National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for highly productive mines

  1. High volume - high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The amount of dry FGD materials produced in the U.S. has not been increasing at the high rate originally anticipated. This has been due to a number of economic factors affecting the utility industry. Technologies for the disposal of large amounts of materials are not going to be implemented in the near term. In light of this development the target application for this project is being changed from highwall adit filling to the filling of auger holes to allow for highwall mining. This application focuses on using the dry FGD material to recover coal isolated by excessive augering. It produces 10 or more times the amount of coal per ton of dry FGD utilized than the originally proposed methodology. It also does not require extensive equipment development and, if applied to abandoned mine lands, may have substantially more significant environmental benefit. We also propose to use a spray dryer material for the demonstration instead of the fluidized bed material originally proposed. The spray dryer material is already slacked eliminating problems associated with heat generation at the mine site. Auger hole grouting with FGD material is also best performed by hydraulic emplacement methods.

  2. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

  3. High pressure water jet mining machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  4. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  5. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase II) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princess No. 3 coal seam with values of 1{times}10{sup {minus}3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}5} feet/min. range.

  6. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    Research under Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization, included further refinement of mineralogical transformation and the initiation of a kinetic study. The expansion of the FGD materials during moisturizing is attributable to three reactions: the hydration of portlandite to slaked lime; the formation of ettringite from fly ash and anhydrite, and; the formation of gypsum from anhydrite. The sequence of these reactions are being examined in a kinetic study. Completion of the first 15 days of study finds the steady decrease in anhydrite with concomitant formation of ettringite (on fly ash surfaces) and gypsum (pore and crack in-fillings). Geotechnical characterization (Subtask 2.3) focused on swell experiments which will model in situ emplacement. Specimens of FGD material have been stored in 3-inch diameter pipe and, after 39 days, 0.5% of axial swell has been recorded with material strengths of 600 to 1,000 psi. Experiments to determine the amount of moisture loss due to the heat of hydration indicate about 9 to 10% of the water is lost. Confined swell tests are also underway with pressures of 15 to 20 psi recorded at 25 days. Work performed under Task 4 (Background for Phase 11) included determination of the compressive strengths for the experimental mine roof rock. Values in the 5,000 to 7,500 psi range were found, which is typical for this type of strata in the region. Work on the hydrologic monitoring program (Subtask 4.2) included completion of the hydraulic conductivity assessment of the strata, as well as completion of the monitoring well plan. The highest hydraulic conductivity was found for the Princes No. 3 coal seam with values of 1x10{sup -3} feet/min. The weathered sandstone over the coal had conductivities in the 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} feet/min range.

  7. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  8. Effective Conveyer Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David LaRose

    2006-11-14

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from May 15, 2006 to November 14, 2006. Progress during this period includes significant advances in development of a Smart Camera based prototype system for on-site mechanical splice detection, and continued deployment of both the mechanical splice detection system and the vulcanized splice detection system in area coal mines.

  9. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining. Chapter 1 reviews the status of the literature on labor productivity changes. Chapter 2 is an introduction to current concepts and research on psycho-social factors in productivity, with a survey of experiments in productivity improvement presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production. Chapter 5 presents a clinical study of a coal mining operation, and develops a model of how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face. Implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management are presented in Chapter 6.

  10. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of low-cost prototype hardware, acquisition of infrared thermal data, and initial design of a Smart-Camera based system.

  11. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  13. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  14. Mining

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supply and cost management–including energy costs–pose key challenges for U.S. mining companies. The industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources for increasing energy efficiency and reducing costs.

  15. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  16. Feasibility of high recovery highwall mining equipment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Three equipment systems exhibited significant promise: the RSV Miner, a surface longwall using standard underground equipment, and the variable angle auger. Other equipment systems showing considerable merit were the surface shortwall, and the two extended depth augers. Of the three most significant systems, the RSV Miner exhibits the greatest versatility and adaptability. It may be used competently in many surface mining applications and readily adapts to geologic anomalies and changing seam heights. The machine employs steering and guidance equipment and provides the necessary capabilities for extended depth operation. Safety is good, as no men are required to work underground. However, most important is the system's recovery factor of approximately 75% to 80% of the in-situ coal reserve within reach. The surface longwall system using standard underground equipment (preferably a ranging drum shearer in conjunction with shield supports) is most suited to either a trench mining or a modified area mining application. Both applications would allow the length of the face to be held constant. Another important consideration is legal requirements for a tailgate entry, which would necessitate additional equipment for development in a modified area mining application. When compared to surface shortwall, surface longwall exhibits higher productivity, a far greater equipment selection which allows system tailoring to geologic conditions, and greater roof control due to the significantly smaller section of overburden that must be supported. Recovery should approach, and possibly exceed, 90% of the coal in-place. The variable angle auger, which is currently only a concept, fills a very real need for which no other equipment is available at this time.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A RADICALLY SMALLER, HIGHLY ADAPTIVE AND APPLICATION-FLEXIBLE MINING MACHINE FOR UTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT WORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew H. Stern

    2004-12-20

    The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

  18. Utilization of coal mine methane for methanol and SCP production. Topical report, May 5, 1995--March 4, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of utilizing a biological process to reduce methane emissions from coal mines and to produce valuable single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol as a product has been demonstrated. The quantities of coal mine methane from vent gas, gob wells, premining wells and abandoned mines have been determined in order to define the potential for utilizing mine gases as a resource. It is estimated that 300 MMCFD of methane is produced in the United States at a typical concentration of 0.2-0.6 percent in ventilation air. Of this total, almost 20 percent is produced from the four Jim Walter Resources (JWR) mines, which are located in very gassy coal seams. Worldwide vent gas production is estimated at 1 BCFD. Gob gas methane production in the U.S. is estimated to be 38 MMCFD. Very little gob gas is produced outside the U.S. In addition, it is estimated that abandoned mines may generate as much as 90 MMCFD of methane. In order to make a significant impact on coal mine methane emissions, technology which is able to utilize dilute vent gases as a resource must be developed. Purification of the methane from the vent gases would be very expensive and impractical. Therefore, the process application must be able to use a dilute methane stream. Biological conversion of this dilute methane (as well as the more concentrated gob gases) to produce single cell protein (SCP) and/or methanol has been demonstrated in the Bioengineering Resources, Inc. (BRI) laboratories. SCP is used as an animal feed supplement, which commands a high price, about $0.11 per pound.

  19. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  20. Longwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  1. Stand characteristics and productivity potential of Indiana surface mines reclaimed under SMCRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groninger, J.W.; Fillmore, S.D.; Rathfon, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) addresses a wide range of environmental concerns. However, its impacts on forest stand development and productive potential have only recently been investigated. We surveyed the vegetation and forest productivity on 22 surface mine sites throughout the coal-bearing region of Indiana that were reclaimed to forest cover under the provisions of SMCRA 7-14 years prior to sampling. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were the most widely occurring tree species. Tall fescue and goldenrod were the most widely occurring nonarborescent species. Median site index (base age 50 for black oak) was 30 ft. Although satisfying forest cover stocking requirements for bond release, these reclaimed surface mines almost always displayed a level of productivity far below those of native forests typical of this region. Reclamation techniques differing from those used on these study sites are needed to restore forest productivity to surface-mined lands while still complying with SMCRA.

  2. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  3. MINEs: Open access databases of computationally predicted enzyme promiscuity products for untargeted metabolomics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeffryes, James G.; Colastani, Ricardo L.; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Kind, Tobias; Niehaus, Thomas D.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Fiehn, Oliver; Tyo, Keith E. J.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-08-28

    Metabolomics have proven difficult to execute in an untargeted and generalizable manner. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has made it possible to gather data on thousands of cellular metabolites. However, matching metabolites to their spectral features continues to be a bottleneck, meaning that much of the collected information remains uninterpreted and that new metabolites are seldom discovered in untargeted studies. These challenges require new approaches that consider compounds beyond those available in curated biochemistry databases. Here we present Metabolic In silico Network Expansions (MINEs), an extension of known metabolite databases to include molecules that have not been observed, but are likelymore » to occur based on known metabolites and common biochemical reactions. We utilize an algorithm called the Biochemical Network Integrated Computational Explorer (BNICE) and expert-curated reaction rules based on the Enzyme Commission classification system to propose the novel chemical structures and reactions that comprise MINE databases. Starting from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) COMPOUND database, the MINE contains over 571,000 compounds, of which 93% are not present in the PubChem database. However, these MINE compounds have on average higher structural similarity to natural products than compounds from KEGG or PubChem. MINE databases were able to propose annotations for 98.6% of a set of 667 MassBank spectra, 14% more than KEGG alone and equivalent to PubChem while returning far fewer candidates per spectra than PubChem (46 vs. 1715 median candidates). Application of MINEs to LC–MS accurate mass data enabled the identity of an unknown peak to be confidently predicted. MINE databases are freely accessible for non-commercial use via user-friendly web-tools at http://minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov and developer-friendly APIs. MINEs improve metabolomics peak identification as compared to general chemical databases whose

  4. MINEs: Open access databases of computationally predicted enzyme promiscuity products for untargeted metabolomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffryes, James G.; Colastani, Ricardo L.; Elbadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Kind, Tobias; Niehaus, Thomas D.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Hanson, Andrew D.; Fiehn, Oliver; Tyo, Keith E. J.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2015-08-28

    Metabolomics have proven difficult to execute in an untargeted and generalizable manner. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has made it possible to gather data on thousands of cellular metabolites. However, matching metabolites to their spectral features continues to be a bottleneck, meaning that much of the collected information remains uninterpreted and that new metabolites are seldom discovered in untargeted studies. These challenges require new approaches that consider compounds beyond those available in curated biochemistry databases. Here we present Metabolic In silico Network Expansions (MINEs), an extension of known metabolite databases to include molecules that have not been observed, but are likely to occur based on known metabolites and common biochemical reactions. We utilize an algorithm called the Biochemical Network Integrated Computational Explorer (BNICE) and expert-curated reaction rules based on the Enzyme Commission classification system to propose the novel chemical structures and reactions that comprise MINE databases. Starting from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) COMPOUND database, the MINE contains over 571,000 compounds, of which 93% are not present in the PubChem database. However, these MINE compounds have on average higher structural similarity to natural products than compounds from KEGG or PubChem. MINE databases were able to propose annotations for 98.6% of a set of 667 MassBank spectra, 14% more than KEGG alone and equivalent to PubChem while returning far fewer candidates per spectra than PubChem (46 vs. 1715 median candidates). Application of MINEs to LC–MS accurate mass data enabled the identity of an unknown peak to be confidently predicted. MINE databases are freely accessible for non-commercial use via user-friendly web-tools at http://minedatabase.mcs.anl.gov and developer-friendly APIs. MINEs improve metabolomics peak identification as compared to general chemical databases whose results

  5. High power neutron production targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, S.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  6. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  9. Table 7.7 Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Mining Productivity, 1949-2011 (Short Tons per Employee Hour 1) Year Mining Method Location Total 2 Underground Surface 2 East of the Mississippi West of the Mississippi Underground Surface 2 Total 2 Underground Surface 2 Total 2 1949 0.68 [3] 1.92 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.72 1950 .72 [3] 1.96 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .76 1951 .76 [3] 2.00 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .80 1952 .80 [3] 2.10 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .84 1953 .88 [3] 2.22 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA .93 1954 1.00 [3] 2.48 [3] NA NA NA NA NA NA

  10. High throughput protein production screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beernink, Peter T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Segelke, Brent W.

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  11. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  12. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earths atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved

  13. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The

  14. Production of a pellet fuel from Illinois coal mines. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, D.; Lytle, J.; Berger, R.; Ho, Ken

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to produce a pellet fuel from low-sulfur Illinois coal fines which could burn with emissions of less than 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu in stoker-fired boilers. The significance of 1.8 lbs SO{sub 2}/10{sup 6} Btu is that in the Chicago (9 counties) and St. Louis (2 counties) metropolitan areas, industrial users of coal currently must comply with this level of emissions. Stokers are an attractive market for pellets because pellets are well-suited for this application and because western coal is not a competitor in the stoker market. Compliance stoker fuels come from locations such as Kentucky and West Virginia and the price for fuels from these locations is high relative to the current price of Illinois coal. This market offers the most attractive near-term economic environment for commercialization of pelletization technology. For this effort, we will be investigating the use of fines from two Illinois mines which currently mine relatively low-sulfur reserves and that discard their fines fraction (minus 100 mesh). The research will involve investigation of multiple unit operations including column flotation, filtration and pellet production. The end result of the effort will allow for an evaluation of the commercial viability of the approach.

  15. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is one of the leading states in the production of both coal and timber. As a result of mining and processing coal, an estimated 3 million tons of fine coal are disposed annually to waste-slurry impoundments with an additional 500 million tons stored at a number of disposal sites around the state due to past practices. Likewise, the Kentucky timber industry discards nearly 35,000 tons of sawdust on the production site due to unfavorable economics of transporting the material to industrial boilers for use as a fuel. With an average heating value of 6,700 Btu/lb, the monetary value of the energy disposed in the form of sawdust is approximately $490,000 annually. Since the two industries are typically in close proximity, one promising avenue is to selectively recover and dewater the fine-coal particles and then briquette them with sawdust to produce a high-value fuel. The benefits are i) a premium fuel product that is low in moisture and can be handled, transported, and utilized in existing infrastructure, thereby avoiding significant additional capital investment and ii) a reduction in the amount of fine-waste material produced by the two industries that must now be disposed at a significant financial and environmental price. As such, the goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of producing a premium fuel with a heating value greater than 10,000 Btu/lb from waste materials generated by the coal and timber industries. Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of the briquetting process indicated that the goal was successfully achieved. Low-ash briquettes containing 5% to 10% sawdust were produced with energy values that were well in excess of 12,000 Btu/lb. A major economic hurdle associated with commercially briquetting coal is binder cost. Approximately fifty binder formulations, both with and without lime, were subjected to an extensive laboratory evaluation to assess their relative technical and economical effectiveness as binding

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  17. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C.

    2003-07-01

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  18. Proceedings of the sixteenth international symposium on mine planning and equipment selection (MPES 2007) and the tenth international symposium on environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production (SWEMP 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, R.K.; Fytas, K.; Jongsiri, S.; Ge, Hao

    2007-07-01

    Papers presented at MPES 2007 covered: coal mining and clean coal processing technologies; control, design and planning of surface and underground mines; drilling, blasting and excavation engineering; mining equipment selection; automation and information technology; maintenance and production management for mines and mining systems; health, safety and environment; cost effective methods of mine reclamation; mine closure and waste disposal; and rock mechanics and geotechnical issues. Papers from SWEMP 2007 discussed methods and technologies for assessing, minimizing and preventing environmental problems associated with mineral and energy production. Topics included environmental impacts of coal-fired power projects; emission control in thermal power plants; greenhouse gas abatement technologies; remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater; environmental issues in surface and underground mining of coal, minerals and ores; managing mine waste and mine water; and control of effluents from mineral processing, metallurgical and chemical plants.

  19. Production of high purity radiothallium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lebowitz, Elliot; Greene, Margaret W.

    1976-11-23

    The method of producing high purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprising the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction .sup.203 Tl(p,3n) .sup.201.sub.Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used.

  20. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2004-03-01

    A comprehensive mine-wide, two-way wireless voice and data communication system for the underground mining industry was developed. The system achieves energy savings through increased productivity and greater energy efficiency in meeting safety requirements within mines. The mine-wide system is comprised of two interfaced subsystems: a through-the-earth communications system and an in-mine communications system. The mine-wide system permits two-way communication among underground personnel and between underground and surface personnel. The system was designed, built, and commercialized. Several systems are in operation in underground mines in the United States. The use of these systems has proven they result in considerable energy savings. A system for tracking the location of vehicles and people within the mine was also developed, built and tested successfully. Transtek's systems are being used by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in their underground mine rescue team training program. This project also resulted in a spin-off rescue team lifeline and communications system. Furthermore, the project points the way to further developments that can lead to a GPS-like system for underground mines allowing the use of autonomous machines in underground mining operations, greatly reducing the amount of energy used in these operations. Some products developed under this program are transferable to applications in fields other than mining. The rescue team system is applicable to use by first responders to natural, accidental, or terrorist-caused building collapses. The in-mine communications system can be installed in high-rise buildings providing in-building communications to security and maintenance personnel as well as to first responders.

  1. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R.

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  3. Shahe Huada Mining Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shahe Huada Mining Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shahe Huada Mining Co Ltd Place: Hebei Province, China Sector: Biomass Product: Shahe-based private mining company....

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  5. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  6. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  7. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  8. MINING PROCESS AND PRODUCT INFORMATION FROM PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN A FUEL PARTICLE COATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas W. Marshall; Charles M. Barnes

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Fuel Development and Qualification Program included the design, installation, and testing of a 6-inch diameter nuclear fuel particle coater to demonstrate quality TRISO fuel production on a small industrial scale. Scale-up from the laboratory-scale coater faced challenges associated with an increase in the kernel charge mass, kernel diameter, and a redesign of the gas distributor to achieve adequate fluidization throughout the deposition of the four TRISO coating layers. TRISO coatings are applied at very high temperatures in atmospheres of dense particulate clouds, corrosive gases, and hydrogen concentrations over 45% by volume. The severe environment, stringent product and process requirements, and the fragility of partially-formed coatings limit the insertion of probes or instruments into the coater vessel during operation. Pressure instrumentation were installed on the gas inlet line and exhaust line of the 6-inch coater to monitor the bed differential pressure and internal pressure fluctuations emanating from the fuel bed as a result of bed and gas bubble movement. These instruments are external to the particle bed and provide a glimpse into the dynamics of fuel particle bed during the coating process and data that could be used to help ascertain the adequacy of fluidization and, potentially, the dominant fluidization regimes. Pressure fluctuation and differential pressure data are not presently useful as process control instruments, but data suggest a link between the pressure signal structure and some measurable product attributes that could be exploited to get an early estimate of the attribute values.

  9. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-04-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC 30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, as well as the management plan and the test plan for the overall program, and a discussion of these will not be repeated here. Rather, this report, will set forth the technical progress made during the period January 1 through March 31, 1995. The demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed with the unloading and final disposition of the three Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The loading and transport by rail of the three CIC`s was quire successful; however some difficulties were encountered in the unloading of the containers. A full topical report on the entire SEEC demonstration is being prepared. As a result of the demonstration some modifications of the SEEC concept may be undertaken. Also during the quarter the location of the injection wells at the Peabody No. 10 mine demonstration site were selected. Peabody Coal Company has developed the specifications for the wells and sought bids for the actual drilling. It is expected that the wells will be drilled early in May.

  10. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  11. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  12. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  13. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  14. Longwall mining of thin seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curth, E A

    1981-01-01

    Thin seam operations pose a challenge to the ingenuity of mining engineers to overcome the factor of human inconvenience in the restricted environment and associated high cost production. Surprisingly, low seam longwalls in the Federal Republic of Germany in an average thickness of 35 in. and dipping less than 18/sup 0/ come close to achieving the average production rate of all German longwall operations. They are all plow faces, and a consistent production of 3300 tons per day and a productivity of 40 tons per man shift are reported from one of the thin seam longwalls. These results were attained by reliable high-capacity equipment and roof support by shields that can be collapsed to as low as 22 inches. Maximum mining height for plow operated faces lies at 31.5 inches. Technology for mechanized mining of flat lying coalbeds less than 31.5 inches in thickness without rock cutting is not available, and firmness of coal, undulation of the strata, coalbed thickness variation, and the necessity of cutting rock, particularly through faults, set limits to plow application. The in-web shearer can be used in firm coal to a minimum mining height of 40 inches, and a daily production of 1650 to 2200 tons is reported from a longwall in the Saar district of Germany equipped with such a shearer and shields. Numerous in-web shearers are employed in the United Kingdom; reports as to their success are contradictory. Also, experience in the United States, though limited, has been negative. The steady increase in output from single drum shearer faces in Pennsylvania is a remarkable achievement, and occasional record breaking peaks in production indicate the potential of such mining. Technology development for the future is discussed.

  15. High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation High Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-Offs: Production Builders - ...

  16. Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top ...

  17. Management of dry gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry coal combustion by-products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of combustion by-products with about 70% solids. Phase 2 of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase 2 is to develop and fabricate the equipment for both the pneumatic and hydraulic placement technologies, and to conduct a limited, small-scale shakedown test of the pneumatic and hydraulic placement equipment. The shakedown test originally was to take place on the surface, in trenches dug for the tests. However, after a thorough study it was decided, with the concurrence of DOE-METC, to drill additional injection wells and conduct the shakedown tests underground. This will allow a more thorough test of the placement equipment.

  18. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Economic assessment of the impact on coal production due to enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Cost report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-12

    The report summarizes the efforts made in the cost analysis portion of the 'Economic Assessment of the Impact on Coal Production Due to Enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. The objective of the cost analysis portion of the study was to supplement the study's examination of the benefits of SMCRA with an analysis of the costs of SMCRA as based on industry experience and data. The analysis involved the development and field test of a methodology for constructing estimates of the costs of complying with regulations at individual surface coal mines.

  1. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  2. Precision Mining

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precision Mining Double Beta Decay Dark Matter Biology Repository Science Renewable Energy Precision Mining at WIPP is Routine All tunnels that make up the WIPP underground are ...

  3. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-10-01

    Preliminary environmental risk assessment on the FGD by-products to be placed underground is virtually complete. The initial mixes for pneumatic and hydraulic placement have been selected and are being subject to TCLP, ASTM, and modified SLP shake tests as well as ASTM column leaching. Results of these analyses show that the individual coal combustion residues, and the residues mixes, are non-hazardous in character. Based on available information, including well logs obtained from Peabody Coal Company, a detailed study of the geology of the placement site was completed. The study shows that the disposal site in the abandoned underground mine workings at depths of between 325 and 375 feet are well below potable groundwater resources. This, coupled with the benign nature of the residues and residues mixtures, should alleviate any concern that the underground placement will have adverse effects on groundwater resources. Seven convergence stations were installed in the proposed underground placement area of the Peabody Coal Company No. 10 mine. Several sets of convergence data were obtained from the stations. A study of materials handling and transportation of coal combustion residues from the electric power plant to the injection site has been made. The study evaluated the economics of the transportation of coal combustion residues by pneumatic trucks, by pressure differential rail cars, and by SEEC, Inc. collapsible intermodal containers (CICs) for different annual handling rates and transport distances. The preliminary physico-chemical characteristics and engineering properties of various FBC fly ash-spent bed mixes have been determined, and long-term studies of these properties are continuing.

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  5. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. The final product will be a system...

  6. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the ...

  7. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  8. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  9. Guiding Market Introduction of High-Performance SSL Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guiding Market Introduction of High-Performance SSL Products Guiding Market Introduction of High-Performance SSL Products 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Fact Sheet PDF icon...

  10. High Precision Predictions for Exclusive V H Production at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Precision Predictions for Exclusive V H Production at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Precision Predictions for Exclusive V H Production at the LHC...

  11. 2009 underground/longwall mining buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-15

    The guide lists US companies supplying equipment and services to underground mining operations. An index by product category is included.

  12. 2008 Underground/Longwall Mining Buyer's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-15

    The guide lists US companies supplying equipment and services to mines. An index by product category is included.

  13. Inner Mongolia Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Inner Mongolia Fengwei New Energy Mining Co Ltd Place: Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product:...

  14. Zhangjiajie Guinie Mining Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhangjiajie Guinie Mining Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zhangjiajie Guinie Mining Co Ltd Place: Zhangjiajie, Hunan Province, China Product: Miner, refiner and processor...

  15. High productivity in Australian blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nightingale, R.J.; Mellor, D.G.; Jelenich, L.; Ward, R.F.

    1995-12-01

    Since the emergence of the Australian domestic economy from recession in 1992, the productivity of BHP`s blast furnace has increased significantly to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. BHP Steel operates six blast furnaces at its three Australian integrated plants. These furnaces vary widely in their size, feed, technology and current campaign status. This paper reviews the principal issues associated with productivity improvements over recent years. These gains have been achieved through activities associated with a wide range of process, equipment and human resource based issues.

  16. Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for anomalous production of events with a high energy lepton and photon at the Tevatron Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for anomalous production of events with ...

  17. Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation Photo of a home with a fence. Engaging production builders to build high-performance homes is key to successfully transforming the market. For this Top Innovation, Building America has effectively addressed this challenge by demonstrating the compelling

  18. Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the...

  19. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine plantations. auburnprojectabstract1.pdf More Documents &...

  20. Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Metabolic engineering for the high-yield production of isoprenoid-based C5 alcohols in E. coli Citation ... Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Scientific Reports ...

  1. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pine Energy Plantations High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations This abstract outlinse a project that is designing and demonstrating a...

  2. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  3. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  4. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  5. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  6. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  7. ITP Mining: Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document describes the Mining Industry of the Future's development of technology roadmaps to guide collaborative research activities for mining.

  8. African mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference addressing the development of the minerals industry in Africa. Topics covered include: A review - past, present and future - of Zimbabwe's mining industry; Geomorphological processes and related mineralization in Tanzania; and Rock mechanics investigations at Mufulira mine, Zambia.

  9. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2012. Properties of Southern Pine from DOE High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems. ... Bioresources 7(3):2996-3007 * Via, B.K., T. McDonald, and J. Fulton. 2012. Nonlinear ...

  10. Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program September 13, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Presenters: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith ...

  11. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_ahmed_anl.pdf (638.37 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen

  12. Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Catalyst Program | Department of Energy Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program September 13, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Presenters: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith Corporation; Cynthia Regnier, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Andrew Mitchell, U.S. Department of Energy Preview the new and innovative technologies that are making

  13. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  14. MINES ParisTech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it. MINES ParisTech was created in 1783, when the exploitation of mines was a high-technology industry. Quite naturally, the skills of the School followed the development of...

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasson, E.M.; Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevin, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` program is one of the largest programs ever undertaken by the Mining Engineering Department of Southern Illinois university, both in terms of complexity and in terms of funding. Total funding over the expected four-year extent of the program, including both Department of Energy, matching Southern Illinois University funds, and contributed funds, this program exceeds three million dollars. The number of cooperating organizations adds to the management complexity of the program. It was believed, therefore, that sound management plan and management base is essential for the efficient and effective conduct of the program. This first quarter period (i.e., October 1--December 31, 1993) was developed to establishing the management base, developing a sound management plan, developing a test plan, and developing sound fiscal management and control. Actual technical operations, such as residue sample acquisition, residue analyses, groundwater sample acquisition and analyses, and material handling studies will get underway early in the next quarter (i.e., January 1--March 31, 1994). Some early results of residue analyses and groundwater analyses should be available by the end of the second quarter. These results will be reported in the next Technical Progress Report.

  16. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  17. NIOSH comments to DOL on the Mine Safety and Health Administration's advance notice of proposed rulemaking on notification, investigation, reports and records of accidents, injuries, illnesses, employment and coal production in mines by R. W. Niemeier, February 24, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-24

    The testimony concerns the position of NIOSH regarding the existing reporting system of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). NIOSH opposes any reduction in the present reporting requirements at this time. NIOSH is presently involved with the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to upgrade the BLS data gathering system on occupational injuries in general industry. NIOSH addresses five specific areas related to the proposed rulemaking including injury reporting, illness or disease reporting, accident investigation and reporting, employment and coal production reporting, and the MSHA Form 7000-1. In reviewing the current reporting system and data generated by it, NIOSH concludes that the reported injury data are among the best available from any United States governmental regulatory agency. The illness data could be improved by providing more specific disease categories. Minor changes in the Form 7000-1 would provide more easily correlated data. The reliability and detail of the MSHA's data benefit both the operator and the miner by providing for safety and health regulations that are protective to the miner and specific to the problem.

  18. Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay) Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay) The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay). Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for Industrial

  19. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  20. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics: Target 2017 HEPlogo.jpg The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to characterize

  1. Mines in the Four Corners anticipate growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-02-15

    Productive mines in the southwest deplete reserves, while the government drags its heels on new power projects. Production in Arizona and New Mexico has fallen 18% over the last four years to 34.1 million tons. With Chevron Mining's McKinley mine rapidly depleting its reserves the industry will continue to contract. In the last three years at least three large mines in the Four Corners have terminated operations. Three others remain captive operations: BHP Billiton's San Juan Underground and Navajo Surface operations and Peabody Energy's Kayenta surface mine. In 2006 the Black Mesa mine stopped producing coal. These four mines are isolated from the national railways. Peabody's new El Segundo surface mine near Grants, NM is increasing production. If the planned $3 billion Desert Rock coal-fired power plant is built this will present a new market for the Navajo mine. The article gives details about the state of the aforementioned mines and of the new King II coal mine on the northern periphery of the San Juan basin and discusses the state of plans for the Desert Rock Energy Project. 5 photos.

  2. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria Guimarães, Rogério Contato Ribas, Rogério Marques Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins Menezes, Andréia Duarte Fridman, Daniel Pallos Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-04

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  3. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore » do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Honaker, R.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1994-04-01

    Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the handling and transport of dry coal combustion residues and for the underground placement in abandoned coal mines and assess associated environmental impacts. Although parts of the Residue Characterization portion of the program were delayed because residue samples were not obtained, other parts of the program are proceeding on schedule. The delays in obtaining residue samples were primarily caused by adverse weather conditions, the shut-down of one unit at the City Water, Light, and Power Company Plant for routing maintenance and problems due to conflicting schedules of utility and program personnel. However, by the end of the quarter most residue samples had been obtained, and the residue characterization studies were under way. Progress is described for five studies: environmental assessment and geotechnical stability and subsidence impacts; residue characterization; physico-chemical characterization of residues; identification and assessment of handling/transportation systems for FGD residues; and residue handling and transport.

  5. Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

  6. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  7. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  8. Production of Materials with Superior Properties Utilizing High Magnetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field - Energy Innovation Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Production of Materials with Superior Properties Utilizing High Magnetic Field Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication UT-B ID 200401490 Magnetic 7 29 12.pdf (291 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryProcessing materials in a magnetic

  9. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co 3M | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mining and Manufacturing Co 3M Jump to: navigation, search Name: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co (3M) Place: Saint Paul, Minnesota Zip: MN 55144-1000 Product: US-based...

  10. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," ...

  11. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mines and sources, 2003-15" "Production Mining Method",2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,200... "Total Mines and Sources",4,6,10,11,12,17,20,9,11,12,12,11,9 "E Estimated data. ...

  12. Bauma returns with a large mining component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casteel, K.

    2007-04-15

    The world's largest construction trade fair is also a major mining show covering equipment from excavation to product load out. This comprehensive preview of the bauma 2007 exposition (23-29 April 2007) describes construction equipment which will be displayed, concentrating on mining equipment. It includes drilling equipment; earthmoving, excavation and grading machinery; loading and hauling machines; underground mining equipment; crushing and screening equipment; conveyors; and pumps. 25 photos.

  13. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will

  14. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model

  15. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  16. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  17. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  18. Data Mining for Security Information: A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, S T; Kelley, M; Sumikawa, K; Wakumoto, S

    2001-04-19

    looks the same regardless of the network architecture or the systems that run on the network. This similarity greatly simplifies the data cleansing step and provides a dataset with high orthogonality between multiple sites, increasing the accuracy of the data mining operations. The decision to use connection logs instead of packet logs is discussed below. This paper will survey both the research that has been done in this area to date and publicly available products that perform such tasks.

  19. Coal mine directory: United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

  20. Electricity and technical progress: The bituminous coal mining industry, mechanization to automation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Development and use of electric mobile machinery facilitated the mechanization of underground bituminous coal mining and has played a lesser but important role in the growth of surface mining. Electricity has been central to the rise of mechanically integrated mining, both underground (after 1950) and on the surface (recently). Increasing labor productivity in coal mining and decreasing total energy use per ton of coal mined are associated with penetration of new electric technology through at least 1967. Productivity declined and energy intensity increased during the 1970s due in part to government regulations. Recent productivity gains stem partly from new technology that permits automation of certain mining operations. On most big electric excavating machines, a pair of large alternating current (ac) motors operate continuously at full speed. These drive direct current (dc) generators that energize dc motors, each matched to the desired power and speed range of a particular machine function. Direct-current motors provide high torque at low speeds, thus reducing the amount of gearing required; each crawler is independently propelled forward or backward by its own variable-speed dc motors. The principal advantages of electric power are that mechanical power-transmission systems - shafts, gears, etc. - are eliminated or greatly simplified. Reliability is higher, lifetime is longer, and maintenance is much simpler with electric power than with diesel power, and the spare parts inventory is considerably smaller. 100 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  2. Mining into the new millennium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-06-15

    After more than 3 years of production and a billion tons of coal shipped, Foundation Coal West, a subsidiary of Foundation Coal Holding Inc., continues to operate two of the original surface mines in Wyoming's Powder River Basin. The article describes equipment (conveyors, trucks, surface miners etc.) deployed at Belle Ayr and Eagle Butte PRB operations. 3 photos.

  3. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  4. The Silicon Mine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    produce solar grade polysilicon suitable for the production of wafers or as the base material for the manufacture of solar cells. References: The Silicon Mine1 This article is a...

  5. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2008-04-15

    We used data from a survey of 16493 West Virginians merged with county-level coal production and other covariates to investigate the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. Results of hierarchical analyses indicated that high levels of coal production were associated with worse adjusted health status and with higher rates of cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease. Research is recommended to ascertain the mechanisms, magnitude, and consequences of a community coal-mining exposure effect.

  6. Performance potential of the coal strip mining in the east of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheskidov, V.I.

    2007-07-15

    The potentialities of the leading mining districts in Russia to improve coal production by strip mining are analyzed. The operational issues of the Erunakovskiy (Kuzbass), Kansko-Achinskiy and South Yakutia territorial production complexes are considered.

  7. ITP Mining: Mining Industry Roadmap for Crosscutting Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap for Crosscutting Technologies ITP Mining: Mining Industry Roadmap for Crosscutting Technologies ccroadmap.pdf (153.71 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Mining: ...

  8. Evaluation of the Kloswall longwall mining system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report presents the results of design studies and critical requiremental tests of a new longwall mining system specifically designed to extract a very deep web (48 inches or deeper) from a longwall panel. The report includes a productivity and cost analysis comparing the new mining system with a conventional longwall operation taking a 30-inch wide web. The analysis shows the new system will increase annual production and return on investment in most cases. The report also includes conceptual drawings and specifications for a high capacity three-drum shearer and a unique shield type of roof support specifically designed for very wide web operation. The advantages and problems associated with wide web mining are discussed in general and as they relate specifically to the equipment selected for the new mining system. Details of the critical testing and the test results are presented. The study concludes by recommending that surface tests of the haulage and guidance system be conducted as the follow-on work.

  9. Turnaround team revitalizes mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-11-01

    Starting from scratch, the Broe Companies' Century Coal trains the next generation. The article describes how the newly created Century Coal LLC, controlled by Denver-based Broe Companies investment firm, is rebuilding and expanding its highwall mining operations, increasing production from a current 1 million tons to 5 to 6 million tons in 2006 and 2007. The company has a $100,000 outreach program with 95% of these funds going to local communities. Present coal mining operations are spread around Bell, Clay, Harlan Knox and Leslie Counties. A priority is the renovation of the WenLar preparation plant in Bell County. 5 photos.

  10. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  11. Nippon Mining Holdings Inc aka Shinnikko | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Nippon Mining Holdings Inc (aka Shinnikko) Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 105-0001 Product: Japanese holding company engaged in oil, metals, and...

  12. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  13. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  14. Economic assessment of the impact on coal production due to enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Benefits report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, T.N.; McOmber, R.M.; Roberts, J.M.

    1980-10-31

    The study assesses the major economic benefits and costs that are associated with the enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation ACt (SMCRA). The report addresses the benefits of surface coal mining and land reclamation that follow from the Act. As originally conceived, the study was to evaluate, preferably in monetary terms, the specific benefits and socio-economic impacts of SMCRA. However, it was apparent, in the course of the initial analysis, that historical evaluation of specific benefits and socio-economic/environmental impacts is complicated by the short time that SMCRA has been in operation. It was also apparent that development of substantive, and defensible, quantified estimates of benefits and impacts is hindered by the absence of a great deal of needed numerical data, and by incomplete understanding of the reclamation processes that the Act is intended to enhance. Rather than attempt to evaluate specific benefits and socio-economic/environmental impacts, the study evaluated existing research studies on the impacts of surface mining, land reclamation, and SMCRA, and evaluated existing data sources relevant to surface mining, land reclamation, and SMCRA.

  15. High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production - Sandia Energy Energy ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  16. High Activity catalysts for Polyols Production From C-6 Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Werpy; Alan Zacher; John Frye; Keith Peterson; Gary Neuenschwander; Eric Alderson; Daniel Muzatko; Jim White

    2003-05-06

    Over the course of this project, many significant discoveries have been made in the process for the conversion of sorbitol to value added products. The object was developing a process for the production of propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and glycerol from sorbitol.

  17. Hydraulic mining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  18. Microbial production of wax esters from highly branched alkanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bogan, William W.; Sullivan, Wendy R.; Paterek, James R.

    2005-02-01

    A microbial culture and method for producing wax esters using highly branched alkanes. In accordance with one embodiment, the highly branched alkane is squalane.

  19. A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

  20. Surface mining: State management of abandoned mine land funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 promotes the reclamation of areas severely damaged in the past by coal mining operations. GAO reviewed the reclamation programs in Colorado, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wyoming and found that they implemented financial control procedures and practices to ensure that the expenditures of reclamation funds are proper. Only one state, however, is complying with all related grant payment, audit, and inventory requirements. The states are generally reclaiming eligible, high priority projects as required under the act and are managing their reclamation projects in compliance with federal requirements.

  1. Imaging Ahead of Mining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal mining is becoming more difficult as machines must extract the coal from deeper, thinner, and more geologically complex coal beds. This type of mining also includes the need to reduce risk and...

  2. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  3. Mining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mining Mining Supply and cost management-including energy costs-pose key challenges for U.S. mining companies. The industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources for increasing energy efficiency and reducing costs. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (2007) Documents for historical reference Water

  4. Mountaintop mining update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-07-15

    In a bad year for the US mining industry's safety record and public image, Morehead State University hosted a public meeting titled 'Mountaintop mining, health and safety forum'. This was a balanced event, with representatives from the mining industry as well as activists from the environmental community. A full account is given of the presentations and debate at the forum. 6 photos.

  5. ITP Mining: Water Use in Industries of the Future: Mining Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water and energy may be directly or indirectly related in the mining industry, and the connection is mainly through pumping power to transfer the water or aqueous slurries of mineral products to another location.

  6. Method of locating underground mines fires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laage, Linneas; Pomroy, William

    1992-01-01

    An improved method of locating an underground mine fire by comparing the pattern of measured combustion product arrival times at detector locations with a real time computer-generated array of simulated patterns. A number of electronic fire detection devices are linked thru telemetry to a control station on the surface. The mine's ventilation is modeled on a digital computer using network analysis software. The time reguired to locate a fire consists of the time required to model the mines' ventilation, generate the arrival time array, scan the array, and to match measured arrival time patterns to the simulated patterns.

  7. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  8. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  9. Coal recovery from mine wastes of the historic longwall mining district of north-central illinois. Illinois mineral notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, L.A.; Berggren, D.J.; Camp, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    Recovery of coal from mine wastes produced by historic longwall mines in northeastern Illinois was studied as part of a project undertaken in 1982 for the Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council. About 100 of these mines operated in the Wilmington and La Salle Districts of the Illinois Coal Field between about 1870 and 1940; all worked the Colchester (No. 2) Coal Seam, using a manual high-extraction mining method. Large samples of the three major kinds of mine waste - gray mining gob, preparation gob, and preparation slurry - were collected from deposits at nine of the larger mine sites and analyzed to determine their general ranges of sulfur, ash, and heating values. Preparation gob and slurry from six of the sites had significant combustible contents, and were evaluated by a simple procedure in which ash analyses and wet-screening tests were used to determine the washability and yield of combustibles to recovery processes.

  10. New Funding Opportunity: High-Efficacy Lamp Product Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January 1, 2020. ET's Lighting Alternatives Maximizing Performance and Suitability (LAMPS) program seeks to create suitable high-efficacy lighting options for incandescent ...

  11. Affordable High Performance in Production Homes: Artistic Homes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    extraordinary impact, demonstrating the mainstream builder's business case for adopting ... that demonstrate how high performance homes can be affordable for the mainstream market. ...

  12. THROUGH-THE-EARTH (TTE) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM AND THE IN-MINE POWER LINE (IMPL) COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Work has progressed on both subsystems: the Through-the-Earth (TTE) Communications system and the In-Mine Power Line (IMPL) Communications system. The TTE system: The system was fabricated and repackaged as an industrial product enclosed in a commercial rugged, waterproof housing suitable for installation in mines. Features were added to the system to appeal to the preferences of different mine managers. Arrangements were made with NIOSH to install the system in the Lake Lynn underground mine for evaluation and demonstration to potential users. The IMPL system: Voice compression was successfully implemented and incorporated into the laboratory model. Compressed voice was transmitted through a power line, expanded at the receiving end, and received with high clarity.

  13. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP), a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  14. Vendors boot up a new generation of mining software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.A.

    2008-10-15

    From complete mine management down to the smallest detail of process or machine design, the latest programs are claimed to process and display data easier, faster, and more accurately. MINExpo 2008 held in Las Vegas in September offered a bonanza of information on complete mine management to specilaized financial modules. Gemcom Software introduced new versions of five of its key products - Surpac 6.1, GEMS 6.2, Minex 5.3, MinerSched 6.0 and Whittle 4.2. Lerca Geosystems launched its Jigsaw 360 mine management suite, encompassing GPS navigation. Products launched by Modular Mining systems, Carlson Software, DEM Solutions and Logimine are also mentioned. 2 figs.

  15. Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2' x 4' 85 1' x 8' 88 High Bay, Non-Linear, Metal Halide Distribution Pattern Input ... ballasts, which should be considered in the comparison of the two system types. ...

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INTEGRATED DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND ANALYSIS (IIDEA) FOR MINING AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2007-06-29

    Almost all the high-production businesses face a problem of having terabytes of data but very little information is extracted from them. Efforts are being made continuously to bring the raw data into a usable format so that the meaningful information can be inferred. Once the knowledge discovery is done, proper action can be taken accordingly. The data mining and process modeling approach are used in many business sectors to better understand the process interactions within production chains by analyzing huge data repositories. A decade of intense investment in information technology by mining companies as resulted in vast quantities of underutilized data. Other industries have undergone fundamental changes through the innovative application of IT and business intelligence. This project was to undertake the investigation of the tools and techniques that would bring such data mining and requisite business processes to the mining industry. Phase I of this project was to establish the research infrastructure for Phase II and to pilot the tools and techniques through the development of an Energy Consumption Model (ECM) to predict the energy consumption in the material handling processes based on the key input variables like distance, elevation, tons hauled etc. Data mining techniques that can extract meaningful information from a raw data is available. The model developed as part of this research is an example of how energy consumption can be estimated from fundamental data.

  17. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  18. XsunX Inc formerly Sun River Mining Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    XsunX Inc formerly Sun River Mining Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: XsunX Inc (formerly Sun River Mining Inc) Place: Aliso Viejo, California Zip: 92656 Product: US-based...

  19. APUI Incubateur de l Ecole des Mines de Douai | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    APUI Incubateur de l Ecole des Mines de Douai Jump to: navigation, search Name: APUI Incubateur de l'Ecole des Mines de Douai Place: France Sector: Services Product: General...

  20. Expert systems - An overview and a mining example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, J.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    The knowledge-based expert systems (KBES) is a potentially powerful technique to the mining engineer in traditional areas of mine design and operations, as well as in the emerging areas of mining automation and robotics. Since KBES is still experimental in many respects, caution must be exercised as this ''high tech'' tool is developed and applied to mining. The objective of this paper is to demystify expert systems by introducing the elements of KBES, discussing the strengths and weaknesses, and identifying some areas of application in mining, based on the authors' experiences.

  1. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  2. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  3. Covered Product Category: Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for Industrial Luminaires (High/Low Bay). Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. High-intensity, high-brightness polarized and unpolarized beam production in charge-exchange collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenski, A.; Ritter, J.; Zubets, V.; Steski, D.; Atoian, G.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2011-03-28

    Basic limitations on the high-intensity H{sup -} ion beam production were experimentally studied in charge-exchange collisions of the neutral atomic hydrogen beam in the Na-vapour jet ionizer cell. These studies are the part of the polarized source upgrade (to 10 mA peak current and 85% polarization) project for RHIC. In the source the atomic hydrogen beam of a 5-10 keV energy and total (equivalent) current up to 5 A is produced by neutralization of proton beam in pulsed hydrogen gas target. Formation of the proton beam (from the surface of the plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature {approx}0.2 eV) is produced by four-electrode spherical multi-aperture ion-optical system with geometrical focusing. The hydrogen atomic beam intensity up to 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} (equivalent) was obtained in the Na-jet ionizer aperture of a 2.0 cm diameter. At the first stage of the experiment H-beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}1.0 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained using the flat grids and magnetic focusing.

  5. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J.; Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G.

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  6. Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado Uranium Mining and Milling near Rifle, Colorado April 19, 2016 - 4:42pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect Human Health and the Environment The small town of Rifle, Colorado, has an interesting history related to uranium and vanadium production. A mineral found near Rifle, called roscolite, contains both vanadium and uranium but was originally mined and milled for its vanadium content. Union Carbide Corporation began milling the ore

  7. Injury experience in coal mining, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1979. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and bituminous or anthracite coal. Correlative information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. For ease of correlation between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included. Data were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173 as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50 to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data. The statistical measures for injury experience adopted by MSHA in 1978 compare closely with the measures used in the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor. Therefore, beginning with 1978 data the mining industry can be compared on a standard basis with other United States industries. The statistical data the work experience of all personnel engaged in exploration development, production, maintenance, repair, and construction work, including supervisory and technical personnel, working partners, and onsite officeworkers. The terminology used throughout this report is that generally used by the mineral-extractive industries and by MSHA.

  8. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Biodegradable Materials | Department of Energy Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials Presentation by Jason Ren, University of Colorado Boulder, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. bio_h2_workshop_ren.pdf (437.03 KB) More

  9. Management practices--production analysis and improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minnucci, C.A.; Hernai, A.S.

    1984-02-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy funded a 2-year study to identify and quantify causes of the post-1969 coal mine productivity decline. A large number of factors hypothesized to have affected productivity during this period were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were particularly interesting for two of the factors--mining method and shift scheduling. The study results indicate that the use of longwall mining has an insignificant impact on overall mine productivity, compared to other methods, and mines operating on a two-production shift per day schedule are more productive than mines employing other shift schedules.

  10. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Production of highly tritiated water for tritium exposure studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muirhead, C.; Pilatzke, K.; Tripple, A.; Philippi, N.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium Facility staff at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) have successfully prepared highly tritiated water for use in radiation resistance of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane-based)electrolyser membrane. The goal of System A was to convert a known amount of elemental tritium (HT) into tritiated water vapour using a copper(II) oxide bed, and to condense the tritiated water vapour into a known amount of chilled heavy water (D{sub 2}O). The conversion and capture of tritium using this system is close to 100%. The goal of System B was to transfer tritiated water from the containment vessel to an exposure vessel (experiment) in a controlled and safe manner. System B is based on the pushing of D{sub 2}0 with low-pressure argon carrier gas to a calibrated volume and then to the exposure vessel. A method for delivering a known and controlled amount of tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at CRL. Using both systems Tritium Facility staff have made and distributed highly tritiated water in a safe and controlled manner. This paper focuses on how the tritiated water was produced and dispensed to the experiment.

  12. ITP Mining: Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals (December 2002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A profitable and stable mining industry is vital to U.S. economic and national security. This roadmap serves to educate those professionals in the mining industry.

  13. ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap mptroadmap.pdf (293.48 KB) More Documents & ...

  14. High precision predictions for exclusive VH production at the LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Ye; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-06-04

    We present a resummation-improved prediction for pp → VH + 0 jets at the Large Hadron Collider. We focus on highly-boosted final states in the presence of jet veto to suppress the tt¯ background. In this case, conventional fixed-order calculations are plagued by the existence of large Sudakov logarithms αnslogm(pvetoT/Q) for Q ~ mV + mH which lead to unreliable predictions as well as large theoretical uncertainties, and thus limit the accuracy when comparing experimental measurements to the Standard Model. In this work, we show that the resummation of Sudakov logarithms beyond the next-to-next-to-leading-log accuracy, combined with the next-to-next-to-leading ordermore » calculation, reduces the scale uncertainty and stabilizes the perturbative expansion in the region where the vector bosons carry large transverse momentum. Thus, our result improves the precision with which Higgs properties can be determined from LHC measurements using boosted Higgs techniques.« less

  15. Major manufacturing and mining investment projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book lists manufacturing and mining investment projects with development costs of $5 million or more. Manufacturing projects are classified in accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC) and mining projects by broad mineral categories. The book includes information on the nature of each project, its location and timing, the company of joint venture name, whether the investment is at a new site or at an existing site, the type of product, the value of the annual output, production, employment, past and future costs and the composition (structure and plant) of the investment.

  16. About the Uranium Mine Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uranium Mine Team About the Uranium Mine Team Text coming

  17. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIO-MASS GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K.

  18. Active mines in Arizona - 1993. Directory 40

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, K.A.; Niemuth, N.J.; Bain, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A directory of the active mines in Arizona is presented. The directory was compiled in November, 1992 from field visits and information received by the Department's technical staff. For the purpose of this directory, an active mine is defined as a mine in continuous operation, either in production or under full-time development for production. Custom milling operations that are active or available on a full-time basis are also included in the directory. It is acknowledged that there are additional mines not listed that are in an exploration, evaluation, or part-time development phase. There are others where production is on an intermittent basis that are not listed. The report is dependent on the cooperation of government agencies, private industry, and individuals who voluntarily provide information on their projects and activities. The directory is arranged alphabetically by company name. Each listing includes corporate addresses, mine name and location, operation description, and key personnel. The listing for the sand and gravel operations include name, address, and phone number.

  19. Highly Automated Module Production Incorporating Advanced Light Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perelli-Minetti, Michael; Roof, Kyle

    2015-08-11

    The objective was to enable a high volume, cost effective solution for increasing the amount of light captured by PV modules through utilization of an advanced Light Re-directing Film and to follow a phased approach to develop and implement this new technology in order to achieve an expected power gain of up to 12 watts per module. Full size PV modules were manufactured using a new Light Redirecting Film (LRF) material applied to two different areas of PV modules in order to increase the amount of light captured by the modules. One configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the tabbing ribbon on the cells in order to redirect the light that is normally absorbed by the tabbing ribbon to the active areas of the cells. A second configuration involved applying thin strips of LRF film over the white spaces between cells within a module in order to capture some of the light that is normally reflected from the white areas back through the front glass of the modules. Significant power increases of 1.4% (3.9 watts) and 1.0% (3.2 watts), respectively, compared to standard PV modules were measured under standard test conditions. The performance of PV modules with LRF applied to the tabbing ribbon was modeled. The results showed that the power increase provided by LRF depended greatly on the angle of incident light with the optimum performance only occurring when the light was within a narrow range of being perpendicular to the solar module. The modeling showed that most of the performance gain would be lost when the angle of incident light was greater than 28 degrees off axis. This effect made the orientation of modules with LRF applied to tabbing ribbons very important as modules mounted in “portrait” mode were predicted to provide little to no power gain from LRF under real world conditions. Based on these results, modules with LRF on tabbing ribbons would have to be mounted in “landscape” mode to realize a performance advantage. In addition

  20. PRB mines mature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-08-15

    Already seeing the results of reclamation efforts, America's largest surface mines advance as engineers prepare for the future. 30 years after the signing of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act by Jimmy Carter, western strip mines in the USA, especially in the Powder River Basin, are producing more coal than ever. The article describes the construction and installation of a $38.5 million near-pit crusher and overland belt conveyor system at Foundation Coal West's (FCW) Belle Ayr surface mine in Wyoming, one of the earliest PRB mines. It goes on to describe the development by Rio Tinto of an elk conservatory, the Rochelle Hill Conservation Easement, on reclaimed land at Jacobs Ranch, adjacent to the Rochelle Hills. 4 photos.

  1. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  2. Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From Ultra High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Hydride Materials - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From Ultra High Capacity Hydride Materials Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This is a cost-effective method for the production of pure hydrogen gas from ultra high capacity hydride

  3. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Biomass Program Review High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DE-EE0001036 S. Taylor (Auburn University), R. Rummer (USDA Forest Service), F. Corley (Corley Land Services), G. Somerville (Tigercat), O. Fasina (Auburn University), J. Fulton (Auburn University), T. McDonald (Auburn University), M. Smidt (Auburn University), T. Gallagher (Auburn University) This project is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process,

  4. Selectable resistance-area product by dilute highly charged ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A. C.; Gillaspy, J. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2007-08-13

    Considerable effort worldwide has been invested in producing low resistance-area (RA) product magnetic tunnel junction sensors for future hard drive read heads. Here the authors present a method of producing tunnel barriers with a selectable RA value spanning orders of magnitude. A single process recipe is used with only the dose of highly charged ions (HCIs) varied. The HCIs reduce the tunnel barrier integrity, providing enhanced conduction that reduces the overall RA product. The final RA product is selected by appropriate choice of the HCI density; e.g., 100 HCIs/{mu}m{sup 2} typically results in the RA product being reduced by a factor of 100.

  5. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  6. Mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culley, D.H.

    1982-01-26

    A mine roof support system is disclosed having sets of laterally spaced pairs of elongated support members adapted to be moved into and out of abutting relation with a mine roof. Wheel supported frames extend between and connect adjacent end portions of each pair of support members with adjacent wheel supported frames at the ends of the support members being in spaced tandem relation and connected to each other by connector members. Extensible prop members are connected to and move the wheel supported frames and the elongated support members connected thereto selectively toward and away from the mine roof.

  7. Product analysis from direct liquefaction of several high-moisture biomass feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.

    1987-04-01

    Product analysis in support of the process development research in biomass direct liquefaction began at rudimentary level of determining solvent-soluble portions of the product. Analysis was soon extended to elemental analyses and proximate analyses, such as ash and moisture. Later, spectrometric analyses were performed followed by detailed chemical analyses used in conjunction with chromatographic separation techniques. At all stages of development, the significant differences in composition between the products of flash pyrolysis and high-pressure processing have been evident. While polar solvents are most effective for both products, less polar solvents such as methylene chloride and even benzene and toluene have been used as extractants for high-pressure product oils.

  8. Reflection seismic mapping of an abandoned coal mine, Belleville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, N.; Hinds, R.; Roark, M.

    1997-10-01

    Old mine location maps (1958 vintage) indicate that the northwestern part of an undeveloped property near the town of Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois, is situated above an abandoned and now water-filled, room-and-pillar type coal mine. The central and southeast parts of the Belleville property are shown as overlying intact (non-mined) coal. The coal unit mined at the Belleville site, the Herrin No. 6 is Pennsylvanian in age and about 2.5 m thick at a depth of around 40 m. The current owners of the Belleville property want to construct a large building on the central and southeast parts of the site, but have been concerned about the accuracy of the old mine location maps because of recent mine-related surface subsidence in areas designated on the maps as not mined. To ensure that the proposed new development is located on structurally stable ground, a grid of ten high-resolution reflection seismic lines was acquired on-site. On these reflection seismic data, mined-out areas can be visually identified and differentiated from non-mined areas. The interpretation of the reflection seismic data was constrained and validated by 15 test boreholes. These seismic and borehole data confirm that the central and southeast parts of the property have not been mined extensively. Development of the Belleville site has proceeded with confidence.

  9. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  10. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  11. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. 1984 Virginia coal mine directory: producers of 100,000 tons or more

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, W.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to identify major Virginia coal sources for the use of prospective buyers and other interested parties. It is divided into lists: (1) 1984 Virginia coal production, (2) eighty-five largest companies identified by MSHA, (3) alphabetical listing of Virginia coal mines, (4) alphabetical listing of coal mines by county, and (5) coal mines rated by production figures. The rating order for the last list includes factors affecting productivity such as type of mine, number of injuries, seam thickness, total production, and average employment.

  13. Improving mine safety technology and training in the U.S. recommendations of the Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grayson, R. Larry

    2008-09-15

    The key issues studied focused on underground coal mining and included (1) prevention of explosions in sealed areas, (2) better emergency preparedness and response, (3) improvement of miners' ability to escape, (4) better protection of miners before and after a fire or explosion, (5) improved provision of oxygen, and (6) development and implementation of more robust post-incident communication. The U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006, which mandated new laws to address the issues. Concurrent with investigations and congressional deliberations, the National Mining Association formed the independent Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission to study the state-of-the-art relative to technology and training that could address the vulnerabilities exposed by the mine disasters. As discussed, the report outlined persistent vulnerabilities linked with significant hazards in underground coal mines, and made recommendations to provide a path for addressing them. Overall the commission report made 75 recommendations in the areas of risk-based design and management, communications technology, emergency response and mine rescue procedures, training for preparedness, and escape and protection strategies. In its deliberations, the commission importantly noted that mine safety in the U.S. needs to follow a new paradigm for ensuring mine safety and developing a culture of prevention that supports safe production at the business core. In the commission's viewpoint, the bottom line in protecting coal miners is not only adopting a culture of prevention but also systematically pursuing mitigation of significant risks. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Acid mine drainage: Balancing environmental protection and mining realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturgill, B.J. Jr.; Poland, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    A major environmental concern leading to the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) was the degradation of streams and waterways from discharges of acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from coal mining operations. Although SMCRA and its regulatory scheme contains specific provisions addressing the drainage of acidic water from mine sites, as do various other agencies statutes and regulations, AMD from active and abandoned mines remains a major environmental problem in the Appalachian region. The formation of acidic water during coal mining operations is pervasive and some believe impossible to prevent.

  15. Types and causes of haulage-system delays out by the face in US underground coal mines. Final report. [Data from 5 mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, W.J.; Kiefer, J.A.; Kohler, J.L.

    1982-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to characterize and quantify the occurrence and impact of outby haulage delays on production in US underground coal mines. An instrumentation system employing digital data loggers was used to acquire data for over 500 belt shifts in six mines. Observers collected section production data and section delay data to supplement the haulage database. A statistical data reduction system was applied to develop statistics on failure rates and delay lengths. A production impact model was developed and applied to analyze the effect of reducing delays and implementing engineering changes to the haulage systems. Analytical investigations of the relationship between delays and mine characteristics were conducted, and the impact of feeder-breakers and bunkerage, and the addition of longwall units to existing mines was investigated. The study provides a quantitative information base on underground belt haulage delays for use by mining companies and mining researchers.

  16. Process for liquefying carbonaceous materials of high molecular weight and for separating liquefaction products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Process characterized by comprising successively a dissolution zone fed with carbonaceous solids and with a solvent, a high pressure hydrogenation zone provided with a source of hydrogen, and a hydrogenation products separation zone, wherein the improvement consists mainly in chemical upgrading of the liquidform products derived from the separation zone, and recycling a part of the upgraded products to the dissolution zone, this recycled part being of either positively acidic or positively basic properties for enhancing the dissolution - decomposition of base-acid structures present in the carbonaceous solid feed.

  17. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  18. A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. Mc Kellar; E. A. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

    2006-07-01

    High temperature electrolysis (HTE) involves the splitting of stream into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. The primary advantage of HTE over conventional low temperature electrolysis is that considerably higher hydrogen production efficiencies can be achieved. Performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures results in more favorable thermodynamics for electrolysis, more efficient production of electricity, and allows direct use of process heat to generate steam. This paper presents the results of process analyses performed to evaluate the hydrogen production efficiencies of an HTE plant coupled to a 600 MWt Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) that supplies both the electricity and process heat needed to drive the process. The MHR operates with a coolant outlet temperature of 950 C. Approximately 87% of the high-temperature heat is used to generate electricity at high efficiency using a direct, Brayton-cycle power conversion system. The remaining high-temperature heat is used to generate a superheated steam / hydrogen mixture that is supplied to the electrolyzers. The analyses were performed using the HYSYS process modeling software. The model used to perform the analyses consisted of three loops; a primary high temperature helium loop, a secondary helium loop and the HTE process loop. The detailed model included realistic representations of all major components in the system, including pumps, compressors, heat exchange equipment, and the electrolysis stack. The design of the hydrogen production process loop also included a steam-sweep gas system to remove oxygen from the electrolysis stack so that it can be recovered and used for other applications. Results of the process analyses showed that hydrogen production efficiencies in the range of 45% to 50% are achievable with this system.

  19. ORS 517 - Mining and Mining Claims | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Mining and Mining ClaimsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2013 Legal Citation ORS 517 (2013) DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  20. Managers spur productivity gains. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brezovec, D.

    1981-12-01

    Output per worker hour grows at U.S. coal mines as management gears training programs and operating practices to fight falling productivity.

  1. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1982-01-05

    A mine roof support has a base, a supporting prop extending upwardly from the base, an elongated roof-supporting element having one portion supported by the supporting prop and another portion telescopable relative to the one portion toward a mine face and having a free end formed as a housing with a width corresponding to the width of the one portion, and a thrust prop arranged to support the free end section of the telescopable portion of the roof-supporting element and having a roof-side end section which is forcedly displaceable in the housing in direction of elongation of a mine and pivotable in a substantially vertical plane about an axle arranged in the housing.

  2. Factorized power expansion for high-pT heavy quarkonium production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Yan -Qing; Qiu, Jian -Wei; Sterman, George; Zhang, Hong

    2014-10-02

    In this study, we show that when the factorized cross section for heavy quarkonium production includes next-to-leading power contributions associated with the production of the heavy quark pair at short distances, it naturally reproduces all high pT results calculated in nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. This extended formalism requires fragmentation functions for heavy quark pairs, as well as for light partons. When these fragmentation functions are themselves calculated using NRQCD, we find that two of the four leading NRQCD production channels, ³S[1]1 and ¹S[8]0, are dominated by the next-to-leading power contributions for a very wide pT range. The large next-to-leading ordermore » corrections of NRQCD are absorbed into the leading order of the first power correction. The impact of this finding on heavy quarkonium production and its polarization is discussed.« less

  3. Factorized power expansion for high-pT heavy quarkonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Sterman, George; Zhang, Hong

    2014-10-02

    We show that when the factorized cross section for heavy quarkonium production includes next-to-leading power contributions associated with the production of the heavy quark pair at short distances, it naturally reproduces all high pT results calculated in nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. This extended formalism requires fragmentation functions for heavy quark pairs, as well as for light partons. When these fragmentation functions are themselves calculated using NRQCD, we find that two of the four leading NRQCD production channels, S[1]1 and S[8]0, are dominated by the next-to-leading power contributions for a very wide pT range. The large next-to-leading order corrections of NRQCD are absorbed into the leading order of the first power correction. The impact of this finding on heavy quarkonium production and its polarization is discussed.

  4. Big River mine tailings Superfund site lead exposure study, Jefferson City, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murgueytio, A.M.; Clardy, S.A.; Sterling, D.A.; Shadel, B.N.; Clements, B.W.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if living close to the Big River Mine Tailings Superfund site increased blood lead levels of resident children and what contribution mining waste had to any increase. The results of this study indicated that blood lead levels were a product of exposure to lead mining waste, lead-based paint, and other sources. Because the only substantial difference between the study and control areas, in terms of exposure to lead, was the presence of lead mining, mining waste is the reasonable explanation for the difference between the blood lead levels in the two communities.

  5. Figure 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of Technically

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Recoverable Oil 7. Projected Production for the High Development Rate of Technically Recoverable Oil Estimated at 5 Percent, Mean, and 95 Percent Probabilities for the ANWR Coastal Plain of the Alaska North Slope fig7.jpg (43335 bytes) Source

  6. Evaluation of airborne geophysical surveys for large-scale mapping of contaminated mine pools: draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R. W.

    2006-12-28

    subtle mine pool anomalies. However, post-survey modeling suggested that thicker, more conductive mine pools might be detected at a more suitable location. The current study sought to identify the best time domain electromagnetic sensor for detecting mine pools and to test it in an area where the mine pools are thicker and more conductive that those in southwestern Virginia. After a careful comparison of all airborne time domain electromagnetic sensors (including both helicopter and fixed-wing systems), the SkyTEM system from Denmark was determined to be the best technology for this application. Whereas most airborne time domain electromagnetic systems were developed to find large, deep, highly conductive mineral deposits, the SkyTEM system is designed for groundwater exploration studies, an application similar to mine pool detection.

  7. Innovative tailgate support for heavy ground: 11 left longwall panel, Cyprus Shoshone Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woomer, C.C.; Stewart, C.

    1995-11-01

    Cyprus Shoshone Mines uses the longwall method to extract a deep, thick, pitching coal seam in the Hanna Basin of South Central Wyoming. The immediate, and main roof rock consists of weak, thinly-bedded, silty mudstones with weak, interbedded fine-to medium-grained sandstone. Tailgate ground control has been a critical factor impacting productivity at the mine. A gateroad condition mapping program for the 11 left longwall gateroads indicated potentially severe ground control problems for the tailgate. It was predicted that the existing, secondary support pattern of wood cribs would not provide adequate support capacity. Longwall coordinators and engineers made the decision to use a low density, pumpable cement known to the industry as Tekseal{trademark}, to provide the system required. A 200 psi ultimate strength mix was decided on to provide the required load capacity. The existing cribs were formed with 1-in. by 6-in. boards and brattice cloth to provide the containment. To overcome the access limitations, three boreholes were drilled from the surface to the tailgate on 2,000-ft centers. A mobile pumping station was established on the surface and the Tekseal{trademark} was pumped 900-ft. down the boreholes through a 1.5-in. steep pipe, then as much as 1,800-ft. along the tailgate entry through 1.25-in. miner spray hose. The materials required for the Tekseal{trademark} supports could all be carried into the construction locations by hand. As a direct result of incorporating relatively new methods of pumping high yield, low density, cementitious grout, the Shoshone Mine reduced downtime due to tailgate ground control problems by approximately 70% in comparison with previous longwall panels. The longwall set three monthly production records while mining the 11 left longwall under the deepest cover, steepest pitch, and most extreme ground control conditions ever encountered at the mine.

  8. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  9. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  10. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  11. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego; Anastasia A. Gandrik

    2010-10-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  12. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a hydrogen economy. The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  13. Jet-engine-based units for cleaning transport media and thawing frozen soil at mining, metallurgical, and transportation facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khechuev, Y.D.

    2008-01-15

    In recent years, it has become much more difficult to deal with the adhesion and freezing of moist overburden or soil during mining and transport operations due to the increase in the volume of the various materials being mined and transported - coal, ore, fluxes, structural materials, etc. The most productive and effective methods to deal with the sticking and freezing of soil and rock are gas dynamic methods. These methods employ high-speed jets of hot gases from jet engines and can be 15-30 times more productive than mechanical methods and machinery. Proceeding on the basis of calculations, completed studies, and field tests, the Gortekhtrans Department of Research Institute for Problems of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (NIIKMA) has developed several highly efficient units that employ this technology.

  14. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF THE HIGH VELOCITY ALGAE RACEWAY INTEGRATED DESIGN (ARID-HV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter; Khawam, G.; Ryan, Randy; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-01-31

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  15. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  16. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  17. Method for producing through extrusion an anisotropic magnet with high energy product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandhok, Vijay K.

    2004-09-07

    A method for producing an anisotropic magnet with high energy product through extrusion and, more specifically, by placing a particle charge of a composition from the which magnet is to be produced in a noncircular container, heating the container and particle charge and extruding the container and particle charge through a noncircular extrusion die in such a manner that one of the cross-sectional axes or dimension of the container and particle charge is held substantially constant during the extrusion to compact the particle charge to substantially full density by mechanical deformation produced during the extrusion to achieve a magnet with anisotropic magnetic properties along the axes or dimension thereof and, more specifically, a high energy product along the transverse of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the extruded magnet.

  18. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    03.25.2015 Technology Area Review: Terrestrial Feedstocks Principal Investigator: Steve Taylor Organization: Auburn University This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Project Goals * Design and deploy machines and systems that can reduce delivered cost of woody biomass. - Design and

  19. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  20. Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

    1981-07-01

    An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  1. Mine roof bolt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, H.D.

    1993-07-27

    A mine roof bolt is described comprising: (a) a length of multi-strand cable defining a bolt shank; (b) a tapered plug comprising a body portion having an internal bore and a frusto-conical outer surface essentially concentric with said internal bore, said tapered plug being mounted about an end of said cable at said internal bore; and (c) an internally tapered drive collar having a frusto-conical inner surface that engages said frusto-conical outer surface of said tapered plug, and having an outer surface defining a drive head that accepts a driving mechanism for rotating and linearly translating said bolt, wherein said tapered plug is mounted on an end of said cable, and said drive collar is pressed down upon said tapered plug, forcing said tapered plug against said cable, such that said drive collar, said tapered plug, and said cable, when fitted tightly together, define said mine roof bolt.

  2. Mine roof support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollmann, A.

    1981-02-24

    A mine roof support has a base and a roof shield pivoted to the base and carrying at its upper end a pivoted cap which is urged upwardly against the mine roof by a hydraulic pit prop reacting between the cap and the base. The lower end of the roof shield is connected to the base by two links each having a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the roof shield, and a pivot cooperating with a pivot on the base. In addition, the base and/or the lower end of the roof shield has an auxiliary for each link and each link has an auxiliary pivot which can be connected with one of the auxiliary pivots of the base or lower end.

  3. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-11-15

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  4. Production of High-purity Radium-223 from Legacy Actinium-Beryllium Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Soderquist, Chuck; K. McNamara, Bruce; R. Fisher, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing 223Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity 223Ra from 227Ac. We obtained 227Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity 223Ra. We extracted 223Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free 223Ra product, and does not disturb the 227Ac/227Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free 227Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of 223Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development.

  5. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  6. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  7. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Rigali

    2001-10-01

    Omni-directional Consolidation (ROC) Process. A meeting was held with Kennametal Inc. September 27th, 2001. At this meeting, Kennametal expressed interest in working with ACR on three mining tool applications including roof bits, point attack tooling and drill bit inserts. In addition, there is considerable interest in developing FM composite machine cutting tools, which involves crosscutting technology. In addition to the discussions on business development, Kennametal reported on testing performed on ACR's FM composites the first quarter of this year. ACR Inc. also visited Tribocor Inc. of Houston TX to discuss the possibility of teaming to consolidate diamond/WC-Co composite coatings. Diamond-based composites require special high pressure consolidation equipment and Tribocor has expressed an interest in providing diamond powder preparation and consolidation services, to enable the mass-production of a low cost diamond-based FM composite products including drill bit inserts and point attack tools. Tribocor has agreed to perform consolidation of diamond/WC-Co FM coated inserts to verify their consolidation process and produce test pieces that we can press into mining drill bits for field testing.

  8. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi

    2010-12-31

    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250C (and eventually to 300?C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  9. Salinity gradient solar pond technology applied to potash solution mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martell, J.A.; Aimone-Martin, C.T.

    2000-06-12

    A solution mining facility at the Eddy Potash Mine, Eddy County, New Mexico has been proposed that will utilize salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) technology to supply industrial process thermal energy. The process will include underground dissolution of potassium chloride (KCl) from pillars and other reserves remaining after completion of primary room and pillar mining using recirculating solutions heated in the SGSP. Production of KCl will involve cold crystallization followed by a cooling pond stage, with the spent brine being recirculated in a closed loop back to the SGSP for reheating. This research uses SGSP as a renewable, clean energy source to optimize the entire mining process, minimize environmental wastes, provide a safe, more economical extraction process and reduce the need for conventional processing by crushing, grinding and flotation. The applications of SGSP technology will not only save energy in the extraction and beneficiation processes, but also will produce excess energy available for power generation, desalination, and auxiliary structure heating.

  10. Ground control for highwall mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipf, R.K.; Mark, C.

    2007-09-15

    Perhaps the greatest risk to both equipment and personnel associated with highwall mining is from ground control. The two most significant ground control hazards are rock falls from highwall and equipment entrapment underground. In the central Appalachians, where the majority of highwall mining occurs in the USA, hillseams (or mountain cracks) are the most prominent structure that affects highwall stability. The article discusses measures to minimise the risk of failure associated with hillstreams. A 'stuck' or trapped highwall miner, and the ensuring retrieval or recovery operation, can be extremely disruptive to the highwall mining process. Most entrapment, are due to roof falls in the hole. The options for recovery are surface retrieval, surface excavation or underground recovery. Proper pillar design is essential to maintain highwall stability and prevent entrapments. NIOSH has developed the Analysis of Retreat Mining Pillar stability-Highwall Mining (ARMPS-HWM) computer program to help mine planners with this process. 10 figs.

  11. 14. International conference on ground control in mining: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains the 38 papers presented at the conference. Papers have been divided into the following sections: Innovative longwall tailgate support; Effects of high horizontal stresses; Pillar recovery; Pillar design; Prop support; Roof and rib bolting; Floor stability; Surface subsidence; Longwall operations; Longwall entry stability; and Multiple seam mine design. Except for two papers, one on iron ore mining and the second on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, all papers deal with underground coal mining. Thirty-seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Innovative secondary support technologies for western mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M.; Molinda, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of other support systems. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Several innovative freestanding support systems have been developed recently including: (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems.

  13. LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power

  14. Fluid placement of fixated scrubber sludge to reduce surface subsidence and to abate acid mine drainage in abandoned underground coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiers, R.J.; Golden, D.; Gray, R.; Yu, W.C.

    1995-12-31

    Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) began researching the use of fluid placement techniques of the fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) to reduce surface subsidence from underground coal mines to develop an economic alternative to low strength concrete grout. Abandoned underground coal mines surround property adjacent to IPL`s coal combustion by-product (CCBP) landfill at the Petersburg Generating Station. Landfill expansion into these areas is in question because of the high potential for sinkhole subsidence to develop. Sinkholes manifesting at the surface would put the integrity of a liner or runoff pond containment structure for a CCBP disposal facility at risk. The fluid placement techniques of the FSS as a subsidence abatement technology was demonstrated during an eight week period in September, October, and November 1994 at the Petersburg Generating Station. The success of this technology will be determined by the percentage of the mine void filled, strength of the FSS placed, and the overall effects on the hydrogeologic environment. The complete report for this project will be finalized in early 1996.

  15. γ production as a probe for early state dynamics in high energy nuclear collisions at RHIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Chen, Baoyi; Xu, Nu; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2011-02-01

    γ production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energy is investigated. While the transverse momentum spectra of the ground state γ(1s) are controlled by the initial state Cronin effect, the excited bb⁻ states are characterized by the competition between the cold and hot nuclear matter effects and sensitive to the dissociation temperatures determined by the heavy quark potential. We emphasize that it is necessary to measure the excited heavy quark states in order to extract the early stage information in high energy nuclear collisions at RHIC.

  16. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Production Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ...

  17. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  18. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E.; Meisel, D.

    1992-07-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  19. Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E. ); Meisel, D. )

    1992-01-01

    Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

  20. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  1. Studies of Plutonium-238 Production at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lastres, Oscar; Chandler, David; Jarrell, Joshua J; Maldonado, G. Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a versatile 85 MW{sub th}, pressurized, light water-cooled and -moderated research reactor. The core consists of two fuel elements, an inner fuel element (IFE) and an outer fuel element (OFE), each constructed of involute fuel plates containing high-enriched-uranium (HEU) fuel ({approx}93 wt% {sup 235}U/U) in the form of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in an Al matrix and encapsulated in Al-6061 clad. An over-moderated flux trap is located in the center of the core, a large beryllium reflector is located on the outside of the core, and two control elements (CE) are located between the fuel and the reflector. The flux trap and reflector house numerous experimental facilities which are used for isotope production, material irradiation, and cold/thermal neutron scattering. Over the past five decades, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its agencies have been producing radioisotope power systems used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for unmanned, long-term space exploration missions. Plutonium-238 is used to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) because it has a very long half-life (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 89 yr.) and it generates about 0.5 watts/gram when it decays via alpha emission. Due to the recent shortage and uncertainty of future production, the DOE has proposed a plan to the US Congress to produce {sup 238}Pu by irradiating {sup 237}Np as early as in fiscal year 2011. An annual production rate of 1.5 to 2.0 kg of {sup 238}Pu is expected to satisfy these needs and could be produced in existing national nuclear facilities like HFIR and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Reactors at the Savannah River Site were used in the past for {sup 238}Pu production but were shut down after the last production in 1988. The nation's {sup 237}Np inventory is currently stored at INL. A plan for producing {sup 238}Pu at US research reactor

  2. MCRUNJOB: A High energy physics workflow planner for grid production processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    McRunjob is a powerful grid workflow manager used to manage the generation of large numbers of production processing jobs in High Energy Physics. In use at both the DZero and CMS experiments, McRunjob has been used to manage large Monte Carlo production processing since 1999 and is being extended to uses in regular production processing for analysis and reconstruction. Described at CHEP 2001, McRunjob converts core metadata into jobs submittable in a variety of environments. The powerful core metadata description language includes methods for converting the metadata into persistent forms, job descriptions, multi-step workflows, and data provenance information. The language features allow for structure in the metadata by including full expressions, namespaces, functional dependencies, site specific parameters in a grid environment, and ontological definitions. It also has simple control structures for parallelization of large jobs. McRunjob features a modular design which allows for easy expansion to new job description languages or new application level tasks.

  3. Mass production of multi-wall carbon nanotubes by metal dusting process with high yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorbani, H.; Rashidi, A.M.; Rastegari, S.; Mirdamadi, S.; Alaei, M.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Fe-Ni nanoparticles supported alloy 304L. {yields} Production of carbon nanotubes with high yield (700-1000%) and low cost catalyst. {yields} Optimum growth condition is CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C under long term repetitive thermal cycling. {yields} Possibility of the mass production by metal dusting process with low cost. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube materials were synthesized over Fe-Ni nanoparticles generated during disintegration of the surface of alloy 304L under metal dusting environment. The metal dusting condition was simulated and optimized through exposing stainless steel samples during long term repetitive thermal cycling in CO/H{sub 2} = 1/1, total gas flow rate 100 cm{sup 3}/min, at 620 {sup o}C for 300 h. After reaction, surface morphology of the samples and also carbonaceous deposition which had grown on sample surfaces were examined by stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results revealed that multi-wall carbon nanotubes could be formed over nanocatalyst generated on the alloy surface by exploiting metal dusting process. By optimization of reaction parameters the yields of carbon nanotube materials obtained were 700-1000%. Also it has been shown herein that the amount of carbon nanotube materials remarkably increases when the reaction time is extended up to 300 h, indicating a possibility of the mass production by this easy method.

  4. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ji, Qing (Albany, CA); Barletta, William A. (Oakland, CA); Jiang, Ximan (El Cerrito, CA); Ji, Lili (Albany, CA)

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  5. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of simultaneous

  6. Thin liquid/gas diffusion layers for high-efficiency hydrogen production from water splitting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mo, Jingke; Retterer, Scott T.; Cullen, David A.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr, Johney Boyd; Zhang, Feng-Yuan

    2016-06-13

    Liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs) play a crucial role in electrochemical energy technology and hydrogen production, and are expected to simultaneously transport electrons, heat, and reactants/products with minimum voltage, current, thermal, interfacial, and fluidic losses. In addition, carbon materials, which are typically used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are unsuitable for PEM electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). In this study, a novel titanium thin LGDL with well-tunable pore morphologies was developed by employing nano-manufacturing and was applied in a standard PEMEC. The LGDL tests show significant performance improvements. The operating voltages required at a current density of 2.0 A/cm2 were asmore » low as 1.69 V, and its efficiency reached a report high of up to 88%. The new thin and flat LGDL with well-tunable straight pores has been demonstrated to remarkably reduce the ohmic, interfacial and transport losses. In addition, well-tunable features, including pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and thus porosity and permeability, will be very valuable for developing PEMEC models and for validation of its simulations with optimal and repeatable performance. The LGDL thickness reduction from greater than 350 μm of conventional LGDLs to 25 μm will greatly decrease the weight and volume of PEMEC stacks, and represents a new direction for future developments of low-cost PEMECs with high performance.« less

  7. Separation Requirements for a Hydrogen Production Plant and High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Scott Beck; Bill Galyean

    2005-09-01

    This report provides the methods, models, and results of an evaluation for locating a hydrogen production facility near a nuclear power plant. In order to answer the risk-related questions for this combined nuclear and chemical facility, we utilized standard probabilistic safety assessment methodologies to answer three questions: what can happen, how likely is it, and what are the consequences? As part of answering these questions, we developed a model suitable to determine separation distances for hydrogen process structures and the nuclear plant structures. Our objective of the model-development and analysis is to answer key safety questions related to the placement of one or more hydrogen production plants in the vicinity of a high-temperature nuclear reactor. From a thermal-hydraulic standpoint we would like the two facilities to be quite close. However, safety and regulatory implications force the separation distance to be increased, perhaps substantially. Without answering these safety questions, the likelihood for obtaining a permit to construct and build such as facility in the U.S. would be questionable. The quantitative analysis performed for this report provides us with a scoping mechanism to determine key parameters related to the development of a nuclear-based hydrogen production facility. From our calculations, we estimate that when the separation distance is less than 100m, the core damage frequency is large enough (greater than 1E-6/yr) to become problematic in a risk-informed environment. However, a variety of design modifications, for example blast-deflection barriers, were explored to determine the impact of potential mitigating strategies. We found that these mitigating cases may significantly reduce risk and should be explored as the design for the hydrogen production facility evolves.

  8. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  9. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dykes, Charles D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Wood, J. F. Barry

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  10. Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-12-01

    This document represents the roadmap for education in the U.S. mining industry. It was developed based on the results of an Education Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held February 23, 2002 in Phoenix, Arizona.