Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

herbicides, burning, and high-density loblolly pine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kudzu is an aggressive, nonnative vine that currently dominates an estimated 810,000 ha of mesic forest communities in the eastern United States. To test an integrated method of weed control, abundances of kudzu and other plant species were compared during 4 yr after six herbicide treatments (clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron, picloram 1 2,4-D, tebuthiuron, and a nonsprayed check), in which loblolly pines were planted at three densities (0, 1, and 4 seedlings m22) to induce competition and potentially delay kudzu recovery. This split-plot design was replicated on each of the four kudzu-dominated sites near Aiken, SC. Relative light intensity (RLI) and soil water content (SWC) were measured periodically to identify mechanisms of interference among plant species. Two years after treatment (1999), crown coverage of kudzu averaged , 2% in herbicide plots compared with 93% in the nonsprayed check, and these differences were maintained through 2001, except in clopyralid plots where kudzu cover increased to 15%. In 2001, pine interference was associated with 33, 56, and 67% reductions in biomass of kudzu, blackberry, and herbaceous vegetation, respectively. RLI in kudzu-dominated plots (4 to 15% of full sun) generally was less than half that of herbicide-treated plots. SWC was greatest in tebuthiuron plots, where total vegetation cover averaged 26% compared with 77 to 111% in other plots. None of the treatments eradicated kudzu, but combinations of herbicides and induced pine competition delayed its recovery.

T.B. Harrington; L.T. Rader-Dixon; J.W. Taylor, Jr.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

The bipyridyl herbicide paraquat-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells: relevance to dopaminergic pathogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paraquat (PQ) is a cationic non-selective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds and grasses. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to pesticides can be a risk factor in the incidence of Parkinson`s disease (PD). A strong correlation has been reported between exposure to paraquat and PD incidence in Canada, Taiwan, and United States. This correlation is supported by animal studies showing that paraquat produces toxicity in dopaminergic neurons of the rat and mouse brain. However, it is unclear how paraquat triggers toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. Based on the previous reports, it was hypothesized that paraquat may induce oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction-mediated toxicity in dopaminergic neurons. To explore this possibility, dopaminergic SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were treated with paraquat, and several biomarkers of oxidative stress or proteasomal dysfunction were investigated. First, a specific dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909 significantly protected SY5Y cells against the toxicity of paraquat, indicating that paraquat exerts its toxicity by a mechanism involving the dopamine transporter (DAT). Second, paraquat increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SY5Y cells, but decreased the levels of glutathione. Third, paraquat inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity, but did not affect glutathione reductase activity. On the other hand, paraquat increased GST activity by 24 hr, after which GST activity returned to the control value at 48 hr. Fourth, paraquat decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Fifth, paraquat produced the increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls, as well as DNA fragmentation, indicating oxidative damage to major cellular components. Sixth, paraquat decreased proteasomal activity, the activities of mitochondrial complex I and V, and intracellular ATP levels, but increased the activities of caspase 3 and 9, indicating that proteasomal inhibition is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by the activation of apoptotic signaling pathway. Seventh, paraquat increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), p53, Bax, ?±-synuclein and ubiquitinated proteins. Eighth, paraquat induced nuclear condensation. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that paraquat produces oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunctionmediated toxicity in SY5Y cells. Thus, current findings suggest that paraquat may induce the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurons through oxidative stress and proteasomal dysfunction.

Yang, Wonsuk

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

List of Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins and Highly Acute Toxic Materials Reproductive Toxins Acrylonitr ile Aniline Arsenic and its compounds Benzene Benzo(a)pyrene Beryllium Boric acid (Boron) Cadmium and its compounds Carbon monoxide Chlordecone (Kepone) Chloroform Chloroprene Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Dichlorobenzene 1,1-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Dioxane Epichlorohydrin Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Oxide Fluorocarbons Formaldehyde Formamides Lead (Organic) Manganese and its compounds Mercury and its compounds (Inorganic) Methyl n-butyl ketone Methyl chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Platinum and its compounds Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) Polychlorinated bipenyls (PCB) Selenium and its compounds Styrene Tellurium and its compounds Tetr achloroethylene

4

Tin oxide nanosensors for highly sensitive toxic gas detection and their 3D system integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present nanosensors based on ultrathin SnO"2 films, which are very sensitive to the highly toxic gases SO"2 and H"2S. The SnO"2-sensing films are fabricated by a spray pyrolysis process on Si substrates with a thickness of 50nm. The sensor resistance ... Keywords: 3D-system integration, Gas sensors, Nanosensors, Toxic gases

C. Griessler; E. Brunet; T. Maier; S. Steinhauer; A. Kck; T. Jordi; F. Schrank; M. Schrems

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

High Throughput, Low Toxic Processing of Very Thin, High Efficiency CIGSS Solar Cells: Final Report, December 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work carried out during this project presents the use of diethylselenium or other organometallic precursors as low-toxicity alternative selenium sources for preparing a high-quality absorber.

Dhere, N. G.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children  

SciTech Connect

Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was constrained by specific requirements in the CSPA, the intent of this work was to identify HPCs and CHCCs that might guide future regulatory actions and inform chemical management policies, aimed at protecting children's health.

Stone, Alex, E-mail: alst461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 47600, Olympia, WA 98504-7600 (United States); Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: ddel461@ecy.wa.go [Washington State Department of Ecology, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Dark, Hypoxia, Herbicide, Other Stresses Energy Deprivation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dark, Hypoxia, Herbicide, Other Stresses Energy Deprivation Upstream PKs GBF5, bZIP11, 53, 1 Glycolysis NR, SPS, HMG-CoAR Energy homeostasis, Growth, Stress response, Survival Development, Reproduction. Plants are constantly challenged by multiple types of stress that ultimately converge as an energy

Sheen, Jen

8

Comparative Inter-Species Pharmacokinetics of Phenoxyacetic Acid Herbicides and Related Organic Acids. Evidence that the Dog is Not a Relevant Species for Evaluation of Human Health Risk.  

SciTech Connect

Phenoxyacetic acids including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) are widely utilized organic acid herbicides that have undergone extensive toxicity and pharmacokinetic analyses. The dog is particularly susceptible to the toxicity of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids relative to other species. Active renal clearance mechanisms for organic acids are ubiquitous in mammalian species, and thus a likely mechanism responsible for the increased sensitivity of the dog to these agents is linked to a lower capacity to secrete organic acids from the kidney. Using published data describing the pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic and structurally related organic acids in a variety of species including humans, inter-species comparative pharmacokinetics were evaluated using allometic parameter scaling. For both 2,4-D and MCPA the dog plasma half-life (t1/2) and renal clearance (Clr; ml hr-1) rates did not scale as a function of body weight across species; whereas for all other species evaluated, including humans, these pharmacokinetic parameters reasonably scaled. This exceptional response in the dog is clearly illustrated by comparing the plasma t1/2 at comparable doses of 2,4-D and MCPA, across several species. At a dosage of 5 mg/kg, in dogs the plasma t1/2 for 2,4-D and MCPA were {approx}92 - 106 hr and 63 hr, respectively, which is substantially longer than in the rat ({approx}1 and 6 hr, respectively) or in humans (12 and 11 hr, respectively). This longer t1/2, and slower elimination in the dog, results in substantially higher body burdens of these organic acids, at comparable doses, relative to other species. Although these results indicate the important role of renal transport clearance mechanisms as determinants of the clearance and potential toxicity outcomes of phenoxyacetic acid herbicides across several species, other contributing mechanisms such as reabsorption from the renal tubules is highly likely. These findings suggest that for new structurally similar organic acids, a limited comparative species (rat vs. dog) pharmacokinetic analysis early in the toxicology evaluation process may provide important insight into the relevance of the dog. In summary, the substantial difference between the pharmacokinetics of phenoxyacetic acids and related organic acids in dogs relative to other species, including humans, questions the relevance of using dog toxicity data for the extrapolation of human health risk.

Timchalk, Chuck

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) from High Efficiency Clean Combustion: Catalytic Exhaust Treatment Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) strategies such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer much promise for the reduction of NOx and PM from diesel engines. While delivering low PM and low NOx, these combustion modes often produce much higher levels of CO and HC than conventional diesel combustion modes. In addition, partially oxygenated species such as formaldehyde (an MSAT) and other aldehydes increase with HECC modes. The higher levels of CO and HCs have the potential to compromise the performance of the catalytic aftertreatment, specifically at low load operating points. As HECC strategies become incorporated into vehicle calibrations, manufacturers need to avoid producing MSATs in higher quantities than found in conventional combustion modes. This paper describes research on two different HECC strategies, HCCI and PCCI. Engine-out data for several MSAT species (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, PAHs, diesel PM) as well as other HC species are presented and compared when possible with conventional operation. In addition, catalyst-out values were measured to assess the destruction of individual MSATs over the catalyst. At low engine loads, MSATs were higher and catalyst performance was poorer. Particle sizing results identify large differences between PM from conventional and HECC operation.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Gene encoding herbicide safener binding protein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The cDNA encoding safener binding protein (SafBP), also referred to as SBP1, is set forth in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 1. The deduced amino acid sequence is provided in FIG. 5 and SEQ ID No. 2. Methods of making and using SBP1 and SafBP to alter a plant's sensitivity to certain herbicides or a plant's responsiveness to certain safeners are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors and seeds from said plants.

Walton, Jonathan D. (East Lansing, MI); Scott-Craig, John S. (East Lansing, MI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Toxic Hazard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cu the zones at each or tll(' ve-nts lx-twccn ... The ani- mal test for acute toxicity would then ... of the needed data would be provided by analytical testing. ...

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

13

Does Image-Guided Radiotherapy Improve Toxicity Profile in Whole Pelvic-Treated High-Risk Prostate Cancer? Comparison Between IG-IMRT and IMRT  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of adding image-guided (IG) technique to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on dosimetric avoidance of organs at risk (OAR) and acute toxicities. Methods and Materials: A total of 25 consecutively treated patients (10 from National University Hospital and 15 from University of California San Francisco) with high-risk prostate cancer formed the study cohort. All received definitive IMRT with prophylactic nodal RT. Similar IMRT contouring and planning techniques were used at both centers. At University of California, San Francisco, intraprostatic fiducial markers were used for daily pretreatment on-line corrections (IG-IMRT). In contrast, at the National University Hospital, no fiducial markers were used (IMRT). At University of California, San Francisco, the planning target volume margins to the prostate were 2-3 mm. At the National University Hospital, they were 1 cm circumferentially, except for 0.5 cm posteriorly. The acute rectal and bladder toxicities and dosimetric endpoints to the planning target volume and organs at risk were compared. Results: The planning target volume dose coverage was not significantly different between IMRT and IG-IMRT for the prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes. The volume of rectum and bladder receiving {>=}40, {>=}60, and {>=}70 Gy were all significantly less using IG-IMRT (p <0.001). IG-IMRT yielded lower acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 2 rectal (80% vs. 13%, p = 0.004) and bladder (60% vs. 13%, p = 0.014) toxicities. Conclusions: IG-IMRT, using daily target localization with fiducial markers, permits the use of smaller margins and correspondingly lower doses to the organs at risk, such as the rectum and bladder. These tangible gains appear to translate into lower clinically significant toxicities.

Chung, Hans T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore)], E-mail: hanstchung@gmail.com; Xia Ping; Chan, Linda W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Park-Somers, Eileen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

High-Dose Radiotherapy With or Without Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Cancer Control and Toxicity Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of short-course androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on cancer control outcomes and toxicity in intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (high-dose radiotherapy [HDRT]). Methods and Materials: Demographic, disease, and treatment characteristics of prostate cancer patients at 2 institution consortiums were charted. Of 296 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (defined as {>=}T2b, prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL, or Gleason score [GS] of 7, with none of the following: {>=}T3, prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL, GS {>=}8, or positive nodes) treated with HDRT to a dose of 72 Gy or greater, 123 received short-course ADT and 173 did not. Univariate and multivariate analyses on biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) (including subset analysis by disease factors) and on overall survival (OS) were performed, as were comparisons of gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates. Results: For the whole group, the median dose was 75.6 Gy; the minimum follow-up was 2 years, and the median follow-up was 47.4 months. For ADT vs. no ADT, the 5-year BFFS rate was 86% vs. 79% (p = 0.138) and the 5-year OS rate was 87% vs. 80% (p = 0.159). On multivariate analysis, percent positive cores (PPC) (p = 0.002) and GS (p = 0.008) were significantly associated with BFFS, with ADT showing a trend (p = 0.055). The impact of ADT was highest in the subsets with PPC greater than 50% (p = 0.019), GS 4+3 (p = 0.078), and number of risk factors greater than 1 (p = 0.022). Only intensity-modulated radiotherapy use (p = 0.012) and GS (p = 0.023) reached significance for OS, and there were no significant differences in GU or GI toxicity. Conclusions: Although the use of ADT with HDRT did not influence BFFS, our study suggests a benefit in patients with PPC greater than 50%, GS 4+3, or multiple risk factors. No OS benefit was shown, and ADT was not associated with additional radiotherapy-related GI or GU toxicity.

Edelman, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Liauw, Stanley L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rossi, Peter J.; Cooper, Sherrie [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jani, Ashesh B., E-mail: abjani@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Herbicide Use Safety for Vegetation Management on Powerline Corridors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents original research on herbicide use safety in association with vegetation management on electric transmission line rights of way.BackgroundThe Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted integrated vegetation management assessments for five electric utilities between 2006 and 2009, using EPRI-developed procedures and standards of integrated vegetation management performance. Observations during the assessments indicated that utility ...

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Factors Associated With Chest Wall Toxicity After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate dose-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib dose data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any point after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib dose-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for maximum dose related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any point in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total dose received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any point after follow-up. The median maximum dose at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed dose versus 95% of the prescribed dose in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the maximum dose received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.

Brown, Sheree, E-mail: shereedst32@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Vicini, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, Florida (United States); Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, WellStar Kennestone Hospital, Marietta, Georgia (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Nanoparticle toxicity testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoparticle toxicity testing Nanoparticle toxicity testing 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Nanoparticle toxicity testing Assessing the potential health hazards of nanotechnology March 25, 2013 Robot In the search for more accurate and efficient techniques to evaluate the health hazards of nanoparticles, Los Alamos researchers are developing artificial human tissues and organs to replace animal test subjects. A new approach to toxicity testing under development at Los Alamos uses artificial tissue and artificial organs instead of animal testing Manufactured nanoparticles such as buckyballs and carbon nanotubes, used in products ranging from sunscreens to solar panels, are proliferating so quickly that safety testing for potential health hazards-similar to those

18

Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

L.T. Rader

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

Somerville, Chris R. (Portola Valley, CA); Scheible, Wolf (Golm, DE)

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Toxic Pollution Prevention Act (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the purpose of this Act to reduce the disposal and release of toxic substances which may have adverse and serious health and environmental effects, to promote toxic pollution prevention as...

22

Vegetation Management by Electric Utilities: Use of Herbicides and Other Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the essential elements and principles comprising electric utility vegetation management programs, defines management problems, and discusses possible research on vegetation management issues. The report particularly focuses on the use of herbicides and their effects on wildlife and human health. Legal and regulatory aspects and cost control issues are also covered.

1995-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

23

Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

2000-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

The toxicity of X material  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

Ferry, J.L.

1943-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Department of Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place Sacramento,...

26

A decision-oriented model to evaluate the effect of land use and agricultural management on herbicide contamination in stream water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modelling stream water pollution by herbicides in agricultural areas is a critical issue since numerous and incompletely known processes are involved. A decision-oriented model, SACADEAU-Transf, which represents water and pesticide transfer in medium-sized ... Keywords: Agriculture, Catchment, Decision oriented, Herbicide, Modelling, Pesticide, Stream water quality, Subsurface flow, Surface flow

Chantal Gascuel-Odoux; Pierre Aurousseau; Marie-Odile Cordier; Patrick Durand; Frederick Garcia; Vronique Masson; Jordy Salmon-Monviola; Florent Tortrat; Ronan Trepos

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

(1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

28

Studies on the mechanisms of action of the herbicide safener CGA-92194  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CGA-92194 is a herbicide safener that is used as a seed dressing agent to protect grain sorghum against metolachlor injury. The potential adverse phytotoxic effects and the mechanisms of the protective action of this safener were studied in laboratory experiments. Adverse phytotoxicity was assessed by comparing CGA-92194 and the herbicide safeners cyometrinil and flurazole for their effects on CO/sub 2/ fixation, protein, DNA, RNA and lipid synthesis of enzymatically isolated leaf cells of soybean. The safening action mechanisms of CGA-92194 were studied by examining the potential interactions of this safener with metolachlor at the levels of uptake and macromolecular syntheses in enzymatically isolated leaf mesophyll protoplasts of grain sorghum. When CGA-92194 and metolachlor were given simultaneously, CGA-92194 enhanced /sup 14/C-metolachlor uptake into the sorghum protoplasts in a concentration-dependent pattern. Treatments with metolachlor and CGA-92194 in combination inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C-uracil, /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-acetate into sorghum protoplast macromolecules less than metolachlor given alone, suggesting the potential involvement of a competitive antagonism in CGA-92194 mechanism of action. The metabolic activity and growth of sorghum seedlings grown from CGA-92194-pretreated seeds were lower than that of seedlings grown from untreated seeds at 10 or 20 days after planting. These results indicate that a safener-induced stimulation of the spontaneous or enzymatic conjugation of metolachlor with GSH is most likely involved in CGA-92194 protective action.

Zama, P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

EA-1629: Herbicide Application within Transmission Line Rights-of-Way in the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest, Arkansas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of the Interior, U.S. Forest Service, with DOEs Southwestern Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of applying herbicide within transmission line rights-of-way in the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas. NOTE: SWPA's involvement in this EA has ended.

30

Reducing Boron Toxicity by Microbial Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

While electricity is a clean source of energy, methods of electricity-production, such as the use of coal-fired power plants, often result in significant environmental damage. Coal-fired electrical power plants produce air pollution, while contaminating ground water and soils by build-up of boron, which enters surrounding areas through leachate. Increasingly high levels of boron in soils eventually overcome boron tolerance levels in plants and trees, resulting in toxicity. Formation of insoluble boron precipitates, mediated by mineral-precipitating bacteria, may sequester boron into more stable forms that are less available and toxic to vegetation. Results have provided evidence of microbially-facilitated sequestration of boron into insoluble mineral precipitates. Analyses of water samples taken from ponds with high boron concentrations showed that algae present contained 3-5 times more boron than contained in the water in the samples. Boron sequestration may also be facilitated by the incorporation of boron within algal cells. Experiments examining boron sequestration by algae are in progress. In bacterial experiments with added ferric citrate, the reduction of iron by the bacteria resulted in an ironcarbonate precipitate containing boron. An apparent color change showing the reduction of amorphous iron, as well as the precipitation of boron with iron, was more favorable at higher pH. Analysis of precipitates by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy revealed mineralogical composition and biologicallymediated accumulation of boron precipitates in test-tube experiments.

Hazen, T.; Phelps, T.J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

Thomas, Samuel William, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Title Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobic piperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2007 Authors Salminen, Justin, Nicolas Papaiconomou, Anand R. Kumar, Jong-Min Lee, John B. Kerr, John S. Newman, and John M. Prausnitz Journal Fluid Phase Equilibria Volume 261 Pagination 421-426 Keywords hydrophobic, ionic liquids, piperidinium, properties, pyrrolidinium, safety, toxicity Abstract Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]+, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]+, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]+, 1-methyl-1-octyl pyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]+ and 1-methyl-1-octyl piperidinium [MOPip]+ cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

33

Impact of Herbicides on Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.) Production and Fatty Acid Composition in South Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canola is a cool-season, oilseed crop grown throughout Europe, Canada, and the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. The expansion of canola production into new growing regions, such as the Southern Plains region, has resulted in new production challenges. The Southern Plains region cultivates canola as a winter annual compared to a spring annual for the Northern Great Plains and Canada. Given the difference in climate and weed spectrum, region-specific weed management systems need to be developed. Agronomic practices can affect seed oil content, protein content, and fatty acid composition, however the effect of herbicides on these and other characteristic of canola are unknown. Therefore, experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate a broad spectrum of herbicides for potential use in South Texas canola production with respect to crop injury, effects on canola seed oil content, fatty acid composition, weed control, biomass yield, and forage quality. Visual crop injury at 42 DAE was unacceptable for saflufenacil at both 0.12 and 0.06 kg ai ha-1 and ethalfluralin at 1.05 kg ai ha-1. Trifluralin at 1.12 and 0.56 kg ai ha-1, S-metolachlor at 2.14 and 1.07 kg ai ha-1, pyroxasulfone at 0.24 and 0.12 kg ai ha-1, and pendimethalin at 0.8 kg ai ha-1 had lowest visual injury of all treatments. Fluroxypyr applied EPOST caused severe injury at both 0.21 and 0.11 kg ae ha-1. All other EPOST treatments did not cause any visible injury. Seed oil content was not affected by the herbicides evaluated. Fatty acid composition, specifically stearic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic to linolenic acid ratio, was affected by herbicide treatments. This research found that protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPG oxidase) inhibitor herbicides, such as carfentrazone-ethyl and saflufenacil, negatively affect canola oil quality. Biomass yield was improved for all herbicide treatments except pendimethalin PRE when compared to the untreated plots. Crude protein content of canola forage was not affected by herbicide treatment. Digestible dry matter appeared to be reduced by treatments that included an EPOST application of sethoxydim. The research shows that pendimethalin and S-metolachlor may be suitable for canola production in South Texas based on low crop injury and effective weed control. Neither pendimethalin nor S-metolachlor is currently labeled for use in canola. The herbicides trifluralin, ethalfluralin, quizalofop P-ethyl, ethametsulfuron-methyl, sethoxydim, glyphosate, clethodim, and clopyralid are currently labeled for use in canola and were confirmed suitable for canola production in South Texas. Carfentrazone-ethyl is currently labeled for use in canola but the effects on oil quality should be considered.

Cogdill, Todd Joseph

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional...

35

Toxic Chemical Agent Decontamination Emulsions, Their ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This invention is related to decontaminating agents and amethod for the decontamination of ... which have been contaminated with toxic chemical agents ...

36

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Choose building products that avoid toxic emissions. ... (PVC or vinyl) products have a wide range of chlorine that ... and also the plasticizers in ...

37

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mutation assays involving blood cells that metabolize toxic substances  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a line of human blood cells which have high levels of oxidative activity (such as oxygenase, oxidase, peroxidase, and hydroxylase activity). Such cells grow in suspension culture, and are useful to determine the mutagenicity of xenobiotic substances that are metabolized into toxic or mutagenic substances. The invention also includes mutation assays using these cells, and other cells with similar characteristics. 3 figs.

Crespi, C.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Is degradation of the herbicide atrazine enhanced in turfgrass pond sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To further understand the fate of atrazine, a herbicide of public concern in the environment, this study was undertaken to determine if atrazine degradation potential is increased in turfgrass ponds having a history of repeated exposure to agrichemicals. Two sets of mesocosms (20 L) were established: one containing sediments from a pond at the Turfgrass Research Center on the Texas A&M campus, which had repeated exposure to agrichemicals, the other containing sediments from a pond on a local horse-farm that had no contact with agrichemicals in recent years. These mesocosms were fortified with atrazine (100 [u]g L?) and incubated under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and the concentrations of atrazine in the water and sediment were monitored. In addition, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, and ammonium levels, and bacterial populations were monitored in the mesocosms. To determine the role of microbes in the degradation of atrazine, sterile controls were developed in a manner similar to the mesocosms. By monitoring the twelve mesocosms, it was possible to determine that the appropriate environments were maintained, and that the water chemistry was consistent with either an aerobic or hypoxic environment, as appropriate. The rates of atrazine degradation in both pond systems were very similar. Atrazine concentrations declined by about 65% in 160 days. Degradation was more rapid under aerobic conditions, but the difference was not statistically significant. Effects of prior exposure to agrichemicals on the rate of atrazine degradation were not detected. The most likely cause is that there was insufficient exposure to atrazine in the turfgrass pond to develop a population of rapid atrazine degraders.

Shourds, Shalyn Wayne

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications  

SciTech Connect

Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM); Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Brockmann, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lucero, Daniel A. (Albuquerque, NM); Levin, Bruce L. (Tijeras, NM); Leonard, Jonathan (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Summary Our short-term outlook for a wide array of energy prices has been adjusted upward as international and domestic energy supply conditions have tightened. We think that crude oil prices are as likely as not to end the year $2 to $3 per barrel higher than our previous projections. Thus, we think that the probability of West Texas Intermediate costing an average of $30 per barrel or more at midwinter is about 50 percent. On their current track, heating oil prices are likely to be about 30 percent above year-ago levels in the fourth quarter. Prices for Q1 2001 seem more likely now to match or exceed the high level seen in Q1 2000. Tight oil markets this year and an inherent propensity for high gas utilization in incremental power supply have resulted in rising North American natural gas

42

Relating nanomaterial properties and microbial toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanomaterials are meeting diverse needs in consumer and industrial products. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are among the most commonly used materials and their potential for adversely affecting environmental systems raises concern. Complex microbial consortia underlie environmental processes, and the potential toxicity of nanoparticles to microbial systems, and the consequent impacts on trophic balances, is particularly worrisome. The diverse array of metal and metal oxides, the different sizes and shapes that can be prepared and the variety of possible surface coatings complicate toxicity assessments. Further complicating toxicity interpretations are the diversity of microbial systems and their metabolic capabilities. Here, we review various studies focused on nanoparticle-microbial interactions in an effort to correlate the physical-chemical properties of engineered metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to their biological response. Gaining a predictive understanding of nanoparticle toxicity, based on the physical-chemical properties of the material, will be key to the design and responsible use of nanotechnologies. General conclusions regarding the parent material of the nanoparticle and nanoparticle s size and shape on potential toxicity can be made. However, the surface coating of the material, which can be altered significantly by environmental conditions, can ameliorate or promote microbial toxicity. Understanding nanoparticle transformations and how the nanoparticle surface can be designed to control toxicity represents a key area for further study. Additionally, the vast array of microbial species and their intrinsic metabolic capabilities complicates extrapolations of nanoparticle toxicity. A molecular-based understanding of the various microbial responses to nanoparticle-induced stress is needed. Ultimately, to interpret the effect and eventual fate of engineered materials in the environment, an understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle properties and microbial response will be essential.

Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

high  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about $2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to targeted cuts, especially for the second quarter of 2000 (Figure 1). The expected decline in world petroleum inventories continues (Figure 2), and, given the generally stiff resolve of OPEC members to maintain production cuts, any sign of a turnaround in stocks may be postponed until later this year than previously assumed (Q3 instead of Q2). Our current estimate for the average import cost this past January is now $25 per barrel, a nearly $15-per-barrel increase from January 1999. Crude oil prices are expected to remain at relatively high levels for the first half of 2000, but

44

Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from

Johannes Rousk; Kathrin Ackermann; Simon F. Curling; Davey L. Jones

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data TRI.NET data engine for EPA Toxics Release Inventory Dataset Summary Description TRI.NET ("T-R-I-dot-net") is a new application developed by EPA to help you analyze Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) information. This application is capable of easily and quickly performing complex queries to help you understand TRI information. It is especially useful for analysts who need a highly interactive environment in order to refine their queries and analyses in an efficient and productive way. TRI.NET makes heavy use of mashups using the latest mapping technologies to help visualize where TRI releases are occurring.

46

Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

DOE contractor's meeting on chemical toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) is required to determine the potential health and environmental effects associated with energy production and use. To ensure appropriate communication among investigators and scientific disciplines that these research studies represent, OHER has sponsored workshops. This document provides a compilation of activities at the Third Annual DOE/OHER Workshop. This year's workshop was broadened to include all OHER activities identified as within the chemical effects area. The workshop consisted of eight sessions entitled Isolation and Detection of Toxic chemicals; Adduct Formation and Repair; Chemical Toxicity (Posters); Metabolism and Genotoxicity; Inhalation Toxicology; Gene Regulation; Metals Toxicity; and Biological Mechanisms. This document contains abstracts of the information presented by session.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Oxygen scavenger/metal passivator reduces corrosion, toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Haverhill Paper board, a Haverhill, MA manufacturer of recycled paperboard, generates about 120,000 lb/hr of 650 psi, 650/sup 0/F (superheated) steam. Boiler deposition and condensate return corrosion problems were always high on the list of things to avoid. A water treatment firm provided the solution with a recently developed oxygen scavenger. The new scavenger, a Chemical Processing Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November, 1986, p. 130), is a patented formulation containing methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKO). The formulation is designed to provide protection comparable to hydrazine but without the toxicity concerns. Used in conjunction with the mechanical deaerator, MEKO scavenges the remaining 5-7 ppb of oxygen from the feed water, producing methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), N/sub 2/O, and water. High volatility gives it the ability to leave the boiler with the steam, protecting the entire generating system. MEKO also acts as a metal surface passivator, protecting iron surfaces from corrosion by forming passivated oxide films. In use since December, 1985, the MEKO-based oxygen scavenger has coupled with the other chemical and mechanical water treatment methods to maintain the boiler in operating condition. The MEKO is performing as well or better than the hydrazine at about the same cost - while avoiding the toxicity problem.

Barry, J.; Toy, D.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Speciality conference on: toxic substances in the air environment  

SciTech Connect

Papers presented are divided into the following categories: toxic substances legislation; arsenic; vinyl chloride; and emerging problems in toxic emission. Seven papers were abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

Archuleta, M.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) 1987--1996  

SciTech Connect

The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), published annually by the US EPA, is a valuable source of information about over 300 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released into the environment. Using this information, citizens, businesses, and governments can work together to protect the quality of their land, air and water. The new software used in the 1987--1996 TRI CD-ROM, is flexible and powerful, capable of searching over 200 fields (e.g., by chemical, company, kind of release, or zip code, and across multiple years of data). The CD-ROM also allows users to conduct multiple and complex queries, which are especially useful to those who wish to analyze trends or perform statistical analysis. The following information is found on the TRI CD: facility name, location and type of business; off-site locations to which the facility transfers toxic chemicals in waste; whether the chemical is manufactured (including importation), processed, or otherwise used and the general categories of use of the chemical; an estimate (in ranges) of the maximum amounts of the toxic chemical present at the facility at any time during the preceding year; quantity of the chemical entering each medium -- air, land, and water -- annually; waste treatment/disposal methods and efficiency of methods for each waste stream; and optional information on waste minimization. In addition to the TRI data, the CD-ROM provides a wealth of other TRI information, such as: tutorial, Annual TRI Data Release Book, State Fact Sheets; TRI`s reporting Forms R and A; and Chemical Fact Sheets on many of the TRI chemicals. The 1987--1996 TRI CD-ROM is a user-friendly Windows application that includes LANDVIEW III, a geographic information systems (GIS) package. The GIS package allows the user to locate TRI facilities and other EPA sites in relation to roads, rivers, schools, hospitals and more.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effects of high humidity on translocation of foliar-applied labeled compounds in plants. II. Translocation from starved leaves  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and translocation of chemicals by cotton leaves are greatly increased under conditions of high humidity. This enhanced movement consists of increased phloem transport and induced uptake into and transport via the xylem. Studies with starved and normal leaves prove that phloem transport is greatly reduced in leaves depleted of carbohydrate reserves; starvation has no effect upon the xylem transport induced by high humidity. The relation of high humidity to herbicide usage is discussed. 15 references, 6 figures.

Clor, M.A.; Crafts, A.S.; Yamaguchi, S.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

56

Tissue distribution as a factor in species susceptibility to toxicity and hazard assessment. Example: methylmercury  

SciTech Connect

Data on the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics of methylmercury(MeHg) in cats and humans were utilized as an example of how such data can assist in extrapolating toxicity data between animal species. These data demonstrate that the whole-body half-time for clearance of MeHg was the same for cats and humans and that the concentration of MeHg in the brain at comparable signs of toxicity were the same (10 ppM) in the two species. However, the blood:brain ratio of MeHg concentration was 10 times as high in cats (1:1) as humans (1:10). From these data it was hypothesized that the no-effect level of methylmercury intake in cats should be 10 times that for humans. This hypothesis was verified from toxia data on MeHg toxicity in cats and humans.

Willes, R.F.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

McCall, Jr. http:www.em.doe.govffaaortsca.html 4252001 Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agree.. Page 12 of 26 Deputy Assistant...

59

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Kentucky Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

60

Toxic Substances Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxic Substance Control Act Uranium Enrichment Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (TSCA-UE- FFCA), February 20, 1992 State Ohio Agreement Type Compliance Agreement Legal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

NETL: Health Effects - Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cardiopulmonary Toxicity Induced by Ambient Particulate Matter The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the potential for adverse cardiopulmonary effects of airborne...

62

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This broader assessment considered 65 different air toxics including metals, PAHs, coke oven emissions, and diesel particulate matter (DPM). Source apportionment yielded...

63

Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca{sup 2+} levels ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca{sup 2+} in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA{sub 2}, A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS.

Kang, Mi Sun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ju Yeon [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Heui [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyung Jun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Mook [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Chin, Mi-Reyoung [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang-Kiu [College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bonventre, Joseph V. [Renal Unit, Brigham Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Jung, Sung Yun [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Kyong [Department of Environmental and Health Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 221 Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: proteinlab@hanmail.net

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Gel entrapment culture of rat hepatocytes for investigation of tetracycline-induced toxicity  

SciTech Connect

This paper aimed to explore three-dimensionally cultured hepatocytes for testing drug-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Gel entrapped rat hepatocytes were applied for investigation of the tetracycline-induced steatohepatitis, while hepatocyte monolayer was set as a control. The toxic responses of hepatocytes were systematically evaluated by measuring cell viability, liver-specific function, lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, adenosine triphosphate content and mitochondrial membrane potential. The results suggested that gel entrapped hepatocytes showed cell death after 96 h of tetracycline treatment at 25 {mu}M which is equivalent to toxic serum concentration in rats, while hepatocyte monolayer showed cell death at a high dose of 200 {mu}M. The concentration-dependent accumulation of lipid as well as mitochondrial damage were regarded as two early events for tetracycline hepatotoxicity in gel entrapment culture due to their detectability ahead of subsequent increase of oxidative stress and a final cell death. Furthermore, the potent protection of fenofibrate and fructose-1,6-diphosphate were evidenced in only gel entrapment culture with higher expressions on the genes related to {beta}-oxidation than hepatocyte monolayer, suggesting the mediation of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial damage in tetracycline toxicity. Overall, gel entrapped hepatocytes in three-dimension reflected more of the tetracycline toxicity in vivo than hepatocyte monolayer and thus was suggested as a more relevant system for evaluating steatogenic drugs.

Shen Chong [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Meng Qin [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: mengq@zju.edu.cn; Schmelzer, Eva; Bader, Augustinus [Biotechnological-Biomedical Center, Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Composition of Toxic Leachate and Unstable Compost to Produce Biodegradable Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper reports a study of mixing two materials that were toxic leachate and unstable compost, aiming to produce biodegradable material. Various low levels of BOD/COD of leachate were mixed with various high levels of C/N of unstable compost. CO2 evolution test was performed to measure the degree of biodegradable materials. The leachate contained BOD and COD that were more than 100 and 500 mg LG 1 respectively and represented by BOD/COD ratio of less than 0.1. The compost characterized by C/N ratio in the range of 15-20. Results showed that leachate and compost mixture produced biodegradable material. A mixture containing 20 % leachate and 80 % compost produced high level of biodegradable material. Key words: Toxic leachate % Unstable compost % Biodegradable material

Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo; Yulia Maghriba; Rachmat Boedisantoso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Characterizing Air Toxics Exposure and Risk and Evaluating EPA Modeling Tools for Policy Making Speaker(s): Jennifer Logue Date: October 27, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air toxics as pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health effects. Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act established 189 chemicals as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants. Large uncertainties still exist regarding exposure, risks, and sources and there has been a heavy reliance on inventories and modeling to determine sources and risks. In January 2002, Carnegie Mellon University in collaboration with the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) embarked on a project to investigate air toxics in Allegheny County. This

67

STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) documentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) is a program written in DEC FORTRAN v. 6.2. This program can be run either interactively or batch mode. This program is designed to model the effects of toxicant exposure on a simulated population of a specific species, as well as the effects of the toxicant on the demographic and genetic characteristics. The toxic effect on the time-to-death is based on an accelerated failure time model in which the time-to-death depends on size, sex and genotype, toxicant concentration, and frequency and duration of exposure. Sexual, fecundity, and meiotic drive/gametic selection can also be included. Multiple simulations can be run for a user-specified number of gestation periods of user-specified length. The effect of winter can be included, and the exposure duration can be changed once during each simulation, if desired.

Greene, K.D.; Newman, M.C.; Jagoe, R.H.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Alleviation of aluminum toxicity by phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Effects of phosphogypsum (PG) on subsoil solution properties and aluminum (Al) speciation were evaluated in this study. A subsoil sample from the Appling series (Typic Hapludults) was treated with either increasing levels of PG (2, 5, and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG), reagent-grade CaSo{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}), or CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) and incubated (22 {plus minus} 2{degree}C) at {minus}0.01 MPa moisture potential. Soil solution pH was 5.67 in untreated soil, while increasing application of PG from 2 to 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} decreased the soil solution pH from 5.08 to 4.47. The soil solution pH was higher in soils treated with similar rates of PG or CaSO{sub 4} {center dot}2H{sub 2}O than CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O. Increasing levels of PG increased the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Si, Mn, F and SO{sub 4} in the soil solution. The concentration of total Al in soil solution was 0.02, 1.95 and 5,25 ppm in soils treated with 2, 5 and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG, respectively. However, Al speciation predicted by the GEOCHEM computer program revealed that at the 5 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, 99% and 0.6% of total Al was complexed with F and SO{sub 4}, respectively, while only 0.3% was in Al{sup 3+} form. At the 10T ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, although 10% of total Al was in Al{sup 3+} form, the activity of Al{sup 3+} was only 0.11 ppm. Therefore, an increase in concentrations of F and SO{sub 4} in soil solution in PG treated soils may alleviate Al toxicity by formation of less phytotoxic Al-F and Al-SO{sub 4} complexes. The toxicity of Al may be further decreased by further by a reduction in activity of Al{sup 3+} due to an increase in soil solution ionic strength in PG treated soils.

Alva, A.K.; Sumner, M.E.; Noble, A.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Imprinting Method for Selective Mesoporous Sorbents - Energy ...  

The invention can separate toxic metals from process effluents and detect and target amino acids, drugs, herbicides, ... Biomass and Biofuels

70

Evaluation of auxinic herbicides for broadleaf weed control, tolerance of forage bermudagrass hybrids [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], and absorption and translocation in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These studies were conducted on several central Texas agricultural producers?? properties, the Stiles Farm Foundation, the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and the Texas A&M University campus. First, an experimental herbicide from Dow AgroSciences, GF-884, was evaluated for effectiveness in controlling three annual and three perennial weed species in production pasture lands and hay meadows. Several rates of GF-884 were examined and evaluated against three registered pasture products and one non-selective herbicide. Next, GF-884 was assessed for tolerance on two common bermudagrass hybrids (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) at three progressive rates with and without adjuvant. Finally, the herbicides, picloram and fluroxypyr, were applied to common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) to characterize their individual absorption and translocation and assess any influence one might have on the other. GF-884 applied at rates of 0.91 and 1.14 kg a.e./ha provided >85% and >75% control of the annual and perennial weed species evaluated, respectively. These same rates of GF-884 consistently provided control that was equivalent or better than thatachieved with the registered products. No differences were observed among treatments when shoots from the perennial species were evaluated 12 months following treatment application. The tolerance experiments utilized GF-884 at rates twice that used to evaluate weed control efficacy. These elevated rates did not result in discernable influences on yield or forage quality for either hybrid forage grass when compared to untreated areas. The efficacy and tolerance observations suggest that GF-884 applied at the highest recommended weed control rate can effectively control several annual and perennial weed species without imparting detrimental effects to the hybrid bermudagrass being produced. Finally, in the presence of fluroxypyr, 14C picloram absorption was maintained throughout all sampling intervals. Picloram applied alone, maximized 14C absorption at 6 HAT then declined significantly. At the final sampling, 14C from picloram applied alone was in greater concentration in the treated leaf and the root. Picloram significantly decreased absorption of 14C fluroxypyr. Fluroxypyr alone maintained 14C absorption throughout all samplings, whereas the combination maximized at 12 HAT. Initially, picloram limited 14C translocation, however at 6, 12, and 24 HAT this was not evident.

Moore, Frederick Thomas

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Comparative Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Better information on the comparative toxicity of airborne emissions from different types of engines is needed to guide the development of heavy vehicle engine, fuel, lubricant, and exhaust after-treatment technologies, and to place the health hazards of current heavy vehicle emissions in their proper perspective. To help fill this information gap, samples of vehicle exhaust particles and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) were collected and analyzed. The biological activity of the combined particle-SVOC samples is being tested using standardized toxicity assays. This report provides an update on the design of experiments to test the relative toxicity of engine emissions from various sources.

JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Barbara Zielinska; John Sagebiel; Kevin Whitney; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

72

A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings  

SciTech Connect

A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The binding of herbicidal halovinyl anilides to the photosystem II Q sub B site and the relationship between affinities and molecular characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A new class of herbicidal halovinyl anilides, which inhibit photosynthetic electron transport, have been shown to inhibit {sup 14}C-atrazine binding in spinach thylakoid membranes. A scatchard analysis of the {sup 14}C-atrazine binding inhibition of the lead compound, LY221204, has shown it to be a competitive inhibitor. Preliminary QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) studies suggested that 75-80% of the variance in vivo activity could be explained by size and electronic properties and that activity increased with smaller and more electron releasing substituents. To analyze the effects of these properties on intrinsic activity, a larger QSAR study was undertaken. Atrazine binding inhibition data was generated for a group of substituted, non-conjugated vinyl anilides at 1 and 10 {mu}M concentrations and plotted as a function of physicochemical parameters. The results will be presented.

Eilers, R.J.; Crouse, G.D.; Durst, G.L.; Streusand, V.J.; Manly, C.J.; Webster, J.D. (DowElanco, Greenfield, IN (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Incomplete Mixing, Intermittency and Fluctuating Toxic Load Measurements in Indoor Plumes Speaker(s): David J. Wilson Date: October 19, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro Why have people been able to get away with ignoring intermittency (periods of zero concentration or zero turbulent temperature difference) in heat and mass transfer for the past century? Why is intermittency crucially important in toxic load estimates for biological exposure? We will explore how a simple back-of-the-envelope model can be constructed for the respiration toxicology of concentration fluctuations at a fixed receptor (for example; your lungs). This simple model will show the origin of the toxic load exponent n=2.0 for concentration C in L=Cnt. An extensive set of

75

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Management Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant. Minimum quantities are specified in Table III of these regulations. Permits will be granted based in part on the impact of the projected emissions of the stationary source on acceptable ambient levels

76

Air toxics from heavy oil production and consumption  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential impact of recent Federal and state regulations for airborne toxic substances on the production and consumption of heavy fuel oils. Emissions of nickel from heavy oil production in California are considered in some detail, in conjunction with California state regulations for toxic emissions. Although the use of thermal energy from heavy crude oils could in theory be impacted by toxic air pollution regulations, recent trends towards the use of natural gas for the required extraction energy appear to provide substantial relief, in addition to reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants. However, the consumption of residual fuel oils containing toxic metals could result in higher population exposures to these substances and their attendant risks may be worthy of more detailed analysis.

Lipfert, F.W.; DePhillips, M.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reporting ``Qs & As``. Environmental Guidance  

SciTech Connect

This document offers guidance on toxic chemical release inventory reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) at DOE sites.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Incentive-based approaches to regulating toxic substances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying incentive-based strategies to toxic substance regulation can be complicated. Potential risks to health and the environment can occur at many stages in the life cycle of a toxic substance, and the risks vary among different products and uses of products containing toxic substances. Thus researchers at Resources for the Future recommend that regulatory intervention be focused on specific stages in the life cycle of toxic substances, but warn that intervention must be broad enough to mitigate incentives to adopt production processes and products that could pose greater risks than the processes and products they replace . Despite this and other potential pitfalls, they find that incentive-based strategies such as product labeling and deposit-refund schemes may be desirable for regulating certain stages of the life cycle of some chemicals.

Macauley, M.K.; Palmer, K.L.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Chemical and Radiological Toxicity of Uranium and Its Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of uranyl nitrate required to deliver the radiation dose limit for soluble uranium compounds is larger than the toxicity-based concentration limits. Therefore, for soluble uranium compounds, health consequences of exposure are primarily due to their chemical toxicity. For insoluble compounds of uranium, health consequences (e.g., fibrosis and/or carcinogenesis of the lung) are primarily due to irradiation of pulmonary tissues from inhaled respirable particles.

Tansky, R.R.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

80

Past, present and emerging toxicity issues for jet fuel  

SciTech Connect

The US Air Force wrote the specification for the first official hydrocarbon-based jet fuel, JP-4, in 1951. This paper will briefly review the toxicity of the current fuel, JP-8, as compared to JP-4. JP-8 has been found to have low acute toxicity with the adverse effects being slight dermal irritation and weak dermal sensitization in animals. JP-4 also has low acute toxicity with slight dermal irritation as the adverse effect. Respiratory tract sensory irritation was greater in JP-8 than in JP-4. Recent data suggest exposure to jet fuel may contribute to hearing loss. Subchronic studies for 90 days with JP-8 and JP-4 showed little toxicity with the primary effect being male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A 1-year study was conducted for JP-4. The only tumors seen were associated with the male rat specific hydrocarbon nephropathy. A number of immunosuppressive effects have been seen after exposure to JP-8. Limited neurobehavioral effects have been associated with JP-8. JP-8 is not a developmental toxicant and has little reproductive toxicity. JP-4 has not been tested for immune, neurobehavioral or reproductive endpoints. JP-8 and JP-4 were negative in mutagenicity tests but JP-4 showed an increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis. Currently, JP-8 is being used as the standard for comparison of future fuels, including alternative fuels. Emerging issues of concern with jet fuels include naphthalene content, immunotoxicity and inhalation exposure characterization and modeling of complex mixtures such as jet fuels.

Mattie, David R., E-mail: david.mattie@wpafb.af.mil [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RHPB Bldg. 837, 2729 R Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-5707 (United States); Sterner, Teresa R. [HJF, AFRL/RHPB Bldg 837, 2729 R Street, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-5707 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Environmental toxicity of complex chemical mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex chemical mixtures may be released into the environment from a variety of sources including hazardous waste sites. Components of chemical mixtures and their metabolites may be genotoxic leading to cancer and heritable gene mutations. Chemical analysis alone does not always provide the most accurate information from which to estimate the risk of adverse effects associated with exposure to mixtures. Current methods to estimate the human health risk for complex mixtures assume additive effects of the components. Although it is assumed that this approach is protective of human and ecological health, it is also recognized that chemical mixtures may induce a variety of interactions including potentiation, synergism, and antagonism. A combined testing protocol, using chemical analysis coupled with a battery of in vitro, in vivo, and in situ bioassays, provides the most accurate information from which to estimate risk. Such a combined testing protocol provides information to describe the major organic and inorganic constituents, as well as the pharmacokinetics and potential interactions of chemical mixtures. This research was conducted to investigate the potential genotoxic effects of complex chemical mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated aromatics (PCA) using microbial bioassays (Salmonella/microsome assay and the E. coli prophage induction assay), the 32P-postlabeling assay in mice, and in situ measurements of genotoxicity using flow cytometry. Samples of environmental media and wildlife tissues were collected from four National Priority List Superfund sites within the United States. In general, chemical analysis was not always predictive of mixture toxicity. Although biodegradation reduced the concentration of total and carcinogenic PAHs in soils and groundwater, the genotoxicity of extracts from environmental media did not display a corresponding reduction. Mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) extracted from sediments were found to inhibit the genotoxicity of PAH mixtures when administered dermally to rodents. This inhibition exhibited a dose-response relationship, with the adduct frequency reduced at increasing doses of sediment extract. Finally, PAH concentrations in environmental media and tissues were found to correlate with DNA damage in wildlife receptors. An integrated approach, combining in vitro and in vivo methods to characterize genotoxicity provides more accurate information from which to estimate uptake and risk associated with exposure to complex mixtures and should be considered in both the human and ecological risk assessment process.

Gillespie, Annika Margaret

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Modeling toxic endpoints for improving human health risk assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risk assessment procedures for mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present a problem due to the lack of available potency and toxicity data on mixtures and individual compounds. This study examines the toxicity of parent compound PAHs and binary mixtures of PAHs in order to bridge the gap between component assessment and mixture assessment. Seven pure parent compound PAHs and four binary mixtures of PAHs were examined in the Salmonella/Microsome Mutagenicity Assay, a Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) assay and the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay (EROD). These assays were chosen for their ability to measure specific toxic endpoints related to the carcinogenic process (i.e. initiation, promotion, progression). Data from these assays was used in further studies to build Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) to estimate toxic endpoints and to test the additive assumption in PAH mixtures. These QSAR models will allow for the development of bioassay based potential potencies (PPB) or toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) that are derived not only from bioassay data, but also from structure, activity, and physical/chemical properties. These models can be extended to any environmental media to evaluate risk to human health from exposures to PAHs.

Bruce, Erica Dawn

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Toxic Substances Toxic Substances Control Jump to: navigation, search Name California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Toxic Substances Control Place Sacramento, California Website http://www.dtsc.ca.gov Coordinates 38.5815719°, -121.4943996° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.5815719,"lon":-121.4943996,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

84

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Reducing Toxic Exposure In Buildings: Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Speaker(s): Buvana Jayaraman Date: December 8, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 I investigate three applications related to toxic exposure in buildings and demonstrate the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to address important issues: 1. Improving containment of airborne hazardous materials in an existing room containing a downdraft table. CFD is used to find a ventilation configuration that ensures better containment of the hazardous material and hence improved worker safety. 2. Modeling gas transport in a large indoor space. The goal of this study is to understand how the level of detail of the CFD model affects its accuracy. Comparison of predictions with experimental data will be presented. 3. Understanding

85

Toxic combustion by-products: Generation, separation, cleansing, containment  

SciTech Connect

Focus of this paper is on diagnosis, control, and containment of potentially toxic combustion byproducts when mixed wastes are treated at elevated temperatures. Such byproducts fall into several categories: acid gases, particulates, metals, organics. Radionuclides are treated as a subset of metals, while organics are divided into two subclasses: products of incomplete combustion, and principal organic hazardous constituents. An extended flue gas cleaning system is described which can be used to contain potentially toxic organic emissions and recycle the hazrdous materials for further treatment; it uses oxygen rather than air to reduce total quantities of emissions, improve efficiency of oxidation, and minimize NOx emissions. Flue gas recycling is used for cooling and for containing all potentially toxic emissions. Three thermal treatment unit operations are used in series for more effective process control; three emission separation and containment unit operations are also used in series in the toxic emission containment system. Real time diagnostic hardware/software are used. Provision is made for automatic storage, separation of hazardous materials, commodity regeneration, and recycling of potentially harmful constituents. The greenhouse gas CO2 is recovered and not emitted to the atmosphere.

Kephart, W.; Eger, K. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp., Fort Smith, AR (United States); Clemens, M.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

March 29, 2007 Mobile Source Air Toxics Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for passenger vehicles, and evap standards for gas cans. #12;Other Recent Developments EPA's National Air Toxics that we will be performing for projects 2) EPA has expressed interest in dispersion modeling for some in a dispersion model (or the remaining steps of the risk assessment process). #12;Dispersion Modeling FHWA has

Minnesota, University of

87

Survey of toxicity and carcinogenity of mineral deposits  

SciTech Connect

The toxicities and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel are reviewed in some detail, and other trace elements briefly mentioned. These heavy metals are used as a framework within which the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal can be compared. (ACR)

Furst, A.; Harding-Barlow, I.

1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

88

Risk Assessment of Toxic Pollutants From Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities operating coal-fired power plants must weigh the cost of controlling toxic releases against the risk of adverse human health effects. An EPRI-developed analytic framework offers guidance for such assessments, outlining mathematical modeling procedures for tracking pollutants in the environment and for estimating potential health risks to nearby populations.

1987-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

89

Gender differences in methionine accumulation and metabolism in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes: Potential roles in toxicity  

SciTech Connect

L-Methionine (Met) is hepatotoxic at high concentrations. Because Met toxicity in freshly isolated mouse hepatocytes is gender-dependent, the goal of this study was to assess the roles of Met accumulation and metabolism in the increased sensitivity of male hepatocytes to Met toxicity compared with female hepatocytes. Male hepatocytes incubated with Met (30 mM) at 37 {sup o}C exhibited higher levels of intracellular Met at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h, respectively, compared to female hepatocytes. Conversely, female hepatocytes had higher levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine compared to male hepatocytes. Female hepatocytes also exhibited higher L-methionine-L-sulfoxide levels relative to control hepatocytes, whereas the increases in L-methionine-D-sulfoxide (Met-D-O) levels were similar in hepatocytes of both genders. Addition of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of Met transamination, significantly increased Met levels at 1.5 h and increased Met-D-O levels at 1.0 and 1.5 h only in Met-exposed male hepatocytes. No gender differences in cytosolic Met transamination activity by glutamine transaminase K were detected. However, female mouse liver cytosol exhibited higher methionine-DL-sulfoxide (MetO) reductase activity than male mouse liver cytosol at low (0.25 and 0.5 mM) MetO concentrations. Collectively, these results suggest that increased cellular Met accumulation, decreased Met transmethylation, and increased Met and MetO transamination in male mouse hepatocytes may be contributing to the higher sensitivity of the male mouse hepatocytes to Met toxicity in comparison with female mouse hepatocytes.

Dever, Joseph T. [Department of Comparative Biosciences and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Elfarra, Adnan A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)], E-mail: aelfarra@wisc.edu

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Toxicity of shale oil to freshwater algae: comparisons with petroleum and coal-derived oils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The toxicities of various water-soluble fractions of Paraho/SOHIO shale oils and coal liquefaction products to the algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Microcystis aeruginosa are investigated. Photosynthetic inhibition is the criterion of toxicity. A secondary objective of the algal bioassay is determination of the range of toxic concentrations. (ACR)

Giddings, J.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management  

SciTech Connect

This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

Ragaini, R.C.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

An inexpensive fathead minnow egg incubation and toxicant exposure system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods have been developed for bulk hatching of fathead minnow eggs for laboratory and commercial culture. These methods generally involve placing whole, egg-laden breeding substrates in an aeration or water-flow device, or manually removing eggs from breeding substrates. Eggs removed from substrates are then hatched in Downing or McDonald jar hatching devices or are agitated in cylindrical vessels from which larvae are manually removed. These methods are difficult to incorporate into toxicity tests involving determination of hatching success in replicate systems. Both require either continuous water flow to individual hatching chambers or frequent static renewal, which adds to the labor of separating larvae from unhatched eggs. The authors report on an inexpensive, easily constructed system for hatching fathead minnow eggs and maintaining hatched larvae for growth and survivorship studies. Data are presented to illustrate the use of the system for toxicant exposures. This system has applications for both field and laboratory studies.

Diamond, S.A.; Oris, J.T.; Guttman, S.I. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Zoology

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low toxicity method of inhibiting sickling of sickle erythrocytes which comprises intermixing the erythrocytes with an effective anti-sickling amount of a water-soluble imidoester of the formula RC(=NH)OR' wherein R is an alkyl group of 1 - 8 carbon atoms, particularly 1 - 4 carbon atoms, and R' is an alkyl group of 1 - 4 carbon atoms, specifically methyl or ethyl acetimidate.

Packer, Lester (Orinda, CA); Bymun, Edwin N. (Oakland, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on three tasks associated with the EPRI project, Air Toxics Control by Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Systems. The first task is an investigation of the factors that influence and control the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) at which a limestone forced oxidation FGD system operates. Both a literature review and a numerical analysis of full-scale wet FGD data were conducted. Results from this task are presented and discussed in Section 2 of the ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

Tucker, Mark D. (Albuqueruqe, NM); Betty, Rita G. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Title Assessing Sheltering-In-Place Responses to Outdoor Toxic Releases Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sohn, Michael D., Richard G. Sextro, and David M. Lorenzetti Conference Name 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(6) Pagination 1792-1796 Date Published Sept. 4-9, 2005 Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Keywords airflow and pollutant transport group, airflow modeling, comis, countermeasures to chemical and biological threats, emergency response, exposure, indoor environment department, shelter-in-place Abstract An accidental or intentional outdoor release of pollutants can produce a hazardous plume, potentially contaminating large portions of a metropolitan area as it disperses downwind. To minimize health consequences on the populace, government and research organizations often recommend sheltering in place when evacuation is impractical. Some reports also recommend "hardening" an indoor shelter, for example by applying duct tape to prevent leakage into a bathroom. However, few studies have quantified the perceived beneficial effects of sheltering and hardening, or examined the limits of their applicability. In this paper, we examine how sheltering and hardening might reduce exposure levels under different building and meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction). We predict concentrations and exposure levels for several conditions, and discuss the net benefits from several sheltering and hardening options

97

Evaluation of Sediment Toxicity Using a Suite of Assessment Tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of risk of adverse ecological effects related to contaminated sediment presents a particularly difficult challenge. A series of studies has been conducted to investigate the utility of various tools for assessment of sediment toxicity. The goal of this research was to provide information which could help increase the accuracy with which predictions of toxicity could be made at hazardous sites. A calibration study was conducted using model PAHs, PCBs, a binary PAH mixture and a coal-tar mixture. This study was a collaborative effort among five university-based Superfund Research Programs (SRPs). Each program, with the help of funding through the NIEHS Superfund Research Program, has developed a chemical-class specific assay to estimate toxicity of contaminants in sediment. This suite of bioassays expands the range of data typically obtained through the use of standard aquatic toxicity assays. A series of caged in situ exposure studies has been conducted using juvenile Chinook salmon and Pacific staghorn sculpin in the Lower Duwamish Waterway. The study aimed to investigate the utility of selected biomarkers in evaluating the relationship between contaminants present in environmental samples and response in receptors following an in situ caged exposure. Results found that DNA adducts detected in exposed fish were significantly higher than controls in 2004 and 2006, and DNA adducts appear to be a reliable indicator of exposure, although no dose-response relationship was present. Western blot analysis of CYP1A1 was not indicative of exposure levels. The final study conducted was concerned with evaluating the utility of using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers in situ to evaluate contaminated sediment. Levels of PAHs and PCBs in sediment often exceeded sediment quality guidelines; however, results from aquatic toxicity bioassays using Hyalella azteca were mostly negative, thus levels of contaminants detected on SPME fibers could not be associated with adverse effects in Hyalella. However, regression analysis of total PAHs present in sediment and levels of PAHs detected in porewater SPME fiber samplers, which were placed 5 cm into the sediment for 30 days, revealed a strongly correlated linear relationship (R2 = .779). Normalization of the sediment data to total organic carbon was performed to determine if the trend would remain present, and the linear relationship was again confirmed (R2 =.709).

Kelley, Matthew A

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

ROLE OF TOXICITY ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING IN MANAGING THE RECOVERY OF A WASTEWATER RECEIVING STREAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluate the roles of a long-term comprehensive toxicity assessment and monitoring program in management and for ecological recovery of a freshwater receiving stream impacted by industrial discharges and legacy contamination. National Pollution Discharge Elimination Permit (NPDES)-driven whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests using Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnows were conducted for more than twenty years to characterize wastewaters at the US National Nuclear Security Agency s Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ambient toxicity tests also were conducted to assess water samples from EFPC, the stream receiving the wastewater discharges. The ambient tests were conducted as part of an extensive biological monitoring program that included routine surveys of fish, invertebrate and periphyton communities. WET testing, associated toxicant identification evaluations (TIEs), and ambient toxicity monitoring were instrumental in identifying toxicants and their sources at the Y-12 Complex, guiding modifications to wastewater treatment procedures, and assessing the success of various pollution-abatement actions. Through time, as requirements changed and water quality improved, the toxicity monitoring program became more focused. Ambient testing with Ceriodaphnia and fathead minnow larvae also was supplemented with less-standardized but more-sensitive alternative laboratory and in situ bioassays. The Y-12 Complex biological monitoring experience demonstrates the significant roles effluent and ambient toxicity testing can have in controlling and managing toxic discharges to receiving waters. It also emphasizes the value of supplementing WET and standardized ambient toxicity tests with alternative laboratory and in situ toxicity tests tailored to address specific problems.

Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Kszos, Lynn A [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

Watson, A.P.

2003-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

100

Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reducing industrial toxic wastes and discharges: The role of POTWs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intended for use by elected and appointed local officials, the guidebook makes recommendations as to how publicly-owned treatment works (POTWs) can promote hazardous waste minimization. The guide suggests that POTWs can significantly reduce their toxic discharges to the sewer (without transferral of same pollutants to another media) by developing programs which combine features of three options - educational programs that provide waste minimization information to local companies; technical assistance programs that help companies identify and evaluate site-specific opportunities for waste minimization; and regulatory programs that establish indirect inducements or direct requirements to promote waste minimization.

Sherry, S.; Corbett, J.; Eulo, T.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On February 9, 2007, the EPA released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70 percent of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

Information Center

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

103

NETL: IEP - Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of CCB Disposal and Utilization The goal of the proposed effort is to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements on the management of CCBs. Supporting objectives are to 1) determine the release potential of selected air toxic elements, including mercury and arsenic, from CCBs under specific environmental conditions; 2) increase the database of information on mercury and other air toxic element releases for CCBs; 3) develop comparative laboratory and field data; and 4) develop appropriate laboratory and field protocols. The specific mechanisms of air toxic element releases to be evaluated will be leaching releases, vapor releases to the atmosphere, and biologically induced leaching and vapor releases.

104

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

[Completion of the dog toxicity project at the University of Utah: statistical comparison  

SciTech Connect

Radium (Ra) toxicity in dogs is a cornerstone for the evaluation of plutonium (Pu) toxicity, as it provides a possible link to Pu toxicity in humans. Survival regression models with covariates were used to estimate the risk to survival and the frequency and latency of bone tumor development. It appears for Ra that dose-rate is a more significant contributor to non-survival and bone tumors than is skeletal dose.

Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

1993 Toxics Release Inventory data for the state of South Carolina...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1993 Toxics Release Inventory data for the state of South Carolina Manufacturing DataTools ResearchTech Services Apps Challenges Blogs Let's Talk Manufacturing You are here...

108

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hazardous, Toxic, and Radionuclide Mixed Wastes Without1997). Less volatile radionuclides are collected with 3 ofmeet the permissible radionuclide concentration and were not

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Leaching Toxicity of Pb and Ba Containing in Cathode Ray Tube Glasses by SEP-TCLP. Author(s), Mengjun Chen, Fu-Shen Zhang, Jianxin ...

110

Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999  

SciTech Connect

The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper, iron, lead and vanadium were below the TRVs. Metal concentrations in the sediment exceeded the TRVs for arsenic, chromium, copper, and mercury but not for antimony and lead. The results of the water toxicity tests indicated no evidence of acute toxicity in any of the samples. The results of the chronic toxicity tests indicated possible reproductive impairment at two locations. However, the results appear to be anomalous, since the toxicity was unrelated to concentration, and because the concentrations of pCOCs were similar in the toxic and the non-toxic samples. The results of the sediment toxicity tests indicated significant mortality in all but one sample, including the background reference sediment. When the results of the CSBRP sediment toxicity tests were statistically compared to the result from the background reference sediment, there was no significant mortality. These results suggest that the surface water and sediment at the CSBRP Operable Unit are not toxic to the biota that inhabit the wetland and the settling basin.

Specht, W.L.

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

111

Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Interaction Between Toxic Metals and Complex Biofilm/Mineral/Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

highlights highlights title by Alexis S. Templeton, Thomas P. Trainor, and Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Stanford University Sorption reactions on particle surfaces can dramatically affect the speciation, cycling and bioavailability of essential micronutrients (i.e. PO43-, Cu, Zn etc.) and toxic metals and metalloids (i.e. Pb, Hg, Se, As) in soils and aquatic environments. Considerable attention has been focused on understanding metal sorption reactions at a molecular/mechanistic level and the effects of metal concentration, pH, ionic strength, and complexing ligands on the ways in which metal ions bind to the surfaces of common mineral phases such as Fe-, Mn- and Al-(hydr)oxides and clays. However, a significant fraction of mineral surfaces in natural environments are extensively colonized by microbial organisms, which can also be potent sorbents for metals due to the large number of reactive functional groups that decorate the cell walls and outer membranes of bacterial surfaces.

113

Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day{sup -1}) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day{sup -1}). Furthermore, measurements of the EC{sub 50} parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized.

Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece); Gidarakos, E. [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineers, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100 Polytechnioupolis, Chania, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale.

Corburn, Jason [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and School of International and Public Affairs, 400 Avery Hall, 1172 Amsterdam Ave. New York, NY 10027 (United States)]. E-mail: jtc2105@columbia.edu

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Progress in Understanding the Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To help guide heavy vehicle engine, fuel, and exhaust after-treatment technology development, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute are conducting research not addressed elsewhere on aspects of the toxicity of particulate engine emissions. Advances in these technologies that reduce diesel particulate mass emissions may result in changes in particle composition, and there is concern that the number of ultrafine (<0.1 micron) particles may increase. All present epidemiological and laboratory data on the toxicity of diesel emissions were derived from emissions of older-technology engines. New, short-term toxicity data are needed to make health-based choices among diesel technologies and to compare the toxicity of diesel emissions to those of other engine technologies. This research program has two facets: (1) development and use of short-term in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays for comparing the toxicities of gasoline and diesel exhaust emissions; and (2) determination of the disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles deposited in the lung. Responses of cultured cells, cultured lung slices, and rodent lungs to various types of particles were compared to develop an improved short-term toxicity screening capability. To date, chemical toxicity indicators of cultured human A549 cells and early inflammatory and cytotoxic indicators of rat lungs have given the best distinguishing capability. A study is now underway to determine the relative toxicities of exhaust samples from in-use diesel and gasoline engines. The samples are being collected under the direction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory with support from DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The ability to generate solid ultrafine particles and to trace their movement in the body as particles and soluble material was developed. Data from rodents suggest that ultrafine particles can move from the lung to the liver in particulate form. The quantitative disposition of inhaled ultrafine particles will be determined in rodents and nonhuman primates.

Kristen J. Nikula; Gregory L. Finch; Richard A. Westhouse; JeanClare Seagrave; Joe L. Mauderly; Doughlas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

1999-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

119

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Toxic substances from coal combustion -- A comprehensive assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1999 to 30 September 1999. During this period the MIT INAA procedures were revised to improve the quality of the analytical results. Two steps have been taken to reduce the analytical errors. A new nitric acid leaching procedure, modified from ASTM procedure D2492, section 7.3.1 for determination of pyritic sulfur, was developed by USGS and validated. To date, analytical results have been returned for all but the last complete round of the four-step leaching procedure. USGS analysts in Denver have halted development of the cold vapor atomic fluorescence technique for mercury analysis procedure in favor of a new direct analyzer for Hg that the USGS is in the process of acquiring. Since early June, emphasis at USGS has been placed on microanalysis of clay minerals in project coals in preparation for use of the Stanford/USGS SHRIMP RG Ion Microprobe during August 1999. The SHRIMP-RG data confirm that Cr is present at concentrations of about 20 to 120 ppm, just below the electron microprobe detection limits (100 to 200 ppm), as suspected from Phase 1 microprobe work and previous studies of clay mineral separates. The University of Utah has started trial runs on the drop tube furnace to ensure that the gas analysis system is working properly and that the flow pattern within the furnace is laminar and direct. A third set of ASTM samples will be prepared at the University of Utah for the Phase 1 and Phase 2 coals. This time the INAA counting time will be optimized for the elements in which the authors are interested, guided by the results from the first two samples. The iodated charcoal which was used by MIT for vapor phase Hg collection was tested to see whether it collected other vapor phase metals. A second set of tests were performed at PSI using the entrained flow reactor (EFR). The University of Arizona's pilot-scale downflow laboratory combustion furnace was used to test the partitioning of toxic metals in the baseline experiments for the Phase 2 North Dakota lignite and the Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal at baghouse inlet sampling conditions. In addition, baseline data were collected on combustion of the Phase 1 Kentucky Elkhorn/Hazard bituminous coal. Emphasis at the University of Kentucky was placed on (1) collection of new Hg XAFS data for various sorbents, and (2) on collection of XAFS and other data for arsenic, sulfur, chromium and selenium in two baseline ash samples from the University of Arizona combustion unit. A preliminary interpretation of the mercury data is given in this report. Revision was made to the matrix for the initial experiments on mercury-ash interactions to be conducted at EERC. The overall goal of this effort is to collect data which will allow one to model the interactions of mercury and fly ash (specifically, adsorption of Hg{sup 0} and Hg{sup +2} and oxidation of Hg{sup 0}) in the air heater and particulate control dev

C.L. Senior; T. Panagiotou; F.E. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F Sarofim; J. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowsky; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Application of powder metallurgy techniques for the development of non-toxic ammunition. Final CRADA report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and Delta Frangible Ammunition (DFA), was to identify and evaluate composite materials for the development of small arms ammunition. Currently available small arms ammunition utilizes lead as the major component of the projectile. The introduction of lead into the environment by these projectiles when they are expended is a rapidly increasing environmental problem. At certain levels, lead is a toxic metal to the environment and a continual health and safety concern for firearm users as well as those who must conduct lead recovery operations from the environment. DFA is a leading supplier of high-density mixtures, which will be used to replace lead-based ammunition in specific applications. Current non-lead ammunition has several limitations that prevent it from replacing lead-based ammunition in many applications (such as applications that require ballistics, weapon recoil, and weapon function identical to that of lead-based ammunition). The purpose of the CRADA was to perform the research and development to identify cost-effective materials to be used in small arms ammunition that eventually will be used in commercially viable, environmentally conscious, non-lead, frangible and/or non-frangible, ammunition.

Lowden, R. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kelly, R. [Delta Defense, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

124

Comparative Metagenomics of Toxic Freshwater Cyanobacteria Bloom Communities on Two Continents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms have persisted in freshwater systems around the world for centuries and appear to be globally increasing in frequency and severity. Toxins produced by bloom-associated cyanobacteria can have drastic impacts on the ecosystem and surrounding communities, and bloom biomass can disrupt aquatic food webs and act as a driver for hypoxia. Little is currently known regarding the genomic content of the Microcystis strains that form blooms or the companion heterotrophic community associated with bloom events. To address these issues, we examined the bloomassociated microbial communities in single samples from Lake Erie (North America), Lake Tai (Taihu, China), and Grand Lakes St. Marys (OH, USA) using comparative metagenomics. Together the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria comprised .90% of each bloom bacterial community sample, although the dominant phylum varied between systems. Relative to the existing Microcystis aeruginosa NIES 843 genome, sequences from Lake Erie and Taihu revealed a number of metagenomic islands that were absent in the environmental samples. Moreover, despite variation in the phylogenetic assignments of bloomassociated organisms, the functional potential of bloom members remained relatively constant between systems. This pattern was particularly noticeable in the genomic contribution of nitrogen assimilation genes. In Taihu, the genetic elements associated with the assimilation and metabolism of nitrogen were predominantly associated with Proteobacteria, while these functions in the North American lakes were primarily contributed to by the Cyanobacteria. Our observations build on an emerging body of metagenomic surveys describing the functional potential of microbial communities as more highly conserved than that of their phylogenetic makeup within natural systems.

Steffen, Morgan M [ORNL; Li, Zhou [ORNL; Effler, Chad [Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Boyer, Gergory [College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse; Wilhelm, Steven W [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Assessment of tree toxicity near the F- and H-Area seepage basins of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Areas of tree mortality, originating in 1979, have been documented downslope of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins. The basins were used as discharge areas for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive waste. Preliminary studies indicated that there are three possible causes of stress: altered hydrology; hazardous chemicals; and nonhazardous chemicals. It was originally hypothesized that the most likely hydrological stressors to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora were flooding where water levels cover the lenticels for more than 26 percent of the growing season, resulting in low oxygen availability, and toxins produced under anaerobic conditions. In fact, trees began to show stress only flowing a drought year (1977) rather than a wet year. Dry conditions could exacerbate stress by concentrating contaminants, particularly salt. Study of the soil and water chemical parameters in the impacted sites indicated that salt concentrations in the affected areas have produced abnormally high exchangeable sodium percentages. Furthermore, significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals were found in each impacted site, although no one metal was consistently elevated. Evaluation of the concentrations of various chemicals toxic to Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora revealed that aluminum was probably the most toxic in the F-Area. Manganese, cadmium, and zinc had concentrations great enough to be considered possible causes of tree mortality in the F-Area. Aluminum was the most likely cause of mortality in the H-Area. Controlled experiments testing metal and salt concentration effects on Nyssa sylvatica would be needed to specifically assign cause and effect mortality relationships.

Loehle, C. (ed.) (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); Richardson, C.J. (ed.); Greenwood, K.P.; Hane, M.E.; Lander, A.J. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Toxicity of aqueous fullerene nC60 to activated sludge: nitrification inhibition and microtox test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing production and use of fullerene nanomaterials raised their exposure potential to the activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, the toxicity of aqueous nanoscaled C60 (nC60) to ...

Yongkui Yang; Norihide Nakada; Ryoji Nakajima; Chao Wang; Hiroaki Tanaka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About On The Toxicity of Flame Retardants in Buildings and What Can Be Done About It Speaker(s): Arlene Blum Date: November 3, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: William Fisk Polystyrene, polyisocyanurate, and polyurethane are insulation materials that increase energy efficiency and whose use in buildings, especially energy efficient buildings, is growing rapidly. At the same time, the flame retardants currently in use with these materials are often chemicals that are known to be toxic or have not been adequately evaluated for their impact on human health and the environment. For example, all polystyrene foam insulation used in buildings is treated with HBCD, a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic flame retardant. The impacts of exposure to

128

Public Health Surveillance of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems Using Remote Detection Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. (2007). Fast-Growing Algae Smothers Chinese Lake. Sanhit by toxic "red tide" of algae. Reuters. Beijing. Backer,red tide events." Harmful Algae 2(1): 19-28. Backer, L. C. ,

Mackie, Trina Nicole

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Compatibility and toxicity of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles on mammalian cell systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) produced normal growth curves in the presence of particles. However, the particles do still exhibit some toxicity towards the cells, as the maximum cell density of cells cultured with particles does not reach that ...

Kral, Kelly M., 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

U.S./Mexico Border environmental study toxics release inventory data, 1988--1992  

SciTech Connect

This is a report on industrial toxic chemical releases and transfers based on information reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), a database maintained by the USEPA. This document discusses patterns of toxic chemical releases to the atmosphere, to water, to the land, and to underground injection; and transfers of toxic chemicals to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW), and for disposal, treatment and other off-site transfers during the TRI reporting years 1988--1992. Geographic coverage is limited to the US side of the ``Border Area``, the geographic area situated within 100 km of the US/Mexico international boundary. A primary purpose of this study is to provide background information that can be used in the future development of potential ``indicator variables`` for tracking environmental and public health status in the Border Area in conjunction with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

O`Brien, R.F.; LoPresti, C.A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Assessment of Early Toxicity and Response in Patients Treated With Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center Using the Raster Scanning Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Puropose: To asses early toxicity and response in 118 patients treated with scanned ion beams to validate the safety of intensity-controlled raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center. Patients and Methods: Between November 2009 and June 2010, we treated 118 patients with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) using active beam delivery. The main indications included skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas, salivary gland tumors, and gliomas. We evaluated early toxicity within 6 weeks after RT and the initial clinical and radiologic response for quality assurance in our new facility. Results: In all 118 patients, few side effects were observed, in particular, no high numbers of severe acute toxicity were found. In general, the patients treated with particle therapy alone showed only a few single side effects, mainly Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Common Terminology Criteria grade 1. The most frequent side effects and cumulative incidence of single side effects were observed in the head-and-neck patients treated with particle therapy as a boost and photon intensity-modulated RT. The toxicities included common radiation-attributed reactions known from photon RT, including mucositis, dysphagia, and skin erythema. The most predominant imaging responses were observed in patients with high-grade gliomas and those with salivary gland tumors. For skull base tumors, imaging showed a stable tumor outline in most patients. Thirteen patients showed improvement of pre-existing clinical symptoms. Conclusions: Side effects related to particle treatment were rare, and the overall tolerability of the treatment was shown. The initial response was promising. The data have confirmed the safe delivery of carbon ions and protons at the newly opened Heidelberg facility.

Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Nikoghosyan, Anna; Jensen, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Muenter, Marc W.; Welzel, Thomas; Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E., E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-hedielberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Program on Technology Innovation: Cumulative Risk Assessment of Urban Air Toxics: Pilot Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cumulative risk modeling for estimating the burden of exposure to urban air toxics requires consideration of a range of factors influencing population health. These factors include multiple toxic compounds, a variety of pollutant sources, background levels of air pollutants, and non-chemical stressors not historically considered in regulatory risk assessments. To date, quantitative methods to account for all these factors remain sporadic and relatively untested. However, the United States ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Evaluation of radium and toxic element leaching characteristics of Florida phosphogypsum stockpiles. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted studies to determine if phosphogypsum, a waste material from the processing of phosphate rock, contains hazardous toxic materials as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and whether leaching of these toxic materials and radium may occur. Samples of the phosphogypsum stockpiled material were evaluated using the EPA extraction procedure, atomic absorption, neutron activation, X-ray diffraction, and chemical and physical means. Radiological tests performed used both the germanium-lithium and emanation methods.

May, A.; Sweeney, J.W.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Questions on the toxicity and behavior of product in the body  

SciTech Connect

This May 1945 report deals with how best to estimate the toxicity of ``Product`` to workers at Clinton Laboratories. Discussed are the issues of how toxic product is relative to radium, methods of analysis of product in the body, means of elimination from and distribution of product within the body, and what therapeutic measures are available. The principal concern of the author is that of protection of personnel who regularly handle in the laboratory large amounts of this material.

English, S.G.

1945-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory 2008 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For reporting year 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) submitted a Form R report for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2008 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2008, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the keap1 gene activates Nrf2 and confers potent resistance against acute drug toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nrf2 is a key regulator of many detoxifying enzyme genes, and cytoplasmic protein Keap1 represses the Nrf2 activity under quiescent conditions. Germ line deletion of the keap1 gene results in constitutive activation of Nrf2, but the pups unexpectedly died before weaning. To investigate how constitutive activation of Nrf2 influences the detoxification system in adult mice, we generated mice bearing a hepatocyte-specific disruption of the keap1 gene. Homozygous mice were viable and their livers displayed no apparent abnormalities, but nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 is elevated. Microarray analysis revealed that, while many detoxifying enzyme genes are highly expressed, some of the typical Nrf2-dependent genes are only marginally increased in the Keap1-deficient liver. The mutant mice were significantly more resistant to toxic doses of acetaminophen than control animals. These results demonstrate that chronic activation of Nrf2 confers animals with resistance to xenobiotics without affecting the morphological and physiological integrity of hepatocytes.

Okawa, Hiromi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Motohashi, Hozumi [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Akira [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Aburatani, Hiroyuki [Research Center for Advance Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Kensler, Thomas W. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan) and ERATO Environmental Response Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: masi@tara.tsukuba.ac.jp

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

138

Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and HIF-1{alpha} induction in acetaminophen toxicity in mice occurs without hypoxia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HIF-1{alpha} is a nuclear factor important in the transcription of genes controlling angiogenesis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Both hypoxia and oxidative stress are known mechanisms for the induction of HIF-1{alpha}. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are mechanistically important in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in the mouse. MPT may occur as a result of oxidative stress and leads to a large increase in oxidative stress. We previously reported the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in mice with APAP toxicity and have shown that VEGF is important in hepatocyte regeneration following APAP toxicity. The following study was performed to examine the relative contribution of hypoxia versus oxidative stress to the induction of HIF-1{alpha} in APAP toxicity in the mouse. Time course studies using the hypoxia marker pimonidazole showed no staining for pimonidazole at 1 or 2 h in B6C3F1 mice treated with APAP. Staining for pimonidazole was present in the midzonal to periportal regions at 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and no staining was observed in centrilobular hepatocytes, the sites of the toxicity. Subsequent studies with the MPT inhibitor cyclosporine A showed that cyclosporine A (CYC; 10 mg/kg) reduced HIF-1{alpha} induction in APAP treated mice at 1 and 4 h and did not inhibit the metabolism of APAP (depletion of hepatic non-protein sulfhydryls and hepatic protein adduct levels). The data suggest that HIF-1{alpha} induction in the early stages of APAP toxicity is secondary to oxidative stress via a mechanism involving MPT. In addition, APAP toxicity is not mediated by a hypoxia mechanism.

Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: schaudhuri@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: henningsleah@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Letzig, Lynda [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: lameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (United States); Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Application of leaching tests for toxicity evaluation of coal fly ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The toxic properties of coal fly ash samples obtained from various coal combustion power plants were evaluated in this work using physicochemical analyses and bioassays. Physicochemical analyses showed that heavy metals present in solid samples included Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The results of the chemical analysis of eluates deduced by the application of standard leaching tests according to EN 12457-2 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) methods indicated that the compounds contained in fly ashes could potentially be transferred to the liquid phase depending upon the leaching method used. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in TCLP eluates, indicating that the initial pH value of the leaching medium significantly affected the transfer of these elements to the liquid phase. Tests conducted with the photobacterium Vibrio fischeri (Microtox test), the crustacean Daphnia magna, and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were used to assess toxicity of eluates obtained by both leaching tests. Daphnia magna was the most sensitive test organism. The EN 12457-2 method proved to be more reliable for toxicity evaluation of eluates. In contrast, the TCLP method showed some interference owing to acetic acid toxicity, and precipitation occurred after pH adjustment of eluates from acid to neutral range. The toxicity of both fly ashes and the corresponding solid leaching residues of EN 12457-2 and TCLP leaching tests was also measured using the Microtox Basic Solid phase Test. The results generated with this bioassay indicated that toxicity was greatly influenced by the pH status of the solid samples.

Tsiridis, V.; Samaras, P.; Kungolos, A.; Sakellaropoullos, G.P. [Technological Educational Institute for West Macedonia, Kozani (Greece). Dept. for Pollution Control Technology

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Toxicity of chemical compounds used for enhanced oil recovery. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this report is to assess the toxicological nature of compounds used in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies so that the Department of Energy (DOE) can delineate the possible constraints to EOR commercialization that the toxicity of these substances could pose. In addition, research priorities are recommended to the DOE so that these constraints can be overcome in as safe and expedient manner as possible. In evaluating the toxicity of EOR chemicals, priority is given to the many chemicals which are now available commercially and are being used in a significant fashion in current EOR field tests. Specific attention has been paid to those chemicals which are used most extensively and to the human health effects data that are associated with them. These data are presented in Chapter Two. Information on toxicological concepts and a glossary of terms is presented in a separate appendix. Long-term environmental effects are not addressed in this document, but the possibility of impacts due to the toxic properties of certain chemicals is discussed briefly in the research recommendations. A table of aquatic toxicity data is included as Appendix C. The toxicity of EOR chemicals used is given for each of the following major secondary and tertiary recovery methods: micellar/polymer flooding technology; miscible carbon dioxide technology; in situ combustion technology; alkaline flooding and preflush technologies; and steam soak and steam drive technologies.

Silvestro, E.; Crocker, M.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Rat liver mitochondrial and microsomal tests for the assessment of quinone toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Short-term toxicity tests using mitochondrial and microsomal metabolism were developed and applied to a series of eight quinones. In the mitochondrial assay, the degree to which test compounds inhibited mitochondrial respiration varied from an effective concentration (EC50) of 9 to 125 [mu]M. In the microsomal assay, the maximum percentage of increase over control oxygen consumption rates elicited by the quinones ranged from 8 to 837%. The ability of the compounds to stimulate microsomal oxygen uptake reflects their capability to redox cycle and form reactive oxygen species. Results of the mitochondrial and microsomal assay were statistically correlated with several quinone physicochemical parameters and qualitatively compared to reduction potential. The biological response observed in both test systems appeared to be most strongly influenced by the reduction potential of the quinone. Biomechanisms of action were suggested on the basis of this relationship. To assess the ability of the mitochondrial and microsomal assays to indicate toxicity of the quinonoid compounds, results were statistically correlated with literature-derived toxicity data. It was concluded that the mitochondrial assay appears to be a valid indicator of acute toxicity, whereas the microsomal assay better portends the potential for chronic toxicity.

Bramble, L.A.; Boardman, G.D.; Dietrich, A.M. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Bevan, D.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Generic microelectronic smart sensor platform for detection of toxic, hazardous, and flammable gases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Extensive work has been performed in the past which demonstrates that various metal alloys can be used to detect different toxic, hazardous, and flammable gases. Work has been performed using Pd, Pt, Ir, PdNi, PdAg and Pt/Pd for detecting things such as Hydrogen, Hydrazine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Deuterium, Tritium, Ethanol and Hexane. Perhaps the most familiar is the use of Pd and PdNi for the detection of Hydrogen. These devices work by examining the effect of the gases on the material properties of the metal alloys. Two of the most common material properties examined in these sensors are the resistance of thin film resistors, and the flatband or threshold voltage shifts of MOS structures fabricated with a particular alloy as the gate material. While research into these sensing techniques has shown much promise, few manufacturable, fieldable devices have resulted. These sensing techniques are prone to drift problems due to temperature variations, and typically have large sample to sample variations in performance due to process control issues. Typically, these sensors require significant external instrumentation for measurement and control, making the systems large and expensive. Sandia National Laboratories has designed, fabricated and demonstrated complete functionality of a generic microelectronic based smart sensor platform intended to effectively exploit the research mentioned above into high performance, manufacturable, fieldable devices. This smart sensor platform technology fabricates 2 {mu}m CMOS digital and analog control electronics, sensing elements, and temperature control elements on the same silicon integrated circuit. Our initial demonstration of this technology incorporates PdNi as the sensing alloy for the detection of hydrogen.

Rodriguez, J.; Corbett, W.; Montague, S.; Knoll, M.; McWhorter, P.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

High School  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High School Please click on the title for more information about each program. Nano*High Nano High Saturday presentations for Bay Area high school students Science Bowl Science...

144

SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AIR TOXICS AIR TOXICS -. EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Prepared Under Burns and Roe Services Corporation Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC92100 .Subtask 44.02 July 1996 SUMMARY OF AIR TOXICS EMISSIONS TESTING AT SIXTEEN . . UTILITY POWER PLANTS Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center . Prepared by Adrian Radziwon and Edward Winter Burns and Roe Services Corporation Terence J. McManus, Oak Ridge Associated Universities July 1996 TABLE OF CONTERlW SECTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION ................... 1 Background . : .................. 1 Objectives .................... 1 Report Structure ................. 3 Uncertainties ................... 3 SECTION 2.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................. 7

145

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301) 903-5051 E: sc.ber@science.doe.gov More Information » April 2013 Scientists Discover how Bacteria Convert Mercury to Toxic Form Two genes responsible for mercury methylation identified. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo

146

The RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) : a concept for a new method.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has committed to reexamining its use of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was developed to support the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Toxicity Characteristic (40 CFR 261.24) and to help predict whether toxic constituents of solid wastes would be mobilized upon their contact with municipal waste leachate. The method involves a batch extraction test in which wastes are exposed to an aqueous liquid designed to simulate the solvent properties of municipal waste leachates. The resulting extract (i.e., TCLP leachate) is analyzed for the presence of various organic and inorganic contaminants. This article presents a concept for a new method that addresses a number of critical design criteria. The concept is based on a preliminary method developed by the authors as part of a work group chaired by the American Society for Testing and Materials.

Kimmell, T. A.; Williams, L. R.; Sorini, S. S.; Environmental Assessment; National Research Lab.; Western Research Inst.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Toxicity of coal gasifier solid waste to the aquatic plants Selenastrum capricornutum and Spirodela oligorhiza  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classical assessment of aquatic toxicity has focused on fish and invertebrates primarily due to their economic importance. However, increased awareness of the role of aquatic vegetation as primary producers in aquatic systems has stimulated their use in aquatic hazards evaluations. This paper presents the results of solid waste leaching tests using a procedure which was designed to mimic landfilling of solid waste. Results are reported for leachate analysis of the ash agglomerate and the relative toxicity of this leachate to Selenastrum capricornutum (a unicellular green alga) and Spirodela oligorhiza (a floating aquatic vascular plant).

Klaine, S.J.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

LARK-TRIPP RY2007 Version 1.1 update, A Toxic Release Inventory Estimation Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LARK-TRIPP RY2007, Version 1.1, is a software tool that estimates manufacture and release of toxic chemicals for reporting under EPA Toxics Release Inventory Program. This version replaces Version 1.0, product 1015610. Companies that do not fund Program 59 are required to purchase annual membership in a LARK-TRIPP Users Group. Descripton LARK-TRIPP is a powerful, user-friendly tool for estimating, tracking and reporting releases of chemicals primarily trace substances from fossil-fired steam electric pla...

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Monotherapy or Post-External Beam Radiotherapy Boost for Prostate Cancer: Technique, Early Toxicity, and PSA Response  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy has been established as an excellent monotherapy or after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) boost treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Recently, dosimetric studies have demonstrated the potential for achieving similar dosimetry with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) compared with HDR brachytherapy. Here, we report our technique, PSA nadir, and acute and late toxicity with SBRT as monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa using HDR brachytherapy fractionation. Patients and Methods: To date, 38 patients have been treated with SBRT at University of California-San Francisco with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with SBRT monotherapy (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 fractions), and 18 were treated with SBRT boost (9.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 2 fractions) post-EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy. PSA nadir to date for 44 HDR brachytherapy boost patients with disease characteristics similar to the SBRT boost cohort was also analyzed as a descriptive comparison. Results: SBRT was well tolerated. With a median follow-up of 18.3 months (range, 12.6-43.5), 42% and 11% of patients had acute Grade 2 gastrourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively, with no Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity to date. Two patients experienced late Grade 3 GU toxicity. All patients are without evidence of biochemical or clinical progression to date, and favorably low PSA nadirs have been observed with a current median PSA nadir of 0.35 ng/mL (range, <0.01-2.1) for all patients (0.47 ng/mL, range, 0.2-2.1 for the monotherapy cohort; 0.10 ng/mL, range, 0.01-0.5 for the boost cohort). With a median follow-up of 48.6 months (range, 16.4-87.8), the comparable HDR brachytherapy boost cohort has achieved a median PSA nadir of 0.09 ng/mL (range, 0.0-3.3). Conclusions: Early results with SBRT monotherapy and post-EBRT boost for PCa demonstrate acceptable PSA response and minimal toxicity. PSA nadir with SBRT boost appears comparable to those achieved with HDR brachytherapy boost.

Jabbari, Siavash [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian K. [Biostatistics and Computational Biology Core, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Kaprealian, Tania; Hsu, I-Chow; Ma Lijun; Chuang, Cynthia; Descovich, Martina; Shiao, Stephen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Gottschalk, Alexander R., E-mail: AGottschalk@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program  

SciTech Connect

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Pulmonary toxicity, distribution, and clearance of intratracheally instilled silicon nanowires in rats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are being manufactured for use as sensors and transistors for circuit applications. The goal was to assess pulmonary toxicity and fate of Si NWusing an in vivo experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally ...

Jenny R. Roberts; Robert R. Mercer; Rebecca S. Chapman; Guy M. Cohen; Sarunya Bangsaruntip; Diane Schwegler-Berry; James F. Scabilloni; Vincent Castranova; James M. Antonini; Stephen S. Leonard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Safety Topic Chemical Hood General purpose: prevent exposure to toxic, irritating, or noxious chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Safety Topic ­ Chemical Hood General purpose: prevent exposure to toxic, irritating, or noxious chemical vapors and gases. A face velocity of 100 feet per minute (fpm) provides efficient vapor capture the better. (T) (F) A chemical hood can be used for storage of volatile, flammable, or odiferous materials

Cohen, Robert E.

155

TRI (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory) for Power Plants RY2012 Version 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TRI for Power Plants is a powerful, user-friendly tool for estimating, tracking, and reporting releases of chemicalsprimarily trace substancesfrom fossil-fired steam electric plants. The spreadsheet-like tool has been applied by numerous energy companies to increase the efficiency and reduce the costs of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)-related analyses while enhancing compliance ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

156

The PCB Information Manual: Volume 1: Production, Uses, Characteristics, and Toxicity of PCBs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the United States ended in 1977, many types of in-service equipment, such as utility transformers, and many products, such as paints, caulking, and plastics, still contain PCBs. This Volume of the PCB Information Manual provides information concerning the production, uses, characteristics, and toxicity of PCBs.

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

SUFFOLK COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES TOXIC/HAZARDOUS MATERIAL TRANSFER FACILITY DESIGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

facilities transferring toxic/hazardous materials with the following exceptions: A) gasoline station or similar installation solely incident to the retail sale or personal consumption of motor fuels for motor, phone number, signature and seal: C) Suffolk County tax map number (District-Section-Block-Lot); D

Homes, Christopher C.

158

Vertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Inc.) coupled to a fiber-optic spectrometer (S2000, Ocean Optics, Inc.) and a fiber-optic xenon flash. Moline, and C. S. Roesler (1999), Optical monitoring and fore- casting systems for harmful algal bloomsVertical migration of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and the impact on ocean optical

159

15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOXICITY ASSESSMENT Alpha radiation exposure decreases apoptotic cells in zebrafish  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOXICITY ASSESSMENT Alpha radiation exposure decreases apoptotic of an adaptive response by the ionizing radiation against sub- sequent exposures to Cd. Keywords Multiple embryos subjected to a priming exposure provided by one environmental stressor (low-dose alpha particles

Yu, K.N.

160

Toxicity of Pesticides 1 O. Norman Nesheim, Frederick M. Fishel, and Mark Mossler2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to harmful effects produced by long-term exposure to pesticides. Less is known about the chronic toxicity levels of the pesticide that remain in or on growing crops after treatment with the pesticide. This is, of course, a worst case situation, since all crops on which the pesticide is registered for use

Watson, Craig A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Creosote-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the EPA's revised toxicity characteristic rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the rule is applied to data obtained from this EPRI study, creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1992-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

162

Pentachlorophenol (PCP)-Treated Wood Poles and Crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood poles and crossarms are classified as hazardous waste by the revised toxicity characteristic (TC) rule, disposal costs will rise dramatically. However, when the ruling is applied to data obtained during this study, PCP-treated utility wood poles and crossarms receive a nonhazardous classification.

1991-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

Cirino, Nick M. (Los Alamos, NM); Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lehnert, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999  

SciTech Connect

In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

Specht, W.L.

2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

165

Methamphetamine induces heme oxygenase-1 expression in cortical neurons and glia to prevent its toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impairment of cognitive and motor functions in humans and animals caused by methamphetamine (METH) administration underscores the importance of METH toxicity in cortical neurons. The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts a cytoprotective effect against various neuronal injures; however, it remains unclear whether HO-1 is involved in METH-induced toxicity. We used primary cortical neuron/glia cocultures to explore the role of HO-1 in METH-induced toxicity. Exposure of cultured cells to various concentrations of METH (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 mM) led to cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. A METH concentration of 5 mM, which caused 50% of neuronal death and glial activation, was chosen for subsequent experiments. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that METH significantly induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, both preceded cell death. Double and triple immunofluorescence staining further identified HO-1-positive cells as activated astrocytes, microglia, and viable neurons, but not dying neurons. Inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway significantly blocked HO-1 induction by METH and aggravated METH neurotoxicity. Inhibition of HO activity using tin protoporphyrine IX significantly reduced HO activity and exacerbated METH neurotoxicity. However, prior induction of HO-1 using cobalt protoporphyrine IX partially protected neurons from METH toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that induction of HO-1 by METH via the p38 signaling pathway may be protective, albeit insufficient to completely protect cortical neurons from METH toxicity.

Huang, Y.-N. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Wu, C.-H. [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Lin, T.-C. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Wang, J.-Y., E-mail: jywang@ndmctsgh.edu.t [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China); Department of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan 114 (China)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Waste grouts prepared by mixing a simulated nonradioactive liquid waste with a dry solids blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay were screened for their acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates (D. magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate (4-methylumbelliferyl b-d galactoside) as the toxic stress indicator. After one hour of exposing juvenile daphnids to grout extracts of varying concentrations, followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The effective concentration at which 50% of the daphnids were adversely affected (EC50) values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The results indicated that the grout extracts studied are nonhazardous and not dangerous to daphnids.

Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Lockrem, L.L.; Powell, W.J.; Voogd, J.A.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

doi:10.1155/2012/460508 Review Article Mercury Toxicity and Treatment: A Review of the Literature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright 2012 Robin A. Bernhoft. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Mercury is a toxic heavy metal which is widely dispersed in nature. Most human exposure results from fish consumption or dental amalgam. Mercury occurs in several chemical forms, with complex pharmacokinetics. Mercury is capable of inducing a wide range of clinical presentations. Diagnosis of mercury toxicity can be challenging but can be obtained with reasonable reliability. Effective therapies for clinical toxicity have been described. 1.

Robin A. Bernhoft

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Information Collection Request (ICR) Data Analysis to Meet Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), power companies are looking for ways to comply with more stringent limits on emissions. This report summarizes the results of a study to identify trends among the operating parameters of various air pollutant control technologies that could explain differences in the levels of emissions for fine particulate matter, mercury, hydrochloric acid, and total metals reported to the ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

170

Characterization of Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plant wastewater effluents contain metals and other materials that may harm aquatic life living in receiving streams adjacent to power plants. Characterization of the hazard associated with these wastewater effluents will inform plant operators such that they may alter processes in order to promote cleaner wastewater discharges. This interim report discusses efforts to culture healthy aquatic organisms to be used in toxicity bioassays. Culture and bioassay methods are refined and ready f...

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Characterization of Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has voiced concerns about fluidized gas desulfuration (FGD-) influenced waste streams regarding compliance with water quality standards. The effects of these effluents on aquatic organisms need to be quantified to better characterize the risk to aquatic ecosystems. This interim report discusses results of effluent toxicity tests performed over the past year. Four separate shipments of effluents were received from three different coal-fired power plants. Resultin...

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Characterization of the Toxicity of Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluents to Freshwater Mussels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plant effluents contain trace metals, dissolved salts, and nutrients that may harm aquatic life, including fish, invertebrates, and freshwater mussels, living in receiving streams adjacent to the plants. This interim report discusses the results of effluent toxicity and water quality tests performed over the past year for three coal-fired power plantsMitchell Plant and Mountaineer Plant, both in West Virginia, and Marshall Plant in North Carolina.

2011-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

173

A review of the toxicity of biomass pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scaleup of biomass fast pyrolysis systems to large pilot and commercial scales will expose an increasingly large number of personnel to potential health hazards, especially during the evaluation of the commercial use of the pyrolysis condensates. Although the concept of fast pyrolysis to optimize liquid products is relatively new, low-temperature pyrolysis processes have been used over the aeons to produce charcoal and liquid by-products, e.g., smoky food flavors, food preservatives, and aerosols containing narcotics, e.g., nicotine. There are a number of studies in the historical literature that concern the hazards of acute and long-term exposure to smoke and to the historical pyrolysis liquids formed at low temperatures. The reported toxicity of smoke, smoke food flavors, and fast pyrolysis oils is reviewed. The data found for these complex mixtures suggest that the toxicity may be less than that of the individual components. It is speculated that there may be chemical reactions that take place that serve to reduce the toxicity during aging. 81 refs.

Diebold, J.P. [Thermalchemie, Inc., Lakewood, CO (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

High PRF high current switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

178

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale-waste lands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Responses of soil microbial and nematode communities to aluminum toxicity in vegetated oil-shale and total Al concentrations showed a significant decrease after planting S. cumini plantation onto the shale

Neher, Deborah A.

179

Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Toxicity of lead to soil respiration: mediation by clay minerals, humic acids, and compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since Pb has no known biological function, elevated levels of Pb in soils and in other natural environments may adversely affect the indigenous biota, including the microbiota. Elevated levels of Pb in soil may also adversely affect microbemediated ecologic processes. There is, however, relatively little information on the mediating influence of the physicochemical factors of the recipient environment on the toxicity of Pb to microbe-mediated ecologic processes. This present study evaluated the influence of the clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, particulate humic acids, and compost on the degradation of glucose in soil.

Debosz, K.; Babich, H.; Stotzky, G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ``Guideline`` for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application.

Pickett, J.B.; Specht, W.L.; Keyes, J.L.

1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Radiation-Induced Cardiac Toxicity After Therapy for Breast Cancer: Interaction Between Treatment Era and Follow-Up Duration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Cardiac toxicity after breast radiotherapy (RT) has been widely described in 'older' RT trials (i.e., using larger fraction sizes, wide RT fields, and orthovoltage energy). The results from more 'modern' RT trials have shown less cardiac toxicity. The comparisons between the 'older' and 'modern' trials are confounded by the longer follow-up time in the 'older' trials. We systematically assessed the effect of treatment era and follow-up duration on the reported rates of cardiac toxicity associated with RT. Methods and Materials: The published data were surveyed using PubMed to identify studies using 'breast cancer,' 'irradiation/radiotherapy,' 'cardiac/heart,' and 'toxicity/morbidity/mortality' in a keyword search. Relevant data were extracted from the identified trials. The trials were defined as 'older' (patient accrual start year before 1980) and 'modern' (patient accrual start year in or after 1980) to segregate the trials and assess the treatment era effect. A 10-year follow-up duration was used as a cutoff to segregate and analyze trials with varying lengths of follow-up. Results: We analyzed 19 published reports of patients treated between 1968 and 2002 (5 randomized controlled trials, 5 single- or multi-institutional studies, and 9 national cancer registry database reviews). In the reviewed trials, all the older trials reported excess cardiac toxicity, typically with a median of >10-15 years of follow-up. However, the vast majority of modern RT trials had shorter median follow-up durations, typically {<=}10 years and did not report an excess toxicity risk. The modern studies lacked longer follow-up. Conclusion: Additional follow-up is needed to ensure that modern methods effectively reduce cardiac toxicity. Continued diligence to minimize cardiac exposure remains prudent.

Demirci, Senem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Nam, Jiho; Hubbs, Jessica L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nguyen, Thu [Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)], E-mail: marks@med.unc.edu

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay south to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum products such as gasoline and/or diesel) combustion as source inputs of combustion by-products to the atmosphere of the region and subsequently to the waters of Puget Sound.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Crecelius, Eric A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Gill, Gary A.; Garland, Charity R.; Williamson, J. B.; Dhammapala, R.

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

184

Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 of Hazardous Materials 264 (2014) 246- 253 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Hazardous Materials j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / j h a z m a t Toxicity of ionic liquids to Clostridium sp. and effects on uranium biosorption C. Zhang a,b,∗ , S.V. Malhotra b,1 , A.J. Francis c,d a College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, China 300071 b Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07104 USA c Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 USA d Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784 South Korea h i g h l i g h t s * Three ILs showed varying degrees of toxicity to Clostridium sp.

185

Toxic chemicals and technological society: decision-making strategies when errors can be catastrophic  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainties about chemical dangers are so great that major errors seem inevitable; long lags before feedback may inhibit learning about errors in time to prevent irreversible, catastrophic consequences; the number of chemicals is enourmous, and sensible action requires esoteric knowledge. How have decision makers reponded to this predicament. It is shown that a diverse repertoire of regulatory procedures gradually evolved, encompassing an increasing number of toxics problems, in piecemeal response to poisoning incidents and other negative feedback. Advance testing strategies designed to eliminate lags between introduction of new chemicals and feedback about their dangers are analyzed. Another new regulatory strategy examined is intended to ease the problem of number by focusing attention on especially dangerous substances. Pesticide policy is analyzed. While costly errors occurred using trial and error, diverse forms of feedback led to substitution of less persistent pesticides and to regulatory processes that set priorities, reduce time lag, and use explicit strategies to mitigate the severity of remaining errors. The process by which chemical threats to the ozone layer were diagnosed and acted upon is examined. The author summarizes the analysis, presents a revised conception of decision making on risky technological issues, evaluates the known health effects from toxic chemicals, and suggests additional policy options. Overall, the research reveals surprisingly sensible strategies for preventing and mitigating potentially catastrophic errors; but implementation obstacles are severe.

Woodhouse, E.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Structure-toxicity assessment of metabolites of the aerobic bacterial transformation of substituted naphthalenes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pseudomonas fluorescens 5R, a naphthalene-degrading bacterium isolated from manufactured gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was examined for its degradative capacity of a number of substituted naphthalenes. In general, those compounds substituted on only one ring with an electrically neutral substituent were found to be transformed primarily to substituted salicylic acids according to the classical (NAH7) naphthalene dioxygenase-initiated upper pathway reactions of the naphthalene degradative pathway (i.e., the NAH system). Dimethylnaphthalenes with a substituent on each ring, and certain halogenated naphthalenes, were transformed via a monohydroxylation reaction to form hydroxylated dead-end products. Of the substituted salicylic acids examined, only 3- and 4-methylsalicylic acid, the respective products of the degradation of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene, were further degraded by salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, the first two enzymes of the NAH lower pathway. Using the Tetrahymena pyriformis acute toxicity assay, many of the monohydroxylated products of incomplete biodegradation were found to be polar narcotics. Substituted salicylic acids that are not further degraded by the NAH lower pathway were found to be toxic via carboxylic acid narcosis.

LeBlond, J.D.; Applegate, B.M.; Menn, F.M.; Schultz, T.W.; Sayler, G.S.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste  

SciTech Connect

For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Heavy-metal toxicity phenomena in laboratory-scale ANFLOW bioreactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An energy-conserving wastewater treatment system was developed based on an anaerobic, upflow (ANFLOW) bioreactor. Since many applications of the ANFLOW process could involve the treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals, the potentially toxic effects of these metals on the biological processes occurring in ANFLOW columns (primarily acetogenesis and methanogenesis) were investigated. Both step and pulse inputs of zinc ranging from 100 to 1000 mg/L were added to synthetic wastewaters being treated in ANFLOW columns with 0.057-m/sup 3/ volumes. Column responses were used to develop descriptive models for toxicity phenomena in such systems. It was found that an inhibition function could be defined and used to modify a model based on plugflow with axial dispersion and first-order kinetics for soluble substrate removal. The inhibitory effects of zinc on soluble substrate removal were found to be predominantly associated with its sorption by biosolids. Sorption initially occurred in the lower regions of the column, but was gradually observed in higher regions as the sorption capacity of the lower regions was exhausted. Sorption phenomena could be described with the Freundlich equation. Sorption processes were accompanied by shifts of biological processes to regions higher in the columns. A regenerative process was observed when feeding of wastewaters without zinc was resumed. It was postulated that regeneration could be based on sloughing of layers of biofilms, or other biosolids involved in zinc sorption, followed by continued growth of lower layers of biofilms not involved in heavy-metal sorption.

Rivera, A.L.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Kostuk, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences; Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Toxic chemical release inventory reporting: Questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

On September 22, 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Department to participate in the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program and to initiate Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) reporting, pursuant to Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) issued interim guidance on March 4, 1993, entitled ``Toxic Chemical Release Inventory and 33/50 Pollution Prevention Program`` that provided instructions on implementing the Secretarial directive. As stated in the interim guidance, all DOE sites not currently reporting under EPCRA Section 313, which meet the criteria for DOE TRI reporting, will initiate reporting of all TRI chemical releases and transfers for the 1993 calendar year with the annual report due to EPA, States and a courtesy copy to EH-20 by July 1, 1994. All other DOE sites which currently report under EPCRA Section 313 will also follow the criteria for DOE TRI reporting.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Creosote-treated wood poles and crossarms: Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative database on leachable concentrations of cresols (i.e., m-, o- and p-cresol isomers) from a population of creosote-treated utility wood poles and crossarms by application of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP was promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in March 1990 (55FR 11798). Data generated in this study indicate that creosote-treated utility poles and crossarms are non-hazardous. Measured concentrations of total cresols and other semi-volatile organic compounds, from wood subjected to TCLP analysis, were an order of magnitude or more below their current Toxicity Characteristic (TC) regulatory levels. The wood analyzed in this study consisted of 54 samples of wood poles and 6 crossarms. Subsamples, removed from full cross sectional slices of poles and crossarms, were prepared according to EPA procedures, subjected to the TCLP, and the resultant leachates analyzed for the presence of cresols and other semi-volatile compounds.

Horn, M.E. (Environmental Management Services, Waupaca, WI (United States)); Holcombe, L.; Owens, J.B. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Highlighting High Performance: Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oberlin Colleges Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies is a high-performance building featuring an expansive photovoltaic system and a closed-loop groundwater heat pump system. Designers incorporated energy-efficient components and materials that are local, non-toxic, and durable.

Not Available

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The application of high frequency seismic monitoring methods for the mapping of fluid injections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes experimental work using seismic methods for monitoring the path of fluid injections. The most obvious application is the high pressure fluid injections for the purpose of hydrofracturing. Other applications are the injection of grout into shallow subsurface structures and the disposal of fluids in the geothermal and toxic waste industries. In this paper hydrofracture monitoring and grout injections will be discussed.

Majer, E.L.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Long-Term Leaching Tests With High Ash Fusion Maryland Coal Slag  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extraction-procedure toxicity tests showed that the solid residue materials resulting from the Texaco coal gasification process using fluxed high ash fusion Maryland coal were nonhazardous. Contaminant concentration in the leachate was below or only slightly above the primary maximum contaminant limits (PMCL) established for public drinking water supplies.

1991-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

196

Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

PROGRESS REPORT PROJECT NO: BJKD97  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) herbicide on the performance of Clearwater spring canola and Gem spring rapeseed. PERSONNEL: Jack Brown Jim of weeds infesting canola fields, researchers have developed herbicide resistant canola cultivars while maintaining high product quality. Herbicide resistant canola may be of particular interest

Brown, Jack

198

Amino acid, lipid and red blood cell studies on selenium toxicity with the laboratory rat.  

SciTech Connect

The amino acid and lipid analysis on blood and liver and the amino acid analysis on urine gave irregular values for each determination. Therefore, the average values which were presented in the 1966 Technical Progress report (C00-1449-2) were not considered valid and were not submitted for publication. However, experiments on the in vivo conversion of 75 Se-labeled selenite-Se to urinary metabolites led to the observance of an unknown metabolite. This metabolite, which was different from the ordinary selenium analogues of sulfur, was designated as "U-1" (C00-1449-3). The use of the 59 Fe was involved in the study of the anemia of chronic selenium toxicity. The findings because of the labeled iron led to the conclusion that the anemia was from massive hemolysis (C00-1449-3).

Halverson, A W; Tsay, D -T; Triebwasser, K C; Whitehead, E I

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Analysis of 1994 Air Force toxic release inventory reporting. Master`s thesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to analyze the Air Force`s 1994 Toxic Release Inventory data. Statistical tests were used to meet the following research objectives: (1) review the CY 94 data to determine which chemicals were most often reported and which bases and major commands had the most releases in terms of the number of chemicals reported and the amount of chemicals reported and (2) investigate factors which could influence the reporting status of a facility. An analysis of a survey of Air Force facilities indicated that two factors had an influence on the reporting status of Air Force facilities: (1) whether the TRI point of contact had confidence in the completeness of the data used for threshold computations and (2) whether the primary database used for threshold computations was the Standard Base Supply System.

Pollock, B.A.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Late Tissue Toxicity: Pilot Study of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the use of advanced ultrasonic imaging to quantitatively evaluate normal-tissue toxicity in breast-cancer radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Eighteen breast cancer patients who received radiation treatment were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical study. Radiotherapy involved a radiation dose of 50.0 to 50.4 Gy delivered to the entire breast, followed by an electron boost of 10.0 to 16.0 Gy delivered to the tumor bed. Patients underwent scanning with ultrasound during follow-up, which ranged from 6 to 94 months (median, 22 months) postradiotherapy. Conventional ultrasound images and radio-frequency (RF) echo signals were acquired from treated and untreated breasts. Three ultrasound parameters, namely, skin thickness, Pearson coefficient, and spectral midband fit, were computed from RF signals to measure radiation-induced changes in dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue, respectively. Ultrasound parameter values of the treated breast were compared with those of the untreated breast. Ultrasound findings were compared with clinical assessment using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) late-toxicity scores. Results: Significant changes were observed in ultrasonic parameter values of the treated vs. untreated breasts. Average skin thickness increased by 27.3%, from 2.05 {+-} 0.22mm to 2.61 {+-} 0.52mm; Pearson coefficient decreased by 31.7%, from 0.41 {+-} 0.07 to 0.28 {+-} 0.05; and midband fit increased by 94.6%, from -0.92 {+-} 7.35 dB to 0.87 {+-} 6.70 dB. Ultrasound evaluations were consistent with RTOG scores. Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasound provides a noninvasive, objective means of assessing radiation-induced changes to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. This imaging tool will become increasingly valuable as we continue to improve radiation therapy technique.

Liu Tian, E-mail: tliu34@emory.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhou Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Yoshida, Emi J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Woodhouse, Shermian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Schiff, Peter B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wang, Tony J.C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Lu Zhengfeng; Pile-Spellman, Eliza [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Zhang Pengpeng [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Kutcher, Gerald J. [Department of History, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY (United States)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Postcombustion measures for cleaner solid fuels combustion: activated carbons for toxic pollutants removal from flue gases  

SciTech Connect

In this work the efficiency of postcombustion measures (i.e., activated carbon utilization) to achieve cleaner solid fuels combustion was evaluated. Thus, two commercial activated carbons (Calgon F400 and RWE active coke) were tested for removing toxic polluting compounds (Hg, PCBs, PCDD/Fs) from the gas phase. The effects of the pore structure and surface chemistry of the activated carbons tested were investigated, along with the sorption temperature and sulfur addition in carbon matrix. Experiments were realized in a bench-scale adsorption unit and in a commercial solid fuels-fired hot water boiler. The results showed that both activated carbons tested are suitable for the removal of toxic compounds (i.e., Hg, PCBs, PCDD/Fs) from the gas phase. Due to differences in Hg adsorptive capacity and adsorption rate, which are attributed to the diversified pore structure and surface chemistry of the activated carbons, RWE active coke is, presumably, more suitable for continuous Hg removal (i.e., activated carbon injection), while Calgon F400 is more suitable for batch one (packed column). For both activated carbons, Hg adsorption capacity was reduced with temperature increase, while it was enhanced by the presence of sulfur. Oxygen surface functional groups seem to be involved in Hg adsorption mechanism. Lactones are believed to act as potential active sites for mercury adsorption, while phenols may act as inhibitors. The removal of PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the gas phase seems not to be a problem for the activated carbons tested, regardless of their pore structure or surface chemistry. 61 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

G. Skodras; I. Diamantopoulou; P. Natas; A. Palladas; G.P. Sakellaropoulos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Chemical Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Model for Estimating Demand for Irrigation Water on the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With rapidly changing conditions in production agriculture, the need for highly flexible and quickly applicable methods of analysis is emphasized. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model for a homogeneous production region in the Texas High Plains. A linear programming model was constructed whereby crop or input prices are readily adjustable. In addition, limitations on quantities of inputs available can easily be evaluated. The model contains cotton, grain sorghum, corn, wheat and soybeans. Inputs that can be evaluated include irrigation water, natural gas, diesel, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicides. The primary focus of this work was to estimate the demand for irrigation water in the study area. The model was applied using alternative crop prices and input prices. Assuming average crop prices, current input prices and only variable costs of production, as the price of water was increased wheat shifted from irrigated to dryland production, then grain sorghum, cotton, corn and soybeans, in that order. The price of water was $71.75 per acre foot plus current pumping cost when all land shifted to dryland production. The same analysis, except variable and fixed costs both included, gave similar results relative to the sequence of crops that shift to dryland production as the price of water was increased. However, the shifts occurred at much lower water prices; i.e., at $24.47 per acre foot plus current pumping costs, all land had shifted to dryland production. This suggests that over the long run, irrigation in the Texas High Plains is quite sensitive to the price of energy used in pumping water. Further, there are strong implications relative to farmer's "ability to pay" for water imported to the High Plains from other regions. In this report, several scenarios including low, high and average crop prices and average and high input prices were evaluated.

Condra, G. D.; Lacewell, R. D.; Sprott, J. M.; Adams, B. M.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Glyphosates Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup[superscript ], is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main ...

Samsel, Anthony

204

Uncertainties in Air Toxics Calculated by the Dispersion Models AERMOD and ISCST3 in the Houston Ship Channel Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The uncertainties in simulations of annually averaged concentrations of two air toxics (benzene and 1,3-butadiene) are estimated for two widely used U.S. air quality models, the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term, version 3, (ISCST3) model and ...

Steven R. Hanna; Robert Paine; David Heinold; Elizabeth Kintigh; Dan Baker

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Microfluidic system with integrated electroosmotic pumps, concentration gradient generator and fish cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the results were quantified using a Live/DeadTM cell assay. This work is a preliminary study cell line (RTgill-W1)--towards water toxicity testing Tomasz Glawdel,a Caglar Elbuken,a Lucy E. J. Leeb that incorporates electroosmotic pumps, a concentration gradient generator and a fish cell line (rainbow trout gill

Le Roy, Robert J.

206

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form) EHS Contact: Kate Lumley-Sapanski (kxl3@psu apply: When to Report: · All chemical exposures or explosions requiring medical attention must

Yener, Aylin

207

Photographer: Unknown Prepared by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

serves the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances. You may contact ATSDR toll free at 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636)

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Analysis of Crankcase Oils and Oil Residues From the Electric Utility Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If used crankcase oils and oil residues from electric utilities were listed as hazardous waste by EPA, disposal would be costly and recycling options would be limited. The toxicity characteristic test results from this study reveal that such used oils and oil residues are generally nonhazardous and therefore do not warrant classification as hazardous wastes.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Building Toxic Metal Characterization and Decontamination Report: Area 6, Building 914  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to outline the toxic metal characterization and decontamination efforts in Area 6, Building 914. This includes the initial building inspection, the hotspot sampling, results/findings, building cleanup, and the verification sampling. Building 914 is a steel light frame building that was constructed in 1992. It is about 16,454 square feet, and five employees are assigned to this building. According to the building's floor plan blueprints, it could be inferred that this building was once a Wiremen/Lineman shop. In 2002-2004, the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office embarked on a broad characterization of beryllium (Be) surface concentrations throughout the North Las Vegas Facility, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), and ancillary facilities like the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, etc. Building 914 was part of this characterization. The results of the 2002 study illustrated that the metal housekeeping limits were within acceptable limits and from a Be standpoint, the building was determined to be fit for occupancy. On March 2, 2011, based on a request from Building 914 users, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) Industrial Hygiene (IH) collected bulk samples from the southwest corner of Building 914 at heights above 6 feet where black dust had been noticed on this particular wall. IH conducted surface swipe sampling of the area and analyzed the samples for toxic metals, namely, beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn). The sample results indicated values two to four times above the housekeeping threshold for Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Mn. Subsequently, the facility was closed and posted; the necessary personnel were notified; and controls were instituted for ingress and egress of the building. On March 17, 2011, IH performed an extensive sampling event involving the entire warehouse in accordance with NSTec Organization Procedure OP-P250.004, Sampling Procedures. Analysis of the results from this exercise illustrated that toxic metal contamination was ubiquitous throughout the warehouse section of this building but did not extend into the office, restroom, and break room areas. On March 22, 2011, a planning meeting was held with Environment, Safety, Health & Quality management; Operations & Infrastructure (O&I) mangement; Facility Management; Occupational Medicine; O&I Operations; and IH. After a brief discussion concerning the salient facts of the surface sample results, it was agreed that the facility and its contents required cleaning. The facility would then be re-sampled to verify cleanliness and suitability for re-occupancy. On April 18, 2011, warehouse cleanup activites began. On July 5, 2011, upon receipt of the results from the last cleaned section, the cleanup operations were concluded. The building was statistically determined to be clean; thus, it could be reoccupied and the warehouse operations could resume immediately.

NSTec Industrial Hygiene

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Threshold levels for toxic effects of sediment-associated PAHs on marine biota from urban and nonurban embayments of the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Conservation Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service has been conducting studies investigating the effects of marine pollution on the health of benthic fish since 1979. A large amount of data relating biological effects to exposure to sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exists as a result of the many field and laboratory studies conducted since this time. These effects include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobotic metabolizing enzymes and impaired reproductive success. A comprehensive analysis of these data was undertaken in an effort to estimate thresholds for concentrations of PAHs in sediment below which the effects previously describe did not occur. Our primary objectives were to determine: (1) at what levels of chemical contamination are thresholds observed for those species examined and (2) how our findings compare with the sediment quality standards of other agencies. Thresholds were determined with the Hockey Stick regression model. Our results show that most effects exhibit thresholds at 500-1000 ng/g, with slight variances among species due to differences in sensitivity. These values are considerably lower than standards derived from the Apparent Effects Threshold and other similar methods used for evaluating sediment toxicity. This approach yields significant insight into the impact of low level contamination and may provide a useful alternative for evaluating sediment quality within urban areas.

Lomax, D.P.; Horness, B.H.; Johnson, L.L.; Landahl, J.T.; Varanasi, U. (Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

ECOSYSTEM COMPONENT CHARACTERIZATION 513 Figure 6.137 Ceriodaphnia dubia used for toxicity Figure 6.138 Sediment toxicity tests at Wright State.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is measured by a Pt100 RTD (Resistance Temperature Detec- tor). Manufacturer specifications regarding when calibrated with a high quality standard. [-40-60C]. The Pt100 RTD thermistor's linearity

Pitt, Robert E.

212

Assessing the Renal Toxicity of Capstone Depleted Uranium Oxides and Other Uranium Compounds  

SciTech Connect

The primary target for uranium toxicity is the kidney. The most frequently used guideline for uranium kidney burdens is the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) value of 3 g U/g kidney, a value that is based largely upon chronic studies in animals. In the present effort, we have developed a risk model equation to assess potential outcomes of acute uranium exposure. Twenty-seven previously published case studies in which workers were acutely exposed to soluble compounds of uranium (as a result of workplace accidents) were analyzed. Kidney burdens of uranium for these individuals were determined based on uranium in the urine, and correlated with health effects observed over a period of up to 38 years. Based upon the severity of health effects, each individual was assigned a score (- to +++) and then placed into an Effect Group. A discriminant analysis was used to build a model equation to predict the Effect Group based on the amount of uranium in the kidneys. The model equation was able to predict the Effect Group with 85% accuracy. The risk model was used to predict the Effect Group for Soldiers exposed to DU as a result of friendly fire incidents during the 1991 Gulf War. This model equation can also be used to predict the Effect Group of new cases in which acute exposures to uranium have occurred.

Roszell, Laurie E.; Hahn, Fletcher; Lee, Robyn B.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

213

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease RegistryForeword: ATSDRs National Asbestos Exposure Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

now know that this vermiculite, which was shipped to many locations around the U.S. for processing, contained asbestos. The National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) is a project of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR is working with other federal, state, and local environmental, and public health agencies to evaluate public health impacts at sites that processed Libby vermiculite. The evaluations focus on the processing sites and on human health effects that might be associated with possible past or current exposures. They do not consider commercial or consumer use of the products of these facilities. The sites that processed Libby vermiculite will be evaluated by (1) identifying ways people could have been exposed to asbestos in the past and ways that people could be exposed now and (2) determining whether the exposures represent a public health hazard. ATSDR will use the information gained from the site-specific investigations to recommend further public health actions as needed. Site evaluations are progressing in two phases: Phase 1: ATSDR has selected 28 sites for the first phase of reviews on the basis of the following

Vermiculite Northwest

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

The toxicity of inhaled particles of sup 238 PuO sub 2 in dogs  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in the dog. Inhalation was selected because it is the mostly likely route of human exposure in the event of an accidental airborne release. Of 166 dog in the study, 72 inhaled 1.5{mu}m and 72 inhaled 3.0 {mu}m activity median aerodynamic diameter particles of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Another 24 dogs inhaled the aerosol vector without plutonium. The aerosol exposures resulted in initial pulmonary burdens ranging from 37 to 0.11 and 55.5 to 0.37 kBq of {sup 238}Pu/kg body mass, of 1.5 {mu}m and 3.0 {mu}, particles, respectively. The particles dissolved slowly resulting in translocation of the Pu to liver, bone and other sites. The dogs were observed for biological effects over their life span. Necropsies were performed at death, and tissues were examined microscopically. The principal late-occurring effects were tumors of the lung, skeleton, and liver. Risk factors estimated for these cancers were 2800 lung cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, 800 liver cancers/10{sup 4} Gy, and 6200 bone cancers/10{sup 4} Gy for dogs. The potential hazard from {sup 238}Pu to humans may include tumors of the lung, bone and liver because of the likelihood of similarity of the dose patterns for the two species. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C. Jr.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gillett, N.A. (Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Toxicity studies of mild gasification products. Quarterly report, October--December 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major hypothesis of carcinogenesis is that malignancy is due to an alteration (mutation) of the genetic material in a somatic cell. Reactive electrophilic metabolites are generated from many chemicals by the action of endogenous mixed-function oxidases. These reactive metabolites may bind to cellular macromolecules, such as DNA, and can, therefore, initiate a mutagenic or carcinogenic event. Prokaryotes and non-mammalian eukaryotes are used in mutation assays, while cultured mammalian cells are generally used for mutagenic as well as clastogenic tests examining alterations and damage to the DNA and/or chromosomes of somatic cells. One of the first mammalian cell lines used in genotoxicity studies is V79, which was derived from Chinese hamster lung cells. According to the test plan on toxicity studies of mild gasification products, mammalian cell in vitro assays are to be performed on selected samples displaying mutagenic activity in the Ames assay. The results of the Ames testing of the mild gasification sample Shell Oil PSIS{number_sign}330331 were negative. However, fractionation of the sample and Ames testing of the subfractions were performed per DOE request. None of the subfractions was mutagenic in the Ames assay, as has been previously reported. Assays for the induction of gene mutation, sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus formation in V79 cells have also been carried out for the sample. This paper reports the results of the mammalian cell assay.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)); Hemphill, D.C. (Lower Colorado Regional Office, Boulder City, NV (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

218

EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

219

Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics  

SciTech Connect

The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rittman, P.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quality of life in American neighborhoods. Levels of affluence, toxic waste, and cancer mortality in residential zip code areas  

SciTech Connect

This is a publication in which 1980 Census demographic data for five-digit Zip code areas - previously withheld from publication by the Census Bureau - are linked to new measures of neighborhood environmental hazards. The data analyzed here measure - for every five-digit Zip code area - levels of affluence such as mean income, mean monthly rent, and mean value of homes for the population, broken down by race, sex, and age, The author also reports the number of abandoned toxic waste sites and the per capita level of toxic waste generation in each area, based on EPA data, and explores the relation of these factors to the wide geographic variation in cancer mortality and the relationship to poverty and affluence. Cancer mortality is highest, not in the large affluent urban areas as has been assumed in the past, but rather in those areas with above average industrial wage levels. On the other hand, some of the nation's highest income suburban neighborhoods lie sufficiently close to toxic-ridden areas to share common environmental risks.

Gould, J.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

2003-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

Variation in Telangiectasia Predisposing Genes Is Associated With Overall Radiation Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In patients receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer where the heart is within the radiation field, cutaneous telangiectasiae could be a marker of potential radiation-induced heart disease. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes known to cause heritable telangiectasia-associated disorders could predispose to such late, normal tissue vascular damage. Methods and Materials: The relationship between cutaneous telangiectasia as a late normal tissue radiation injury phenotype in 633 breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy was examined. Patients were clinically assessed for the presence of cutaneous telangiectasia and genotyped at nine SNPs in three candidate genes. Candidate SNPs were within the endoglin (ENG) and activin A receptor, type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) genes, mutations in which cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene associated with ataxia-telangiectasia. Results: A total of 121 (19.1%) patients exhibited a degree of cutaneous telangiectasiae on clinical examination. Regression was used to examine the associations between the presence of telangiectasiae in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, controlling for the effects of boost and known brassiere size (n=388), and individual geno- or haplotypes. Inheritance of ACVRL1 SNPs marginally contributed to the risk of cutaneous telangiectasiae. Haplotypic analysis revealed a stronger association between inheritance of a ATM haplotype and the presence of cutaneous telangiectasiae, fibrosis and overall toxicity. No significant association was observed between telangiectasiae and the coinheritance of the candidate ENG SNPs. Conclusions: Genetic variation in the ATM gene influences reaction to radiotherapy through both vascular damage and increased fibrosis. The predisposing variation in the ATM gene will need to be better defined to optimize it as a predictive marker for assessing radiotherapy late effects.

Tanteles, George A. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom) [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Murray, Robert J.S. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Mills, Jamie [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Barwell, Julian [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom) [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chakraborti, Prabir [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Chan, Steve [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cheung, Kwok-Leung [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)] [Division of Breast Surgery, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Ennis, Dawn [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Khurshid, Nazish [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Lambert, Kelly [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Breast Surgery, University Hospitals of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom); Machhar, Rohan; Meisuria, Mitul [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Osman, Ahmed; Peat, Irene [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester (United Kingdom); Sahota, Harjinder [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)] [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Woodings, Pamela [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom)] [Department of Clinical Oncology, Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Derby (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J., E-mail: cjt14@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); and others

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Smoke and toxic species analyses from controlled combustion of wood impregnated with guayule resin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dominant commercial treatments currently used for wood preservation are pentachlorophenols (PCP), creosote, and chromium copper arsenicals. These wood preservatives present many studied and documented environmental and toxicological problems with both use of the products themselves, and with the production of secondary reaction contaminants. Furthermore, several of these preservatives are considered priority pollutants according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and are heavily regulated. The need for an environmentally benign combined fire/rot retardant treatment for wood that will effectively reduce both fire and decay is clearly evident. Guayule resin, a co-by-product during rubber extraction from the guayule shrub, is being explored by us as a natural, biodegradable wood rot and fire retardant with potential commercial applications. Wood impregnated with guayule resin has survived over eight years in tropical soils, free of rot, decay, and insect infestations. This study qualitatively analyzed the treated and untreated wood samples for ignitability, flame spread, toxic fumes, and smoke generation. Ignitability of the wood sample of fixed geometry was quantified by measuring the time required for ignition of treated samples vs. untreated samples. Flame spread was measured after ignition with a propane flame by a simple stopwatch-ruler technique. Smoke mass was determined in an Arapahoe Smoke Chamber as per ASTM D-4100. Analysis of the fumes involved continuous CO, C02, NOx, SOx, and 02 analyses using the Bacharach Instrument Model 300. Cascade impaction was used to determine the particle size distribution of the smoke and for smoke mass determination. Respirable particles were assessed by utilizing the Anderson 2000 Inc. 1 AFCM Ambient Particle Fractionating Sampler. Inflections of guayule-impregnated and untreated pine are indeed minor with respect to all aspects investigated. Ignition data indicated guayule-impregnated pine did not ignite as quickly as untreated pine. Evidence conveys favorable consideration for further research of wood preservation with guayule resin.

Smith, Lonnie

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Disruption of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in the cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is a crucial mechanism of arrhythmic toxicity in aconitine-induced cardiomyocytes  

SciTech Connect

Aconitine is an effective ingredient in Aconite tuber, an important traditional Chinese medicine. Aconitine is also known to be a highly toxic diterpenoid alkaloid with arrhythmogenic effects. In the present study, we have characterized the properties of arrhythmic cytotoxicity and explored the possible mechanisms of aconitine-induced cardiomyocytes. Results show that aconitine induces significant abnormity in the spontaneous beating rate, amplitude of spontaneous oscillations and the relative intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration. Also, mRNA transcription levels and protein expressions of SR Ca{sup 2+} release channel RyR{sub 2} and sarcolemmal NCX were elevated in aconitine-induced cardiomyocytes. However, co-treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a RyR channel inhibitor, could reverse the aconitine-induced abnormity in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signals. These results demonstrate that disruption of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in the cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling) is a crucial mechanism of arrhythmic cytotoxicity in aconitine-induced cardiomyocytes. Moreover, certain inhibitors appear to play an important role in the detoxification of aconitine-induced Ca{sup 2+}-dependent arrhythmias.

Fu Min [School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Wu Meng [School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Jifeng [Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Qiao Yanjiang [Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Zhao [School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zwang@tsinghua.edu.cn

2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

226

High Performance Computing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Performance Computing. Summary: High Performance Computing (HPC) enables work on challenging problems that ...

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

227

Role of natural organic matter in governing the bioavailability of toxic metals to american oysters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colloidal macromolecular organic matter (COM), which makes up a large portion of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine environments, has the capability to modify the bioavailability of potentially toxic metals to aquatic organisms. In order to better understand the bioavailability of some of these metals to estuarine bivalves, American Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were exposed to different types of natural colloidal (COM) and model (alginic acid, carrageenan, and latex particles) organic biopolymers, tagged with gamma-emitting radioactive metal ions (110mAg, 109Cd, 57Co, 51Cr, 59Fe, 203Hg and 65Zn) or 14C (to sugar OH groups). Natural COM was obtained from Galveston Bay water by 0.5µm filtration, followed by cross-flow ultrafiltration, using a 1kDa ultrafilter, diafiltration and freeze-drying. COM and DOM model compounds were used in the bioavailability experiments at 2 ppm concentrations. Separate 16-hour experiments using varying sizes of latex particles assessed the lowest size of colloids that can be filtered from the water. Results showed that filter-feeding bivalves could efficiently remove particles as small as 0.04µm (40nm) in diameter, with removal halftimes of 2.5 to 5.5 hours, equivalent to filtration rates of about 50±15 ml/hour, or about 3 L d-1 g-1, which are typical values for these oysters. Results of the 20-hour bioavailability experiments demonstrated that oysters could effectively filter metals bound to COM, with the metals bound to alginic acid COM being removed at the highest rates from the water. However, the metals bound to alginic acid were not found in oyster meat in the highest amounts: it was the metals associated with the carrageenan COM. The 14C labeled biopolymer data also showed alginic acid to be removed from the water at the highest rate and, contrary to the metals, was also present in the meat in the greatest amounts. Thus, while previous experiments suggested that the quantity (i.e., concentration) of natural organic matter is important for metal bioavailability, it was shown here that the ?quality?, i.e., the type of natural organic matter, is also a factor for controlling bioavailability, removal and incorporation rates of metals to oysters.

Haye, Jennifer Marcelle

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

High Performance Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Science, Computing, Applied Math High Performance Computing High Performance Computing Providing world-class high performance computing capability that enables...

229

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

230

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

231

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Heavy metals and toxic organic pollutants in MSW-composts: Research results on phytoavailability, bioavailability, fate, etc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper is a review and interpretation of research which has been conducted to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)-composts and sewage sludges. Evaluation of research findings identified a number of pathways by which these contaminants can be transferred from MSW-compost or compost-amended soils to humans, livestock, or wildlife. The pathways consider direct ingestion of compost or compost-amended soil by livestock and children, plant uptake by food or feed crops, and exposure to dust, vapor, and water to which metals and organics have migrated.

Ryan, J.A.; Chaney, R.L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

THE IMPACT OF SHRINKING HANFORD BOUNDARIES ON PERMITS FOR TOXIC AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM THE HANFORD 200 WEST AREA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation (CE-580. Graduate Seminar) presents a brief description of an approach to use a simpler dispersion modeling method (SCREEN3) in conjunction with joint frequency tables for Hanford wind conditions to evaluate the impacts of shrinking the Hanford boundaries on the current permits for facilities in the 200 West Area. To fulfill requirements for the graduate student project (CE-702. Master's Special Problems), this evaluation will be completed and published over the next two years. Air toxic emissions play an important role in environmental quality and require a state approved permit. One example relates to containers or waste that are designated as Transuranic Waste (TRU), which are required to have venting devices due to hydrogen generation. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) determined that the filters used did not meet the definition of a ''pressure relief device'' and that a permit application would have to be submitted by the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for criteria pollutant and toxic air pollutant (TAP) emissions in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-400 and 173-460. The permit application submitted in 2000 to Ecology used Industrial Source Code III (ISCIII) dispersion modeling to demonstrate that it was not possible for CWC to release a sufficient quantity of fugitive Toxic Air Pollutant emissions that could exceed the Acceptable Source Impact Levels (ASILs) at the Hanford Site Boundary. The modeled emission rates were based on the diurnal breathing in and out through the vented drums (approximately 20% of the drums), using published vapor pressure, molecular weight, and specific gravity data for all 600+ compounds, with a conservative estimate of one exchange volume per day (208 liters per drum). Two permit applications were submitted also to Ecology for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility and the T Plant Complex. Both permit applications were based on the Central Waste Complex approach, and relied on similar tracking requirements as at CWC. All three applications used ISCIII modeling, where unit release factors (lb/yr converted to g/s) were determined for estimating the highest 24-hr or annual average concentrations (in {micro}g/m{sup 3}), where the nearest public receptor was roughly 20 miles away. Plans to clean up and release portions of the Hanford Site over the next several decades would allow public access closer to these facilities in the 200 West Area. Before release of these areas, effectively shrinking the boundaries, the three permits would have to be re-evaluated to determine if toxic air pollutant emissions would remain below the ASILs if the restricted boundaries are moved closer than the current locations.

JOHNSON, R.E.

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

234

Application of the comprehensive set of heterozygous yeast deletion mutants to elucidate the molecular basis of cellular chromium toxicity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

individually in YEPD or YNB media [45,46]. Where specified, organisms were cultured in 300 ?l volumes in 48-well plates (Greiner Bio-One, Stone- house, Gloucestershire, UK) with shaking at 30C in a BioTek Powerwave microplate reader (BioTek, Vinooski, VT, USA... . Nature Biotechnol 1998, 16:572-575. 5. Avery SV: Metal toxicity in yeasts and the role of oxidative stress. Adv Appl Microbiol 2001, 49:111-142.Genome Biology 2007, 8:R268 ml of cells were pelleted by centrifugation and resuspended in 60 ?l of Passive...

Holland, Sara; Lodwig, Emma; Sideri, Theodora; Reader, Tom; Clarke, Ian; Gkargkas, Konstantinos; Hoyle, David C; Delneri, Daniela; Oliver, Stephen G; Avery, Simon V

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

235

Comparative Carcinogenicity of Nickel Compounds: A Review of Nickel Toxicity, Pharmacokinetics, and Mode of Action  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a comprehensive integrated review of the current extensive toxicological and epidemiological literature on nickel compounds. Nickel compounds are present in relatively high quantities in oil fuels combusted to generate electricity.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

MEMS-based resonant sensor arrays : selective detection of volatile and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With growing concerns about homeland security, public health, and environmental cleanliness, there is a strong need today for robust chemical sensing systems that are portable in addition to being highly sensitive. While ...

Whitfield, George C., 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

High Speed High Dynamic Range High Accuracy Measurement System  

Disclosure Number 201102747 Technology Summary The present invention measures a beam of protons that has a high dynamic range. Typically, one uses ...

238

Hypofractionated High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Multi-Institutional Phase II Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To report late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, biochemical and clinical outcomes, and overall survival after hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Three institutions included 113 patients with T1 to T3N0M0 PC in a phase II study. Patients were treated with 56 Gy in 16 fractions over 4 weeks. Late toxicity was scored using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria extended with additional symptoms. Biochemical outcome was reported according to the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure. Results: The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was low. The 3-year actuarial risk of developing late GU and GI toxicity of grade {>=}2 was 13% and 8% respectively. Five-year biochemical non-evidence of disease (bNED) was 94%. Risk group, T stage, and deviation from planned hormone treatment were significant predictive factors for bNED. Deviation from hormone treatment remained significant in multivariate analysis. Five-year clinical non evidence of disease and overall survival was 95% and 91% respectively. No patient died from PC. Conclusions: Hypofractionated high-dose radiation therapy is a valuable treatment option for patients with PC, with excellent biochemical and clinical outcome and low toxicity.

Fonteyne, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Soete, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium); Arcangeli, Stefano [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Rappe, Bernard [Department of Urology, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium)] [Department of Urology, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Storme, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

239

Pulmonary toxicity and kinetic study of Cy5.5-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by optical imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in the development of nanotechnology and devices now make it possible to accurately deliver drugs or genes to the lung. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents, thermal therapy for cancer, and be made to concentrate to target sites through an external magnetic field. However, these advantages may also become problematic when taking into account safety and toxicological factors. This study demonstrated the pulmonary toxicity and kinetic profile of anti-biofouling polymer coated, Cy5.5-conjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) by optical imaging. Negatively charged, 36 nm-sized, Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was prepared for optical imaging probe. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was intratracheally instilled into the lung by a non-surgical method. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION slightly induced pulmonary inflammation. The instilled nanoparticles were distributed mainly in the lung and excreted in the urine via glomerular filtration. Urinary excretion was peaked at 3 h after instillation. No toxicity was found under the concentration of 1.8 mg/kg and the half-lives of nanoparticles in the lung and urine were estimated to be about 14.4 {+-} 0.54 h and 24.7 {+-} 1.02 h, respectively. Although further studies are required, our results showed that Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION can be a good candidate for use in pulmonary delivery vehicles and diagnostic probes.

Cho, Wan-Seob [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Respiratory Medicine Unit, ELEGI/Colt Laboratory, Centre for Inflammation Research, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wcho@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Cho, Minjung; Kim, Seoung Ryul; Choi, Mina; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Han, Beom Seok [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sue Nie [Division of Genetic Toxicology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Kyung; Jon, Sangyong [Research Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnology, Department of Life Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jayoung [Division of Toxicologic Pathology, Department of Toxicological Research, National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 231 Jinhoungno Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Acute Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients: A Risk Particularly for Carriers of the TGFB1 Pro25 variant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta1 is related to adverse events in radiochemotherapy. We investigated TGFB1 genetic variability in relation to quality of life-impairing acute organ toxicity (QAOT) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy under clinical trial conditions. Methods and Materials: Two independent patient cohorts (n = 88 and n = 75) diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage II/III rectal cancer received neoadjuvant radiation doses of 50.4 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Toxicity was monitored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. QAOT was defined as a CTCAE grade {>=}2 for at least one case of enteritis, proctitis, cystitis, or dermatitis. Nine germline polymorphisms covering the common genetic diversity in the TGFB1 gene were genotyped. Results: In both cohorts, all patients carrying the TGFB1 Pro25 variant experienced QAOT (positive predictive value of 100%, adjusted p = 0.0006). In a multivariate logistic regression model, gender, age, body mass index, type of chemotherapy, or disease state had no significant impact on QAOT. Conclusion: The TGFB1 Pro25 variant could be a relevant marker for individual treatment stratification and carriers may benefit from adaptive clinical care or specific radiation techniques.

Schirmer, Markus Anton; Mergler, Caroline Patricia Nadine [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Gaedcke, Jochen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Jo, Peter [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Beissbarth, Tim [Department of Medical Statistics, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens Friedrich [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael [Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Brockmoeller, Juergen [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany); Wolff, Hendrik Andreas, E-mail: hendrik.wolff@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University Medical Center, Goettingen (Germany)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Guidelines for Transportation, Handling, and Use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil. Part 1. Flammability and Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative sustainable fuel, biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil or 'bio-oil', is coming into the market. Fast pyrolysis pilot and demonstration plants for fuel applications producing tonnes of bio-oil are in operation, and commercial plants are under design. There will be increasingly larger amounts of bio-oil transportation on water and by land, leading to a need for specifications and supporting documentation. Bio-oil is different from conventional liquid fuels, and therefore must overcome both technical and marketing hurdles for its acceptability in the fuels market. A comprehensive Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is required, backed with independent testing and certification. In order to standardise bio-oil quality specifications are needed. The first bio-oil burner fuel standard in ASTM (D7544) was approved in 2009. CEN standardisation has been initiated in Europe. In the EU a new chemical regulation system, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) is being applied. Registration under REACH has to be made if bio-oil is produced or imported to the EU. In the USA and Canada, bio-oil has to be filed under TOSCA (US Toxic Substances Control Act). In this paper the state of the art on standardisation is discussed, and new data for the transportation guidelines is presented. The focus is on flammability and toxicity.

Oasmaa, Anja; Kalli, Anssi; Lindfors, Christian; Elliott, Douglas C.; Springer, David L.; Peacocke, Cordner; Chiaramonti, David

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Dosimetry and preliminary acute toxicity in the first 100 men treated for prostate cancer on a randomized hypofractionation dose escalation trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The {alpha}/{beta} ratio for prostate cancer is postulated to be between 1 and 3, giving rise to the hypothesis that there may be a therapeutic advantage to hypofractionation. The dosimetry and acute toxicity are described in the first 100 men enrolled in a randomized trial. Patients and Methods: The trial compares 76 Gy in 38 fractions (Arm I) to 70.2 Gy in 26 fractions (Arm II) using intensity modulated radiotherapy. The planning target volume (PTV) margins in Arms I and II were 5 mm and 3 mm posteriorly and 8 mm and 7 mm in all other dimensions. The PTV D95% was at least the prescription dose. Results: The mean PTV doses for Arms I and II were 81.1 and 73.8 Gy. There were no differences in overall maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity acutely. However, there was a slight but significant increase in Arm II GI toxicity during Weeks 2, 3, and 4. In multivariate analyses, only the combined rectal DVH parameter of V65 Gy/V50 Gy was significant for GI toxicity and the bladder volume for GU toxicity. Conclusion: Hypofractionation at 2.7 Gy per fraction to 70.2 Gy was well tolerated acutely using the planning conditions described.

Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: Alan.Pollack@FCCC.edu; Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Konski, Andre A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Urology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Uzzo, Robert G. [Department of Urology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ma, C.-M. Charlie [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McNeeley, Shawn W. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Price, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Stabilization of Mercury in High pH Tank Sludges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE complex contains many tank sludges contaminated with mercury. The high pH of these tank sludges typically fails to stabilize the mercury, resulting in these radioactive wastes also being characteristically hazardous or mixed waste. The traditional treatment for soluble inorganic mercury species is precipitation as insoluble mercuric sulfide. Sulfide treatment and a commercial mercury-stabilizing product were tested on surrogate sludges at various alkaline pH values. Neither the sulfide nor the commercial product stabilized the mercury sufficiently at the high pH of the tank sludges to pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) treatment standards of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The commercial product also failed to stabilize the mercury in samples of the actual tank sludges.

Spence, R.; Barton, J.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

244

Toxic gas sensors using thin film transistor platform at low temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semiconducting metal-oxides such as SnO?, TiO?, ZnO and WO? are commonly used for gas sensing in the form of thin film resistors (TFRs) given their high sensitivity to many vapor species, simple construction and capability ...

Jin, Yoonsil

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Determination of the toxicity, water-quality interactions, and biomagnification of selenium in aquatic food chains. Technical report for 15 August 1987-14 August 1989 (Final)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ecological degradation of aquatic ecosystems associated with the presence of elevated concentrations of the trace element selenium has been of considerable scientific, governmental, and public concern. The increased flux of selenium into several aquatic ecosystems, due to anthropogenic activities, has resulted in death, teratogenesis, reproductive impairment and decreased populations in fish and waterfowl communities in the systems. Research is continuing on several investigations into the toxicity, bioaccumulation, transfer, and biotransformation of selenium in aquatic organisms and laboratory food chains. Initial studies were primarily concerned with the comparative acute and chronic toxicity, water-quality interactions, and toxicological interactions of several chemical species of selenium to a variety of aquatic organisms. Further research was directed towards the biotransformation, transfer, and subsequent bioaccumulation of selenium in simplified laboratory aquatic food chains. Studies on the transfer, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of selenium from dietary sources to consumers were conducted. The development of methodology for determining and quantifying the biochemical speciation of selenium in aquatic organisms was initiated.

Maier, K.J.; Ogle, R.S.; Maier, K.A.R.; Williams, M.J.; Malchow, D.

1989-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

High Performance Rooftop Units  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentationname High Performance RTUs Life Cycle Cost Comparison Calculator * Web-based tool for comparing costs of standard and high performance RTUs. * Weather data for 237...

247

A Comparison of Acute and Chronic Toxicity for Men With Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy or {sup 125}I Permanent Implant  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare the toxicity and biochemical outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and {sup 125}I transperineal permanent prostate seed implant ({sup 125}I) for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, a total of 374 low-risk patients (prostate-specific antigen < 10 ng/ml, T1c-T2b, Gleason score of 6 or less, and no neoadjuvant hormones) were treated at Fox Chase Cancer Center (216 IMRT and 158 {sup 125}I patients). Median follow-up was 43 months for IMRT and 48 months for {sup 125}I. The IMRT prescription dose ranged from 74-78 Gy, and {sup 125}I prescription was 145 Gy. Acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity was recorded by using a modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Freedom from biochemical failure was defined by using the Phoenix definition (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2.0 ng/ml). Results: Patients treated by using IMRT were more likely to be older and have a higher baseline American Urological Association symptom index score, history of previous transurethral resection of the prostate, and larger prostate volumes. On multivariate analysis, IMRT was an independent predictor of lower acute and late Grade 2 or higher GU toxicity and late Grade 2 or higher GI toxicity. Three-year actuarial estimates of late Grade 2 or higher toxicity were 2.4% for GI and 3.5% for GU by using IMRT compared with 7.7% for GI and 19.2% for GU for {sup 125}I, respectively. Four-year actuarial estimates of freedom from biochemical failure were 99.5% for IMRT and 93.5% for {sup 125}I (p = 0.09). Conclusions: The IMRT and {sup 125}I produce similar outcomes, although IMRT appears to have less acute and late toxicity.

Eade, Thomas N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: eric.horwitz@fccc.edu; Ruth, Karen [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K.; D'Ambrosio, David J.; Feigenberg, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chen, David Y.T. [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Do Intermediate Radiation Doses Contribute to Late Rectal Toxicity? An Analysis of Data From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 94-06  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate whether the volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses, from 30 to 50 Gy, contribute to the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 1009 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 94-06 were analyzed using three approaches. First, the contribution of intermediate doses to a previously published fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was determined. Next, the extent to which intermediate doses provide additional risk information, after taking the LKB model into account, was investigated. Third, the proportion of rectum receiving doses higher than a threshold, VDose, was computed for doses ranging from 5 to 85 Gy, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which of these parameters were significantly associated with time to Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Results: Doses <60 Gy had no detectable impact on the fit of the LKB model, as expected on the basis of the small estimate of the volume parameter (n = 0.077). Furthermore, there was no detectable difference in late rectal toxicity among cohorts with similar risk estimates from the LKB model but with different volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model selected V75 as the only value of VDose significantly associated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: There is no evidence from these data that intermediate doses influence the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Instead, the critical doses for this endpoint seem to be {>=}75 Gy. It is hypothesized that cases of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity occurring among patients with V75 less than approximately 12% may be due to a 'background' level of risk, likely due mainly to biological factors.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Image-Guided Therapy QA Center, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Winter, Kathryn [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [American College of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cox, James D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

High Performance Networks for High Impact Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

2003-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

251

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

252

Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves hematologic toxicity in particular. Although the long-term efficacy of current treatment options remains disappointing, the improved therapeutic index of IMRT may aid in generalizing its use and allowing the addition of novel approaches such as intraperitoneal immunotherapy.

Desai, Neil B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stein, Nicholas F. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III  

SciTech Connect

A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Long-term mequindox treatment induced endocrine and reproductive toxicity via oxidative stress in male Wistar rats  

SciTech Connect

Mequindox (MEQ) is a synthetic antimicrobial chemical of quinoxaline 1, 4-dioxide group. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that MEQ exerts testicular toxicity by causing oxidative stress and steroidal gene expression profiles and determine mechanism of MEQ testicular toxicity. In this study, adult male Wistar rats were fed with MEQ for 180 days at five different doses as 0, 25, 55, 110 and 275 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to control, superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels were elevated at 110 and 275 mg/kg MEQ, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was slightly increase at only 275 mg/kg. Furthermore, in LC/MS-IT-TOF analysis, one metabolite 2-isoethanol 4-desoxymequindox (M11) was found in the testis. There was significant decrease in body weight, testicular weight and testosterone at 275 mg/kg, serum follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) at 110 and 275 mg/kg, while lutinizing hormone (LH) levels were elevated at 110 mg/kg. Moreover, histopathology of testis exhibited germ cell depletion, contraction of seminiferous tubules and disorganization of the tubular contents of testis. Compared with control, mRNA expression of StAR, P450scc and 17{beta}-HSD in testis was significantly decreased after exposure of 275 mg/kg MEQ while AR and 3{beta}-HSD mRNA expression were significantly elevated at the 110 mg/kg MEQ group. Taken together, our findings provide the first and direct evidence in vivo for the formation of free radicals during the MEQ metabolism through N {yields} O group reduction, which may have implications to understand the possible mechanism of male infertility related to quinoxaline derivatives.

Ihsan, Awais, E-mail: awais.dr@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang Xu [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu Zhaoying [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128 (China); Wang Yulian [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang Xianju [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu Yu; Yu Huan; Zhang Hongfei; Li Tingting; Yang Chunhui [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yuan Zonghui, E-mail: yuan5802@mail.hzau.edu.cn [National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues and MOA Key Laboratory of Food Safety Evaluation, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Evaluation of toxic emissions and residues from the controlled combustion of selected polystyrene, polyoelfins, and polyester materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth of the plastic industry over the past ten years has more than doubled and has been a significant factor in the growing Municipal Solid Waste disposal problems. The objective of this research was to identify toxic species that may be present in selected cellular plastics that could prove harmful to health and environment once disposed. An experimental procedure was established that would simulate foamed plastics in an open burning situation. The data collected is indicative of a incinerator situation, a method of disposal that is becoming more popular as landfills are more restrictive. To determine the possible release and effect of toxic species during combustion four analyses, were conducted. An Arapahoe Smoke Chamber was utilized to determine the smoke mass from selected materials in accordance with ASTM 4100-D, Standard Gravimetric Determination of Smoke Particulates from Combustion of Plastic Materials. Combustion analysis to determine the concentration (ppm) of NO, and S02 was conducted through the use of a Bacharach combustion analyzer model 300 NSX combustion analyzer. It was observed that the greatest releases of the by-products was from the materials that were characterized as sponges. The 6 lb/ ft2 carpet padding had the highest concentration of NOX with 346.03ppm/m while undergoing combustion in an enclosed environment. This material also had the greatest concentration of S02 at 97.20 ppm/mg. An Anderson 2000 Inc. 1 ACFM Ambient Particle Sizing Sampler (9 stage cascade impactor) was utilized to determine the percent particles that were respirable. The smoke generated during combustion produced particles that were 9195% respirable. The final analyses conducted was the determination of heavy metals content in the cellular plastic materials. Results from the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis indicated that there was a significant concentration of Tin, Aluminum, and Zinc in most of the plastics.

Bertrand, Charlotte Marie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Using Sediment Records to Determine Sources, Distribution, Bioavailability, and Potential Toxicity of Dioxins in the Houston Ship Channel: A Multi-proxy Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban centers are major sources of contaminants to the surrounding air, water and soils. Above all, combustion-derived carbonaceous aerosols, especially black carbon (BC) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), make significant contributions to the pollution in these systems. Here sedimentary records are used to produce a series of historical reconstructions of such contaminants to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) system and compare these to point source inputs of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC). Analytical data on total organic carbon (TOC), BC, PAHs, dioxins and lignin (likely discarded from a pulp and paper mill along the Channel) were determined. This multi-proxy approach revealed that over the last several decades, HOC inputs to the system have been derived from a complex mixture of combustion processes, industrial point-sources, and oil spills. In particular, widespread dioxin contamination was observed throughout the study region with a particular site of the HSC showing total concentrations over 20,000 pg/g and 5000 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g dry weight of sediment. Using two models based on sorption constants of total OC and BC, porewater concentrations were estimated to be lower than expected, at 20 pg/L and 5 pg TEQ/L. These values, however, are recognized as being extremely high for freely dissolved concentrations in porous media. The pulp and paper waste pit has recently been declared a Superfund site based on dioxin concentrations alone. The relationship between lignin biomarkers and dioxins observed in these sediments confirms that discharges of pulp and paper effluents were responsible for such high dioxin levels. Concentrations of BC, amorphous OC, and TOC were then used to calculate sediment binding of dioxins in sediments of the HSC. Our study found BC to be extremely low in HSC sediments (0.04 to 0.20%) indicating minimal dioxin sorption capacity. This suggests strong potential for fluxes of dioxins from sediments to the water column both through passive diffusion and physical mixing during natural and anthropogenic sediment remobilization events in this shallow system (hurricanes, storms, and dredging). The purposeful addition of BC to these sediments might be promising as a remediation strategy.

Seward, Shaya M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will discuss the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. The incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (blow down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinerator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 7.95 to 17 cubic meters per hour (m3/hr) (35 to 75 gallons per minute; gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, micro-filtration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper will include details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water. (authors)

Beck, Ch.A. [Senior Project Manager, Golder Associates Inc. (United Kingdom); Tiepel, E.W. [Principal, Golder Associates Inc. (United Kingdom); Swientoniewski, M.D. [P.E. Senior Project Engineer, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (United States); Crow, K.R. [P.E., Project Manager, CDM (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

K-1435 Wastewater Treatment System for the Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Wastewater at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and performance of a wastewater treatment system installed to support the operation of a hazardous waste incinerator. The Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator (TSCAI), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), is designed and permitted to treat Resource ConservatioN and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes including characteristic and listed wastes and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated mixed waste. the incinerator process generates acidic gases and particulates which consist of salts, metals, and radionuclides. These off-gases from the incinerator are treated with a wet off-gas scrubber system. The recirculated water is continuously purged (below down), resulting in a wastewater to be treated. Additional water sources are also collected on the site for treatment, including storm water that infiltrates into diked areas and fire water from the incinerator's suppression system. To meet regulatory requirements for discharge, a wastewater treatment system (WWTS) was designed, constructed, and operated to treat these water sources. The WWTS was designed to provide for periodic fluctuation of contaminant concentrations due to various feed streams to the incinverator. Blow down consists of total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), encompassing metals, radionuclide contamination and trace organics. The system design flow rate range is 35 to 75 gallons per minute (gpm). The system is designed with redundancy to minimize time off-line and to reduce impacts to the TSCAI operations. A novel treatment system uses several unit operations, including chemical feed systems, two-stage chemical reaction treatment, microfiltration, sludge storage and dewatering, neutralization, granular activated carbon, effluent neutralization, and a complete programmable logic controller (PLC) and human-machine interface (HMI) control system. To meet the space requirements and to provide portability of the WWTS to other applications, the system was installed in three, over-the-road semi trailers, and interconnected with piping and power. Trailers were oriented on a small site footprint to facilitate ease of installation. A remote sump pump skid was provided to convey water from two holding sumps adjacent to the treatment process. An accumulation tank and pump were also provided to receive miscellaneous wastewaters for treatment if they meet the waste acceptance criteria. The paper includes details of the technology used in the design, the requirements for compliance, and the initial performance demonstration and jar testing results. The WWTS successfully allowed for highly efficient, high-volume treatment with compliant discharge to off-site surface water.

Swientoniewski M.D.

2008-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

1998 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III  

SciTech Connect

The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986 [also known as the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Title III], as modified by Executive Order 12856, requires that all federal facilities evaluate the need to submit an annual Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report as prescribed in Title III, Section 313 of this Act. This annual report is due every July for the preceding calendar year. Owners and operators who manufacture, process, or otherwise use certain toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities are required to report their toxic chemical releases to all environmental mediums (air, water, soil, etc.). At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), no EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 1998 above the reportable threshold limits of 10,000 lb or 25,000 lb. Therefore LANL was not required to submit any Toxic Chemical Release Inventory reports (Form Rs) for 1998. This document was prepared to provide a detailed description of the evaluation on chemical usage and EPCRA Section 313 threshold determinations for LANL for 1998.

Marjorie B. Stockton

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy as a Monotherapy for Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Phase II Trial  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: There are multiple treatment options for favorable-risk prostate cancer. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a monotherapy is appealing, but its use is still investigational. A Phase II trial was undertaken to explore the value of such treatment in low-to-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a single-institution, prospective study. Eligible patients had low-risk prostate cancer features but also Gleason scores of 7 (51% of patients) and stage T2b to T2c cancer. Treatment with HDR brachytherapy with a single implant was administered over 2 days. One of four fractionation schedules was used in a dose escalation study design: 3 fractions of 10, 10.5, 11, or 11.5 Gy. Patients were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 2.0 for urinary toxicity, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer scoring schema for rectal toxicity, and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaire to measure patient-reported health-related quality of life. Biochemical failure was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir plus 2 ng/ml. Results: Between 2003 and 2008, 79 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 39.5 months, biochemical relapse occurred in 7 patients. Three- and 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates were 88.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.0-96.2%) and 85.1% (95% CI, 72.5-94.5%), respectively. Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity was seen in only 1 patient. There was no instance of acute grade 3 rectal toxicity. Rates of late grade 3 rectal toxicity, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence were 0%, 10.3%, 1.3%, 9.0%, and 0%, respectively. No grade 4 or greater toxicity was recorded. Among the four (urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal) domains assessed with the EPIC questionnaire, only the sexual domain did not recover with time. Conclusions: HDR brachytherapy as a monotherapy for favorable-risk prostate cancer, administered using a single implant over 2 days, is feasible and has acceptable acute and late toxicities. Further follow-up is still required to better evaluate the efficacy of such treatment.

Barkati, Maroie [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott G., E-mail: scott.williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad; Tai, Keen Hun; Chander, Sarat [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dyk, Sylvia van [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); See, Andrew [Ballarat Austin Radiation Oncology Centre, Ballarat (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian M. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Testing of Waste Glass and K-3 Refractory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR's) on May 26 1998. The new regulation requires that any waste characteristically hazardous for the metals As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag will have to be treated to meet the LDR Universal Treatment Standards (UTS) for each metal prior to land disposal. Since EPA regulations continue to become more stringent, here-to-fore unpublished TCLP data generated during testing of simulated High Level Waste (HLW) glass, including the Evnironmental Assessment glass and K-3 melter refractory, will be reviewed. The refractory TCLP data compilation includes K-3 refractory in contact with DWPF simulated glass in a pilot scale melter and K-3 refractory in contact with actual mixed waste glass in a 5 ton a day GTS Duratek melter.

Jantzen, C.M.

1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

262

2002 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

SciTech Connect

For reporting year 2002, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds and mercury as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2002 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical usage and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2002 as well as provide background information about the data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999 EPA promulgated a final rule on Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable under EPCRA Section 313. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

M. Stockton

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

2006 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For reporting year 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2006 above the reportable thresholds. This document was prepared to provide a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2006, as well as to provide background information about data included on the Form R reports. Section 313 of EPCRA specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. In 1999, EPA promulgated a final rule on persistent bioaccumulative toxics (PBTs). This rule added several chemicals to the EPCRA Section 313 list of toxic chemicals and established lower reporting thresholds for these and other PBT chemicals that were already reportable. These lower thresholds became applicable in reporting year 2000. In 2001, EPA expanded the PBT rule to include a lower reporting threshold for lead and lead compounds. Facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use more than 100 lb of lead or lead compounds must submit a Form R.

Ecology and Air Quality Group (ENV-EAQ)

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

264

High Speed Electronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Speed Electronics. ... optic sampling system provides traceability for our electrical waveform measurements ... Metrology for Electronic Packaging. ...

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

265

High power microwave generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

Ekdahl, C.A.

1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

266

High power microwave generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

Ekdahl, Carl A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

High performance systems  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

Vigil, M.B. [comp.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

High Performance Computing in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Performance Computing in Bioinformatics Thomas Ludwig (t.ludwig@computer.org) Ruprecht PART I: High Performance Computing Thomas Ludwig PART II: HPC Computing in Bioinformatics Alexandros #12;© Thomas Ludwig, Alexandros Stamatakis, GCB'04 3 PART I High Performance Computing Introduction

Stamatakis, Alexandros

269

Microsoft PowerPoint - High Temperature Thermoelectric_Ohuchi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered at Multiple Length Scales for Energy Harvesting Program Manager: Patricia Rawls Fumio S. Ohuchi (PI) and Rajendra K. Bordia(Co-PI) Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Washington Box 352120 Seattle, WA 98195 Grant No. DE-FE0007272 (June 1, 2012-May 31, 2013) Graduate Students: Christopher Dandeneau and YiHsun Yang June 10, 2013 The UCR Contractors Review Conference Introduction/Motivation for Research * Thermoelectric (TE) oxides for waste heat recovery  Good high-temperature stability  Stable in hostile environments  Low cost/toxicity * Oxides with complex structure:  Low thermal conductivity,   Tailor stoichiometry to maximize S

270

High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

High-Dielectric Constant, High-Temperature Ceramic Capacitors for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth of Thick, On-Axis SiC Epitaxial Layers by High Temperature Halide CVD for High Voltage Power Devices High-Dielectric Constant, High-Temperature...

273

High Performance Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » Information Science, Computing, Applied Math » High Performance Computing High Performance Computing Providing world-class high performance computing capability that enables unsurpassed solutions to complex problems of strategic national interest Gary Grider High Performance Computing Division Leader Randal Rheinheimer High Performance Computing Deputy Division Leader Contact Us Carol Hogsett Student/Internship Opportunities Email Division Office Email Managing world-class supercomputing centers Powerall simulations modeling Read caption + The Powerwall is used by LANL scientists to view objects and processes in 3D. High Performance Computing video 13:01 Gary Grider, HPC Divison Leader The High Performance Computing (HPC) Division supports the Laboratory mission by managing world-class Supercomputing Centers.

274

Brookhaven High Energy Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy Physics High-Energy Physics High-energy physicists probe the properties and behavior of the most elementary particles in the universe. At the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), they perform experiments of unique sensitivity using high-intensity, intermediate-energy beams. The AGS currently provides the world's most intense high-energy proton beam. It is also the world's most versatile accelerator, accelerating protons, polarized protons, and heavy ions to near the speed of light. Magnet system at Brookhaven used to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. Important discoveries in high-energy physics were made at the AGS within the last decade. An international collaboration, including key physicists from Brookhaven, performed a very high-precision measurement of a property

275

Utilization of high sulfur coal in carbon fiber production. Final report, April 1993--August 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PYROGRAF-III{trademark} is a highly graphitic vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) produced by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon on metallic catalysts in the temperature range of 1000{degrees}C. This is entirely different from commercial carbon fiber, which is made by first forming a filament and then graphitizing it in a high temperature oven. For PYROGRAF-III{trademark} small amounts of sulfur in the form of hydrogen sulfide are added to the process to enhance the yield. This method of supplying the necessary sulfur is both expensive and hazardous since hydrogen sulfide is flammable, toxic, and corrosive. To supply the sulfur more economically and safely, high sulfur coal was proposed as a replacement for the hydrogen sulfide gas. Applied Sciences, Inc. is the sole producer of this material in pound quantities. The primary objective of research grant OCDO-922-8 was to demonstrate that Ohio`s high sulfur coal can replace the expensive, toxic hydrogen sulfide in the production of vapor grown carbon fiber as well as become a partial or complete source of carbon. The secondary objective was to analyze the exhaust for the release of harmful sulfur compounds and to project the economic potential of the use of coal.

Burton, D.J.; Guth, J.R.

1994-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

276

Response of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis to Current and Projected Environmental Conditions: Salinity and Global Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are increasing in frequency and duration worldwide. Karenia brevis, the major toxic dinoflagellate in the Gulf of Mexico, produces potent neurotoxins, known as brevetoxins. For K. brevis, only minor concentrations of brevetoxins are needed to induce toxicity and environmental conditions appear to have the most direct impact on the cellular content of these toxins. A better understanding of K. brevis biology is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying toxin production and the ecology of such HABs, as well as to better anticipate and respond to such blooms. Here we present findings on the effect of salinity and availability of carbon on cellular physiology and brevetoxin and brevenal production by K. brevis. When grown at salinities of 35 and 27, but otherwise identical conditions, total brevetoxin cellular concentration varied between 0 to 18.5 pg cell-1 and brevenal varied between 0 and 1 pg cell-1. In response to hypoosmotic stress brevetoxin production was triggered, as a result, brevetoxin production increased up to 53%, while growth rates remained unchanged. A significant hypoosmotic event of >11%, was needed to trigger the response in brevetoxin production. To determine if K. brevis was sensing changes in specific ions within seawater (K+, Cl- or Ca2+), we systematically removed one ion while keeping the remaining ions at equivalent molar concentration for salinity of 35. Dilution in seawater K+ concentrations triggered the production of brevetoxins, increasing production ?44%. Ecosystem changes due to climate change have increased the production of toxins in other HAB species; here we examined the impact on K. brevis. We have shown that modification of pCO2 level and temperature did not influence brevetoxin production; however, predicted climate change scenarios (increased temperature and pCO2) did significantly increase the growth rate of K. brevis, by 60% at 25C and 55% at 30C. We suggest that K. brevis blooms could benefit from predicted increase in pCO2 over the next 100 years. Overall, our findings close a critical gap in knowledge regarding the function of brevetoxin in K. brevis by identifying a connection between brevetoxin production and osmoacclimation.

Errera, Reagan Michelle

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

High and Low LET Radiation Differentially Induce Normal Tissue Damage Signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiotherapy using high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation is aimed at efficiently killing tumor cells while minimizing dose (biological effective) to normal tissues to prevent toxicity. It is well established that high LET radiation results in lower cell survival per absorbed dose than low LET radiation. However, whether various mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be regulated differentially is not known. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether two actions related to normal tissue toxicity, p53-induced apoptosis and expression of the profibrotic gene PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), are differentially induced by high and low LET radiation. Methods and Materials: Cells were irradiated with high LET carbon ions or low LET photons. Cell survival assays were performed, profibrotic PAI-1 expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis was assayed by annexin V staining. Activation of p53 by phosphorylation at serine 315 and serine 37 was monitored by Western blotting. Transfections of plasmids expressing p53 mutated at serines 315 and 37 were used to test the requirement of these residues for apoptosis and expression of PAI-1. Results: As expected, cell survival was lower and induction of apoptosis was higher in high -LET irradiated cells. Interestingly, induction of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene was similar with high and low LET radiation. In agreement with this finding, phosphorylation of p53 at serine 315 involved in PAI-1 expression was similar with high and low LET radiation, whereas phosphorylation of p53 at serine 37, involved in apoptosis induction, was much higher after high LET irradiation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that diverse mechanisms involved in the development of normal tissue damage may be differentially affected by high and low LET radiation. This may have consequences for the development and manifestation of normal tissue damage.

Niemantsverdriet, Maarten [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Goethem, Marc-Jan van [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bron, Reinier; Hogewerf, Wytse [Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A.; Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P., E-mail: r.p.coppes@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section of Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

1962-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

279

High output lamp with high brightness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultra bright, low wattage inductively coupled electrodeless aperture lamp is powered by a solid state RF source in the range of several tens to several hundreds of watts at various frequencies in the range of 400 to 900 MHz. Numerous novel lamp circuits and components are disclosed including a wedding ring shaped coil having one axial and one radial lead, a high accuracy capacitor stack, a high thermal conductivity aperture cup and various other aperture bulb configurations, a coaxial capacitor arrangement, and an integrated coil and capacitor assembly. Numerous novel RF circuits are also disclosed including a high power oscillator circuit with reduced complexity resonant pole configuration, parallel RF power FET transistors with soft gate switching, a continuously variable frequency tuning circuit, a six port directional coupler, an impedance switching RF source, and an RF source with controlled frequency-load characteristics. Numerous novel RF control methods are disclosed including controlled adjustment of the operating frequency to find a resonant frequency and reduce reflected RF power, controlled switching of an impedance switched lamp system, active power control and active gate bias control.

Kirkpatrick, Douglas A. (Great Falls, VA); Bass, Gary K. (Mt. Airy, MD); Copsey, Jesse F. (Germantown, MD); Garber, Jr., William E. (Poolesville, MD); Kwong, Vincent H. (Vancouver, CA); Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Roy, Robert J. (Frederick, MD); Steiner, Paul E. (Olney, MD); Tsai, Peter (Olney, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

Szpunar, C.B.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Biological availability of nickel arsenides: toxic effects of particulate Ni/sub 5/As/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect

Considerations of (1) oil shale retort operating conditions, (2) oil shale elemental composition, (3) nickel and arsenic physico-chemical properties, and (4) oil shale matrix structure lead to the suggestion that nickel arsenides may be formed during the oil shale retorting process. The biological effects of nickel arsenides have not been previously studied. However, similarities between nickel subarsenide and nickel subsulfide and nickel subselenimide, both of which are known potent carcinogens, have caused concern that nickel arsenides may have adverse effects on biological systems. To determine if fugitive nickel arsenides from an oil shale retort could pose a threat to personnel in the workplace or to other living organisms in the environment, a program to study the toxicity of nickel arsenides has been initiated. Five stable nickel arsenides (Ni/sub 5/As/sub 2/, Ni/sub 2/As, Ni/sub 11/As/sub 8/, NiAs, and NiAs/sub 2/) and nickel arsenic sulfide (NiAsS) are considered possible species for study.

Gurley, L.R.; Tobey, R.A.; Valdez, J.G.; Halleck, M.S.; Barham, S.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure fails to extract oxoanion-forming elements that are extracted by municipal solid waste leachates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

US EPA and state regulatory agencies rely on standard extraction tests to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. To evaluate the predictive abilities of these extraction tests, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), the Waste Extraction Test (WET), and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) were compared with actual municipal solid waste leachates (MSWLs) for their ability to extract regulated elements from a variety of industrial solid wastes in short- and long-term extractions. Short-term extractions used MSWLs from a variety of California landfills. Long-term sequential extractions simulated longer term leaching, as might occur in MSW landfills. For most regulated elements, the TCLP roughly predicted the maximum concentrations extracted by the MSWLs. For regulated elements that form oxoanions (e.g., Sb, As, Mo, Se, V), however the TCLP underpredicted the levels extracted by the MSWL. None of the standard tests adequately predicted these levels. The results emphasize the need for better standardized techniques to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate groundwater with oxoanion-forming elements, particularly arsenic.

Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G. [California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.] [and others

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Decommissioning and safety issues of liquid-mercury waste generated from high power spallation sources with particle accelerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large spallation sources are intended to be constructed in Europe (EURISOL nuclear physics facility and ESS-European Spallation Source). These facilities accumulate more than 20 metric tons of irradiated mercury in the target, which has to be treated as highly radioactive and chemo-toxic waste. Because solids are the only appropriate (immobile) form for this radiotoxic and toxic type of waste solidification is required for irradiated mercury. Our irradiation experimental studies on mercury waste revealed that mercury sulfide is a reasonable solid for disposal and shows larger stability in assumed accidents with water ingress in a repository compared to amalgams. For preparation of mercury sulfide a wet process is more suitable than a dry one. It is easier to perform under hot cell conditions and allows complete Hg-conversion. Embedding HgS in a cementitious matrix increases its stability.

Chiriki, S; Odoj, R; Moormann, R; Hinssen, H. K; Bukaemskiy, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others] [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

High temperature refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

High temperature furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-Dose Dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... web page below. Service descriptions and price schedule for NIST high-dose services are found in this link. The intention ...

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

High-Tc Superconductor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 High-temperature superconductors (HTSC's), following their remarkable discovery in 1986, continue to be at...

289

.NET High Performance Computing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have been extensively applied in the High Performance Computing (HPC) community. HPC applications require additional special programming environments to improve (more)

Ou, Hsuan-Hsiu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

High Temperature Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2010 ... Protective Coatings for Corrosion Resistance at High Temperatures: Vilupanur Ravi1; Thuan Nguyen1; Alexander Ly1; Kameron Harmon1;...

291

High Energy Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Untitled Document Argonne Logo DOE Logo High Energy Physics Division Home Division ES&H Personnel Publications HEP Awards HEP Computing HEP Committees Administration...

292

High Performance Tooling Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High performance tools are necessary for the successful manufacturing of every consumer product as well as oil drilling and mining operations. Increasing...

293

High power, high frequency, vacuum flange  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an improved waveguide flange is disclosed for high power operation that helps prevent arcs from being initiated at the junctions between waveguide sections. The flanges at the end of the waveguide sections have counterbores surrounding the waveguide tubes. When the sections are bolted together the counterbores form a groove that holds a fully annealed copper gasket. Each counterbore has a beveled step that is specially configured to insure the gasket forms a metal-to-metal vacuum seal without gaps or sharp edges. The resultant inner surface of the waveguide is smooth across the junctions between waveguide sections, and arcing is prevented.

Felker, B.; McDaniel, M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

High density photovoltaic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electrolysis High Temperature Hydrogen  

INL has developed a high-temperature process the utilizes solid oxide fuel cells that are operated in the electrolytic mode. The first process includes combining a high-temperature heat source (e.g. nuclear reactor) with a hydrogen production facility ...

296

High temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Reduction and Speciation of Monoglycerides to Produce High Quality Biodiesel .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel is rapidly growing as a fuel of interest due to the various advantages it has over conventional diesel fuel. While the pros non-toxic, (more)

Rapaka, Srikanth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A broad spectrum catalytic system for removal of toxic organics from water by deep oxidation. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

'During the first year, the palladium-catalyzed deep oxidation of toxic organics by dioxygen in aqueous solution was examined in some detail. The research performed has established the viability of the catalytic system to effect the deep (and complete) oxidation of a very wide range of organic substrates under mild conditions. One significant observation was that chemical warfare agent models containing phosphorus-carbon and sulfur-carbon bonds could be eliminated by using this procedure.'

Sen, A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Is It Time to Tailor the Prediction of Radio-Induced Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients? Building the First Set of Nomograms for Late Rectal Syndrome  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Development of user-friendly tools for the prediction of single-patient probability of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity through self-assessed questionnaires (minimum follow-up, 36 months) by 718 adult men in the AIROPROS 0102 trial. Doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Nomograms were created based on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three endpoints were considered: G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding (52/718 events), G3 late rectal bleeding (24/718 events), and G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence (LINC, 19/718 events). Results: Inputs for the nomogram for G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding estimation were as follows: presence of abdominal surgery before RT, percentage volume of rectum receiving >75 Gy (V75Gy), and nomogram-based estimation of the probability of G2 to G3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity (continuous variable, which was estimated using a previously published nomogram). G3 late rectal bleeding estimation was based on abdominal surgery before RT, V75Gy, and NOMACU. Prediction of G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence was based on abdominal surgery before RT, presence of hemorrhoids, use of antihypertensive medications (protective factor), and percentage volume of rectum receiving >40 Gy. Conclusions: We developed and internally validated the first set of nomograms available in the literature for the prediction of radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Calculations included dosimetric as well as clinical variables to help radiation oncologists predict late rectal morbidity, thus introducing the possibility of RT plan corrections to better tailor treatment to the patient's characteristics, to avoid unnecessary worsening of quality of life, and to provide support to the patient in selecting the best therapeutic approach.

Valdagni, Riccardo [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Radiotherapy, Fondazione IRCCS - Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan (Italy); Kattan, Michael W. [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rancati, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.rancati@istitutotumori.mi.it [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Yu Changhong [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Vavassori, Vittorio [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Humanitas - Gavazzeni, Bergamo (Italy); Fellin, Giovanni [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Cagna, Elena [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Gabriele, Pietro [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Mauro, Flora Anna; Baccolini, Micaela [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Villa Maria Cecilia, Lugo (Italy); Bianchi, Carla [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale di Circolo, Varese (Italy); Menegotti, Loris [Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento (Italy); Monti, Angelo F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Ospedale Sant'Anna, Como (Italy); Stasi, Michele [Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo (Italy); Giganti, Maria Olga [Prostate Program, Scientific Directorate, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Dept. of Oncology, Ospedale Niguarda, Milan (Italy); and others

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Cost-effectiveness of Different Herbicide and Non-herbicide Alternatives for Treating Transmission Rights of Way Vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a guide to using cost-effectiveness analysis to compare different programs of vegetation management for electric transmission line rights of way.BackgroundCost effectiveness is an important economic measure for describing and comparing the relative acceptability of different vegetation management programs. Cost-effectiveness analysis is apparently rarely used in the utility industry. This might be related to its apparent complexity, but it can ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

2004 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report for the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, Title III, Section 313  

SciTech Connect

Section 313 of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) specifically requires facilities to submit a Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Report (Form R) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies if the owners and operators manufacture, process, or otherwise use any of the listed toxic chemicals above listed threshold quantities. EPA compiles this data in the Toxic Release Inventory database. Form R reports for each chemical over threshold quantities must be submitted on or before July 1 each year and must cover activities that occurred at the facility during the previous year. For reporting year 2004, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) submitted Form R reports for lead compounds, nitric acid, and nitrate compounds as required under the EPCRA Section 313. No other EPCRA Section 313 chemicals were used in 2004 above the reportable thresholds. This document provides a description of the evaluation of EPCRA Section 313 chemical use and threshold determinations for LANL for calendar year 2004, as well as background information about data included on the Form R reports.

M. Stockton

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, to aquatic invertebrates and fish in laboratory exposures  

SciTech Connect

Sediments of the upper Clark Fork River, from the Butte and Anaconda area to Milltown Reservoir (230 km downstream), are contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, and Zn primarily from mining activities. The toxicity of pore water from these sediments was determined using Daphnia magna, rainbow trout, and Microtox[reg sign]. However, pore-water data from these exposures were questionable because of changes in the toxicity of pore-water samples after 5 to 7 d of storage. Whole-sediment tests were conducted with Hyalella azteca, Chironomus riparius, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 21- to 28-d exposure and Daphnia magna. Sediment samples from Milltown Reservoir and the Clark Fork River were not generally lethal to test organisms. However, both reduced growth and delayed sexual maturation of amphipods were associated with exposure to elevated concentrations of metals in sediments from the reservoir and river. Relative sensitivity (most sensitive to least sensitive) of organisms in whole-sediment toxicity tests was: Hyalella azteca > Chironomus riparius > rainbow trout > Daphnia magna. Relative sensitivity (most sensitive to least sensitive) of the three end points evaluated with Hyalella azteca was: length > sexual maturation > survival. The lack of lethal effects on organisms may be related to temporal differences in sediment, acid-volatile sulfide, or organic carbon.

Kemble, N.E.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Brunson, E.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G. (National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Midwest Science Center); Monda, D.P. (Pyramid Lake Fisheries, Sutcliffe, NV (United States)); Woodward, D.F. (National Biological Survey, Jackson, WY (United States). Midwest Science Center)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Radiation Therapy and Daily Temozolomide Is Associated With Minimal Toxicity in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with newly diagnosed GBM were enrolled in the study, and received standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide. All patients underwent a craniotomy and were at least 2 weeks postoperative. Radiation therapy was administered in 1.8-Gy fractions, with the clinical target volume for the primary course treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy, followed by a boost of 9 to 14.4 Gy, to a total dose of 59.4 Gy. Patients received temozolomide at 75 mg/m{sup 2} daily throughout the course of radiation therapy. Bevacizumab was given at 10 mg/kg intravenously every 14 days, beginning a minimum of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results: Of the 125 patients, 120 (96%) completed the protocol-specified radiation therapy. Five patients had to stop the protocol therapy, 2 patients with pulmonary emboli, and 1 patient each with a Grade 2 central nervous system hemorrhage, Grade 4 pancytopenia, and wound dehiscence requiring surgical intervention. All 5 patients ultimately finished the radiation therapy. After radiation therapy, 3 patients had progressive disease, 2 had severe fatigue and decreased performance status, 1 patient had a colonic perforation, and 1 had a rectal fissure; these 7 patients therefore did not proceed with the protocol-specified adjuvant temozolomide, bevacizumab, and irinotecan. However, 113 patients (90%) were able to continue on study. Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to standard radiation therapy and daily temozolomide was found to be associated with minimal toxicity in patients newly diagnosed with GBM.

Vredenburgh, James J., E-mail: vrede001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Desjardins, Annick [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Kirkpatrick, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Reardon, David A. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Peters, Katherine B. [Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer [Department of Cancer Center Biostatistics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bailey, Leighann; Threatt, Stevie; Sampson, John; Friedman, Allan [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Friedman, Henry S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC LEACHING PROCEDURE APPLIED TO RADIOACTIVE SALTSTONE CONTAINING TETRAPHENYLBORATE: DEVELOPMENT OF A MODIFIED ZERO-HEADSPACE EXTRACTOR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to assess the effect of extended curing times at elevated temperatures on saltstone containing Tank 48H waste, saltstone samples prepared as a part of a separate study were analyzed for benzene using a modification of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). To carry out TCLP for volatile organic analytes (VOA), such as benzene, in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) shielded cells (SC), a modified TCLP Zero-Headspace Extractor (ZHE) was developed. The modified method was demonstrated to be acceptable in a side by side comparison with an EPA recommended ZHE using nonradioactive saltstone containing tetraphenylborate (TPB). TCLP results for all saltstone samples tested containing TPB (both simulant and actual Tank 48H waste) were below the regulatory limit for benzene (0.5 mg/L). In general, higher curing temperatures corresponded to higher concentrations of benzene in TCLP extract. The TCLP performed on the simulant samples cured under the most extreme conditions (3000 mg/L TPB in salt and cured at 95 C for at least 144 days) resulted in benzene values that were greater than half the regulatory limit. Taking into account that benzene in TCLP extract was measured on the same order of magnitude as the regulatory limit, that these experimental conditions may not be representative of actual curing profiles found in the saltstone vault and that there is significant uncertainty associated with the precision of the method, it is recommended that to increase confidence in TCLP results for benzene, the maximum curing temperature of saltstone be less than 95 C. At this time, no further benzene TCLP testing is warranted. Additional verification would be recommended, however, should future processing strategies result in significant changes to salt waste composition in saltstone as factors beyond the scope of this limited study may influence the decomposition of TPB in saltstone.

Crapse, K.; Cozzi, A.; Crawford, C.; Jurgensen, A.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

High Performance Sustainable Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

become a High Performance Sustainable Building in 2013. On the former County landfill, a photovoltaic array field uses solar energy to provide power for Los Alamos County and the...

306

Creating high performance enterprises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How do enterprises successfully conceive, design, deliver, and operate large-scale, engineered systems? These large-scale projects often involve high complexity, significant technical challenges, a large number of diverse ...

Stanke, Alexis K. (Alexis Kristen), 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

High pressure furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

Morris, D.E.

1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

311

High Performance Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Computing Managing world-class supercomputing centers Read caption + The Powerwall is used by LANL scientists to view objects and processes in 3D. 13:01 Gary...

312

High Performance Window Attachments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Performance Window High Performance Window Attachments D. Charlie Curcija Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory dccurcija@lbl.gov 510-495-2602 April 4, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Impact of Project: * Motivate manufacturers to make improvements in Window systems U-Factors, SHGC and daylighting utilization * Increase awareness of benefits from energy efficient window attachments Problem Statement: * A wide range of residential window attachments are available, but they have widely unknown

313

High-temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

314

High Burnup Effects Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). It has been prepared to present a summary, with conclusions, of the HBEP. The HBEP was an international, group-sponsored research program managed by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). The principal objective of the HBEP was to obtain well-characterized data related to fission gas release (FGR) for light water reactor (LWR) fuel irradiated to high burnup levels. The HBEP was organized into three tasks as follows: Task 1 -- high burnup effects evaluations; Task 2 -- fission gas sampling; and Task 3 -- parameter effects study. During the course of the HBEP, a program that extended over 10 years, 82 fuel rods from a variety of sources were characterized, irradiated, and then examined in detail after irradiation. The study of fission gas release at high burnup levels was the principal objective of the program and it may be concluded that no significant enhancement of fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined rods. The rim effect, an as yet unquantified contributor to athermal fission gas release, was concluded to be the one truly high-burnup effect. Though burnup enhancement of fission gas release was observed to be low, a full understanding of the rim region and rim effect has not yet emerged and this may be a potential area of further research. 25 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Biocompatibility and Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Associated diseases along with the location of main enzymatic antioxidants...virus Plasma SOD Parkinson's disease and Neurons CAT, GPx, SOD, HO-1 Alzheimer's disease Kidney chronic nephritis Kidney Cu/Zn-SOD, GPx Crohn's disease Gastrointestinal tract CAT, GPx, SOD...

316

Lubricant Toxicity (Ref 12)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...E.O. Bennett, The Biology of Metalworking Fluids, Lubr. Eng., Vol 28 (No. 7), 1972, p 237??247...

317

Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

Efthimion, Philip C. (Bedminister, NJ); Helfritch, Dennis J. (Flemington, NJ)

1989-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

High Temperature Capacitor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

John Kosek

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

High Risk Plan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Risk Plan Risk Plan John Bashista Melissa Rider Jeff Davis Timeline to date * OMB memo on Improving Government Acquisition issued July 29, 2009 - Review existing contracts and acquisition practices to save 7% of baseline contract spending (3.5% in FY 2010 and 3.5% in FY 2011) - Reduce high risk contracts by 10% the share of dollars obligated in FY2010 - Final plan was due and submitted on November 2, 2009 - OMB reviewed and requested revision Dec 23, 2009 - Revision submitted April 21, 2010 M&Os are an Issue * With respect to reductions in high risk contracting strategies, the M&O contracts was also a challenge since the opportunity to further influence competition and contract type was highly constrained. The Department had already competed approximately 85 percent of its M&O

320

HIGHLY AUTOMATED MACROMOLECULAR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AUTOMATED MACROMOLECULAR AUTOMATED MACROMOLECULAR CRYSTALLOGRAPHY BEAMLINE (AMX) Group Leader: Dieter Schneider Proposal Team: M. Allaire 1 , L. Berman 1 , M. Chance 2 , W. Hendrickson 3 , A. Héroux 1 , J. Jakoncic 1 , A. Orville 1 , H. Robinson 1 , D. Schneider 1 , W. Shi 2 , A. Soares 1 , V. Stojanoff 1 , R. Sweet 1 1 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2 Case Western Reserve University, 3 Columbia University MISSION APPLICATIONS AND CAPABILITIES ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * AMX at NSLS-II will provide structural biologists with ready access to an advanced macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline for the elucidation of structure and function of macromolecular complexes. * Its high flux, tunable energy, and natively small focal spot will make it a crystallographer's preferred beamline. * Its high degree of automation will provide a high throughput

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High brightness electron accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

High resolution data acquisition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock pulse train and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train. The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

323

High-energy detector  

SciTech Connect

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Camarda, Giuseppe (Farmingville, NY); Cui, Yonggang (Upton, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

Office of Pesticide Programs Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine] is a selective preemergent herbicide registered for control of broadleaf weeds and grassy weed species on a variety of terrestrial fruit and vegetable, and feed crops. It is also used to control weeds on ornamental crops, rights-of-way and homeowner turf. An endangered species risk assessment is developed for federally listed Pacific salmon and steelhead. This assessment applies the findings of the Office of Pesticide Programs Environmental Risk Assessment developed for non-target fish and wildlife as part of the reregistration process to determine the potential risks to the 26 listed threatened and endangered Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of Pacific salmon and steelhead. Pendimethalin exhibits high toxicity to fish and can affect aquatic plants, especially diatoms, in areas of high use. The use of pendimethalin will have no effect on 22 ESUs and may affect but is not likely to adversely affect 4 ESUs.

Threatened Salmon; Kurt Pluntke

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

High strength alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

High intensity hadron accelerators  

SciTech Connect

This rapporteur report consists mainly of two parts. Part I is an abridged review of the status of all High Intensity Hadron Accelerator projects in the world in semi-tabulated form for quick reference and comparison. Part II is a brief discussion of the salient features of the different technologies involved. The discussion is based mainly on my personal experiences and opinions, tempered, I hope, by the discussions I participated in in the various parallel sessions of the workshop. In addition, appended at the end is my evaluation and expression of the merits of high intensity hadron accelerators as research facilities for nuclear and particle physics.

Teng, L.C.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

High-beta tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Calculations are made to study the stability and accessibility of tokamak plasmas in the high energy density regime which is desirable for economical reactor operation. Results are given from flux conserving tokamak (FCT) models, classical models, and more complete models with spatially resolved (R,Z) transport, including effects from sawtooth oscillations and magnetic islands. MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of high-beta tokamak plasmas in the range {beta} {approx} 5-15%. For next-generation devices, beta values of, at least, 8% appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby.

Dory, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berger, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Charlton, L. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Munro, J.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Nelson, D. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Sigma, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Strickler, Dennis J [ORNL

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

High Availability Electronics Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

329

Economic Effect on Agricultural Production of Alternative Energy Input Prices: Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Arab oil embargo of 1973 awakened the world to the reality of energy shortages and higher fuel prices. Agriculture in the United States is highly mechanized and thus energy intensive. This study seeks to develop an evaluative capability to readily determine the short-run effect of rising energy prices on agricultural production. The results are measured in terms of demand schedules for each input investigated, net revenue adjustments, cropping pattern shifts, and changes in agricultural output. The High Plains of Texas was selected as a study area due to the heterogeneous nature of agricultural production in the region and highly energy intensive methods of production employed. The region is associated with a diversity in crops and production practices as well as a high degree of mechanization and irrigation, which means agriculture is very dependent upon energy inputs and, in turn, is significantly affected by energy price changes. The study area was defined by the Texas Agricultural Extension subregions of High Plains II, High Plains III, and High Plains IV. The crops chosen for study were cotton, grain sorghum, wheat, corn, and soybeans. The energy and energy-related inputs under investigation were diesel, herbicide, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, and water. Mathematical linear programming was used as the analytical technique with parametric programming techniques incorporated into the LP model to evaluate effect of varying input price parameters over a specified range. Thus, demand schedules were estimated. The objective function was constructed using variable costs only; no fixed costs are considered. Therefore, the objective function maximizes net revenue above variable costs and thus limits the study to the short run. The data bases for the model were crop enterprise budgets developed by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service. These budgets were modified to adapt them to the study. Particularly important was the substitution of owner-operated harvesting equipment for custom-harvesting costs. This procedure made possible the delineation of fuel use by crop and production alternative which was necessary information in the accounting of costs. The completed LP model was applied to 16 alternative situations made up of various input and product price combinations which are considered as feasible in the short run future. The results reveal that diesel consumption would change very little in the short run unless commodity prices simultaneously decline below the lowest prices since 1971 or unless diesel price approaches $2.00 per gallon. Under average commodity price conditions, natural gas consumption would not decline appreciably until the price rose above $4.00 per 1000 cubic feet (mcf). Even when using the least product prices since 1971, natural gas would be consumed in substantial amounts as long as the price was below $1.28 per Mcf. The findings regarding nitrogen indicate that present nitrogen prices are within a critical range such that consumption would be immediately affected by nitrogen price increases. Water price was considered as the price a farmer can afford to pay for water above pumping and distribution costs. Application of water was defined as the price that would be paid for imported water. Under average commodity price conditions, the study results show that as water price rises from zero dollars to $22 per acre foot there would be less than a 4 percent reduction in consumption. However, as the price continues to rise, consumption would decline dramatically reaching zero at a water price of $71.75 per acre foot. This study indicates that rising input prices would cause acreage shifts from irrigated to dryland; however, with average commodity prices, these shifts do not occur until diesel reaches $2.69 per gallon, or natural gas sells for $1.92 per Mcf, or nitrogen price is $.41 per pound, or water price reaches $14.69 per acre foot. In general, the first crops that would shift out of production as energy input prices rise woul

Adams, B. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program to someone by E-mail Share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program on Facebook Tweet about High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program on Twitter Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program on Google Bookmark High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program on Delicious Rank High Performance Windows Volume Purchase: About the High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program on Digg Find More places to share High Performance Windows Volume Purchase:

331

Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

High Occupancy Vehicle High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: High

332

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

High expression Zymomonas promoters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); McCole, Laura (East Fallowfield, PA): Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); McCutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

335

High availability using virtualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High availability has always been one of the main problems for a data center. Till now high availability was achieved by host per host redundancy, a highly expensive method in terms of hardware and human costs. A new approach to the problem can be offered by virtualization. Using virtualization, it is possible to achieve a redundancy system for all the services running on a data center. This new approach to high availability allows to share the running virtual machines over the servers up and running, by exploiting the features of the virtualization layer: start, stop and move virtual machines between physical hosts. The system (3RC) is based on a finite state machine with hysteresis, providing the possibility to restart each virtual machine over any physical host, or reinstall it from scratch. A complete infrastructure has been developed to install operating system and middleware in a few minutes. To virtualize the main servers of a data center, a new procedure has been developed to migrate physical to virtu...

Calzolari, Federico

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

High Efficiency Steam Electrolyzer  

SciTech Connect

A novel steam electrolyzer has been developed. In conventional electrolyzers, oxygen produced from electrolysis is usually released in the air stream. In their novel design, natural gas is used to replace air in order to reduce the chemical potential difference across the electrolyzer, thus minimizing the electrical consumption. The oxygen from the electrolysis is consumed in either a total oxidation or a partial oxidation reaction with natural gas. Experiments performed on single cells shown a voltage reduction as much as 1 V when compared to conventional electrolyzers. Using thin film materials and high performance cathode and anode, electrolysis could be done at temperatures as low as 700 C with electrolytic current as high as 1 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 0.5 V only. The 700 C operating temperature is favorable to the total oxidation of natural gas while minimizing the need for steam that is otherwise necessary to avoid carbon deposition. A novel tubular electrolyzer stack has been developed. The system was designed to produce hydrogen at high pressures, taking advantage of the simplicity and high efficiency of the electrochemical compressors. A complete fabrication process was developed for making electrolyzer tubes with thin film coatings. A 100 W stack is being built.

Pham, A.Q.

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

337

High Energy Photoproduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The experimental and phenomenological status of high energy photoproduction is reviewed. Topics covered include the structure of the photon, production of jets, heavy flavours and prompt photons, rapidity gaps, energy flow and underlying events. The results are placed in the context of the current understanding of QCD, with particular application to present and future hadron and lepton colliders.

J. M. Butterworth; M. Wing

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

High speed flywheel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to flywheels and relates more particularly to the construction of a high speed, low-mass flywheel. Flywheels with which this invention is to be compared include those constructed of circumferentially wound filaments or fibers held together by a matrix or bonding material. Flywheels of such construction are known to possess a relatively high hoop strength but a relatively low radial strength. Hoop-wound flywheels are, therefore, particularly susceptible to circumferential cracks, and the radial stress limitations of such a flywheel substantially limit its speed capabilities. It is an object of the present invention to provide a new and improved flywheel which experiences reduced radial stress at high operating speeds. Another object of the present invention is to provide flywheel whose construction allows for radial growth as flywheel speed increases while providing the necessary stiffness for transferring and maintaining kinetic energy within the flywheel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a flywheel having concentrically-disposed component parts wherein rotation induced radial stresses at the interfaces of such component parts approach zero. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a flywheel which is particularly well-suited for high speed applications. 5 figs.

McGrath, S.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

340

High Tc Superconductivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by C. Kim (SSRL), D. H. Lu (Stanford), K. M. Shen (Stanford) and Z.-X. Shen (Stanford/SSRL) by C. Kim (SSRL), D. H. Lu (Stanford), K. M. Shen (Stanford) and Z.-X. Shen (Stanford/SSRL) Extensive research efforts to study the novel electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors and their related materials by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy at a recently commissioned Beam Line 5-4 (led by Z.-X. Shen) continue to be successful, producing many important results. These results, which are highlighted by five articles recently published in Physical Review Letters and one in Science, brought our understanding steps closer to solving the mystery of the high-Tc superconductivity. With the development of the latest generation of ultra-high resolution electron spectrometers in the past few years, the technique of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has recently experienced a renaissance. Nowhere is this revolution more evident than in the study of the high-temperature superconductors, which more than a decade after their discovery, continue to defy theoretical explanation. Recent ARPES experiments performed at Beam Line 5-4 have led to critical new discoveries about the fundamental nature of these mysterious superconductors and are now changing the way that the physics community views these materials. An excellent benchmark for the huge leap in detector resolution and technology is the recent work on Sr2RuO4. Although it belongs to a slightly different family than the high- temperature superconductors, its exotic superconducting mechanism (Tc = 1K) and complex electronic structure make it itself a fascinating material. In the past, due to poor resolutions, ARPES studies on this material were in disagreement with theory and other experimental techniques.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States)] [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States) [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators  

SciTech Connect

The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others] [and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Highly Insulating Windows - Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Cost The following is an estimate of the cost effective incremental cost of highly-insulating windows (U-factor=0.20 Btu/hr-ft2-F) compared to regular ENERGY STAR windows (U-factor 0.35 Btu/hr-ft2-F). Energy savings from lower U-factors were simulated with RESFEN over an assumed useful window life of 25 years. To determine the maximum incremental cost at which highly-insulating windows would still be cost-effective, we used a formula used by many utility companies to calculate the cost of saved energy from energy efficiency programs, based on the programs' cost and savings. We turned this formula around so that the cost of saved energy equals the present energy prices in the studied locations, whereas the program cost (the incremental cost of the windows) is the dependent variable. By entering 5%

344

High frequency reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo'' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

345

High frequency reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

346

Highly Pipelined Asynchronous FPGAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the design of a high-performance, highly pipelined asynchronous FPGA. We describe a very ne-grain pipelined logic block and routing interconnect architecture, and show how asynchronous logic can eciently take advantage of this large amount of pipelining. Our FPGA, which does not use a clock to sequence computations, automatically \\selfpipelines " its logic without the designer needing to be explicitly aware of all pipelining details. This property makes our FPGA ideal for throughput-intensive applications and we require minimal place and route support to achieve good performance. Benchmark circuits taken from both the asynchronous and clocked design communities yield throughputs in the neighborhood of 300-400 MHz in a TSMC 0.25m process and 500-700 MHz in a TSMC 0.18m process.

John Teifel; Rajit Manohar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

High frequency reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

High Temperature ESP Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Highly Insulating Window Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Window Technology Window Technology Temperature differentials across a window, particularly with cold exterior environments in residential buildings, can lead to significant energy losses. Currently available low-emissivity coatings, gas-fills, and insulating frames provide significant energy savings over typical single or double glazed products. The EWC website provides information on how double glazed low-e gas-filled windows work as well as information on commercially available superwindows (three layer, multiple low-e coatings, high performance gas-fills). The next generation of highly insulating window systems will benefit from incremental improvements being made to current components (i.e. more insulating spacers and frame materials/designs, low-e coatings with improved performance properties). LBNL uses its experimental facilities and software tools to collaborate with window and glass industry representatives to better understand the impacts of new components on overall product performance.

350

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Stringfield, R.M.; Wheat, R.M. Jr.

1989-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

High voltage pulse conditioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

Springfield, Ray M. (Sante Fe, NM); Wheat, Jr., Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

Schwemin, A.J.

1959-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

Schwemin, A.J.

1959-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

High speed door assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

Shapiro, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

High current ion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion source utilizing a cathode and anode for producing an electric arc therebetween. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma leaves the generation region and expands through another regon. The density profile of the plasma may be flattened using a magnetic field formed within a vacuum chamber. Ions are extracted from the plasma to produce a high current broad on beam.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805); Galvin, James E. (2 Commodore Dr. #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

Ward, Michael E. (Poway, CA); Harkins, Bruce D. (San Diego, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

High pressure ceramic joint  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures. 4 figures.

Ward, M.E.; Harkins, B.D.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

High temperature interfacial superconductivity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

359

HIGH VOLTAGE ION SOURCE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for providing a source of molecular ions having a large output current and with an accelerated energy of the order of 600 kv. Ions are produced in an ion source which is provided with a water-cooled source grid of metal to effect maximum recombination of atomic ions to molecular ions. A very high accelerating voltage is applied to withdraw and accelerate the molecular ions from the source, and means are provided for dumping the excess electrons at the lowest possible potentials. An accelerating grid is placed adjacent to the source grid and a slotted, grounded accelerating electrode is placed adjacent to the accelerating grid. A potential of about 35 kv is maintained between the source grid and accelerating grid, and a potential of about 600 kv is maintained between the accelerating grid and accelerating electrode. In order to keep at a minimum the large number of oscillating electrons which are created when such high voltages are employed in the vicinity of a strong magnetic field, a plurality of high voltage cascaded shields are employed with a conventional electron dumping system being employed between each shield so as to dump the electrons at the lowest possible potential rather than at 600 kv.

Luce, J.S.

1960-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

360

California high speed rail proposal: High speed rail and wildlife  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildlife and High Speed Rail C ALIFORNIA H IGH S PEED R AILLeavitt, California High Speed Rail Authority) Abstract TheCalifornia High Speed Rail (HSR) Proposal is in the initial

Wilkerson, Cynthia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

High-density Fuel Development for High Performance Research ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, High density UMo (7-12wt% Mo) fuel for high performance research ... High Energy X-ray Diffraction Study of Deformation Behavior of Alloy HT9.

362

Radiation Effects on a High Strength, High Conductivity Copper Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Radiation Effects on a High Strength, High Conductivity Copper ... of Zircaloy during Low Dose Neutron Irradiation at Nominally 375-440 C.

363

Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield H Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield H 2 Production from Biodegradable Materials Zhiyong "Jason" Ren, Ph.D Associate Professor, Environmental and Sustainability Engineering University of Colorado Boulder Jason.Ren@colorado.edu (303) 492-4137 http://spot.colorado.edu/~zhre0706/ MxC or Microbial Electrochemical System (MES) is a platform technology for energy and resource recovery Main type of MXC Products Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Electricity Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) H 2 , H 2 O 2 , NaOH, Struvite Microbial Chemical Cell (MCC) CH 4 , C 2 H 4 O 2 , Organics Microbial Remediation Cell (MRC) Reduced/non-toxic chemicals Microbial Desalination Cell (MDC) Desalinated water >90% H 2 MEC for H 2 Recovery PS e - e - Wang and Ren, Biotechnol. Adv. 2013

364

HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project investigated an efficient and low cost method of auto-thermally reforming natural gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reforming is the highest cost step in producing products such as methanol and Fisher Tropsch liquids (i.e., gas to liquids); and reducing the cost of reforming is the key to reducing the cost of these products. Steam reforming is expensive because of the high cost of the high nickel alloy reforming tubes (i.e., indirectly fired reforming tubes). Conventional auto-thermal or Partial Oxidation (POX) reforming minimizes the size and cost of the reformers and provides a near optimum mixture of CO and hydrogen. However POX requires pure oxygen, which consumes power and significantly increases the cost to reforming. Our high efficiency process extracts oxygen from low-pressure air with novel oxygen sorbent and transfers the oxygen to a nickel-catalyzed reformer. The syngas is generated at process pressure (typically 20 to 40 bar) without nitrogen dilution and has a 1CO to 2H{sub 2} ratio that is near optimum for the subsequent production of Fisher-Tropsch liquid to liquids and other chemicals (i.e., Gas to Liquids, GTL). Our high process efficiency comes from the way we transfer the oxygen into the reformer. All of the components of the process, except for the oxygen sorbent, are commonly used in commercial practice. A process based on a longlived, regenerable, oxygen transfer sorbent could substantially reduce the cost of natural gas reforming to syngas. Lower cost syngas (CO + 2H{sub 2}) that is the feedstock for GTL would reduce the cost of GTL and for other commercial applications (e.g., methanol, other organic chemicals). The vast gas resources of Alaska's North Slope (ANS) offer more than 22 Tcf of gas and GTL production in this application alone, and could account for as much as 300,000 to 700,000 bpd for 20 to 30+ years. We developed a new sorbent, which is an essential part of the High Efficiency Oxygen Process (HOP). We tested the sorbent and observed that it has both a good oxygen capacity and operates as a highly effective reforming catalyst. We conducted a long duration tests of the sorbent (1,500 hours of continuous operation in the HOP cycle). Although the sorbent lost some oxygen capacity with cycling, the sorbent oxygen capacity stabilized after 1,000 hours and remained constant to the end of the test, 1,500 hour. The activity of the catalyst to reform methane to a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture was unchanged through the oxidation/reduction cycling. Our cost and performance analyses indicated a significant reduction in the cost of GTL production when using the HOP process integrated into a GTL plant.

Robert J. Copeland; Yevgenia Gershanovich; Brian Windecker

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Separation of polar shale oil compounds using high-speed liquid chromatography. [Compounds known to exist in shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods for separation of potentially toxic compounds from shale oil and its waste products by high-speed liquid chromatography (HSLC) are discussed. The following classes of compounds were selected for study: aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, thiophenes, and indoles. No attempt was made to identify or quantitate compounds in shale oil, but it was demonstrated that HSLC can be a rapid and sensitive method for the separation of polar compounds from classes recognized to be present in shale oil and its waste products. Specific compounds studied were: phenanthrene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, triphenylene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, 1,2,3,4-dibenzanthracene, and 1,2,5,6-dibenzanthracene. (JGB)

Riley, R.G.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

High performance steam development  

SciTech Connect

DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

High flux reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

Lake, James A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heath, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Liebenthal, John L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R. (Summit, NJ); Leyse, Carl F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parsons, Kent (Idaho Falls, ID); Ryskamp, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wadkins, Robert P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harker, Yale D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fillmore, Gary N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

High speed flywheel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector is described using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36 [+-] 0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20 C. 6 figs.

Anderson, D.F.

1984-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

High efficiency photoionization detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high efficiency photoionization detector using tetraaminoethylenes in a gaseous state having a low ionization potential and a relative photoionization cross section which closely matches the emission spectrum of xenon gas. Imaging proportional counters are also disclosed using the novel photoionization detector of the invention. The compound of greatest interest is TMAE which comprises tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene which has a measured ionization potential of 5.36.+-.0.02 eV, and a vapor pressure of 0.35 torr at 20.degree. C.

Anderson, David F. (3055 Trinity, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High Performance Computing School COMSC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Performance Computing School COMSC This module aims to provide the students with fundamental knowledge and understanding of techniques associated with High Performance Computing and its practical' skills in analysing and evaluating High Performance Computing and will be structured around

Martin, Ralph R.

372

Detachable high heel shoe construction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal on this investigation was to develop a detachable high heel shoe construction that could enter the current high heel market. The impact of high heel shoes on women's fashion is enormous but there are associated ...

Morales, Alfredo Louis

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

Not Available

1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

Dismukes, E.B. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Birmingham, AL (United States); Elia, G.G. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Highly Insulating Windows - Fram  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frames Frames Research performed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and LBNL has identified various highly insulating frame solutions. A report was released in 2007 describing some of these frames. This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m2K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC.

377

High-energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 22. High-energy collider parameters HIGH-ENERGY COLLIDER PARAMETERS: e + e - Colliders (I) The numbers here were received from representatives of the colliders in late 1999 (contact C.G. Wohl, LBNL). Many of the numbers of course change with time, and only the latest values (or estimates) are given here; those in brackets are for coming upgrades. Quantities are, where appropriate, r.m.s. H and V indicate horizontal and vertical directions. Parameters for the defunct SPEAR, DORIS, PETRA, PEP, and TRISTAN colliders may be found in our 1996 edition (Phys. Rev. D54, 1 July 1996, Part I). VEPP-2M (Novosibirsk) VEPP-2000 ∗ (Novosibirsk) VEPP-4M (Novosibirsk) BEPC (China) DAΦNE (Frascati) Physics start date 1974 2001 1994 1989 1999 Maximum beam energy (GeV) 0.7 1.0 6 2.2 0.510 (0.75 max.) Luminosity (10 30 cm -2 s -1 ) 5 100 50 10 at 2 GeV 5 at 1.55 GeV 50(→500) Time between collisions (µs)

378

High temperature thermometric phosphors  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

379

High speed transient sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

McEwan, T.E.

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

380

High speed transient sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High throughput optical scanner  

SciTech Connect

A scanning apparatus is provided to obtain automated, rapid and sensitive scanning of substrate fluorescence, optical density or phosphorescence. The scanner uses a constant path length optical train, which enables the combination of a moving beam for high speed scanning with phase-sensitive detection for noise reduction, comprising a light source, a scanning mirror to receive light from the light source and sweep it across a steering mirror, a steering mirror to receive light from the scanning mirror and reflect it to the substrate, whereby it is swept across the substrate along a scan arc, and a photodetector to receive emitted or scattered light from the substrate, wherein the optical path length from the light source to the photodetector is substantially constant throughout the sweep across the substrate. The optical train can further include a waveguide or mirror to collect emitted or scattered light from the substrate and direct it to the photodetector. For phase-sensitive detection the light source is intensity modulated and the detector is connected to phase-sensitive detection electronics. A scanner using a substrate translator is also provided. For two dimensional imaging the substrate is translated in one dimension while the scanning mirror scans the beam in a second dimension. For a high throughput scanner, stacks of substrates are loaded onto a conveyor belt from a tray feeder.

Basiji, David A. (Seattle, WA); van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

High Performance Computing: Modeling & Simulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Performance Computing: Modeling & Simulation High Performance Computing: Modeling & Simulation Express Licensing Adaptive Real-Time Methodology for Optimizing Energy-Efficient...

383

Air Kerma - High Energy Xray  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... such as high energy megavoltage x rays with peak voltages of at least 5 MV. Currently, air-kerma measurements at these high energies are not ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

384

LANL | Physics | High Energy Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploring high energy physics Physics Division scientists and engineers investigate the field of high energy physics through experiments that strengthen our fundamental...

385

HIGH-FIELD SUPERCONDUCTING ACCELERATOR MAGNETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research , Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, HighOffice of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, High Energy

Taylor, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Y High-Resolution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Y Y High-Resolution . __ DO NOT M I C PET COVER for medical science studies Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University of California September 1989 DlSTRlBUTlGN OF THIS DOCUMENT IS U#LIIY/ITEE Acknowledgments This booklet was prepared under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health Effects Research, the National Institutes of Health, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division. We thank Sarah Cahn and Douglas Vaughan for coordination of this booklet. esolution PET for Medical Science Studies Thomas F. Budinger Stephen E. Derenzo Ronald H. Huesman William J. Jagust Peter E. Valk CONTENTS A PET Primer Positron Emission Tomography: Evolution of a Technology 7 PET Theory: Emission, Detection, and Reconstruction

387

Highly Insulating Windows - Publ  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Insulating Windows - Publications Future Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes, J. Apte, D. Arasteh, J. Huang, 2003 ASHRAE Annual Meeting, 2002 Nine representative window products are examined in eight representative U.S. climates. Annual energy and peak demand impacts are investigated. We conclude that a new generation of window products is necessary for zero-energy homes if windows are not to be an energy drain on these homes. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows, D. Arasteh, H. Goudey, J. Huang, C. Kohler, R. Mitchell, 2006, submitted to ASHRAE Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate.

388

Highly stable pulse stretchers  

SciTech Connect

Highly stable pulse stretchers are described that are designed for fine control of pulse duration in digital pulse shapers of nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers with a quantization step of 0.1 ..mu..sec. The fine-control range is 20-150 nsec. The stretchers employ a circuit to compensate for the logic-0 voltage and the time delays of the logic elements. The instability of the trailing-edge delay for a supply variation of +/- 0.5 V is less than 0.1%, and the temperature instability in the range of 20-80/sup 0/C is not over (60/t/sub d/)-0.3%, where t/sub d/ is the trailing-edge delay. The inputs and outputs of the pulse stretchers are matcher to TTL and Schottky TTL levels.

Svintenok, V.A.; Nikiforov, E.A.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to high voltage supply circuits adapted for providing operating voltages for GeigerMueller counter tubes, and is especially directed to an arrangement for maintaining uniform voltage under changing conditions of operation. In the usual power supply arrangement for counter tubes the counter voltage is taken from across the power supply output capacitor. If the count rate exceeds the current delivering capaciiy of the capacitor, the capacitor voltage will drop, decreasing the counter voltage. The present invention provides a multivibrator which has its output voltage controlled by a signal proportional to the counting rate. As the counting rate increases beyond the current delivering capacity of the capacitor, the rectified voltage output from the multivibrator is increased to maintain uniform counter voltage.

Zito, G.V.

1959-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

390

High Efficiency, Clean Combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

Donald Stanton

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

High voltage feedthrough bushing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

Brucker, J.P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

High energy photon emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary goal of this work was to initiate the use of BaF2 arrays for detection of high energy photon emission from nuclear reactions. A beam from the Texas A&M University K-500 Superconducting Cyclotron, and a variety of detectors for hard photons, neutrons, charged particles, and fission fragments were used to study the reaction 160 + 238 U at a projectile energy of 50 MeV/u. Inverse slope values of the photon spectra were extracted for inclusive data and data of higher multiplicities at angles of 90' and 135'. Two 19-element barium fluoride (BaF2) arrays, an array of liquid scintillation fast neutron detectors and plastic scintillation charged-particle veto detectors, together with a silicon-cesium iodide (Si-CsI) telescope and a silicon fission fragment detector allowed the possibility of impact parameter selection through neutron and charged particle multiplicities. The associated multiplicity distributions of photon and fast neutron triggers were compared at 30' and 90' angles. The hardware and electronics layout of the experimental set up are described. Fundamental properties of the various detectors are explained and typical spectra are shown as examples for each detector system. The data acquisition and data compression is described in Chap. III, and followed by the calibration methods used for the BaF2 and Nal(TI) detectors. A description of a dynamic pedestal (zero level) correction mechanism, is followed by a description of several cosmic ray background reduction methods, including the highly effective centrality condition. A summary is given to compare the various methods. After a description of the other types of detectors used in the experiment, an example is given how the final photon spectra were produced. In Chap. IV the measured results are presented and compared to those in the literature. The last chapter provides the conclusions of this work.

Jabs, Harry

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

High Performance Buildings Database  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry. The Database, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The Database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses.

The Database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site. Early partners using the database include:

  • The Federal Energy Management Program
  • The U.S. Green Building Council
  • The American Institute of Architects' Committee on the Environment
  • The Massachusetts Technology Collaborative
  • Efficiency Vermont
    • Copied (then edited) from http://eere.buildinggreen.com/partnering.cfm

394

Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Suppression With Bevacizumab and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We treated 18 patients with LTAS with bicalutamide and goserelin in combination with bevacizumab and IMRT. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered for the first 16 weeks, and 15 mg/kg was then given every 3 weeks for 12 additional weeks, with an IMRT dose of 77.9 Gy to the prostate, 64.6 Gy to the seminal vesicles, and 57 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were eligible if they had clinical stage T2b to T4, a Gleason sum score of 8 to 10, or a prostate- specific antigen level of 20ng/mL or greater. The primary endpoint of the study was evaluation of acute and late toxicities. Results: The median age was 69 years, with a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 12.5 ng/mL and Gleason score of 8. The pretreatment clinical stage was T1c in 4 patients, T2 in 11, and T3 in 3. All patients completed IMRT with median follow-up of 34 months (range, 28-40 months) The most common Grade 2 or higher toxicities were hypertension (61% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), proteinuria (28% with Grade 2 and 6% with Grade 3), and leucopenia (28% with Grade 2). No Grade 4 or higher acute toxicities were reported. Late toxicities included proctitis (6% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), rectal bleeding (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), hematuria (6% with Grade 2), proteinuria (17% with Grade 2), hyponatremia (6% with Grade 3), cystitis (6% with Grade 3), and urinary retention (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3). Grade 4 prostatitis occurred in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions: Bevacizumab does not appear to exacerbate the acute effects of IMRT. Late toxicities may have been worsened with this regimen. Further investigations of bevacizumab with LTAS and IMRT should be performed cautiously.

Vuky, Jacqueline, E-mail: vukyja@ohsu.edu [Section of Community Hematology/Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Pham, Huong T. [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Warren, Sarah; Douglass, Erika [Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Badiozamani, Kasra [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Madsen, Berit; Hsi, Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, WA (United States); Song Guobin [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

High Performance Network Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

Swift response to paper on feeding GMO corn, glyphosate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On September 19, 2012, the Elsevier journal Food and Chemical Toxicology released online a paper entitled Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize by Gilles-Eric Sralini and co-workers. Swift response t

397

High-level expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D  

SciTech Connect

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and can cause neuroparalytic disease botulism. Due to the limitations of production and manipulation of holoenzymes, expressing non-toxic heavy chain receptor binding domains (HCR) has become a common strategy for vaccine and antibody development. Meanwhile, large quantities and highly purified soluble proteins are required for research areas such as antibody maturation and structural biology. We present high level expression and purification of the BoNT serotype D HCR in E. coli using a codon-optimized cDNA. By varying expression conditions, especially at low temperature, the protein was expressed at a high level with high solubility. About 150-200 mg protein was purified to >90% purity from 1 L cell culture. The recombinant D_HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 60.8 , b = 89.7 , c = 93.9 . Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed one molecule in asymmetric unit.

Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Qin, Lin; Buchko, Garry W.; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting Six corrosion test facilities and two thermogravimetric systems for conducting corrosion tests in complex mixed gas environments, in steam and in the presence of deposits, and five facilities for metal dusting degradation Bookmark and Share The High Temperature Corrosion Test Facilities and High Pressure Test Facilities for Metal Dusting include: High Pressure Test Facility for Metal Dusting Resistance:

399

Functionalized High Voltage Spinel Composite for High Power ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high working voltage and long cycle life makes it become the one of most promising cathode for high power delivery.

400

UESC and High Tech Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Federal Energy Management Program UESC and High Tech Facilities Charles Williams, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 2 | FUPWG April 2012 High Tech Building UESC Partnership Leveraging Technical Potential, Market Opportunity, Program Resources * Energy-intensive facilities with high savings potential * PG&E service territory - high concentration of high-technology buildings * PG&E UESC program, new and growing * DOE FEMP programs for UESC and High-Tech Buildings * LBNL expertise in labs, data centers, clean rooms * LBNL support for UESC program * UESC potential for innovation * Presidential "We Can't Wait $2 Billion challenge to Federal agencies 3 | FUPWG April 2012 UESC project support at LBNLL Training /Education

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "highly toxic herbicides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.