eolian depositional system, prior to the transgression of the Smackover Formation. Until discovery of the Mary Ann field in 1979, Norphlet production was restricted to onshore areas, mostly along the Pickens-Pollard fault system in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. The Mary Ann field is a Norphlet dry-gas accumulation, and was the first offshore field in the Gulf of Mexico to establish economic reserves in the Jurassic. The field is located in Mobile Bay, approximately 25 mi (40 km) south of Mobile, Alabama. Formed by a deep-seated (more than 20,000 ft or 6096 m) faulted salt pillow, Mary Ann field produces from a series of stacked eolian dune sands situated near the Norphlet paleocoastline. Five lithofacies have been recognized in cores from the Mobil 76 No. 2 well. Each lithofacies has a distinct reservoir quality. Optimum reservoir faces are the dune and sheet sands. Nonreservoir facies are interdune (wet and dry), marine reworked, and evaporitic sands. Following deposition, these sediments have undergone varying amounts of diagenesis. Early cementation of well-sorted sands supported the pore system during compaction. However, late cementation by chlorite, silica, and alteration of liquid hydrocarbons to an asphaltic residue have completely occluded the pore system in parts of the reservoir.

  13. Investigation of sulfation characteristics of AFBC ashes using SEM-EDX technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selcuk, N.; Oymak, O.; Barlas, D. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was carried out for the determination of sulfation characteristics of both ash and sorbent particles sampled from a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor burning low quality lignite with and without limestone addition. Solid samples were analyzed by using SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscope combined with Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis) technique. Sulfur distribution was investigated within ash particles with an average particle diameter of 645{micro}m (without limestone addition) and within solid particles with average particle diameters of 191{micro}m and 645{micro}m (with limestone addition). It was observed that sulfation takes place volumetrically for both ash and sorbent particles sampled from the bed. The results of this investigation show that the sulfation reaction proceeds according to the shrinking unreacted core model as suggested by laboratory experiments carried out under simulated fluidized bed combustion conditions. However, it is a volumetric reaction due to the residence time ({approximately}1h) the particles spend in the bed of the pilot scale FBC under consideration. It should be noted that the average size of these sorbent particles fall in the range commonly used in fluidized beds of practical interest. Investigation of sulfation characteristics of samples directly obtained from fluidized bed combustors by SEM-EDX analysis is not available to date.

  14. Integrated production/use of ultra low-ash coal, premium liquids and clean char. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This integrated, multi-product approach for utilizing Illinois coal starts with the production of ultra low-ash coal and then converts it to high-vale, coal-derived, products. The ultra low-ash coal is produced by solubilizing coal in a phenolic solvent under ChemCoal{trademark} process conditions, separating the coal solution from insoluble ash, and then precipitating the clean coal by dilution of the solvent with methanol. Two major products, liquids and low-ash char, are then produced by mild gasification of the low-ash coal. The low ash-char is further upgraded to activated char, and/or an oxidized activated char which has catalytic properties. Characterization of products at each stage is part of this project.

  15. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

  16. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  17. Leaching characteristics of selected South African fly ashes: Effect of pH on the release of major and trace species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitari, W.M.; Fatoba, O.O.; Petrik, L.F.; Vadapalli, V.R.K. [University of Western Cape, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash samples from two South African coal-fired power stations were subjected to different leaching tests under alkaline and acidic conditions in an attempt to assess the effect of pH on the leachability of species from the fly ashes and also assess the potential impact of the fly ashes disposal on groundwater and the receiving environment. To achieve this, German Standard leaching (DIN-S4) and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC) tests were employed. Ca, Mg, Na, K and SO{sub 4} were significantly leached into solution under the two leaching conditions with the total amounts in ANC leachates higher than that of DIN-S4. This indicates that a large fraction of the soluble salts in unweathered fly ash are easily leached. These species represents the fraction that can be flushed off initially from the surface of ash particles on contacting the ash with water. The amounts of toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Cd, Cr and Pb leached out of the fly ashes when in contact with de-mineralized water (DIN-S4 test) were low and below the Target Water Quality Range (TWQR) of South Africa. This is explained by their low concentrations in the fly ashes and their solubility dependence on the pH of the leaching solution. However the amounts of some minor elements such as B, Mn, Fe, As and Se leached out at lower pH ranging between 10 to 4 (ANC test) were slightly higher than the TWQR, an indication that the pH of the leaching solution plays a significant role on the leaching of species in fly ash. The high concentrations of the toxic elements released from the fly ashes at lower pH gives an indication that the disposal of the fly ash could have adverse effects on the receiving environment if the pH of the solution contacting the ashes is not properly monitored.

  18. The role of birds and mammals in the dispersal ecology of Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei Buckh.) in the Edwards Plateau, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' th Ed d Pl t, T (Nay 1992) Felipe Chavez-Ramirez, B. S. , Sul Ross State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. R, Douglas Slack Seed dispersal ecology of Ashe juniper in the Edwards Plateau was investigated at the Texas Agricultural... Experiment Station, near Sonora, Texas. Ashe juniper fruiting characteristics and avian and mammalian seed dispersers were studied to evaluate relative seed dispersal potential and dispersal efficiency of different species. Ashe juniper produced large...

  19. PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUE MATERIALSFROM THE ULTRA-FINE (PM2.5)FRACTION OF COAL COMBUSTION ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.L. Robl; J.G. Groppo

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry fly ash samples were collected from 6 of the7 largest power plants operated by Louisville Gas and Electric Company (LG&E). Samples were taken from individual ESP hoppers in a continuous flow through stages of particulate collection. A total of 41 samples were taken from 16 operating units. The samples were thoroughly characterized for pertinent physical and chemical composition. The fly ash samples contained 10 to 50% -10{micro}m material, with higher concentrations of finer particles located in the latter stages of particulate collection. Flotation evaluation was conducted on a continuous flow though a single unit at each power station to assess the viability of using froth flotation to reduce the LOI in the fly ash to very low levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Ash from all of the units tested responded favorably with the exception of the ash from Henderson Station, which is attributed to a significant proportion of un-combusted or partially-combusted petroleum coke in the ash at this station, Bulk samples of dry ash and pond ash were also collected from Mill Creek, Trimble County, E.W. Brown and Coleman power plants and evaluated for carbon removal by froth flotation. Release analyses showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels for most of the substrates tested. The exception was the Mill Creek ashes. The cause of this exception will be further investigated.

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-033-1576, Airco Carbon, St. Marys, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R.W.; Morawetz, J.S.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total particulates, and respirable free silica at the Airco Company (SIC-3624), Saint Marys, Pennsylvania in January, 1984. The evaluation was requested confidentially because of concern over exposures to soot, coal tar pitch volatiles, and sand in the car bottom and sagger bake operations. Forty-three employees were interviewed. Two of 19 total particulate samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), 17.3 and 32.7 mg/m3. Benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m3. The OSHA standard for benzene soluble fractions is 0.2 mg/m3. Two of seven samples of silica were above the limit of detection, 0.09 and 0.06 mg/m3. In bulk samples, the benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.44 to 860 mg/gram and the PAH content from 0 to 26,124 micrograms per gram. Employees working in the bake areas reported a significant excess incidence of symptoms such as skin, nose and eye irritation, cough, sore or dry throat, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. Recommendations include enclosing vehicles used in moving electrodes, cleaning up spilled dust, and controlling fumes emitted from the sagger kilns.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  2. Gigantic Ordovician volcanic ash fall in North America and Europe: Biological, tectonomagmatic, and event-stratigraphic significance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biostratigraphical, geochemical, isotopic, and paleogeographic data suggest that the Millbrig K-bentonite, one of the thickest and most widespread Ordovician volcanic ash beds in eastern North America, is the same as the so-called 'Big Bentonite' in Baltoscandia. This is the first time that the same K-bentonite has been identified in both North America and Europe, and it serves as a unique event-stratigraphic marker over a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere. This eruption produced at least 340 km[sup 3] of dense-rock-equivalent ash that was deposited in a layer up to 1-2 m thick over several million square kilometers. As much as 800 km[sup 3] of additional ash may have fallen into the Iapetus Ocean, for a total of 1,140 km[sup 3]. Trace element geochemistry shows that the ash was derived from a felsic calc-alkalic magmatic source characteristic of volcanism in a continental crust-based, destructive plate-margin setting. This is one of the largest, if not the largest, ash falls recorded in Earth's Phanerozoic stratigraphic record, but its recognizable effect on faunas and floras was minimal, and it did not result in a global extinction event. The Millbrig-Big Bentonite bed provides accurate time control for sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and paleogeographic reconstructions across plates positioned in tropical (Laurentia) and temperate (Baltica) latitudes during Middle Ordovician time.

  3. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  4. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature rangemore »of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.« less

  5. The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wolfe, W.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.

  6. Seasonal effects of volatile oils in ashe and redberry juniper on preference and digestibility by goats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riddle, Richard R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the spring and fall of 1991 at the Sonora Research Station. 47 17 Analysis of variance model with mean squares for milliliters of urine (ml Urine) and percent urine dry matter (% UDM) for metabolism trials during the spring and fall of 1991... using diets of alfalfa hay, Coastal bermudagrass hay, live oak and ashe juniper. 49 TABLE LIST OF TABLES (CONTINUED) Page 18. Milliliters of urine (ml Urine) and percent urine dry matter (%UDM) of Angora goats fed four diets during the spring...

  7. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  8. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Scandrol

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report covers the period from July 1st, 2004 through September 30th, 2004. It covers: technical development, permitting status, engineering status, construction status, operations summary and marketing support activities for this period. Plant startup, including equipment and system debugging, is underway. Minor adjustments to the SDA feed system, pug mill, and extruder were completed. Testing of admixtures to prevent the wetted SDA from sticking is continuing. The power plant is implementing a lime optimization program to reduce the calcium hydroxide values in the ash.

  9. Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ~E~oical ~Stat s ~o Ashe ~Ji i The Edwards Platecu of Texas, which extends west to the Pecos Iliver, north to the Staked Plains and is bounded on the south and east by the Balcones Fault, is an important ranching province of the state (Blair 1950... condition but in recent times, the juniper was forced to areas in- accessible to Indian i'iree. Gsskill (1905) states that the Rio Grande Plains and area surrounding San Antonio were treeless because of fire and that the charcoal which should be evident...

  10. Reuse of Drill Cutting Ash as a Stabilizing Agent for Niger Delta Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alayaki, F. M.; Al-Tabbaa, A.; Ayotamuno, M. J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Onne Oil and Gas Free Zone, Rivers State, Nigeria. B. Niger Delta Soils The peculiar geology of Niger Delta and the derived soils have striking peculiarity that is different from other common laterite soils. Previous studies revealed that the in... to that in use at the North Sea. The binders were Portland cement, hydrated lime, pulverized fuel ash, blast furnace slag, MgO cements, zeolites, silica fume, and cement kiln dust. The study showed that the binders could effectively immobilized the toxic...

  11. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Speciation of chromium in feed coals and ash byproducts from Canadian power plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fariborz Goodarzi; Frank E. Huggins [Geological Survey of Canada-Calgary Division, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chromium species in the feed coals and ash byproducts from seven Canadian coal-fired power plants were examined using Cr X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Chromium in the Canadian feed coals is always found as Cr{sup 3+} but generally has a dual occurrence, as Cr{sup 3+} is distributed to varying degrees between the clay mineral illite and a poorly crystallized chromium oxyhydroxide phase associated with the organic fraction. In two subbituminous feed coals from Alberta, chromium is present largely as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas in two other such coals, it is present predominantly as CrOOH. Chromium in a low-sulfur bituminous feed coal from Alberta is found mostly as Cr{sup 3+}/illite, whereas for feed coals from Nova Scotia with high sulfur contents, chromium is distributed between both Cr{sup 3+}/illite and CrOOH. Very little chromium was found in the limestone used in a fluidized-bed combustor. The chromium species in most bottom ash samples from all seven combustion units is predominantly, if not entirely, Cr{sup 3+} associated with aluminosilicate phases. Chromium speciation for subbituminous electrostatic precipitator fly ash is mostly Cr{sup 3+}, but in some cases, it is slightly lessand varies by sampling location at the plant. Chromium in fly ash from the combustion of bituminous feed coals is predominantlyCr{sup 3+}. A unique species of chromium found in one feed coal and an unrelated fly ash is metallic chromium, similar to that in stainless steel. The occurrence of this form of chromium in these materials indicates contamination from machinery, such as the coal milling machine or possibly wearing down of stainless steel parts by the coal or ash. The observation of this unexpected contamination demonstrates the power and usefulness of X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy for speciation determination. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Discussion on 'characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption' by Lu et al.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Bruno Valentim; Irena J. Kostova; Kevin R. Henke [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury capture by coal-combustion fly ash is a function of the amount of Hg in the feed coal, the amount of carbon in the fly ash, the type of carbon in the fly ash (including variables introduced by the rank of the feed coal), and the flue gas temperature at the point of ash collection. In their discussion of fly ash and Hg adsorption, Lu et al. (Energy Fuels 2007, 21, 2112-2120) had some fundamental flaws in their techniques, which, in turn, impact the validity of analyzed parameters. First, they used mechanical sieving to segregate fly ash size fractions. Mechanical sieving does not produce representative size fractions, particularly for the finest sizes. If the study samples were not obtained correctly, the subsequent analyses of fly ash carbon and Hg cannot accurately represent the size fractions. In the analysis of carbon forms, it is not possible to accurately determine the forms with scanning electron microscopy. The complexity of the whole particles is overlooked when just examining the outer particle surface. Examination of elements such as Hg, present in very trace quantities in most fly ashes, requires careful attention to the analytical techniques. 36 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  15. doi: 10.3176/oil.2008.2.02 © 2008 Estonian Academy Publishers THERMAL PROCESSING OF POLYVINYLCHLORIDE WASTE WITH OIL SHALE ASH TO CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Oja; A. Elenurm; I. Rohtla; E. Tearo; E. Tali

    This study is concerned with thermal processing of polyvinylchloride (PVC) in the presence of alkaline oil shale ash. Solid heat carrier (Galoter process)-type oil shale retorting units, where the feedstock is heated by mixing with ash from retorted feed-stock combustion, are potentially an

  16. Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors in France: Implications for Atmospheric Lead Source Tracing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lead Isotopic Composition of Fly Ash and Flue Gas Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Combustors@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr _______________________________________________________________________________________ Fly ash and flue gas residues from eight municipal solid waste combusters (MSWC) in France (1992 of "industrial Pb" is not an easy task because of its possible extreme heterogeneity. Municipal solid waste

  17. Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shefferson, Richard P.

    Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles 30602 Introduction Estonia relies on vast reserves of oil shale to produce electricity. The mining and burning of oil shale is extremely inefficient and produces large quantities of tailings and ash (Vallner

  18. JOM November 2006, Volume 58, Issue 11, pp 71-76 71 Applications of Fly Ash in Synthesizing Low Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    Cost Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive and other Engineering Applications P. K. Rohatgi Materials and adequate properties for several automotive applications [1, 2]. Fly ash particles can be either solid will have to be remelted. Additions of fly ash can make automotive castings lighter, leading to further

  19. Leaf-to-leaf distances and their moments in finite and infinite m-ary tree graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew M. Goldsborough; S. Alex Rautu; Rudolf A. Römer

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the leaf-to-leaf distances on full and complete m-ary graphs using a recursive approach. In our formulation, leaves are ordered along a line. We find explicit analytical formulae for the sum of all paths for arbitrary leaf-to-leaf distance r as well as the average path lengths and the moments thereof. We show that the resulting explicit expressions can be recast in terms of Hurwitz-Lerch transcendants. Results for periodic trees are also given. For incomplete random binary trees, we provide first results by numerical techniques; we find a rapid drop of leaf-to-leaf distances for large r.

  20. Nickel and Sulfur Speciation of Residual Oil Fly Ashes from Two Electric Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath,K.; Schulz, R.; Toman, D.; Nyberg, C.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.; Zillioux, E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400- and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned 0.9 and 0.3 wt % S residual (No. 6 fuel) oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for Ni concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  1. Wet extraction of heavy metals and chloride from MSWI and straw combustion fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguiar del Toro, M. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, W. [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Eissendorfer Street 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: calmano@tuhh.de; Ecke, H. [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Alvkarleby (Sweden)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fly ash residues from combustion often do not meet the criteria neither for reuse as construction materials nor landfilling as non-hazardous waste, mainly because of the high concentration of heavy metals and chlorides. This work aimed to technically evaluate an innovative wet treatment process for the extraction of chloride (Cl{sup -}), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and from a straw combustion (SC) facility. Factors investigated were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, full carbonation (CO{sub 2} treatment), influence of pH and leaching time, using a two-level full factorial design. The most significant factor for all responses was low pH, followed by L/S ratio. Multiple linear regression models describing the variation in extraction data had R{sup 2} values ranging from 58% to 98%. An optimization of the element extraction models was performed and a set of treatment conditions is suggested.

  2. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush, E-mail: chaunsa2@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); Peethamparan, Sulapha, E-mail: speetham@clarkson.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  3. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Task 3.15 -- Impacts of low-NOx combustion on fly ash and slagging. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the coal-fired power industry began a more accelerated move toward using low-NOx burner (LNB) technologies to reduce NOx emissions. Most LNBs incorporate less oxygen with the coal initially, creating a cooler and somewhat substoichiometric initial combustion zone, with additional oxygen added further on in the combustion process to complete char combustion. Another method used to achieve lower NOx emissions is to fire the coal substoichiometrically and add additional air through overfire air ports. Both of these methods create certain impacts on fireside performance that are different from conventional high-excess-air firing arrangements. Some of the impacts that have been noticed by the utility industry are higher levels of unburned carbon in the fly ash and bottom ash, increased boiler tube corrosion, higher particulate loadings on control devices, and changes in slagging in the main furnace. Work on the fundamental mechanisms of entrained ash and ash deposit formation during low-NOx combustion has been sparse. This project by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) focuses on the issues of entrained ash formation and slagging for low-NOx combustion systems in general. Time-resolved combustion tests under conventional and low-NOx conditions have been conducted to note particle-size formation and slagging deposition. The results from this work are yielding an increased understanding of the mechanisms of ash formation during low-NOx combustion along with methods for enhancing heat transfer and fly ash collectability. Specific objectives of this research project include (1) determining whether initial char and ash generated under low-NOx conditions have greater tendencies for slagging than conventionally generated ash and (2) determining the differences, if any, between particle size and composition for entrained ash generated under low-NOx and conventional combustion conditions.

  5. Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundmentsMaternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal 2002/Accepted: 13 February 2003 Abstract. Coal combustion is a major source of trace elements

  6. 26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO! MAPLE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --bats used by high school and college players--also are made of aluminum (or a metal alloy) today. Considering all levels of baseball and softball, non-wood bats (aluminum, metal alloys, and composites) now26 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 STRIKE ONE! ALUMINUM. STRIKE TWO

  7. Investigation of mineral transformation and ash deposition during staged combustion. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harb, J.N.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document a recently completed four-year study to examine the impact of low-NOx firing technologies on ash formation and deposition while firing pulverized coal. Low-NOx burners and staged combustion inhibit NOx formation by restricting the amount of oxygen available to form a fuel-rich zone in which nitrogen compounds are reduced to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) rather than oxidized. Additional oxygen is provided downstream for complete combustion. Consequently, coal and mineral particles encounter different temperatures and oxygen concentrations when they are burned under low-NOx firing conditions than they do in conventionally-fired units. Two coals with distinctly different inorganic contents and ash characteristics were fired in a pilot-scale laboratory combustor under both conventional and staged combustion conditions. Ash and deposit samples were collected at various locations in the reactor and analyzed in order to assess the influence of staged combustion. This report is organized as follows. First, a background section provides the foundation needed in order to understand the motivation for and the results of the experimental program. The next section presents a description of the experimental apparatus and procedures, including the development the analytical methods critical to the study. Results of the analyses of coal, ash and deposit samples are then presented and discussed for each of the two coals. Finally, the report ends with a short summary and statement of conclusions.

  8. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  9. Evaluation of fly ash-surfaced pens as a control for fugitive dust emissions from beef cattle feedyards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kantor, Theodore Lee

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pens was surfaced with fly ash from a coal-fired power plant, while the other set, surfaced with caliche, served as a control. Five sampling trips were completed for a total of 492 TSP samples and 288 PM10 samples. Results indicate that statistically...

  10. Volcanic particle aggregation in explosive eruption columns. Part I: Parameterization of the microphysics of hydrometeors and ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    , Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA d Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol imply that volcanic particles are active as condensation nuclei for water and ice formation. Ash can: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK. 2 Present address: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

  11. Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 26312643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne sediments (Central

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quaternary Science Reviews 26 (2007) 2631­2643 Charcoal and fly-ash particles from Lake Lucerne emitted in the area of Lake Lucerne (Central Europe) throughout the last 7200 years. Charcoal navigation on Lake Lucerne. The successive burning of wood (after AD 1838), coal (after AD 1862), and diesel

  12. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Nakano, Jinichiro [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); URS Corp., Albany, OR (United States); Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mu, Haoyuan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bennett, James P. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Kwong, Kyei-Sing [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Rozelle, Peter [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Clean Energy Systems; Sridhar, Seetharaman [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, and Morgantown, WV (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2?=?10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  13. PROGRESS REPORT -2011 Carnes, Mary (Molly) L. There has been no change in the Specific Aims proposed in the original grant application. We report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    PROGRESS REPORT - 2011 Carnes, Mary (Molly) L. There has been no change in the Specific Aims proposed in the original grant application. We report progress on all three Specific Aims since funding interim data following the completion of workshops in 13 departments in the UW School of Medicine

  14. Using data from ETSAP models in a hemispheric pollution model Marie-Louise Siggaard-Andersen1, Kenneth Karlsson1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Using data from ETSAP models in a hemispheric pollution model Marie-Louise Siggaard-Andersen1 Alamos Laboratory (New Mexico, USA) University of Cologne (Germany) Energy Research Centre models (e.g. prizes for one life-year) Modelsystems (e.g. EVA = Economic Value of Air pollution) Centre

  15. The Long Run Impact of Biofuels on Food Prices Ujjayant Chakravorty, Marie-Hlne Hubert, Michel Moreaux and Linda Nstbakken1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    The Long Run Impact of Biofuels on Food Prices by Ujjayant Chakravorty, Marie-Hélène Hubert, Michel Moreaux and Linda Nøstbakken1 Abstract More than 40% of US corn is now used to produce biofuels, which are used as substitutes for gasoline in transportation. Biofuels have been blamed universally for recent

  16. PhD position within the topic of magnetic petrology/mineralogy and crustal Marie-Curie Initial Training Network ABYSS (ESR12)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    PhD position within the topic of magnetic petrology/mineralogy and crustal magnetism Marie potential field modeling, rock- and mineral magnetic properties and petrology. The project will require in mineralogy/petrology or geophysics. The candidate must qualify for admittance as a PhD student at NTNU

  17. Cement technology for borehole plugging: interim report on the effects of fly ash and salt on the physical properties of cementitious solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, W.A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of initial studies of a systematic investigation to determine the effects of fly ash and salt on the physical properties of pozzolanic concretes and saltcretes are reported. Addition of fly ash to mortars decreased the set time and bleed characteristics and increased the compressive strength and permeability, but it had very little effect on the density or the thermal conductivity of the solid. The magnitude of these effects was only slightly related to the lime content of the fly ash. In the case of saltcretes, low-lime fly ash slightly decreased the set time and the bleed characteristics of the wet mix. However, a high-lime fly ash doubled the set time and decreased the bleed characteristics to essentially zero. The compressive strength of saltcretes was increased by the addition of fly ash and was independent of the lime content. Such additions had little effect on the thermal conductivity or density. The thermal conductivities of cement pastes containing fly ash showed a near-linear relationship with the density of the resulting solids. In the case of mortars, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature and showed some hysteresis in the initial heating cycle. After the first cycle, the thermal conductivity decreased from about 1.32 W/m.K at 350/sup 0/K to 1.27 W/m.K at 475/sup 0/K.

  18. Coal fly ash interaction with environmental fluids: Geochemical and strontium isotope results from combined column and batch leaching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brubaker, Tonya M.; Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J.; Vesper, Dorothy J.; Cardone, Carol R.; Rohar, Paul C.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major element and Sr isotope systematics and geochemistry of coal fly ash and its interactions with environmental waters were investigated using laboratory flow-through column leaching experiments (sodium carbonate, acetic acid, nitric acid) and sequential batch leaching experiments (water, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid). Column leaching of Class F fly ash samples shows rapid release of most major elements early in the leaching procedure, suggesting an association of these elements with soluble and surface bound phases. Delayed release of certain elements (e.g., Al, Fe, Si) signals gradual dissolution of more resistant silicate or glass phases as leaching continues. Strontium isotope results from both column and batch leaching experiments show a marked increase in {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio with continued leaching, yielding a total range of values from 0.7107 to 0.7138. For comparison, the isotopic composition of fluid output from a fly ash impoundment in West Virginia falls in a narrow range around 0.7124. The experimental data suggest the presence of a more resistant, highly radiogenic silicate phase that survives the combustion process and is leached after the more soluble minerals are removed. Strontium isotopic homogenization of minerals in coal does not always occur during the combustion process, despite the high temperatures encountered in the boiler. Early-released Sr tends to be isotopically uniform; thus the Sr isotopic composition of fly ash could be distinguishable from other sources and is a useful tool for quantifying the possible contribution of fly ash leaching to the total dissolved load in natural surface and ground waters.

  19. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  20. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  1. Agglomeration of sorbent and ash carry-over for use in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohargi, N.D.T.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agglomeration of elutriated sorbent, ash and char from a fluidized-bed boiler, with spent bed overflow material and water, has been identified as a potentially attractive technique for reducing sorbent consumption in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors. The agglomerated products are returned to the combustor to improve the calcium utilization of the sorbent and to complete the combustion of elutriated carbon material. In this experimental programme, agglomerates were collected during test runs on the 1.8 m x 1.8 m fluidized-bed combustor. Agglomerate characteristics, such as handling strength, sulfur capture activity carbon utilization and resistance to attrition, were determined as functions of agglomeration processing variables. These variables include feed composition, feed particle size, amount of water addition, curing time, and curing atmosphere or drying conditions. Ca/S feed ratio requirements for a commercial AFBC that uses the agglomeration process were projected on the basis of the Westinghouse model for fluidized-bed desulphurization.

  2. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  3. Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  4. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine site.

  5. Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary.

  6. A Novel N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Architecture Revealed by the Crystal Structure of the Bifunctional Enzyme from Maricaulis maris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Dashuang; Li, Yongdong; Cabrera-Luque, Juan; Jin, Zhongmin; Yu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Gengxiang; Haskins, Nantaporn; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel (Maryland); (GWU); (Georgia)

    2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel bifunctional N-acetylglutamate synthase/kinases (NAGS/K) that catalyze the first two steps of arginine biosynthesis and are homologous to vertebrate N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), an essential cofactor-producing enzyme in the urea cycle, were identified in Maricaulis maris and several other bacteria. Arginine is an allosteric inhibitor of NAGS but not NAGK activity. The crystal structure of M. maris NAGS/K (mmNAGS/K) at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution indicates that it is a tetramer, in contrast to the hexameric structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae NAGS. The quaternary structure of crystalline NAGS/K from Xanthomonas campestris (xcNAGS/K) is similar, and cross-linking experiments indicate that both mmNAGS/K and xcNAGS are tetramers in solution. Each subunit has an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain, which is likely responsible for N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activity and has a putative arginine binding site, and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain that contains the putative NAGS active site. These structures and sequence comparisons suggest that the linker residue 291 may determine whether arginine acts as an allosteric inhibitor or activator in homologous enzymes in microorganisms and vertebrates. In addition, the angle of rotation between AAK and NAT domains varies among crystal forms and subunits within the tetramer. A rotation of 26{sup o} is sufficient to close the predicted AcCoA binding site, thus reducing enzymatic activity. Since mmNAGS/K has the highest degree of sequence homology to vertebrate NAGS of NAGS and NAGK enzymes whose structures have been determined, the mmNAGS/K structure was used to develop a structural model of human NAGS that is fully consistent with the functional effects of the 14 missense mutations that were identified in NAGS-deficient patients.

  7. Quantifying foliar responses of white ash to ozone and simulated acid precipitation: An assessment proposal for forest exposure studies. Forest Service research paper. (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dochinger, L.S.; Jensen, K.F.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seedlings populations represent an important linkage for assessing the effect of air pollution on forests. The study examines the foliar responses of white ash seedlings to ozone and acid precipitation as a means of identifying atmospheric deposition effects on forests.

  8. Market Assessment and Demonstration of Lignite FBC Ash Flowable Fill Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU) and Western Research Institute (WRI) have been developing flowable fill materials formulated using ash from the Montana-Dakota Utilities R. M. Heskett Station in Mandan, North Dakota. MDU and WRI have partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) to further the development of these materials for lignite-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facilities. The MDU controlled density fill (CDF) appears to be a viable engineering material and environmentally safe. WRI is pursuing the commercialization of the technology under the trademark Ready-Fill{trademark}. The project objectives were to: (1) assess the market in the Bismarck-Mandan area; (2) evaluate the geotechnical properties and environmental compatibility; and (3) construct and monitor demonstrations of the various grades of flowable fill products in full-scale demonstrations. The scope of initial phase of work entailed the following: Task I--Assess Market for MDU Flowable Fill Products; Task II--Assess Geotechnical and Environmental Properties of MDU Flowable Fill Products; and Task III--Demonstrate and Monitor MDU Flowable Fill Products in Field-Scale Demonstrations. The results of these testing and demonstration activities proved the following: (1) The market assessment indicated that a market exists in the Bismarck-Mandan area for structural construction applications, such as sub-bases for residential and commercial businesses, and excavatable fill applications, such as gas line and utility trench filling. (2) The cost of the MDU flowable fill product must be lower than the current $35-$45/cubic yard price if it is to become a common construction material. Formulations using MDU ash and lower-cost sand alternatives offer that opportunity. An estimated market of 10,000 cubic yards of MDU flowable fill products could be realized if prices could be made competitive. (3) The geotechnical properties of the MDU ash-based flowable fill can be modified to meet the needs of a range of applications from structural fill applications to excavatable applications, such as utility trench fill. (4) Environmental assessments using standard testing indicate that the environmental properties of the fill materials are compatible with numerous construction applications and do not pose a threat to either adjacent groundwater or soils. (5) WRI developed an Environmental Field Simulator (EFS) method for assessing the impact of flowable fill materials on adjacent soils and found that the zone of impact is less than a couple of inches, thereby posing no threat to adjacent soils. (6) Field-scale demonstrations of the MDU flowable fill were constructed and were successful for structural, as well as excavatable applications. Monitoring has demonstrated the geotechnical performance, environmental performance, and compatibility with common embed materials with the MDU flowable fill products. Technical and economic issues were identified that may hinder the commercial acceptance of MDU flowable fill materials, including: (1) the ability to produce a consistent product; (2) the ability to provide a product year round (cold weather retards strength development); and (3) the ability to evaluate and produce commercial quantities of MDU flowable fill using inexpensive materials.

  9. Enhanced Ethanol Production from De-Ashed Paper Sludge by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation and Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, L.; Wang, W.; Pallapolu, V. R.; Lee, Y. Y.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study demonstrated that paper sludges with high ash contents can be converted to ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) or simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). High ash content in the sludge, however, limited solid loading in the bioreactor, causing low product concentration. To overcome this problem, sludges were de-ashed before SSF and SSCF. Low ash content in sludges also increased the ethanol yield to the extent that the enzyme dosage required to achieve 70% yield in the fermentation process was reduced by 30%. High solid loading in SSF and SSCF decreased the ethanol yield. High agitation and de-ashing of the sludges were able to restore the part of the yield loss caused by high solid loading. Substitution of the laboratory fermentation medium (peptone and yeast extract) with corn steep liquor did not bring about any adverse effects in the fermentation. Fed-batch operation of the SSCF and SSF using low-ash content sludges was effective in raising the ethanol concentration, achieving 47.8 g/L and 60.0 g/L, respectively.

  10. Weathering and genesis of volcanic ash-influenced vertisols and vertic-like soils of El Salvador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yerima, Bernard Palmer Kfuban

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argiustoll, these soils contain slickensides and crack to the surface but lack gilgai relief and significant self-mulching proper- ties. Clay contents exceed 35K and COLE values range from 0. 09-0. 24, except for coarse-textured pumicitic ash mantles... Locations. Sampling and Profile Descriptions . Laboratory Methods . Physical Methods. Particle Size Distribution . Particle Size Fractionation. Bulk Density and Coefficient of Linear Extensibility (COLE) . Chemical Methods. Soil Reaction (p...

  11. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  12. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

  13. Electrochemical study of Aluminum-Fly Ash composites obtained by powder metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, E. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Lekka, M., E-mail: maria.lekka@uniud.it [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Andreatta, F.; Fedrizzi, L. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Itskos, G. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece); Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Avenue 357-359, Halandri 15231, Athens (Greece); Moutsatsou, A. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece); Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Avenue 357-359, Halandri 15231, Athens (Greece); Kouloumbi, N. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, two different ASTM C 618 Class C fly ashes (FA) were used for the production of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs) using powder metallurgy (PM) technology. Calcareous FAs were sampled from the electrostatic precipitators of two different lignite-fired power stations: from Megalopolis, Southern Greece (MFA) and from Kardia, Northen Greece (KFA), under maximum electricity load. FAs were milled in order to reduce the mean particle diameter and Aluminum-FA composites containing 10% and 20% of FA were then prepared and compacted. The green products were sintered for 2 h at 600 Degree-Sign C. Sintered Al-FA MMCs showed increased hardness and wear resistance suggesting their possible use in industrial applications for example in covers, casings, brake rotors or engine blocks. As most possible industrial applications of MMCs not only require wear resistance, but also corrosion resistance in different mild aggressive medias, this paper aims to study the electrochemical behavior of FA MMCs in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. The morphology and chemical composition of the phases in the Aluminum-FA composite samples were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Moreover, topographic and Volta potential maps were acquired by Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKP-FM). Volta potential maps provide information about the electrochemical behavior of the different phases in absence of electrolyte. The electrochemical behavior was investigated by Open Circuit Potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, while the corrosion mechanisms were studied by SEM observations after different times of immersion in a mild corrosive medium. In all cases it could be stated that the addition of the FA particles into the Al matrix might cause an increase of the hardness and mechanical properties of the pure aluminum but deteriorates the corrosion resistance. The degradation phenomena occurring on the FA containing samples might be related to the following mechanisms: 1) Partial detachment or dissolution of the FA soluble phases, in particular based on Si, Fe and Ca; 2) dissolution of the Al matrix surrounding the FA particles due to crevice corrosion; 3) Al localized dissolution due to galvanic coupling between the Fe-rich intermetallics and the matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum metal matrix composites containing two types of fly ashes have been characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure and the electrochemical behavior have been studied using different techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of FA deteriorates the corrosion resistance of the aluminum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation mechanisms: galvanic coupling, crevice corrosion, detachment of FA particles.

  14. Association of the sites of heavy metals with nanoscale carbon in a Kentucky electrostatic precipitator fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Hower; Uschi M. Graham; Alan Dozier; Michael T. Tseng; Rajesh A. Khatri [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HRTEM-STEM-EELS) was used to study fly ashes produced from the combustion of an eastern Kentucky coal at a southeastern-Kentucky wall-fired pulverized coal utility boiler retrofitted for low-NOx combustion. Fly ash was collected from individual hoppers in each row of the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) pollution-control system, with multiple hoppers sampled within each of the three rows. Temperatures within the ESP array range from about 200 {degree}C at the entry to the first row to <150{degree}C at the exit of the third row. HRTEM-STEM-EELS study demonstrated the presence of nanoscale (10 s nm) C agglomerates with typical soot-like appearance and others with graphitic fullerene-like nanocarbon structures. The minute carbon agglomerates are typically juxtaposed and intergrown with slightly larger aluminosilicate spheres and often form an ultrathin halo or deposit on the fly ash particles. The STEM-EELS analyses revealed that the nanocarbon agglomerates host even finer (<3 nm) metal and metal oxide particles. Elemental analysis indicated an association of Hg with the nanocarbon. Arsenic, Se, Pb, Co, and traces of Ti and Ba are often associated with Fe-rich particles within the nanocarbon deposits. 57 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Chemical modeling of arsenic(III, V) and selenium(IV, VI) adsorption by soils surrounding ash disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, S.; Hyun, S.; Lee, L.S. [USDA, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salinity Laboratory

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Leachate derived from coal ash disposal facilities is a potential anthropogenic source of As and Se to the environment. To establish a practical framework for predicting attenuation and transport of As and Se in ash leachates, the adsorption of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) had been characterized in prior studies for 18 soils obtained downgradient from ash landfill sites and representing a wide range of soil properties. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) adsorption on soils as a function of equilibrium solution As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) concentrations. Prior applications of the model had been restricted to describing Se(IV) and As(V) adsorption by soils as a function of solution pH. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III) and Se(VI) adsorption by soils. The model was able to describe adsorption of these ions on all soils as a function of solution ion concentration by optimizing only one adjustable parameter, the anion surface complexation constant. This chemical model represents an advancement over adsorption isotherm equation approaches that contain two empirical adjustable parameters. Incorporation of these anion surface complexation constants obtained with the constant capacitance model into chemical speciation transport models will allow simulation of soil solution anion concentrations under diverse environmental and agricultural conditions.

  16. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  17. Adsorption of UCG organics by coal, char, activated char and ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.; Morgan, J.R.; Nolan, B.T.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aqueous adsorption of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) organics generated during gas production was tested in the laboratory to determine the organic's affinity for surroundings in the region of the burn cavity. Coal from the Rosebud coal mine in Hanna, Wyoming along with char, activated char, and ash were studied during this work. Contaminated ground water was simulated by preparing a solution of Hanna IVB condensate in Hanna ground water. Adsorption isotherm studies and leaching tests were performed at 5 and 22/sup 0/C. Leaching tests using tap water showed that only the char could release organic material to water. The adsorption tests showed that all four types of media could adsorb organics from solution. Measures of organic materials in water included Total Organic Carbon (TOC), phenol, o-cresol, and p+m cresol. The experiments indicated that activated char was the most effective adsorbent, while the others were about equal in effectiveness. Adsorption behavior could be modeled in many instances by the equations of Langmuir and Freundlich. However, not all data taken followed these models.

  18. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenan, F., E-mail: f.bodenan@brgm.f [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Guyonnet, D.; Piantone, P.; Blanc, P. [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al{sup 0}, as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al{sup 0} are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction.

  19. The rp Process Ashes from Stable Nuclear Burning on an Accreting Neutron Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrik Schatz; Lars Bildsten; Andrew Cumming; Michael Wiescher

    1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the nucleosynthesis during stable nuclear burning on an accreting neutron star. This is appropriate for weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting at near-Eddington rates in low mass X-ray binaries, and for most accreting X-ray pulsars. We show that the nuclear burning proceeds via the rapid proton capture process (rp process), and makes nuclei far beyond the iron group. The final mixture of nuclei consists of elements with a range of masses between approximately A=60 and A=100. The average nuclear mass of the ashes is set by the extent of helium burning via (alpha,p) reactions, and depends on the local accretion rate. Our results imply that the crust of these accreting neutron stars is made from a complex mixture of heavy nuclei, with important implications for its thermal, electrical and structural properties. A crustal lattice as impure as our results suggest will have a conductivity set mostly by impurity scattering, allowing more rapid Ohmic diffusion of magnetic fields than previously estimated.

  20. Agglomeration of sorbent and ash carry-over for use in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, N.D.T.; Kealrns, D.L.; Newby, R.A.; Ulerich, N.H.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agglomeration of elutriated sorbent, ash, and char from a fluidized-bed boiler, with spent bed overflow material and water, has been identified as a potentially attractive technique for reducing sorbent consumption in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBC). The agglomerated products are returned to the combustor to improv the calcium utilization of the sorbent and to complete the combustion of elutriated carbon material. In this experimental program, agglomerates were formed from Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) raw materials (Carbon limestone, spent bed overflow, cyclone and baghouse catch) collected during test runs on the 1.8 m X 1.8 m fluidized-bed combustor. Agglomerate characteristics, such as handling strength, sulfur capture activity, carbon utilization, and resistance to attrition, were determined as functions of agglomeration processing variables. These variables include feed composition, feed particle size, amount of water addition, curing time, and curing atmosphere or drying conditions. Calcium-to-sulfur (Ca/S) feed ratio requirements for a commercial AFBC that uses the agglomeration process were projected on the basis of the Westinghouse model for fluidized-bed desulfurization.

  1. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  2. Geopolymeric materials prepared using Class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakharev, T. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail: tanya.bakharev@eng.monash.edu.au

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the results of the study of the influence of elevated temperature curing on phase composition, microstructure and strength development in geopolymer materials prepared using Class F fly ash and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. In particular, the effect of storage at room temperature before the application of heat on strength development and phase composition was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM were utilised in this study. Long precuring at room temperature before application of heat was beneficial for strength development in all studied materials, as strength comparable to 1 month of curing at elevated temperature can develop in this case only after 24 h of heat curing. The main product of reaction in the geopolymeric materials was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel. However, in the case of sodium hydroxide activator in addition to it, traces of chabazite, Linde Type A, Na-P1 (gismondine) zeolites and hydroxysodalite were also present. The type of zeolite present and composition of aluminosilicate gel were dependent on the curing history.

  3. Engineering properties of miniature cement - fly ash compacts prepared by high pressure compaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bormann, Jeffrey Ray

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF MINIATURE CEMENT - FLY ASH COMPACTS PREPARED BY HIGH PRESSURE COMPACTION E NGIRPR OT SFMMAFU AEU C-ALEYY HDOBPvvIi va vGI ge(iD(vI oannItI au NId(R E)L xrP1IeRPvT 9(evP(n uDnuPnnBIrv au vGI eI0DPeIBIrvR uae vGI i...?H?? NId(R E)L xrP1IeRPvT oG(PeB(r au Ei1PRaeT oaBBPvvII? ?e? ??C? ?IiOIvvIe oDeeIrv 9e(8vP8IR (ri vGIaeT 8aruaeB va vGI 8ar8I9v vG(v uae R9I8P(nP?Ii DRIR ( 9aevn(ri 8IBIrv 8ar8eIvI B(vIeP(n ?PvG RveIrtvG (99ea(8GPrt ?????? 9RP B(T OI 9eaiD8Ii OT eIiD8...

  4. Preparation of Cu and Fly Ash Composite by Powder Metallurgy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, P. Y.; Lim, P. S.; Ng, M. C. [Infineon Technologies (M) Sdn Bhd, Batu Berendam, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Zahi, S.; You, A. H. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu and Fly Ash (FA) mixtures with different weight percentages were prepared. Pellets of the mixture powder were produced with the dimension of 17.7 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height. These different composites were compacted at a constant pressure of 280 MPa. One of the selected weight percentages was then compacted to form into pellet and sintered at different temperatures which were at 900, 950 and 1000 deg. C respectively for 2 hours. Density of green pellet was measured before sintered in furnace. After sintering, all the pellets with different temperatures were re-weighed and sintered density were calculated. The densification of the green and sintered pellets was required to be measured as one of the parameter in selection of the best material properties. Porosity of the pellet shall not be ignored in order to analyze the close-packed particles stacking in the pellet. SEM micrograph had been captured to observe the presence of pores and agglomeration of particles in the sample produced.

  5. THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

  6. Ultrafine particles formed by heating droplets of simulated ash containing metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, F.; Barone, A.; Pagliara, R.; Beretta, F.; D'Anna, A.; D'Alessio, A. [University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal and biomass combustion and waste incineration produce inorganic aerosol, whose ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be generated mainly by metal vaporization and subsequent nucleation and growth in a high-temperature atmosphere. To investigate this mechanism, we investigated nanoparticle inception and early growth processes at high temperature by spraying monodisperse droplets of simulated ash containing metals in the centerline of a laboratory ethylene/air laminar premixed flame at stoichiometric conditions. Particles were collected by thermophoresis on mica substrates for atomic force microscopy dimensional and morphological analysis. Chemical nature, volume fraction, and mean diameter of particles were evaluated by in situ UV-Vis broadband light absorption and laser light-scattering measurements. We also measured size distribution of material sampled from the flame without dilution using differential mobility analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provided further information on the chemical composition of particles deposited on substrates. Size distributions showed that the flame-generated aerosol have a high number concentration, are mostly smaller than 10 nm, and persist far downstream of the droplet injection point. Preliminary results showed that the coagulation rate of those nanoparticles is much slower than their collision rate, which implies that their lifetime may be long and may represent a severe problem for environmental pollution.

  7. Criteria to aid in the establishment of genetic boundaries within a carboniferous basin: Mary Lee Coal Zone, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, T.W.; Gastaldo, R.A. (Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper part of the Mary Lee coal zone of the Lower Pennsylvanian (Westphalian A) Pottsville Formation in northwestern Alabama is composed of the Mary Lee and the Newcastle coal seams. The Mary Lee coal seam has been economically significant in terms of both mining and coal-bed methane production. A sedimentological, paleontological, and geochemical investigation of the lithologies associated with this coal zone was done to define the changes that occur in facies changing from terrestrial into marine facies. A ravinement bed, ranging in thickness from 13.0 deposits. Fifteen surficially exposed sections were observed and sampled in the study area. Geochemical analyses were done on samples collected from seven sections along the perimeter of the study area. The analyses conducted involved inductively coupled atomic plasma spectrometry (ICAP) for seven elemental oxides that include aluminum, iron, silica, calcium, potassium, magnesium and manganese. Atomic absorption was used to determine sodium content. Carbonate carbon was determined by weight percent difference after hydrochloric acid treatment, whereas organic carbon content was determined by use of a carbon analyzer on a LECO[sup TM] induction furnace. Sulfur content was also determined by a LECO induction furnace equipped with a sulfur analyzer. Loss-on-ignition (LOI) percentage was based upon change in weight of samples after a period of 30 min in a muffle furnace at a temperature of 1000[degrees]C. The combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and geochemical characteristics were used to better understand the depositional setting of the upper Mary Lee coal zone in terms of a transgressive event. These criteria can be used in similar basin systems to better understand the depositional history of those settings.

  8. Misclassification and linkage of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vance, J.M.; Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently Kwon et al. published in the Journal their work describing linkage of a single large family with an inherited axonal neuropathy to chromosome 3, which they suggest is a second locus for Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 2 and subsequently named {open_quotes}CMT2B.{close_quotes} We think that the diagnostic classification of this family as CMT2 is incorrect, since the subjects have a severe sensory neuropathy that fits within the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type 1 classification of Dyck (1993). Abnormal sensory findings in CMT2 separate it from distal spinal muscular atrophy but are a minor component of clinical symptoms in most CMT patients, as CMT is primarily a motor neuropathy. When Kwon et al. state that {open_quotes}all [patients] had characteristic findings in their physical examinations, including... evidence of foot sores that were slow to heal, or amputated limbs related to the poorly healing foot ulcers,{close_quotes} it suggests that a different diagnosis is more appropriate. In our experience collecting data on >950 individuals in >60 CMT1, CMT2, CMTX and CMT4 families, we have not seen foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, or amputations. Ulcerations leading to osteomyelitis and amputations are usually associated with severe sensory neuropathies. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  9. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS - ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature; Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined; Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (T{sub cv}) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt; Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles; Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems; and Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  10. Relationship between selenium body burdens and tissue concentrations in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Carriker, Neil [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, Jesse G [ORNL; Gable, Jennifer [Environmental Standards, Inc.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In December 2008, 4.1 million m3 of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary, rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4-9 g/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 g/g. In the present study we examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. While Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the five year period since the spill. Our results are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, our results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies.

  11. Patterns of geographic variation in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) in the Western Gulf region: by Keith William Hendrix.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrix, Keith William

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Forest Science P~S OF GECGRAPHIC VARIATION IN GREEN ASH (FRAXIWS PENNSYLVANICA MARSH. ) IN THE WESTERN G)LF REGION A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by: Wil ' X Lcwe (Chais...(nan of Ccnmittee) J. Charles Lee (Head of Department) . v Buijtenen (Mmnber ) J. D. Snu. th (Member ) December 1986 ABSTRACT Patterns of Geographic Variation G As (F ~i' M h. ) in the Western Gulf Region. (December 1986) Keith William Hendrix, B. S...

  12. Pilot Demonstration of Technology for the Production of High Value Materials from the Ultra-Fine (PM2.5) Fraction of Coal Combustion Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. L. Robl; J. G. Groppo; R. Rathbone; B. Marrs; R. Jewell

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of recovering a very fine fraction of fly ash, that is 5 microns in diameter or less and examining the characteristics of these materials in new or at least less traditional applications. These applications included as a polymer filler or as a 'super' pozzolanic concrete additive. As part of the effort the ash from 6 power plants was investigated and characterized. This work included collection from ESP Hoppers and ponds. The ash was thoroughly characterized chemically and physically. Froth flotation was used to reduce the carbon and testing showed that flotation could effectively reduce carbon to acceptable levels (i.e. 0.5% LOI) for most of the substrates tested. in order to enable eventual use as fillers. Hydraulic classification was used in the separation of the fine ash from the coarse ash. Hydraulic classification requires the ash to be dispersed to be effective and a range of dispersants were tested for adsorption as well as sedimentation rate. A wide range of dosages were required (0.3 to 10 g/kg). In general the ponded ash required less dispersant. A model was developed for hydraulic classification. A pilot-scale hydraulic classifier was also designed and operated for the project. Product yields of up to 21% of feed solids were achieved with recoveries of <5 {micro}m particles as high as 64%. Mean particle sizes (D{sub 50}) of the ultra fine ash (UFA) products varied from 3.7 to 10 {micro}m. A patent was filed on the classifier design. A conceptual design of a Process Demonstration Unit (PDU) with a feed rate of 2 tons of raw ash feed per hour was also completed. Pozzolanic activity was determined for the UFA ashes in mortars. In general the overall strength index was excellent with values of 90% achieved in 3 days and {approx}100% in 7 days. Three types of thermoplastic polymers were evaluated with the UFA as a filler: high density polyethylene, thermoplastic elastomer and polyethylene terphthalate filled polymers were prepared and subjected to SEM analysis to verify that the UFA was well dispersed. The addition of fillers increased the modulus of the HDPE composite, but decreased both the offset yield stress and offset yield strain, showing that the fillers essentially made the composite stiffer but the transition to plastic deformation occurred earlier in filled HDPE as stress was applied. Similar results were obtained with TPE, however, the decrease in either stress or strain at offset yield were not as significant. Dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) were also completed and showed that although there were some alterations in the properties of the HDPE and TPE, the alterations are small, and more importantly, transition temperatures are not altered. The UFA materials were also tested in expanded urethanes, were improvements were made in the composites strength and stiffness, particularly for lighter weight materials. The results of limited flammability and fire safety testing were encouraging. A flowsheet was developed to produce an Ultra-Fine Ash (UFA) product from reclaimed coal-fired utility pond ash. The flowsheet is for an entry level product development scenario and additional production can be accommodated by increasing operating hours and/or installing replicate circuits. Unit process design was based on experimental results obtained throughout the project and cost estimates were derived from single vendor quotes. The installation cost of this plant is estimated to be $2.1M.

  13. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning. Topical report No. 1, Literature review and assembly of theories on the interactions of ash and FGD sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  14. The red triangles are volcano locations. Dark-orange areas have a higher volcanic hazard; light-orange areas have a lower volcanic hazard. Dark-gray areas have a higher ash fall hazard;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    The red triangles are volcano locations. Dark-orange areas have a higher volcanic hazard; light-orange areas have a lower volcanic hazard. Dark-gray areas have a higher ash fall hazard; light-gray areas have a lower ash fall hazard. Information is based on data during the past 10,000 years. Bottom, from left

  15. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  16. Experimental studies and thermodynamic modelling of volatilities of uranium, plutonium, and americium from their oxides and from their oxides interacted with ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Adamson, M.G.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.

    1993-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to identify the types and amounts of volatile gaseous species of U, Pu, and Am that are produced in the combustion chamber offgases of mixed waste oxidation processors. Primary emphasis is on the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Transpiration experiments have been carried out on U{sub 3}O{sub 8}(s), U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with various ash materials, PuO{sub 2}(s), PuO{sub 2} interacted with ash materials, and a 3%PuO{sub 2}/0.06%AmO{sub 2}/ash material, all in the presence of steam and oxygen, and at temperatures in the vicinity of 1,300 K. UO{sub 3}(g) and UO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) have been identified as the uranium volatile species and thermodynamic data established for them. Pu and Am are found to have very low volatilities, and carryover of Pu and Am as fine dust particulates is found to dominate over vapor transport. The authors are able to set upper limits on Pu and Am volatilities. Very little lowering of U volatility is found for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} interacted with typical ashes. However, ashes high in Na{sub 2}O (6.4 wt %) or in CaO (25 wt %) showed about an order of magnitude reduction in U volatility. Thermodynamic modeling studies were carried out that show that for aluminosilicate ash materials, it is the presence of group I and group II oxides that reduces the activity of the actinide oxides. K{sub 2}O is the most effective followed by Na{sub 2}O and CaO for common ash constituents. A more major effect in actinide activity lowering could be achieved by adding excess group I or group II oxides to exceed their interaction with the ash and lead to direct formation of alkali or alkaline earth uranates, plutonates, and americates.

  17. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, J.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of ash particles from coal combustion limits it`s use as a fuel. On mechanism by which small ash particles are formed is the generation of submicron aerosols through a vaporization/condensation mechanism. Previous work has shown that coal cleaning can lead to increased emissions of aerosols. This research will investigate the means or aerosol formation in coals and the effects that various methods of coal cleaning have on aerosol production, and whether or not cleaning can be performed in a manner that will not lend itself to aerosol formation.

  18. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  19. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.