National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for highly insulating glazing

  1. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  3. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

    2008-04-09

    Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

  4. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Dariush Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, and Christian Kohler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center technological routes have emerged: - Aerogel is a micro-porous insulating material currently under R&D worldwide

  5. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  6. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  7. Performance of High-Performance Glazing in IECC Compliant Building Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    . The TMY2 weather file (NREL, 1995) for Houston is used to carry out simulations. ? Selection of high-performance glazing Six glazing options were selected for this set of simulations to represent a range of current and potential window types... in hot and humid climates. Masters thesis, Department of Architecture, Texas A&M University. NREL. 1995. Users Manual for TMY2's. NRELlSP? 463-7668, and TMY2s, Typical Meteorological Years Derived from the 1961-1990. National Solar Radiation Data...

  8. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)? Do they eliminate the needand 16 were continuous PTFE sheets. EVALUATING PERFORMANCEin grooved spacer two layer PTFE center insert (clinging in

  9. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    any impacts on radiation heat transfer. Unfortunately, evenwould not exist where radiation heat transfer was concerned.

  10. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01

    International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Kuwait, October 26-28, 2010 efficiency and comfort solutions. A parametric study has been adopted and the method has been applied to a case study. The calculations were carried out by Energy... International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Kuwait, October 26-28, 2010 5 different glazing alternatives were considered. Glazings were obtained from ASHRAE data sets catalogue in EnergyPlus. Thermal and optical properties of the selected...

  11. High-Performance Glazing for Energy-Efficient and Bird-Safe Buildings Objective: With the ultimate goal of reducing bird-window collisions, identify a short list

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    High-Performance Glazing for Energy-Efficient and Bird-Safe Buildings Objective: With the ultimate-- improving the energy efficiency of buildings, and preventing bird deaths. What brings them together energy-efficiency perspective, less glazing on buildings would be preferable. But it is unlikely that our

  12. Method and apparatus for filling thermal insulating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arasteh, D.K.

    1992-01-14

    A method for filling insulated glazing units is disclosed. The method utilizes a vacuum chamber in which the insulated glazing units are placed. The insulated glazing units and vacuum chamber are evacuated simultaneously. The units are then refilled with a low conductance gas such as Krypton while the chamber is simultaneously refilled with air. 3 figs.

  13. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  14. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  15. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  16. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  17. An Analysis of the Benefits of Photovoltaic-coated Glazing on Owning and Operating Costs of High Rise Commercial 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, Keith

    1999-01-01

    the impact of the PV glazing on the building's heat loss/gaining as well as the amount of electricity that could be expected from the PV. To test for human satisfaction, a survey was performed to assess the overall preference of the subjects to the office...

  18. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Zalis, WJ

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program, conduced by PNNL for DOE-BTP, including a summary of outcomes and lessons learned.

  19. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Dr. Owen Evans 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COMPETITION; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; MARKET;...

  20. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vacuum Insulating Glazings Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window Coatings Image of vacuum capsules in water (4 mgml) used for dip coating. Vacuum Insulation for Windows...

  1. Issue 5: Optimizing High Levels of Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "How much insulation is too much?"

  2. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  3. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  4. Expansion Joint Concepts for High Temperature Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    As high temperature steam and process piping expands with heat, joints begin to open between the insulation sections, resulting in increased energy loss and possible unsafe surface temperatures. Many different expansion joint designs are presently...

  5. Analysis Code for High Gradient Dielectric Insulator Surface Breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Verboncoeur, John [University of California - Berkeley; Aldan, Manuel [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-05-30

    High voltage (HV) insulators are critical components in high-energy, accelerator and pulsed power systems that drive diverse applications in the national security, nuclear weapons science, defense and industrial arenas. In these systems, the insulator may separate vacuum/non-vacuum regions or conductors with high electrical field gradients. These insulators will often fail at electric fields over an order of magnitude lower than their intrinsic dielectric strength due to flashover at the dielectric interface. Decades of studies have produced a wealth of information on fundamental processes and mechanisms important for flashover initiation, but only for relatively simple insulator configurations in controlled environments. Accelerator and pulsed power system designers are faced with applying the fundamental knowledge to complex, operational devices with escalating HV requirements. Designers are forced to rely on “best practices” and expensive prototype testing, providing boundaries for successful operation. However, the safety margin is difficult to estimate, and system design must be very conservative for situations where testing is not practicable, or replacement of failed parts is disruptive or expensive. The Phase I program demonstrated the feasibility of developing an advanced code for modeling insulator breakdown. Such a code would be of great interest for a number of applications, including high energy physics, microwave source development, fusion sciences, and other research and industrial applications using high voltage devices.

  6. Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

    2014-04-29

    Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

  7. Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controlsdaylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, fielddeveloping switchable “smart glazings” for over a decade and

  8. Understanding and Improving High Voltage Vacuum Insulators for Microsecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javedani, J B; Goerz, D A; Houck, T L; Lauer, E J; Speer, R D; Tully, L K; Vogtlin, G E; White, A D

    2007-03-05

    High voltage insulation is one of the main areas of pulsed power research and development, and dielectric breakdown is usually the limiting factor in attaining the highest possible performance in pulsed power devices. For many applications the delivery of pulsed power into a vacuum region is the most critical aspect of operation. The surface of an insulator exposed to vacuum can fail electrically at an applied field more than an order or magnitude below the bulk dielectric strength of the insulator. This mode of breakdown, called surface flashover, imposes serious limitations on the power flow into a vacuum region. This is especially troublesome for applications where high voltage conditioning of the insulator and electrodes is not practical and for applications where relatively long pulses, on the order of several microseconds, are required. The goal of this project is to establish a sound fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that lead to surface flashover, and then evaluate the most promising techniques to improve vacuum insulators and enable high voltage operation at stress levels near the intrinsic bulk breakdown limits of the material. The approach we proposed and followed was to develop this understanding through a combination of theoretical and computation methods coupled with experiments to validate and quantify expected behaviors. In this report we summarize our modeling and simulation efforts, theoretical studies, and experimental investigations. The computational work began by exploring the limits of commercially available codes and demonstrating methods to examine field enhancements and defect mechanisms at microscopic levels. Plasma simulations with particle codes used in conjunction with circuit models of the experimental apparatus enabled comparisons with experimental measurements. The large scale plasma (LSP) particle-in-cell (PIC) code was run on multiprocessor platforms and used to simulate expanding plasma conditions in vacuum gap regions. Algorithms were incorporated into LSP to handle secondary electron emission from dielectric materials to enable detailed simulations of flashover phenomenon. Theoretical studies were focused on explaining a possible mechanism for anode initiated surface flashover that involves an electron avalanche process starting near the anode, not a mechanism involving bulk dielectric breakdown. Experiments were performed in Engineering's Pulsed Power Lab using an available 100-kV, 10-{micro}s pulse generator and vacuum chamber. The initial experiments were done with polyethylene insulator material in the shape of a truncated cone cut at +45{sup o} angle between flat electrodes with a gap of 1.0 cm. The insulator was sized so there were no flashovers or breakdowns under nominal operating conditions. Insulator flashover or gap closure was induced by introducing a plasma source, a tuft of velvet, in proximity to the insulator or electrode.

  9. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  10. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  11. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while satisfying constraints such as durability, cost, user acceptance, size limits, and environmental safety concerns. The energy efficient daylighting window will consist of a translucent and resilient aerogel panel sandwiched between glass panes in double glazed windows. Compared to the best windows available today, the double glazed translucent windows with 1/2-inch aerogel inserts will have a U-value of 1.2 W/m{sup 2} K (0.211 BTU/ft{sup 2} h F) without any coating or low conductivity fill gases. These windows will be more effective than the windows with an Energy Star rating of U-2 W/m{sup 2} K and could be made even more efficient by using low-e coated glass glazings and inert gas fills. This report summarizes the work accomplished on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41950. During this project, Aspen Aerogels made transparent and translucent aerogels from TMOS and TEOS. We characterized the transparency of the aerogels, reinforced the transparent aerogels with fibers and prepared large translucent aerogel panels and blankets. We also conducted an initial market study for energy efficient translucent windows. A lab-scale process was developed that could be scaled-up to manufacture blankets of these translucent aerogels. The large blankets prepared were used to fabricate prototype translucent windows and skylights. The primary goal of this project was to develop transparent, resilient, hydrophobic silica aerogels that have low thermal conductivities (R-10/inch) to be used to produce aerogel insulated double-glazing windows with a U value of 0.6 W/m{sup 2}K. To meet this objective we developed a process and equipment to produce blankets of translucent, hydrophobic aerogel. We focused on silica, organically-modified silica aerogels (Ormosils), and fiber reinforced silica aerogels due to the appreciable expertise in silica sol-gel processing available with the personnel at Aspen Aerogels, and also due to the quantity of knowledge available in the scientific literature. The project was conducted in three budget periods, herein called BP1, BP2 and BP3.

  12. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  13. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  14. Determination of argon concentration and assessment of the durability of high-performance insulating glass units filled with argon gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmahdy, A.H.; Yusuf, S.A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The use of heavy gases or gas mixtures in the cavity of sealed insulating glass (IG) units instead of air presents a challenge to the glazing industry and researchers to develop test procedures to assess the durability of the units and to determine the gas concentration inside the cavity. The main issue is to obtain gas samples at different time spans from the same unit without affecting the integrity of the edge seal. A laboratory test method to determine argon gas concentration in IG units was developed. The method is based on the use of gas chromatographic techniques. Oxygen, argon, and nitrogen are separated at subambient temperature ({minus}30 C). Gas sampling was possible by means of a self-healing plug made of a thermoplastic rubber and commercially available at a very low cost. A large number of IG units filled with an argon/air mixture were fitted with the special plug and tested for the durability of the edge seal according to the CAN/CGSB 12.8, Insulating Glass Units, standard (CGSB 1990). Test results showed that all the units tested contained less argon than the amount of 95% or higher claimed by the manufacturers at the time of assembly. Most of the tested units retained the argon gas, allowing for normal gas loss due to gas diffusion through the edge seal which varies between 1% and 5%, following the accelerated aging, high humidity, and volatile (fogging) tests. The test procedure to determine argon gas concentration in IG units is being reviewed by Canadian and American standards organizations for use in the certification of IG units.

  15. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  16. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  17. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; COMPETITION; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; MARKET; PERFORMANCE; POWER PLANTS; PROCESSING; SALES; SILICA; STEAM Insulation, energy savings, aerogel,...

  18. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01

    frames, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 25, pp.glazed windows, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol.

  19. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  20. Highly Insulating R-5 Windows Volume Purchase - How Utilities Can Participate Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    This fact sheet describes DOE’s Windows Volume Purchase, the benefits of highly insulated R-5 windows and low-e storm windows, and the important role that utilities can play in expanding the market for these highly insulated windows.

  1. Adding Insulation to an Existing Home | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Incentives for Your Home References High Performance Insulation Professionals Cellulose Insulation Information: Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association...

  2. High constriction ratio continuous insulator based dielectrophoretic particle sorting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qianru, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Low frequency insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a promising technique to study cell surface dielectric properties. To date, iDEP has been exploited to distinguish, characterize, and manipulate particles and ...

  3. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  4. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  5. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Lewis, J. Jr.

    1988-05-10

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2,000 C are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600 C for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950 to 1,250 C to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1,800 to 2,000 C further improves structural rigidity.

  6. High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

  7. Gas impermeable glaze for sealing a porous ceramic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Trudell, Daniel E.; Thoma, Steven G.

    2004-04-06

    A process for fabricating a gas impermeable seal on a porous ceramic surface using a thin, glass-based, pinhole free glaze. The process can be used to fabricate gas impermeable end seals on porous alumina tubes used as filter media. The porous alumina tubes can have an inorganic microporous thin film separation membrane on the inner surface, which can be used for high temperature gas separation processes.

  8. Predicted thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor J.; Hewitt, Neil

    2010-12-15

    The simulated triple vacuum glazing (TVG) consists of three 4 mm thick glass panes with two vacuum gaps, with each internal glass surface coated with a low-emittance coating with an emittance of 0.03. The two vacuum gaps are sealed by an indium based sealant and separated by a stainless steel pillar array with a height of 0.12 mm and a pillar diameter of 0.3 mm spaced at 25 mm. The thermal transmission at the centre-of-glazing area of the TVG was predicted to be 0.26 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The simulation results show that although the thermal conductivity of solder glass (1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and indium (83.7 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are very different, the difference in thermal transmission of TVGs resulting from the use of an indium and a solder glass edge seal was 0.01 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. This is because the edge seal is so thin (0.12 mm), consequently there is a negligible temperature drop across it irrespective of the material that the seal is made from relative to the total temperature difference across the glazing. The results also show that there is a relatively large increase in the overall thermal conductance of glazings without a frame when the width of the indium edge seal is increased. Increasing the rebate depth in a solid wood frame decreased the heat transmission of the TVG. The overall heat transmission of the simulated 0.5 m by 0.5 m TVG was 32.6% greater than that of the 1 m by 1 m TVG, since heat conduction through the edge seal of the small glazing has a larger contribution to the total glazing heat transfer than that of the larger glazing system. (author)

  9. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute More Documents & Publications Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings Fenestration Software Tools Low Cost Nanostructured Smart Window...

  10. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015Executive Order14, 20111,FY 2007 FeeFederalFirst2 DOE Hydrogen and

  11. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcoming events inthe Department's73 Volume646PPG

  12. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  13. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  14. STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SWITCH CERAMIC INSULATORS IN SEISMIC AREAS damage. 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (2014)" #12;(a) (b) Figure 1 : a) Elect

  15. Demonstration of the Performance of Highly Insulating (R-5) Windows in a Matched Pair of Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-12-05

    Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home’s windows has the potential to significantly improve the home’s overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high-quality installation will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the building envelope, decreasing infiltration and thus contributing to reduced heat transmission through building envelope. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. In addition to improvements in energy efficiency, highly insulating windows can have important impacts on occupant comfort by minimizing or eliminating the cold draft many homeowners experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably cooler than the room air temperature. Energy efficiency measures, such as highly insulating windows, also have the potential to decrease peak energy use in a home, which can lead to measurable peak load decreases for a utility service territory if implemented on a large scale. High-performance windows now feature triple-pane glass, double low-e coatings, and vinyl insulated frames to achieve U-factors as low as 0.2 , as compared to double-pane clear glass windows with a U-factor of 0.67, which are common in existing homes across the United States. The highly insulating windows (as they will be referred to in this document) are now available from several manufacturers and show promise to yield considerable energy savings and thermal comfort improvements in homes.

  16. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  17. High-Voltage Insulators and Components - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOFElectricity Transmission

  18. "Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Shannon O. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Tomich, A. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

  19. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school HighlandHydrogen and

  20. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  1. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  2. High transition temperature superconductor/insulator bilayers for the development of ultra-fast electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirena, M.; Félix, L. Avilés; Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo and CNEA, 8400 Bariloche ; Haberkorn, N.

    2013-07-29

    High transition temperature superconductor (HTc)/SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) bilayers were fabricated by sputtering deposition on (100) STO substrates. Their transport and morphological properties were characterized using conductive atomic force microscopy. The STO barriers present good insulating properties, with long attenuation lengths (? ? 1 nm) which reduce the junction resistance and increase the operating critical current. The samples present roughness values smaller than 1 nm, with an extremely low density of surface defects (?5 × 10{sup ?5} defects/?m{sup 2}). The high control of the barrier quality over large defect free surfaces is encouraging for the development of microelectronics devices based in HTc Josephson junctions.

  3. Gas insulated transmission line with insulators having field controlling recesses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Pederson, Bjorn O. (Chelmsford, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having a novel insulator for supporting an inner conductor concentrically within an outer sheath. The insulator has a recess contiguous with the periphery of one of the outer and inner conductors. The recess is disposed to a depth equal to an optimum gap for the dielectric insulating fluid used for the high voltage insulation or alternately disposed to a large depth so as to reduce the field at the critical conductor/insulator interface.

  4. Investigation of a high impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator with hollow load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Heng; Shu Ting; Li Zhiqiang [College of Opto-electric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2012-09-15

    A novel high-impedance magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with greatly restrained power deposition on the anode has been investigated. Methods to increase the MILO impedance and decrease the anode current are discussed. A MILO with impedance of 30 {Omega} and power conversion efficiency of 25% is presented by particle-in-cell simulations. Compared with the previous MILO in our lab, the anode current of the proposed MILO is reduced about 50%, the power conversion efficiency doubles, and the power deposition on anode is reduced nearly one half. Furthermore, considerations for reducing the power deposition on load have also been carried out in MILO design, and the load current is reduced to 4.6 kA, only 17% of the total anode current. Finally, a hollow load was introduced to reduce the power deposition density on the load, without decreasing the power conversion efficiency.

  5. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that fills building cavities densely enough to reduce airflow can also reduce convective heat loss. Unlike traditional insulation materials, radiant barriers are highly reflective...

  6. International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitz Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords: daylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, field testing, IEA31 1. INTRODUCTION Most

  7. Energy and daylight performance of angular selective glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Beltran,; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy and daylight performance of anisotropic angular selective glazings. The DOE-2.1E energy simulation program was used to determine the annual cooling, lighting and total electricity use, and peak electric demand. RADIANCE, a lighting simulation program, was used to determine daylight illuminance levels and distribution. We simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Blythe, California. We chose three hypothetical conventional windows for comparison: a single-pane tinted window, a double-pane low-E window, and a double-pane spectrally selective window. Daylighting controls were used. No interior shades were modeled in order to isolate the energy effects of the angular selective glazing. Our results show that the energy performance of the prototype angular selective windows is about the same as conventional windows for a 9.14 m (30 ft) deep south-facing perimeter zone with a large-area window in the hot, sunny climate of Blythe. It is theoretically possible to tune the angular selectivity of the glazing to achieve annual cooling energy reductions of 18%, total electricity use reductions of 15%, and peak electric demand reductions of 11% when compared to a conventional glazing with the same solar-optical properties at normal incidence. Angular selective glazings can provide more uniformly distributed daylight, particularly in the area next to the window, which will result in a more visually comfortable work environment.

  8. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  9. A search model for topological insulators with high-throughput robustness descriptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Kesong; Setyawan, Wahyu; Wang, Shidong; Nardelli, Marco B.; Curtarolo, Stephano

    2012-05-13

    Topological insulators (TI) are becoming one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. To fully integrate TI materials in electronic devices, high-quality epitaxial single-crystalline phases with sufficiently large bulk bandgaps are necessary. Current efforts have relied mostly on costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. Here we show that by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor {cflx X}TI, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. These include peculiar ternary halides, Cs{l_brace}Sn,Pb,Ge{r_brace}{l_brace}Cl,Br,I{r_brace}{sub 3}, which could have been hardly anticipated without high-throughput means. Our search model, by relying on the significance of repositories in materials development, opens new avenues for the discovery of more TIs in different and unexplored classes of systems.

  10. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  11. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  12. Metal stud wall systems -- Thermal disaster, or modern wall systems with highly efficient thermal insulation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E.; Desjarlais, A.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Buildings Technology Center

    1997-11-01

    Because steel has higher thermal conductivity than wood and intense heat transfer occurs through the metal wall components, thermal performances of a metal stud wall are significantly lower than for similar wood stud walls. A reduction of the in-cavity R-value caused by the wood studs is about 10% in wood stud walls. That is why metal stud walls are believed to be considerably less thermally effective than similar made of wood. However, properly designed metal stud walls can be as thermally effective as wood stud walls. Relatively high R-values may be achieved by installing insulating sheathing, which is widely used as a remedy for a weak thermal performance of metal stud walls. A series of the promising metal stud wall configurations is analyzed using results of finite difference computer modeling and guarded hotbox tests. Some of these walls were designed and tested in the ORNL Building Technology Center, some were tested in other laboratories, and some walls were developed and forgotten long time ago. Also, a novel concept of combined foam-metal studs is considered. The main aim of the present paper is to prove that it is possible to build metal stud walls which perform as well as wood stud walls. The key lies in designing; metal stud wall systems have to be treated in a special way with particular consideration to the high thermal conduction of metal components. In the discussed collection of the efficient metal stud wall configurations, reductions of the in-cavity R-value caused by metal studs are between 10 and 20%.

  13. Evidence for a new excitation at the interface between a high-Tc superconductor and a topological insulator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zareapour, Parisa; Hayat, Alex; Zhao, Shu Yang F.; Kreshchuk, Michael; Lee, Yong Kiat; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Jain, Achint; Xu, Zhijun; Liu, T. S.; Gu, G. D.; et al

    2014-12-09

    In this research, high-temperature superconductors exhibit a wide variety of novel excitations. If contacted with a topological insulator, the lifting of spin rotation symmetry in the surface states can lead to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity and novel particles. In pursuit of this possibility, we fabricated high critical-temperature (Tc ~ 85 K) superconductor/topological insulator (Bi?Sr?CaCu?O???/Bi?Te?Se) junctions. Below 75 K, a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) emerges in the differential conductance spectra of this junction. The magnitude of the ZBCP is suppressed at the same rate for magnetic fields applied parallel or perpendicular to the junction. Furthermore, it can still be observedmore »and does not split up to at least 8.5 T. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the excitation we observe appears to fall outside the known paradigms for a ZBCP.« less

  14. Evidence for a new excitation at the interface between a high-Tc superconductor and a topological insulator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zareapour, Parisa [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Xu, Zhijun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hayat, Alex [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Zhao, Shu Yang F. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Kreshchuk, Michael [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Lee, Yong Kiat [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Reijnders, Anjan A. [Montana Instruments, Bozeman, MT (United States); Jain, Achint [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Liu, T. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); North Univ. of China (China); Gu, G. D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jia, Shuang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Cava, Robert J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Burch, Kenneth S. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors exhibit a wide variety of novel excitations. If contacted with a topological insulator, the lifting of spin rotation symmetry in the surface states can lead to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity and novel particles. In pursuit of this possibility, we fabricated high critical-temperature (Tc ~ 85 K) superconductor/topological insulator (Bi?Sr?CaCu?O???/Bi?Te?Se) junctions. Below 75 K, a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) emerges in the differential conductance spectra of this junction. The magnitude of the ZBCP is suppressed at the same rate for magnetic fields applied parallel or perpendicular to the junction. Furthermore, it can still be observed and does not split up to at least 8.5 T. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the excitation we observe appears to fall outside the known paradigms for a ZBCP.

  15. Seasonal control skylight glazing panel with passive solar energy switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.V.

    1983-10-25

    A substantially transparent one-piece glazing panel is provided for generally horizontal mounting in a skylight. The panel is comprised of an repeated pattern of two alternating and contiguous linear optical elements; a first optical element being an upstanding generally right-triangular linear prism, and the second optical element being an upward-facing plano-cylindrical lens in which the planar surface is reflectively opaque and is generally in the same plane as the base of the triangular prism.

  16. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  17. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  18. Use of high temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites in gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL); Merrill, Gary Brian (Pittsburgh, PA); Ludeman, Evan McNeil (New Boston, NH); Lane, Jay Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition for insulating components, made of ceramic matrix composites, of gas turbines is provided. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere and the arrangement of spheres is such that the composition is dimensionally stable and chemically stable at a temperature of approximately 1600.degree. C. A stationary vane of a gas turbine comprising the composition of the present invention bonded to the outer surface of the vane is provided. A combustor comprising the composition bonded to the inner surface of the combustor is provided. A transition duct comprising the insulating coating bonded to the inner surface of the transition is provided. Because of abradable properties of the composition, a gas turbine blade tip seal comprising the composition also is provided. The composition is bonded to the inside surface of a shroud so that a blade tip carves grooves in the composition so as to create a customized seal for the turbine blade tip.

  19. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?!

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Valles

    2010-01-08

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions. 

  20. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metal–insulator–metal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?°C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  1. 504 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 4, APRIL 2012 Ultrathin-Body High-Mobility InAsSb-on-Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    504 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 4, APRIL 2012 Ultrathin-Body High-Mobility In- effect transistors (FETs) with ultrahigh electron mobilities are reported. The devices are obtainedAsSb-on-insulator FETs exhibit an effective mobility of 3400 cm2 /V · s for a body thickness of 7 nm, which rep- resents

  2. Trapping in GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor transistors: Role of high drain bias and hot electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meneghini, M. Bisi, D.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2014-04-07

    This paper describes an extensive analysis of the role of off-state and semi-on state bias in inducing the trapping in GaN-based power High Electron Mobility Transistors. The study is based on combined pulsed characterization and on-resistance transient measurements. We demonstrate that—by changing the quiescent bias point from the off-state to the semi-on state—it is possible to separately analyze two relevant trapping mechanisms: (i) the trapping of electrons in the gate-drain access region, activated by the exposure to high drain bias in the off-state; (ii) the trapping of hot-electrons within the AlGaN barrier or the gate insulator, which occurs when the devices are operated in the semi-on state. The dependence of these two mechanisms on the bias conditions and on temperature, and the properties (activation energy and cross section) of the related traps are described in the text.

  3. Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

    2010-01-01

    on solar heat gain and cooling load. The simulation results show reductions in solar heat gain, cooling load and better thermal comfort can be achieved using proper glazing systems for a specific orientation of the building. The significance...

  4. Thermal properties of granular silica aerogel for high-performance insulation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neugebauer, Adam (Adam Halbert)

    2013-01-01

    Based on mounting evidence in support of anthropogenic global climate change, there is an urgency for developments in high-performance building techniques and technologies. New construction projects provide substantial ...

  5. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational factory in Faribault MN which is shipping products throughout the world. There is a much larger factory currently under construction close by. This project was targeted specifically to address the issues outlined above, with a view to implementation on the new high volume manufacturing facility. Each of the Tasks which were addressed in this project is relatively straightforward to implement in this new facility and so the benefits of the work will be realized quickly. , and (iv) ensure the proposed changes have no detrimental effect to the proven durability of the window. The research described here has helped to understand and provide solutions to several interesting and previously unresolved issues of the technology as well as make progress in areas which will have a significant impact on energy saving. In particular several materials improvements have been made, and tasks related to throughput and yield improvements have been completed. All of this has been accomplished without any detrimental effect on the proven durability of the SageGlass EC device. The project was divided into four main areas: 1. Improvement of the Properties of the EC device by material enhancements (Task 2); 2. Reduce the cost of production by improving the efficiency and yields of some key manufacturing processes (Task 3); 3. Further reduce the cost by significant modifications to the structure of the device (Task 4); 4. Ensure the durability of the EC device is not affected by any of the changes resulting from these activities (Task 5). A detailed description of the activities carried out in these areas is given in the following report, along with the aims and goals of the work. We will see that we have completed Tasks 2 and 3 fully, and the durability of the resulting device structure has been unaffected. Some of Task 4 was not carried out because of difficulties with integrating the installation of the required targets into the production coater due to external constraints not related to this project. We will also see that the durability of the devices produced as a result of this work was

  6. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  7. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  8. Evidence for a new excitation at the interface between a high-Tc superconductor and a topological insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zareapour, Parisa; Xu, Zhijun; Hayat, Alex; Zhao, Shu Yang F.; Kreshchuk, Michael; Lee, Yong Kiat; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Jain, Achint; Liu, T. S.; Gu, G. D.; Jia, Shuang; Cava, Robert J.; Burch, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-09

    High-temperature superconductors exhibit a wide variety of novel excitations. If contacted with a topological insulator, the lifting of spin rotation symmetry in the surface states can lead to the emergence of unconventional superconductivity and novel particles. In pursuit of this possibility, we fabricated high critical-temperature (Tc ~ 85 K) superconductor/topological insulator (Bi?Sr?CaCu?O???/Bi?Te?Se) junctions. Below 75 K, a zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) emerges in the differential conductance spectra of this junction. The magnitude of the ZBCP is suppressed at the same rate for magnetic fields applied parallel or perpendicular to the junction. Furthermore, it can still be observed and does not split up to at least 8.5 T. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the excitation we observe appears to fall outside the known paradigms for a ZBCP.

  9. Sierra Designs 20 degrees F Wild Bill Climashield Sleeping Bag ClimashieldTM HL, a high-loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    -loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal efficiency, durability and water resistance Chest

  10. Insulation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    House Where and How Much How Much Insulation Do I Already Have? Air Sealing Moisture Control and Ventilation Insulation Installation, the Retrofit Challenge Precautions Attics...

  11. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  12. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  13. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, Eric B. (Brookhaven, NY); Muller, Albert C. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  14. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Efficient Insulation for Pipes Allows for the Use of Less Material with High-Temperature Durability

  15. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  16. The use of coated micropowders to reduce radiation heat transfer in foam insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marge, Arlene Lanciani

    1991-01-01

    Polyurethane foam is the most effective insulation currently available for buildings. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents, which have low thermal conductivities, contribute highly to the effectiveness of this insulation. ...

  17. Thermal characteristics and durability of sealed insulated glass units incorporating muntin bars under ultraviolet exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmahdy, A.H. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

    1998-10-01

    Recent developments in glazing manufacturing have resulted in the introduction of a variety of glazing systems to meet the consumers demand and, in many cases, with better thermal performance than conventional glazing. Insulating glass (IG) units are now available where air is replaced with argon and other heavy gases (or mixtures of gases), low emissivity coatings on glass or plastic films, and muntin bars in the cavity between the sheets of glass. Muntin bars are made of various materials such as aluminum (anodized or painted), vinyl, or silicone foam. Although muntin bars are used for aesthetic reasons, they may cause adverse effects on the IG units performance, which may be attributed to the improper preparation of the muntin bars or the use of interior paints. Ultraviolet (fogging) tests were performed on a number of argon-filled IG units with and without muntin bars. The test results indicate that most of the IG units with muntin bars fail the UV test when viewed at off-angle. Meanwhile, when viewed at right angle, most of the IG units with muntin bars passed the UV test. Test results also showed that the R-value and condensation resistance of IG units with muntin bars are 4% to 7% lower than those units without muntin bars. The thermal bridging effect of the muntin bars contribute to the lower glass surface temperature in the area adjacent to the muntin bars.

  18. Topological Insulators & Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topological Insulators & Superconductors New Frontiers in Low-Dimensional Systems Program 3-5 November 2010 Jadwin Hall, Fourth Floor, Room 407 Topological Insulators and Superconductors have quickly Insulators and Superconductors will gather the world- leading researchers in this field to present recent

  19. Exploring the possibility of low temperature glazing in faience from the Djoser Step Pyramid through compositional analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whisenant, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Egyptian faience, a glazed, non-clay based ceramic material, is found throughout Egypt in a time range pre-dating the Predynastic Period (5500 - 3100 BCE) and extending well beyond the Roman Period (30 BCE - 641 CE). One ...

  20. Process for making ceramic insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akash, Akash (Salt Lake City, UT); Balakrishnan, G. Nair (Sandy, UT)

    2009-12-08

    A method is provided for producing insulation materials and insulation for high temperature applications using novel castable and powder-based ceramics. The ceramic components produced using the proposed process offers (i) a fine porosity (from nano-to micro scale); (ii) a superior strength-to-weight ratio; and (iii) flexibility in designing multilayered features offering multifunctionality which will increase the service lifetime of insulation and refractory components used in the solid oxide fuel cell, direct carbon fuel cell, furnace, metal melting, glass, chemical, paper/pulp, automobile, industrial heating, coal, and power generation industries. Further, the ceramic components made using this method may have net-shape and/or net-size advantages with minimum post machining requirements.

  1. Corrugated outer sheath gas-insulated transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kemeny, George A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes two transmission line sections each of which are formed of a corrugated outer housing enclosing an inner high-voltage conductor disposed therein, with insulating support means supporting the inner conductor within the outer housing and an insulating gas providing electrical insulation therebetween. The outer housings in each section have smooth end sections at the longitudinal ends thereof which are joined together by joining means which provide for a sealing fixed joint.

  2. High-responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes based on silicon-on-insulator substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chong; Liu, Zhi; Cong, Hui; Cheng, Buwen; Guo, Xia; Liu, Wuming

    2015-01-01

    Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier photodiodes exhibit higher output current when space-charge effects are overcome and thermal effects are suppressed, which is highly beneficial for increasing the dynamic range of various microwave photonic systems and simplifying high-bit-rate digital receivers in different applications. From the point of view of packaging, detectors with vertical-illumination configuration can be easily handled by pick-and-place tools and are a popular choice for making photo-receiver modules. However, vertical-illumination Si/Ge uni-traveling carrier (UTC) devices suffer from inter-constraint between high speed and high responsivity. Here, we report a high responsivity vertical-illumination Si/Ge UTC photodiode based on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The maximum absorption efficiency of the devices was 2.4 times greater than the silicon substrate owing to constructive interference. The Si/Ge UTC photodiode was successfully fabricated and had a dominant responsivity at 1550 nm of 0.18 A/W, a 5...

  3. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhmeyer, Uwe [Kaiser Systems, Inc, 126 Sohier Road, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  4. Insulated laser tube structure and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dittbenner, Gerald R. (4353 Findlay Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1999-01-01

    An insulated high temperature ceramic laser tube having substantially uniform insulation along the length of the tube is disclosed having particulate ceramic insulation positioned between the outer wall of the ceramic laser tube and the inner surface of tubular ceramic fiber insulation which surrounds the ceramic laser tube. The particulate ceramic insulation is preferably a ceramic capable of sintering to the outer surface of the ceramic laser tube and to the inner surface of the tubular ceramic fiber insulation. The addition of the particulate ceramic insulation to fill all the voids between the ceramic laser tube and the fibrous ceramic insulation permits the laser tube to be operated at a substantially uniform temperature throughout the length of the laser tube.

  5. Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.

    2007-05-01

    An analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on a vehicle using solar-reflective paint and glazing.

  6. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  7. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  8. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    What does this mean for me? Properly installed insulation reduces heating and cooling costs by reducing heat losses and gains through a home's building envelope. The type...

  9. Vacuum Insulation for Windows

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sized vacuum capsules integrated with standard low-e coated flexible window plastics. - Near-term impact path: quantify insulation, transparency, cost, and other...

  10. Insulation for a Thermionic Microbattery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James P. Blanchard

    2004-09-19

    Microelectronmechanical Systems (MEMS) have not gained wide use because they lack the on-device power required by many important applications. To supply this need power, on can consider power from fossil fuels, but nuclear sources provide an intriguing option in terms of power density and lifetime. In order to make use of alpha particles, one is forced to use thermal approaches because diodes are damaged by the high energy of the alpha particles, one is forced to use thermal approaches because diodes are damaged by the high energy of the alphas. One difficulty, though, is that the surface to volume ration increases as we move to smaller scales and heat losses thus become significant at MEMS scales. Hence, efficient microscale insulation is needed to permit high overall efficiencies. This research explores concepts for one variety of microscale insulation created using MEMS fabrication techniques.

  11. Glass fiber composition. [for use as thermal insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, G.A.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1980-12-19

    The invention relates to a glass fiber composition useful for thermal insulation having a low melting temperature and high chemical durability.

  12. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to improve the high-temperature performance, durability, and life expectancy of aerogel insulation materials.

  13. Measure Guideline. Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  14. Measure Guideline: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straube, J. F.; Ueno, K.; Schumacher, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for interior insulation assemblies that control interstitial condensation and durability risks; recommendations for acceptable thermal performance are also provided. An illustrated guide of high-risk exterior details (which concentrate bulk water), and recommended remediation details is provided. This is followed by a recommended methodology for risk assessment of a masonry interior insulation project: a series of steps are suggested to assess the risks associated with this retrofit, with greater certainty with added steps.

  15. Sensors and Actuators A 132 (2006) 139146 MEMS based digital variable capacitors with a high-k dielectric insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleck, Norman A.

    2006-01-01

    Sensors and Actuators A 132 (2006) 139­146 MEMS based digital variable capacitors with a high Abstract A novel MEMS based digital variable capacitor was designed and fabricated. The device consists and keep the cantilever stuck on the substrate. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: MEMS

  16. High-performance and power-efficient 2${\\times}$2 optical switch on Silicon-on-Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Zheng; Checoury, Xavier; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Boucaud, Philippe; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    A compact (15{\\mu}m${\\times}${\\mu}m) and highly-optimized 2${\\times}$2 optical switch is demonstrated on a CMOS-compatible photonic crystal technology. On-chip insertion loss are below 1dB, static and dynamic contrast are 40dB and >20dB respectively. Owing to efficient thermo-optic design, the power consumption is below 3 mW while the switching time is 1 {\\mu}s.

  17. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    that the emergence of smart glazings will ultimately fillswitchable coating. These “smart glazings” can change solarfor use in buildings. Smart glazings can be divided into two

  18. Insulator for laser housing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, D.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member. 3 figs.

  19. Insulator for laser housing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a heat-resistant electrical insulator adapted for joining laser housing portions, which insulator comprises: an annulus; a channel in the annulus traversing the circumference and length of the housing; at least two ports, each communicating with the channel and an outer surface of the housing; and an attachment for securely attaching each end of the annulus to a laser housing member.

  20. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  1. High temperature thermal insulating composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W. (Golden, CO); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A composite contains in one region graphite flakes and refractory fibers in arbonized polymeric resin and in an adjacent region a gradually diminishing weight proportion of graphite flakes, refractory fibers, and the same carbonized resin.

  2. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which saves money. Structural Insulated Panels Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated insulated structural elements for use in building walls, ceilings, floors,...

  3. Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation Basement Insulation Systems - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a framed basement wall with insulation...

  4. Sheath insulator final test report, TFE Verification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The sheath insulator in a thermionic cell has two functions. First, the sheath insulator must electrically isolate the collector form the outer containment sheath tube that is in contact with the reactor liquid metal coolant. Second, The sheath insulator must provide for high uniform thermal conductance between the collector and the reactor coolant to remove away waste heat. The goals of the sheath insulator test program were to demonstrate that suitable ceramic materials and fabrication processes were available, and to validate the performance of the sheath insulator for TFE-VP requirements. This report discusses the objectives of the test program, fabrication development, ex-reactor test program, in-reactor test program, and the insulator seal specifications.

  5. Surface resistivity tailoring of ceramic insulators for an ion microprobe application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface resistivity tailoring of ceramic insulators for an ion microprobe application A. Nikolaev Abstract An important technique used for the grading of voltage drop along high voltage ceramic insulators implantation to modify the surface of high voltage ceramic vacuum insulators to provide a uniform surface

  6. Impacts of Shading and Glazing Combinations on Residential Energy Use in a Hot Dry Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar-Nagy, S.; Anderson, R.; Hancock, C.E. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Reeves, P. (Partnership for Resource Conservation)

    2000-08-25

    A residential building in Tucson, Arizona, was studied to evaluate opportunities for reducing cooling energy use in a hot dry climate. The reduction of solar heat gain was strongly influenced by spectrally selective windows, architectural shading, and site shading from adjacent buildings. The study emphasized accurately modeling these features to account for effects on the energy load. Building performance was modeled using a detailed hourly energy simulation tool and was measured while unoccupied for a period of 12 days. Model inputs included direct measurements of the net air exchange rate, surface reflectance, and window transmittance. Model results showed good agreement with the direct measurements of cooling loads and air-conditioning energy use. A parametric study of annual energy use is presented showing the impacts of glazing type, architectural shading, site shading, and building orientation. It is important to understand these interactions to optimize energy savings in community-scale housing developments.

  7. Low-vacuum SEM analyses of ceramic tiles with emphasis on glaze defects characterisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopar, Tinkara Ducman, Vilma

    2007-11-15

    The behaviour of glazed building ceramics exposed to different environment (weathering, chemicals, etc.) is determined by microstructural features; in many cases structural and surface defects at the micro- or nanometre scale are crucial for the functional properties of products. Many testing methods for materials characterization of a variety of ceramic products, physical and chemical methods, are time-consuming, large quantities of samples are needed, and are usually destructive. This paper illustrates the use of low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) as fast and almost non-destructive, as only a small amount of sample is needed. Examples are given of various surface and structural properties of building ceramics, for the identification of the material deterioration process as a result of environmental impact.

  8. Converting normal insulators into topological insulators via tuning orbital levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Wu-Jun

    Tuning the spin-orbit coupling strength via foreign element doping and modifying bonding strength via strain engineering are the major routes to convert normal insulators to topological insulators. We here propose an ...

  9. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  10. Pipe Insulation Economies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    ductivityll is used. This is modeled for average insulation temperature. Another variable which has caused problems in the past is the ambient air film coefficient, or surface resistance. This program dea 1s wi th th is coeffici ent by mak i ng an initial... for other machines. SAMPLE PROGRAM WHAT IS PIPE TEMP? 353 WHAT IS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AMBIENT AIR? 80 WHAT IS THE OUTSIDE RADIUS OF THE PIPE? 2.37S SELECT THE TYPE OF INSULATION FROM THIS II!i: FIBERGLASS ENTER 1 CALCIUM SILICATE ENTER 2...

  11. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  12. Tips: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for recommendations. Be careful how close you place insulation next to a recessed light fixture-unless it is insulation contact (IC) rated-to avoid a fire hazard. See the...

  13. Determination of threshold and maximum operating electric stresses for selected high voltage insulations: Investigation of aged polymeric dielectric cable. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eager, G.S. Jr.; Seman, G.W.; Fryszczyn, B.

    1995-11-01

    Based on the successful completion of the extensive research project DOE/ET/29303-1 February 1982 to develop a new method for the determination of threshold voltage in XLPE and EPR insulated cables, tests were initiated to establish the maximum safe operating voltage stresses of crosslinked polyethylene insulated cables that become wet when they operate in a moist environment. The present report covers the measurement of the threshold voltage, the a.c. breakdown voltage and the impulse breakdown voltage of XLPE cable after undergoing accelerated laboratory aging in water. Model and 15 kV XLPE cables were manufactured in commercial equipment using state-of-the-art semiconducting shields and XLPE insulation. The threshold voltage, a.c. voltage breakdown and impulse voltage breakdown of the model cables were determined before aging, after aging one week and after aging 26 weeks. The model cable, following 26 weeks aging, was dried by passing dry gas through the conductor interstices which removed moisture from the cable. The threshold voltage, the a.c. voltage breakdown and the impulse voltage breakdown of the XLPE model cable after drying was measured.

  14. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  15. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  16. Phase Fluctuations in a Strongly Disordered s-Wave NbN Superconductor Close to the Metal-Insulator Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raychaudhuri, Pratap

    insulating Bi films [4], finite high-frequency superfluid stiffness above Tc in amorphous InOx films [5

  17. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  18. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  19. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  20. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartmentInformationDepartment ofInsulation

  1. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  2. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  3. Akinc Working to Save Energy with Nanotechnology Insulation ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Akinc Working to Save Energy with Nanotechnology Insulation AMES, Iowa - Mufit Akinc, who has a series of patent plaques hanging high on his office wall, knows all about the...

  4. Mapping the unconventional orbital texture in topological crystalline insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeljkovic, Ilija

    The newly discovered topological crystalline insulators feature a complex band structure involving multiple Dirac cones [superscript 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and are potentially highly tunable by external electric field, temperature ...

  5. Inducing magnetism onto the surface of a topological crystalline insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assaf, Badih A.

    Inducing magnetism onto a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) has been predicted to result in several novel quantum electromagnetic effects. This is a consequence of the highly strain-sensitive band topology of such ...

  6. Insulation Materials | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insulation and Energy Efficiency Information: Home Energy: The Magazine of Residential Energy Conservation Addthis Related Articles In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other...

  7. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  8. Insulation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy FacilitiesCleantech UniversitySpray foam insulation fills the

  9. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  11. Enhancing metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes via defect enhanced direct tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimardani, Nasir; Conley, John F.

    2014-08-25

    Metal-insulator-insulator-metal tunnel diodes with dissimilar work function electrodes and nanolaminate Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} bilayer tunnel barriers deposited by atomic layer deposition are investigated. This combination of high and low electron affinity insulators, each with different dominant conduction mechanisms (tunneling and Frenkel-Poole emission), results in improved low voltage asymmetry and non-linearity of current versus voltage behavior. These improvements are due to defect enhanced direct tunneling in which electrons transport across the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} via defect based conduction before tunneling directly through the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, effectively narrowing the tunnel barrier. Conduction through the device is dominated by tunneling, and operation is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  12. Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator superconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator superconductor junctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous energy transport across topological insulator...

  13. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science. This new phase of...

  14. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators Print Inherently strange crystalline materials called 3D topological insulators (TIs) are all the rage in materials science....

  15. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  16. Optical Properties of Topological Insulator Bragg Gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crosse, J A

    2015-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix formalism, we study the transmission properties of a Bragg grating constructed from a layered axionic material. Such a material can be realized by a topological insulator subject to a time-symmetry breaking perturbation, such as an external magnetic field or surface magnetic impurities. Whilst the reflective properties of the structure are only negligibly changed by the presence of the axionic material, the grating induces Faraday and Kerr rotations in the transmitted and reflected light, respectively. These rotations are proportional to the number of layers and the strength of the time-symmetry breaking perturbation. In areas of low reflectivity the rotation angle of TE polarization decreases with increasing incidence angle while the TM polarization increases with increasing incidence angle with the converse occurring in areas of high reflectivity. The formalism and results will be useful in the development of optical and photonic devices based on topological insulators, devices whi...

  17. Ceramic electrical insulation for electrical coils, transformers, and magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, John A. (Longmont, CO); Hazelton, Craig S. (Lafayette, CO); Fabian, Paul E. (Broomfield, CO)

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature electrical insulation is described, which is suitable for electrical windings for any number of applications. The inventive insulation comprises a cured preceramic polymer resin, which is preferably a polysiloxane resin. A method for insulating electrical windings, which are intended for use in high temperature environments, such as superconductors and the like, advantageously comprises the steps of, first, applying a preceramic polymer layer to a conductor core, to function as an insulation layer, and second, curing the preceramic polymer layer. The conductor core preferably comprises a metallic wire, which may be wound into a coil. In the preferred method, the applying step comprises a step of wrapping the conductor core with a sleeve or tape of glass or ceramic fabric which has been impregnated by a preceramic polymer resin. The inventive insulation system allows conducting coils and magnets to be fabricated using existing processing equipment, and maximizes the mechanical and thermal performance at both elevated and cryogenic temperatures. It also permits co-processing of the wire and the insulation to increase production efficiencies and reduce overall costs, while still remarkably enhancing performance.

  18. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  19. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  20. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned Garages Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Where to insulate. Adding insulation in the areas shown here may be...

  1. Insulation for New Home Construction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Articles Spray foam insulation fills the nooks and crannies in the walls of this energy-efficient Florida home. | Photo courtesy of FSECIBACOS. Insulation Adding insulation in...

  2. Where to Insulate in a Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to improve your home's energy efficiency. Insulate either the attic floor or under the roof. Check with a contractor about crawl space or basement insulation. Tips: Insulation...

  3. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  4. Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the ZonalGEF Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis of Fibrous Insulation Materials Using the Zonal­GEF Method Walter to analyze radiative heat transfer in high porosity insulation materials which have a large scattering. Radiative heat transfer in this class of material is nonlocalized in the optically thick limit

  5. Vacuum Insulation for Window

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Solu;on synthesis costs similar to commercial vacuum capsule prices - High temperature treatments and processes - Capital Equipment - Equipment labor - Equipment maintenance -...

  6. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  7. Carpe Diem: Install Insulated Roman Shades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As I mentioned in yesterday's blog, I had insulated window quilts installed on most of my home's windows.

  8. Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices - Building America Top...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Exterior Rigid Insulation Best Practices More Documents & Publications Enclosures Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan report Basement Insulation Systems - Building...

  9. How wood waters down wall insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunde, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Wood framing in walls can lower the actual insulating values, since the R-value of wood is only one per inch of thickness. A chart is presented that shows how wood in the stud space reduces insulating values. Several wall systems and the nominal R-value of insulation for each is presented.

  10. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  11. Development of a Diehard GEM using PTFE insulator substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wakabayashi, M; Tamagawa, T; Takeuchi, Y; Aoki, K; Taketani, A; Hamagaki, H

    2014-01-01

    We have developed the gas electron multiplier (GEM) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) insulator substrate (PTFE-GEM). Carbonization on insulator layer by discharges shorts the GEM electrodes, causing permanent breakdown. Since PTFE is hard to be carbonized against arc discharges, PTFE-GEM is expected to be robust against breakdown. Gains as high as 2.6x10^4 were achieved with PTFE-GEM (50 um thick) in Ar/CO2 = 70%/30% gas mixture at V_GEM = 730V. PTFE-GEM never showed a permanent breakdown even after suffering more than 40000 times discharges during the experiment. The result demonstrates that PTFE-GEM is really robust against discharges. We conclude that PTFE is an excellent insulator material for the GEM productions.

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition of Insulating Hafnium and Zirconium Nitrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Insulating Hafnium and Zirconium Nitrides Jill S. Becker, Esther Kim, and conformal coatings of higher nitrides of hafnium and zirconium were produced by atomic layer deposition from-colored, and highly conducting. I. Introduction The mononitrides of hafnium and zirconium of stoi- chiometry MN (M

  13. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  14. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  15. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  16. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  17. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  18. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  19. Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (14154 W. First Dr., Golden, CO 80401); Potter, Thomas F. (515 S. Magnolia La., Denver, CO 80224)

    1996-10-08

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  20. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  1. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  2. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  3. Magnetic instability of Kondo insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Li, Xiao-Ping [Rutgers--the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Serin Physics Lab.; Lee, Dung-Hai [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1993-09-01

    We review a number of experiments on isoelectronic, isostructural ternary compounds CeTSn (T=Ni,Pd,Sn) and alloys CeNi{sub 1-x}(Pd,Pt){sub x}Sn, and propose a finite temperature phase diagram describing the evolution of a Kondo insulator to an antiferromagnetic Kondo state with decreasing hybridization or Kondo coupling. We then provide microscopic justifications for the phase diagram by analyzing the magnetic properties of the symmetric Kondo lattice model in two dimensions.

  4. Impact of Thermally Insulated Floors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghimlas, F.; Omar, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    INSULATED FLOORS E. Al-Sayed Omar Associate Research Scientist Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat, Kuwait F. Alghimlas * Research Associate Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research P.O. Box 24885, 13109 Safat..., Kuwait * fghimlas@kisr.edu.kw ABSTRACT Presently in Kuwait the code of practice for energy conservation in the air conditioned buildings implemented by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) which has been in effect since 1983 has...

  5. Tips: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 Timeline of Events: 1938-1950Insulation Tips:

  6. Surface degradation of polymer insulators under accelerated climatic aging in weather-ometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, G.; McGrath, P.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States). Electrical and computer Engineering Dept.; Burns, C.W. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Climatic aging experiments were conducted on two types of outdoor polymer insulators by using a programmable weather-ometer. The housing materials for the insulators were silicone rubber (SR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM). The accelerated aging stresses were comprised of ultraviolet radiation, elevated temperature, temperature cycling, thermal shock and high humidity. Their effects on the insulator surface conditions and electrical performance wee examined through visual inspection and SEM studies, contact angle measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and 50% impulse flashover voltage tests. The results showed a significant damage on the insulator surface caused by some of the imposed aging stresses. The EDS analysis suggested a photooxidation process that happened on the insulator surface during the aging period.

  7. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-12-31

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  8. Proximity-Driven Enhanced Magnetic Order at Ferromagnetic-Insulator–Magnetic-Topological-Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mingda

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. ...

  9. T-Duality of Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varghese Mathai; Guo Chuan Thiang

    2015-09-03

    Topological insulators and D-brane charges in string theory can both be classified by the same family of groups. In this paper, we extend this connection via a geometric transform, giving a novel duality of topological insulators which can be viewed as a condensed matter analog of T-duality in string theory. For 2D Chern insulators, this duality exchanges the rank and Chern number of the valence bands.

  10. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  11. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    spotlights that introduces common technologies used in U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon team houses. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated...

  12. Flipping Photoelectron Spins in Topological Insulators

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and photoelectron spin opens a wide range of possibilities for TIs. Strengthening Spintronics The ability to shine polarized light on a topological insulator (TI) and excite...

  13. Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Building Science Corporation team held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in...

  14. Farmers RECC- Residential Insulation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Farmers Rural Electric Cooperative (RECC) Button-Up Program provides free energy audits and rebates for insulation upgrades to its residential customers. Farmers RECC's energy advisor will...

  15. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  16. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  17. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, A.

    1999-03-02

    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  18. Insulation board and process of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-08-27

    Insulation board is described which is capable of bearing a load without significant loss of insulating capacity due to compression, produced by a method wherein the board is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  19. Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Title: Graphene physics and insulator-metal transition in compressed hydrogen Authors: Naumov, Ivan I. ;...

  20. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom (Morris Plains, NJ); Ghosh, Amal K. (New Providence, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  1. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  2. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  3. Slab edge insulating form system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brain E. (Corral de Tierra, CA); Barsun, Stephan K. (Davis, CA); Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Hoeschele, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Springer, David A. (Winters, CA)

    2009-10-06

    A method of forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising constructing a foundation frame, the frame comprising an insulating form having an opening, inserting a pocket former into the opening; placing concrete inside the foundation frame; and removing the pocket former after the placed concrete has set, wherein the concrete forms a pocket in the placed concrete that is accessible through the opening. The method may further comprise sealing the opening by placing a sealing plug or sealing material in the opening. A system for forming an insulated concrete foundation is provided comprising a plurality of interconnected insulating forms, the insulating forms having a rigid outer member protecting and encasing an insulating material, and at least one gripping lip extending outwardly from the outer member to provide a pest barrier. At least one insulating form has an opening into which a removable pocket former is inserted. The system may also provide a tension anchor positioned in the pocket former and a tendon connected to the tension anchor.

  4. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  5. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  6. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Ueno and J. Lstiburek

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  7. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  8. BOA: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Abatement Robot System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempf, H.

    1996-06-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  9. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with electrical sheet insulation under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-11-01

    To determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of sheet insulation with alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit, sheet insulation was exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Most of the sheet insulation materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant at high temperature. This was attributed to incompatibility of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet was initially observed, but 2048 subsequent tests under extremely dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure.

  10. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50.degree. C. or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense.

  11. Silicon on insulator achieved using electrochemical etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1997-10-07

    Bulk crystalline silicon wafers are transferred after the completion of circuit fabrication to form thin films of crystalline circuitry on almost any support, such as metal, semiconductor, plastic, polymer, glass, wood, and paper. In particular, this technique is suitable to form silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers, whereby the devices and circuits formed exhibit superior performance after transfer due to the removal of the silicon substrate. The added cost of the transfer process to conventional silicon fabrication is insignificant. No epitaxial, lift-off, release or buried oxide layers are needed to perform the transfer of single or multiple wafers onto support members. The transfer process may be performed at temperatures of 50 C or less, permits transparency around the circuits and does not require post-transfer patterning. Consequently, the technique opens up new avenues for the use of integrated circuit devices in high-brightness, high-resolution video-speed color displays, reduced-thickness increased-flexibility intelligent cards, flexible electronics on ultrathin support members, adhesive electronics, touch screen electronics, items requiring low weight materials, smart cards, intelligent keys for encryption systems, toys, large area circuits, flexible supports, and other applications. The added process flexibility also permits a cheap technique for increasing circuit speed of market driven technologies such as microprocessors at little added expense. 57 figs.

  12. Advanced insulations for refrigerator/freezers: The potential for new shell designs incorporating polymer barrier construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.

    1992-11-01

    The impending phase-out of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used to expand foam insulation, combined with requirements for increased energy efficiency, make the use of non-CFC-based high performance insulation technologies increasingly attractive. The majority of current efforts are directed at using advanced insulations in the form of thin, flat low-conductivity gas-filled or evacuated orthogonal panels, which we refer to as Advanced Insulation Panels (AIPs). AIPs can be used in composite with blown polymer foams to improve insulation performance in refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) of conventional design and manufacture. This AIP/foam composite approach is appealing because it appears to be a feasible, near-term method for incorporating advanced insulations into R/Fs without substantial redesign or retooling. However, the requirements for adequate flow of foam during the foam-in-place operation impose limitations on the allowable thickness and coverage area of AIPs. This report examines design alternatives which may offer a greater increase in overall thermal resistance than is possible with the use of AIP/foam composites in current R/F design. These design alternatives generally involve a basic redesign of the R/F taking into account the unique requirements of advanced insulations and the importance of minimizing thermal bridging with high thermal resistance insulations. The focus here is on R/F doors because they are relatively simple and independent R/F components and are therefore good candidates for development of alterative designs. R/F doors have significant thermal bridging problems due to the steel outer shell construction. A three dimensional finite difference computer modeling exercise of a R/F door geometry was used to compare the overall levels of thermal resistance (R-value) for various design configurations.

  13. Metal-insulator transition in holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Sean A. Hartnoll

    2013-01-19

    We exhibit an interaction-driven metal-insulator quantum phase transition in a holographic model. Use of a helical lattice enables us to break translation invariance while preserving homogeneity. The metallic phase is characterized by a sharp Drude peak and a d.c. resistivity that increases with temperature. In the insulating phase the Drude spectral weight is transferred into a `mid-infrared' peak and to energy scales of order the chemical potential. The d.c. resistivity now decreases with temperature. In the metallic phase, operators breaking translation invariance are irrelevant at low energy scales. In the insulating phase, translation symmetry breaking effects are present at low energies. We find the near horizon extremal geometry that captures the insulating physics.

  14. Saving Energy and Money with Aerogel Insulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in an innovative insulation material that saves energy and money for industrial facilities while also helping to support 50 full-time clean energy jobs for Americans.

  15. Air leakage of Insulated Concrete Form houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durschlag, Hannah (Hanna Rebekah)

    2012-01-01

    Air leakage has been shown to increase building energy use due to additional heating and cooling loads. Although many construction types have been examined for leakage, an exploration of a large number of Insulated Concrete ...

  16. Magnetic Insulator Thin Films and Induced Magneto-Transport Effect at Normal Metal / Magnetic Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of spintronics with magnetic insulators (MI)a very important role in spintronics. On the other hand, aapplications in spintronics. Among many candidates (e.g.

  17. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E. [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY `95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  18. Method for forming fibrous silicon carbide insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, George C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A method whereby silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composites are prepared from carbon-bonded C fiber composites is disclosed. Carbon-bonded C fiber composite material is treated with gaseous silicon monoxide generated from the reaction of a mixture of colloidal silica and carbon black at an elevated temperature in an argon atmosphere. The carbon in the carbon bond and fiber is thus chemically converted to SiC resulting in a silicon carbide-bonded SiC fiber composite that can be used for fabricating dense, high-strength high-toughness SiC composites or as thermal insulating materials in oxidizing environments.

  19. Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stamatakis, Alexandros

    The design of high voltage systems and their com­ ponents (e.g. gas insulated switchgear, trans­ formers etc

  20. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

  1. Insulating Structural Ceramics Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Mark J.; Tandon, Raj; Ott, Eric; Hind, Abi Akar; Long, Mike; Jensen, Robert; Wheat, Leonard; Cusac, Dave; Lin, H. T.; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Ferber, Mattison K.; Lee, Sun Kun; Yoon, Hyung K.; Moreti, James; Park, Paul; Rockwood, Jill; Boyer, Carrie; Ragle, Christie; Balmer-Millar, Marilou; Aardahl, Chris; Habeger, Craig; Rappe, Ken; Tran, Diana; Koshkarian, Kent; Readey, Michael; ,

    2005-11-22

    New materials and corresponding manufacturing processes are likely candidates for diesel engine components as society and customers demand lower emission engines without sacrificing power and fuel efficiency. Strategies for improving thermal efficiency directly compete with methodologies for reducing emissions, and so the technical challenge becomes an optimization of controlling parameters to achieve both goals. Approaches being considered to increase overall thermal efficiency are to insulate certain diesel engine components in the combustion chamber, thereby increasing the brake mean effective pressure ratings (BMEP). Achieving higher BMEP rating by insulating the combustion chamber, in turn, requires advances in material technologies for engine components such as pistons, port liners, valves, and cylinder heads. A series of characterization tests were performed to establish the material properties of ceramic powder. Mechanical chacterizations were also obtained from the selected materials as a function of temperature utilizing ASTM standards: fast fracture strength, fatique resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal shock, and fracture toughness. All ceramic materials examined showed excellent wear properties and resistance to the corrosive diesel engine environments. The study concluded that the ceramics examined did not meet all of the cylinder head insert structural design requirements. Therefore we do not recommend at this time their use for this application. The potential for increased stresses and temperatures in the hot section of the diesel engine combined with the highly corrosive combustion products and residues has driven the need for expanded materials capability for hot section engine components. Corrosion and strength requirements necessitate the examination of more advanced high temperture alloys. Alloy developments and the understanding of processing, structure, and properties of supperalloy materials have been driven, in large part, by the gas turbine community over the last fifty years. Characterization of these high temperature materials has, consequently, concentrated heavily upon application conditions similiar to to that encountered in the turbine engine environment. Significantly less work has been performed on hot corrosion degradation of these materials in a diesel engine environment. This report examines both the current high temperature alloy capability and examines the capability of advanced nickle-based alloys and methods to improve production costs. Microstructures, mechanical properties, and the oxidation/corrosion behavior of commercially available silicon nitride ceramics were investigated for diesel engine valve train applications. Contact, sliding, and scratch damage mechanisms of commercially available silicon nitride ceramics were investigated as a function of microstructure. The silicon nitrides with a course microstructure showed a higher material removal rate that agrees with a higher wear volume in the sliding contact tests. The overall objective of this program is to develop catalyst materials systems for an advanced Lean-NOx aftertreatment system that will provide high NOx reduction with minimum engine fuel efficiency penalty. With Government regulations on diesel engine NOx emissions increasingly becoming more restrictive, engine manufacturers are finding it difficult to meet the regulations solely with engine design strategies (i.e. improved combustion, retarded timing, exhaust gas recirculation, etc.). Aftertreatment is the logical technical approach that will be necessary to achieve the required emission levels while at the same time minimally impacting the engine design and its associated reliability and durability concerns.

  2. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi [Japan Aerospace Exploration and Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  3. Nuclear reactor vessel fuel thermal insulating barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keegan, C. Patrick; Scobel, James H.; Wright, Richard F.

    2013-03-19

    The reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor installation which is suspended from the cold leg nozzles in a reactor cavity is provided with a lower thermal insulating barrier spaced from the reactor vessel that has a hemispherical lower section that increases in volume from the center line of the reactor to the outer extent of the diameter of the thermal insulating barrier and smoothly transitions up the side walls of the vessel. The space between the thermal insulating harrier and the reactor vessel forms a chamber which can be flooded with cooling water through passive valving to directly cool the reactor vessel in the event of a severe accident. The passive inlet valve for the cooling water includes a buoyant door that is normally maintained sealed under its own weight and floats open when the cavity is Hooded. Passively opening steam vents are also provided.

  4. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  5. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  6. Is graphene in vacuum an insulator?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde

    2009-01-15

    We present evidence, from Lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the phase diagram of graphene as a function of the Coulomb coupling between quasiparticles, that graphene in vacuum is likely to be an insulator. We find a semimetal-insulator transition at $\\alpha_g^\\text{crit} = 1.11 \\pm 0.06$, where $\\alpha_g^{} \\simeq 2.16$ in vacuum, and $\\alpha_g^{} \\simeq 0.79$ on a SiO$_2^{}$ substrate. Our analysis uses the logarithmic derivative of the order parameter, supplemented by an equation of state. The insulating phase disappears above a critical number of four-component fermion flavors $4 < N_f^{\\text{crit}} < 6$. Our data are consistent with a second-order transition.

  7. Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J. Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Current crowding in GaInN / GaN LEDs grown on insulating substrates X. Guo, E. F. Schubert and J. Jahns Current crowding in mesa-structure GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on insulating and a saturation of the optical output power at high injection currents. It is shown that the optical power

  8. Prediction of flashover voltage of non-ceramic insulators under contaminated conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction of flashover voltage of non-ceramic insulators under contaminated conditions S Terms -- Polymeric insulators, ceramic insulators, surface resistance, arc constant, reignition constant ceramic insulators (porcelain and glass). There are various types of contaminants that settle

  9. Evaluation of Magnetic Insulation in SF6 Filled Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houck, T; Ferriera, T; Goerz, D; Javedani, J; Speer, R; Tully, L; Vogtlin, G

    2009-06-08

    The use of magnetic fields perpendicular to quasistatic electric fields to deter electrical breakdown in vacuum, referred to as magnetic insulation, is well understood and used in numerous applications. Here we define quasi-static as applied high-voltage pulse widths much longer than the transit time of light across the electrode gap. For this report we extend the concept of magnetic insulation to include the inhibition of electrical breakdown in gases. Ionization and electrical breakdown of gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields is only a moderately explored research area. For sufficiently large magnetic fields an electron does not gain sufficient energy over a single cycloidal path to ionize the gas molecules. However, it may be possible for the electron to gain sufficient energy for ionization over a number of collisions. To study breakdown in a gas, the collective behavior of an avalanche of electrons in the formation of a streamer in the gas is required. Effective reduced electric field (EREF) theory, which considers the bulk properties of an electron avalanche, has been successful at describing the influence of a crossed magnetic field on the electric field required for breakdown in gases; however, available data to verify the theory has been limited to low gas pressures and weak electronegative gases. High power devices, for example explosively driven magnetic flux compressors, operate at electrical field stresses, magnetic fields, and insulating gas pressures nearly two orders of magnitude greater than published research for crossed fields in gases. The primary limitation of conducting experiments at higher pressures, e.g. atmospheric, is generating the large magnetic fields, 10's Tesla, and electric fields, >100 kV/cm, required to see a significant effect. In this paper we describe measurements made with a coaxial geometry diode, form factor of 1.2, operating at peak electrical field stress of 220 kV/cm, maximum magnetic field of 20 Tesla, and SF{sub 6} pressure of 760 torr.

  10. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needed. Insulating pads can also contain built-in acoustical barriers to help control noise. Energy Savings The table below summarizes energy savings due to the use of insulating...

  11. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  12. A Guide to Insulation Selection for Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    In the wake of rapidly rising energy costs, insulation systems are receiving much attention from design engineers and owners in the industrial market. This paper discusses the significant properties of the primary industrial insulations as well...

  13. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 Turning a...

  14. Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or...

  15. Gas insulated transmission line having tapered particle trapping ring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, insulating supports and an insulating gas. A particle-trapping ring is secured to each insulating support, and it is comprised of a central portion and two tapered end portions. The ends of the particle trapping ring have a smaller diameter than the central portion of the ring, so as to enable the use of the particle trapping ring in a curved transmission line.

  16. Evaluation of Station Post Porcelain Insulators with Room Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Station Post Porcelain Insulators with Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) Silicone to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;Evaluation of Station Post Porcelain Insulators with Room and analysis of porcelain post insulators that were coated with a room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone

  17. Mechanical properties of insulators for Accelerator Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Mechanical properties of insulators for Accelerator Magnets WAMSDO 14/11/2011 George Ellwood 1 #12 is critical to the composite's performance ·The mechanical performance is dependent on fibre orientation Effects in Resins · Changes in Mechanical properties ­ Particularly matrix dependent properties

  18. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  19. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  20. Laminated insulators having heat dissipation means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1980-04-24

    A laminated body is provided with heat dissipation capabilities. The insulator body is formed by dielectric layers interleaved with heat conductive layers, and bonded by an adhesive to form a composite structure. The heat conductive layers include provision for connection to an external thermal circuit.

  1. The Insulation Energy Appraisal Assessing the True Value of Insulated System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schell, S.

    2002-01-01

    Insulation remains a seriously under-utilized technology in the manufacturing and industrial sectors of the economy even though its role in energy efficiency and environmental preservation is clear. The objective of the presentation is to educate...

  2. Magnetic Insulator Thin Films and Induced Magneto-Transport Effect at Normal Metal / Magnetic Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tao

    2013-01-01

    is of great interest, as spintronic devices reveal both heatThe discipline of spintronics with magnetic insulators (MI)a very important role in spintronics. On the other hand, a

  3. Specific features of the photoconductivity of semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubyatnikov, V. A.; Grigor’ev, F. I.; Lysenko, A. P., E-mail: aplysenko@hse.ru; Strogankova, N. I.; Shadov, M. B. [National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Belov, A. G. [OAO GIREDMET State Research and Design Institute of the Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The effect of local illumination providing a high level of free-carrier injection on the conductivity of a sample of semi-insulating cadmium telluride and on the properties of ohmic contacts to the sample is studied. It is found that, irrespective of the illumination region, the contact resistance of ohmic contacts decreases and the concentration of majority carriers in the sample grows in proportion to the illumination intensity. It is shown that inherent heterogeneities in crystals of semi-insulating semiconductors can be studied by scanning with a light probe.

  4. AlGaAs-On-Insulator Nonlinear Photonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Minhao; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of nonlinear and integrated photonics has recently seen a surge with Kerr frequency comb generation in micro-resonators as the most significant achievement. Efficient nonlinear photonic chips have myriad applications including high speed optical signal processing, on-chip multi-wavelength lasers, metrology, molecular spectroscopy, and quantum information science. Aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) exhibits very high material nonlinearity and low nonlinear loss when operated below half its bandgap energy. However, difficulties in device processing and low device effective nonlinearity made Kerr frequency comb generation elusive. Here, we demonstrate AlGaAs-on-insulator as a nonlinear platform at telecom wavelengths. Using newly developed fabrication processes, we show high-quality-factor (Q>100,000) micro-resonators with integrated bus waveguides in a planar circuit where optical parametric oscillation is achieved with a record low threshold power of 3 mW and a frequency comb spanning 350 nm i...

  5. Thermoelectric Effect across the Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in VO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Thermoelectric Effect across the Metal-Insulator Domain Walls in VO2 Microbeams J. Cao,,, W. Fan-performance thermoelectric materials are currently one of the focuses in materials research for energy conversion technologies.1-4 A good thermoelectric material should have a relatively high thermopower (Seebeck coefficient

  6. Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourtides, D.A.; Pitts, W.C.

    1989-02-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of alumininum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

  7. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  8. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  9. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  10. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A. (R.D. #1, Box 462-A, Voorheesville, NY 12186)

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  11. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  12. Leaky insulating paint for preventing discharge anomalies on circuit boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederickson, A.R.; Enloe, C.L.; Mullen, E.G. ); Nanevicz, J.E.; Thayer, J.S. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on a semi-insulating paint formulated and tested for preventing pulse discharges from causing damage to circuits on heavily irradiated circuit boards. The paint is tin oxide filled phenoxy resin with a bulk resistivity of 10{sup 8} ohm-cm. A typical coating is then 10{sup 10} ohms per square. It is applied over the finished, conformally coated circuit board and connected to ground where possible on the board. It works by minimizing the stored electric field energy prior to the discharge. With such high resistivity it can not load down most circuits. Tests were performed on circuit boards with and without the paint using energetic electron beams to simulate very high space exposure levels. Many potentially damaging pulses were seen without the paint, but application of the paint removed all large pulses and only a few small pulses were seen.

  13. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosimann, Garrett; Wagner, Rachel; Schirber, Tom

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  14. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  15. Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies: Part II, New Construction - August 13, 2014 - Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Rigid Insulation Building America Webinar:...

  16. Curing system for high voltage cross linked cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahder, George (Edison, NJ); Katz, Carlos (Edison, NJ); Bopp, Louis A. (Fair Haven, NJ)

    1978-01-01

    This invention makes extruded, vulcanized, high voltage cables insulated with thermosetting compounds at much higher rates of production and with superior insulation of reduced thickness and with reduced cavities or voids in the insulation. As the cable comes from an extruder, it passes into a curing chamber with a heat booster that quickly raises the insulation to a temperature at which it is cured much more quickly than with steam heating of the prior art. A high temperature liquid in contact with the insulation maintains the high temperature; and because of the greater curing heat, the cable can travel through the curing chamber at a faster rate and into a cooling tube where it contacts with a cooling liquid under high pressure. The insulation compound is treated to reduce the size of cavities; and the high pressure maintained by the curing and cooling mediums prevent expansion of cavities before the insulation is set.

  17. Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach, Wyandotte, Michigan (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-11-01

    Even builders who are relatively new to energy-efficient construction can consistently reach a target whole house airtightness of 1.5 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50) with high R-value enclosures that use a hybrid insulation approach. The City of Wyandotte, Michigan, started a construction program in 2010 to build affordable, energy-efficient homes on lots in existing neighborhoods. A goal of the program was to engage local builders in energy-efficient construction and be able to deliver the new houses for less than $100/ft2. By the end of 2012, approximately 25 new houses were built by five local builders under this program. To help builders consistently achieve the airtightness target, a local architect worked with researchers from Building Science Corporation, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, to develop a technology specification with several key pieces. A high R-value wall and roof assembly made use of 2 ?6 advanced framing and a hybrid insulation approach that included insulating sheathing to control thermal bridging and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation (ccSPF) for its airtightness and vapor control benefits. This approach allows the air barrier to be completed and tested before any finishing work occurs, ensuring that problems are spotted and corrected early in the construction process.

  18. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 17, No. 5; October 2010 1070-9878/10/$25.00 2010 IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , for example high voltage switchgear and bus bars, synthetic materials are frequently used and the surfaces the outer surfaces of a switchgear cubicle. The air heats up rapidly, but the solid insulation and massif

  19. Explosion resistant insulator and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Jeffry R. (Penn Hills, PA); Billings, Jr., John S. (Trafford, PA); Spindle, Harvey E. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Hofmann, Charles F. (Export, PA)

    1983-01-01

    An electrical insulator assembly and method of manufacturing same, having a generally cylindrical or conical body portion formed of a breakable cast solid insulation system and a reinforcing member having a corrugated configuration and formed of a web or mesh type reinforcing fabric. When the breakable body member has been broken, the corrugated configured reinforcing web member provides a path of escape for pressurized insulating fluid while limiting the movement of body member fragments in the direction of escape of the pressurized fluid.

  20. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  1. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  2. Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator: Magnetothermoelectric transport on the (011) plane of SmB 6 This content will become publicly available on February...

  3. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R-5inch insulation value at the commercial level due to cost-efficiency and innovation issues. The industry standard is extruded polystyrene (XPS), which is also produced...

  4. New classes of three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New classes of three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators: Nonsymmorphic and magnetic Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on...

  5. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    insulation Wire fasteners Tape measure Sharp utility knife Caulk and foam sealant Caulk gun Stepladder Straightedge Respirator or dust mask Eye protection Protective clothing,...

  6. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...

  7. A New Generation of Building Insulation by Foaming Polymer Blend...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project are: Developing advanced material composites with pore morphology control and CO2 foaming to achieve R-6 per inch foam building insulation at competitive costs;...

  8. Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of a variety of insulation and construction products and services Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigerating Suppliers and Products Directory American Society of...

  9. DOE Issues Request for Information on Advanced Thermal Insulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on advanced thermal insulation for sub-ambient temperature alternative fuel storage systems. This RFI requests information regarding how to maintain vacuum stability of...

  10. Femtosecond NEXAFS of Photoinduced Insulator-Metal Transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond NEXAFS of Photoinduced Insulator-Metal Transition in VO2 Print The grand goal motivating femtosecond studies of condensed-matter dynamics is to directly measure the...

  11. Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Large kinetic asymmetry in the metal-insulator transition nucleated at localized and extended defects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large kinetic...

  12. Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes Enhanced by Inversion Channel Charge Collection and Hydrogen Spillover Citation Details In-Document...

  13. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic...

  14. Experience with 113 Retrofit Insulation Surveys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, W. O.

    1985-01-01

    RETROFIT INSULATION SURVEYS W. O. Webber Energy Conservation Consultants Baytown, Texas ABSTRACT We have surveyed 113 plants for thirteen clie~ts. The results of 21 recent surveys, at today s avera&e fuel price, show an average project scope... generat10n of $151,000 while saving about 5MMBTU/hour with a 72% DCF rate of return. The ~ize of the retrofit project generated, or scope, ~s of course sensitive to the fuel price This is an important consideration because of th~ variability of fuel...

  15. Möbius Graphene Strip as Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. L. Guo; Z. R. Gong; H. Dong; C. P. Sun

    2009-06-12

    We study the electronic properties of M\\"{o}bius graphene strip with a zigzag edge. We show that such graphene strip behaves as a topological insulator with a gapped bulk and a robust metallic surface, which enjoys some features due to its nontrivial topology of the spatial configuration, such as the existence of edge states and the non-Abelian induced gauge field. We predict that the topological properties of the M\\"{o}bius graphene strip can be experimentally displayed by the destructive interference in the transmission spectrum, and the robustness of edge states under certain perturbations.

  16. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  17. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950 Timeline ofTurkey Near-Zero ZoneInsulation » Types of

  18. Irradiation imposed degradation of the mechanical and electrical properties of electrical insulation for future accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polinski, J.; Chorowski, M.; Bogdan, P.; Strychalski, M.; Rijk, G. de

    2014-01-27

    Future accelerators will make extensive use of superconductors made of Nb{sub 3}Sn, which allows higher magnetic fields than NbTi. However, the wind-and-react technology of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting magnet production makes polyimide Kapton® non applicable for the coils' electrical insulation. A Nb{sub 3}Sn technology compatible insulation material should be characterized by high radiation resistivity, good thermal conductivity, and excellent mechanical properties. Candidate materials for the electrical insulation of future accelerator's magnet coils have to be radiation certified with respect to potential degradation of their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. This contribution presents procedures and results of tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of DGEBA epoxy + D400 hardener, which is one of the candidates for the electrical insulation of future magnets. Two test sample types have been used to determine the material degradation due to irradiation: a untreated one (unirradiated) and irradiated at 77 K with 11 kGy/min intense, 4MeV energy electrons beam to a total dose of 50 MGy.

  19. Process for manufacturing hollow fused-silica insulator cylinder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Krogh, Michael L. (Lee's Summit, MO); Davis, Steven C. (Lee's Summit, MO); Decker, Derek E. (Discovery Bay, CA); Rosenblum, Ben Z. (Overland Park, KS); Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method for building hollow insulator cylinders that can have each end closed off with a high voltage electrode to contain a vacuum. A series of fused-silica round flat plates are fabricated with a large central hole and equal inside and outside diameters. The thickness of each is related to the electron orbit diameter of electrons that escape the material surface, loop, and return back. Electrons in such electron orbits can support avalanche mechanisms that result in surface flashover. For example, the thickness of each of the fused-silica round flat plates is about 0.5 millimeter. In general, the thinner the better. Metal, such as gold, is deposited onto each top and bottom surface of the fused-silica round flat plates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Eutectic metals can also be used with one alloy constituent on the top and the other on the bottom. The CVD, or a separate diffusion step, can be used to defuse the deposited metal deep into each fused-silica round flat plate. The conductive layer may also be applied by ion implantation or gas diffusion into the surface. The resulting structure may then be fused together into an insulator stack. The coated plates are aligned and then stacked, head-to-toe. Such stack is heated and pressed together enough to cause the metal interfaces to fuse, e.g., by welding, brazing or eutectic bonding. Such fusing is preferably complete enough to maintain a vacuum within the inner core of the assembled structure. A hollow cylinder structure results that can be used as a core liner in a dielectric wall accelerator and as a vacuum envelope for a vacuum tube device where the voltage gradients exceed 150 kV/cm.

  20. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  1. Irradiation test of electrical insulation materials performed at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Irradiation test of electrical insulation materials performed at NCBJ, Poland RESMM12- 10 #12;Outlet · EuCARD insulators certification irradiation requirements · Selection of the irradiation source for the sample irradiation purpose · Irradiation cryostat and set-up at NCBJ, Swierk, POLAND

  2. Gas insulated transmission line having low inductance intercalated sheath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Southboro, MA)

    1978-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line including an outer sheath, an inner conductor disposed within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas between the inner conductor and the outer sheath. The outer sheath comprises an insulating tube having first and second ends, and having interior and exterior surfaces. A first electrically conducting foil is secured to the interior surface of the insulating tube, is spirally wound from one tube end to the second tube end, and has a plurality of overlapping turns. A second electrically conducting foil is secured to the exterior surface of the insulating tube, and is spirally wound in the opposite direction from the first electrically conducting foil. By winding the foils in opposite directions, the inductances within the intercalated sheath will cancel each other out.

  3. Design of Experiments Results for the Feedthru Insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; VAN ORNUM,DAVID J.; BACA,MAUREEN R.; APPEL,PATRICIA E.

    1999-12-01

    A design of experiments (DoE) was performed at Ceramtec to improve the yield of a cermet part known as the feedthru insulator. The factors chosen to be varied in this DoE were syringe orifice size, fill condition, solvent, and surfactant. These factors were chosen because of their anticipated effect on the cermet slurry and its consequences to the feedthru insulator in succeeding fabrication operations. Response variables to the DoE were chosen to be indirect indicators of production yield for the feedthru insulator. The solvent amount used to mix the cermet slurry had the greatest overall effect on the response variables. Based upon this DoE, there is the potential to improve the yield not only for the feedthru insulator but for other cermet parts as well. This report thoroughly documents the DoE and contains additional information regarding the feedthru insulator.

  4. Cost-Optimized Attic Insulation Solution for Factory-Built Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Attic Insulation Solution for Factory-Built Homes - Building America Top Innovation Cost-Optimized Attic Insulation Solution for Factory-Built Homes - Building America...

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Madison Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    This basement insulation project included a dimple mat conveying inbound moisture to a draintile, airtight spray polyurethane foam wall and floor insulation, and radiant floor heat installation

  6. Strained-Si-on-Insulator (SSOI) and SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI): Fabrication Obstacles and Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strained-Si-on-Insulator (SSOI) and SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI): Fabrication Obstacles and Solutions of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ABSTRACT Advanced CMOS substrates composed of ultra-thin strained-Cut), involves hydrogen implantation prior to wafer bonding, followed by annealing to cause delamination and

  7. The Study on Thermal Performance and Applicability of Energy-saving Wall Materials in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, W.; Lan, M.; Hao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    . It is characteristic with exact geometrical dimension, nice shape, high strength and glazed surface. 2.3 Fly Ash Ceramsite Concrete Fly ash ceramsite is a kind of artificial lightweight aggregate with advantages of low density, high strength, sound insulation..., thermal insulation, and making construction deadweight down. Lightweight aggregate concrete made by fly ash ceramsite can lighten 25% of structure deadweight, save 5% of cement, have a good effect on energy efficiency and can be applied widely to all...

  8. Proximity-driven enhanced magnetic order at ferromagnetic-insulator-magnetic-topological-insulator interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Mingda; Zhu, Yimei; Chang, Cui -Zu; Kirby, B. J.; Jamer, Michelle E.; Cui, Wenping; Wu, Lijun; Wei, Peng; Heiman, Don; Li, Ju; et al

    2015-08-17

    Magnetic exchange driven proximity effect at a magnetic-insulator–topological-insulator (MI-TI) interface provides a rich playground for novel phenomena as well as a way to realize low energy dissipation quantum devices. In this study, we report a dramatic enhancement of proximity exchange coupling in the MI/magnetic-TI EuS/Sb2–xVxTe3 hybrid heterostructure, where V doping is used to drive the TI (Sb2Te3) magnetic. We observe an artificial antiferromagneticlike structure near the MI-TI interface, which may account for the enhanced proximity coupling. The interplay between the proximity effect and doping in a hybrid heterostructure provides insights into the engineering of magnetic ordering.

  9. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

  10. Development of a Process to Build Polyimide Insulated Magnets For Operation at 350C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatz, Irving J.

    2013-07-09

    An extensive R&D program has been conducted that has confirmed the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper alloy magnets that can successfully operate at temperatures as high as 350C. The process, originally developed for the possibility of manufacturing in-vessel resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils for JET, has been optimized for insulated magnet (and, potentially, other high temperature component) applications. One of the benefits of high temperature operation is that active cooling may no longer be required, greatly simplifying magnet/component design. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical magnets. This would necessitate the use an alternative copper alloy conductor such as C18150 (CuCrZr). Coil manufacture with polyimide is very similar to conventional epoxy bonded coils. Conductors would be dry wound then impregnated with polyimide of low enough viscosity to permit saturation, then cured; similar to the vacuum pressure impregnation process used for conventional epoxy bonded coils. Representative polyimide insulated coils were mechanically tested at both room temperature and 350C. Mechanical tests included turn-to-turn shear bond strength and overall polyimide adhesion strength, as well as the flexural strength of a 48-turn polyimide-bonded coil bundle. This paper will detail the results of the testing program on coil samples. These results demonstrate mechanical properties as good, or better than epoxy bonded magnets, even at 350C.

  11. Highly insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance of static prototype windows is within 0.03 Btuhr-ft2F (NFRC tolerance) of design specifications 09302014 2. Operational prototype that is autonomous, networked,...

  12. Highly insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to utility meter, home automation, thermostat, internet data, etc Pella Windows Target MarketAudience: Initial design is focused on window manufacturers targeting residential,...

  13. Moderate Doping Leads to High Performance of Semiconductor/Insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Content: Close Send 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  14. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window...

  15. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    sensormicroprocessor package that is easily installed and calibrated. Control algorithms will be developed that focus on maximum energy savings, while keeping occupants...

  16. Moderate Doping Leads to High Performance of Semiconductor/Insulator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street LightingFromJune 2013TEC H Ni MineSeisPolymer

  17. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: Achievements of structural genomics Citation DetailsSystems

  18. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference)Geothermaltractor-trailers (Patent)

  19. Moderate Doping Leads to High Performance of Semiconductor/Insulator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7

  20. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWindUpcomingcanGrid Integrationheat pumpJackDepartment of

  1. Aerogel waveplates Pradeep Bhupathi,1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, David B.

    , "Highly insulating aerogel glazing for solar energy usage," Sol. Energy 72(1), 21­29 (2002). 8. M. Cantin University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea 3 Alexander W. Dreyfoos School of the Arts, West Palm Beach. Energy 40(1), 13­15 (1988). 5. C. Weust, and T. Tillotson, "Aerogel-supported filament," US Patent

  2. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This case study describes the construction of a new test home that demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a high performance ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low-density spray foam insulation, and glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements.

  3. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  4. Theory of Graphene-Insulator-Graphene Tunnel Junctions S. C. de la Barrera, Qin Gao, and R. M. Feenstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    to vertical graphene-insulator-graphene (GIG) tunneling structures. The first such report dealt with coupled electrodes, the single-particle tunneling characteristics of GIG devices can be highly nonlinear.3 The reason by Britnell et al. from GIG junctions did not display any NDR.4 Indeed, their theoretical description

  5. Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Highly Customized Thermally Insulated Cladding Systems Addthis 1 of 2 Resin casting prototype Image: Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2 of 2 A project member completes...

  6. Surface-state-dominated transport in crystals of the topological crystalline insulator In-doped Pb1-xSnxTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhong, Ruidan; He, Xugang; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Tiansheng; Pletikosi?, I.; Yilmaz, T.; Sinkovic, B.; Li, Qiang; Ku, Wei; et al

    2015-05-29

    Three-dimensional topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators represent new quantum states of matter, which are predicted to have insulating bulk states and spin-momentum-locked gapless surface states. Experimentally, it has proven difficult to achieve the high bulk resistivity that would allow surface states to dominate the transport properties over a substantial temperature range. Here we report a series of indium-doped Pb1-xSnxTe compounds that manifest huge bulk resistivities together with evidence consistent with the topological character of the surface states for x ? 0.35, based on thickness-dependent transport studies and magnetoresistance measurements. For these bulk-insulating materials, the surface states determine the resistivitymore »for temperatures beyond 20 K.« less

  7. Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi 2Te3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemons, W.

    2010-02-24

    Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter with a bulk gap and odd number of relativistic Dirac fermions on the surface. By investigating the surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the surface state consists of a single nondegenerate Dirac cone. Furthermore, with appropriate hole doping, the Fermi level can be tuned to intersect only the surface states, indicating a full energy gap for the bulk states. Our results establish that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is a simple model system for the three-dimensional topological insulator with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The large bulk gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} also points to promising potential for high-temperature spintronics applications.

  8. Development of low frequencies, insulating thick diaphragms for power MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Formosa, Fabien; Favrelière, Hugues; 10.1016/j.sna.2012.09.018

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges of micro thermal machines are the thermal insulation and mechanical tolerance in the case of sliding piston. Switching from piston to membrane in microengines can alleviate the latest and lead to planar architectures. However, the thermal isolation would call for very thick structures which are associated to too high resonant frequencies which are detrimental to the engine performances. A thermal and mechanical compromise is to be made. On the contrary, based on fluid structure interaction, using an incompressible fluid contained in a cavity sealed by deformable diaphragm it would be possible to design a thick, low frequency insulating diaphragm. The design involves a simple planar geometry that is easy to manufacture with standard microelectronics methods. An analytical fluid structure model is proposed and theoretically validated. Experimental structures are realized and tested. The model is in agreement with the experimental results. A dimensionless model is proposed to design hybrid fluid...

  9. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D. V.; Genoni, T. C.; Clark, R. E.; Welch, D. R. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Stygar, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  10. Electron flow stability in magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genoni, Thomas C. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Stygar, William A.; Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Clark, R. E. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Rose, David V. (Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-01

    We evaluate the stability of electron current flow in high-power magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs). A detailed model of electron flow in cross-field gaps yields a dispersion relation for electromagnetic (EM) transverse magnetic waves [R. C. Davidson et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 2332 (1984)] which is solved numerically to obtain growth rates for unstable modes in various sheath profiles. These results are compared with two-dimensional (2D) EM particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of electron flow in high-power MITLs. We find that the macroscopic properties (charge and current densities and self-fields) of the equilibrium profiles observed in the simulations are well represented by the laminar-flow model of Davidson et al. Idealized simulations of sheared flow in electron sheaths yield growth rates for both long (diocotron) and short (magnetron) wavelength instabilities that are in good agreement with the dispersion analysis. We conclude that electron sheaths that evolve self-consistently from space-charged-limited emission of electrons from the cathode in well-resolved 2D EM PIC simulations form stable profiles.

  11. Aging analyses of aircraft wire insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CLOUGH,ROGER LEE; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; AUBERT,JAMES H.; MALONE,G. MICHAEL

    2000-05-08

    Over the past two decades, Sandia has developed a variety of specialized analytical techniques for evaluating the long-term aging and stability of cable insulation and other related materials. These techniques have been applied to cable reliability studies involving numerous insulation types and environmental factors. This work has allowed the monitoring of the occurrence and progression of cable material deterioration in application environments, and has provided insights into material degradation mechanisms. It has also allowed development of more reliable lifetime prediction methodologies. As a part of the FAA program for intrusive inspection of aircraft wiring, they are beginning to apply a battery of techniques to assessing the condition of cable specimens removed from retired aircraft. It is anticipated that in a future part of this program, they may employ these techniques in conjunction with accelerated aging methodologies and models that the authros have developed and employed in the past to predict cable lifetimes. The types of materials to be assessed include 5 different wire types: polyimide, PVC/Glass/Nylon, extruded XL-polyalkene/PVDF, Poly-X, and XL-ETFE. This presentation provides a brief overview of the main techniques that will be employed in assessing the state of health of aircraft wire insulation. The discussion will be illustrated with data from their prior cable aging studies, highlighting the methods used and their important conclusions. A few of the techniques that they employ are widely used in aging studies on polymers, but others are unique to Sandia. All of their techniques are non-proprietary, and maybe of interest for use by others in terms of application to aircraft wiring analysis. At the end of this report is a list showing some leading references to papers that have been published in the open literature which provide more detailed information on the analytical techniques for elastomer aging studies. The first step in the investigation of aircraft wiring is to evaluate the applicability of their various techniques to aircraft cables, after which they expect to identify a limited subset of techniques which are appropriate for each of the major aircraft wiring types. The techniques of initial interest in the studies of aging aircraft wire are as follows: optical microscopy; mandrel bend test; tensile test/elongation at break; density measurements; modulus profiling/(spatially-resolved micro-hardness); oxygen induction time/oxygen induction temperature (by differential scanning calorimetry); solvent-swelling/gel fraction; infrared spectroscopy (with chemical derivatization as warranted); chemiluminescence; thermo-oxidative wear-out assessment; The first two techniques are the simplest and quickest to apply; those further down the list tend to be more information rich and in some cases more sensitive, but also generally more specialized and more time consuming to run. Accordingly, the procedure will be to apply the simplest tests for purposes of preliminary screening of large numbers of samples. For any given material type, it can be expected that only a limited number of the other techniques will prove to be useful, and therefore, the more specialized techniques will be used on a limited number of selected samples. Samples of aircraft wiring have begun to be released to the authors in late April; they include in this report some limited and preliminary data on these materials.

  12. Homotopy Theory of Strong and Weak Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Kennedy; Charles Guggenheim

    2014-09-08

    We use homotopy theory to extend the notion of strong and weak topological insulators to the non-stable regime (low numbers of occupied/empty energy bands). We show that for strong topological insulators in d spatial dimensions to be "truly d-dimensional", i.e. not realizable by stacking lower-dimensional insulators, a more restrictive definition of "strong" is required. However, this does not exclude weak topological insulators from being "truly d-dimensional", which we demonstrate by an example. Additionally, we prove some useful technical results, including the homotopy theoretic derivation of the factorization of invariants over the torus into invariants over spheres in the stable regime, as well as the rigorous justification of replacing $T^d$ by $S^d$ and $T^{d_k}\\times S^{d_x}$ by $S^{d_k+d_x}$ as is common in the current literature.

  13. Static electric field in one-dimensional insulators without boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kuang-Ting

    In this brief report, we show that in a one-dimensional insulating system with periodic boundary conditions, the coefficient of the ? term in the effective theory is not only determined by the topological index ?i?[superscript ...

  14. Radiative transfer and thermal performance levels in foam insulation boardstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, John David

    1991-01-01

    The validity of predictive models for the thermal conductivity of foam insulation is established based on the fundamental geometry of the closed-cell foam. The extinction coefficient is experimentally and theoretically ...

  15. Topological Crystalline Insulators in the SnTe Material Class

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, Timothy Hwa-wei

    Topological crystalline insulators are new states of matter in which the topological nature of electronic structures arises from crystal symmetries. Here we predict the first material realization of topological crystalline ...

  16. Manipulation of bacteria using three dimensional insulator based dielectrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braff, William Allan

    2011-01-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) is a very promising technique for sorting microparticles based on their electrical properties. By using constrictions in a microchannel to generate large electric field gradients, ...

  17. Anomalous supercurrent from Majorana states in topological insulator Josephson junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potter, Andrew C.

    We propose a Josephson junction setup based on a topological insulator (TI) thin film to detect Majorana states that exploits the unique helical and extended nature of the TI surface state. When the magnetic flux through ...

  18. Aerogel Insulation: The Materials Science of Empty Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empty space can be good, like a blank canvas for an artist, or it can be bad, like an attic without insulation for a homeowner.  But when a technological breakthrough provides just the right amount...

  19. Temperature dependence of ambipolar diffusion in silicon-on-insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hui

    2008-03-01

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of electron-hole pairs locally excited in a silicon-on-insulator structure by indirect interband absorption are studied by measuring differential transmission caused by free-carrier absorption of a probe pulse tuned below...

  20. Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy...

  1. Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    well. A ridged piece of insulation (or bottom board) will help prevent heat loss into the floor, and could save you another 4%-9% of water heating energy. It is best done when...

  2. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this research is to provide durable and long-term water management solutions using exterior insulating sheathing as part of the water management system. It is possible to tape or seal the joints in insulating sheathing to create a drainage plane and even an air control layer. There exists the material durability component of the tape as well as the system durability component being the taped insulating sheathing as the drainage plane. This measure guideline provides best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant issues were discussed with the group, which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long-term, and durable drainage plane: horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; and frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation.

  3. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  4. Energy and Emissions Savings through Insulation Upgrade Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lettich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation demonstrates the value of including insulation system assessment, repairs and upgrades on a facility's physical function and its importance in the overall energy and environmental management program. Financial and environmental...

  5. Electrochemical cell with powdered electrically insulative material as a separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathers, James P. (Downers Grove, IL); Olszanski, Theodore W. (Justice, IL); Boquist, Carl W. (Chicago, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, can be compacted in layers with electrode materials to form an integral electrode structure or separately assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  6. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Short, James Evans (Monongahela, PA); West, Shawn Michael (West Mifflin, PA); Fabean, Robert J. (Donora, PA)

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  7. Topology of crystalline insulators and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ken Shiozaki; Masatoshi Sato

    2014-10-14

    We complete a classification of topological phases and their topological defects in crystalline insulators and superconductors. We consider topological phases and defects described by non-interacting Bloch and Bogoliubov de Gennes Hamiltonians that support additional order-two spatial symmetry, besides any of ten classes of symmetries defined by time-reversal symmetry and particle-hole symmetry. The additional order-two spatial symmetry we consider is general and it includes $Z_2$ global symmetry, mirror reflection, two-fold rotation, inversion, and their magnetic point group symmetries. We find that the topological periodic table shows a novel periodicity in the number of flipped coordinates under the order-two spatial symmetry, in addition to the Bott-periodicity in the space dimensions. Various symmetry protected topological phases and gapless modes will be identified and discussed in a unified framework. We also present topological classification of symmetry protected Fermi points. The bulk classification and the surface Fermi point classification provide a novel realization of the bulk-boundary correspondence in terms of the K-theory.

  8. Topological insulators/superconductors: Potential future electronic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hor, Y. S. [Department of Physics, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2014-03-05

    A new material called topological insulator has been discovered and becomes one of the fastest growing field in condensed matter physics. Topological insulator is a new quantum phase of matter which has Dirac-like conductivity on its surface, but bulk insulator through its interior. It is considered a challenging problem for the surface transport measurements because of dominant internal conductance due to imperfections of the existing crystals of topological insulators. By a proper method, the internal bulk conduction can be suppressed in a topological insulator, and permit the detection of the surface currents which is necessary for future fault-tolerant quantum computing applications. Doped topological insulators have depicted a large variety of bulk physical properties ranging from magnetic to superconducting behaviors. By chemical doping, a TI can change into a bulk superconductor. Nb{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is shown to be a superconductor with T{sub c} ? 3.2 K, which could be a potential candidate for a topological superconductor.

  9. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  10. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  11. ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling Of Insulating Samples, Interlaced Mode Or Non-interlaced Mode?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Wang, Fuyi; Zhu, Zihua

    2014-11-01

    Dual beam depth profiling strategy has been widely adopted in ToF-SIMS depth profiling, in which two basic operation modes, interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode, are commonly used. Generally, interlaced mode is recommended for conductive or semi-conductive samples, whereas non-interlaced mode is recommended for insulating samples, where charge compensation can be an issue. Recent publications, however, show that the interlaced mode can be used effectively for glass depth profiling, despite the fact that glass is an insulator. In this study, we provide a simple guide for choosing between interlaced mode and non-interlaced mode for insulator depth profiling. Two representative cases are presented: (1) depth profiling of a leached glass sample, and (2) depth profiling of a single crystal MgO sample. In brief, the interlaced mode should be attempted first, because (1) it may provide reasonable-quality data, and (2) it is time-saving for most cases, and (3) it introduces low H/C/O background. If data quality is the top priority and measurement time is flexible, non-interlaced mode is recommended because interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity and poor mass resolution. A big challenge is tracking trace H/C/O in a highly insulating sample (e.g., MgO), because non-interlaced mode may introduce strong H/C/O background but interlaced mode may suffer from low signal intensity. Meanwhile, a C or Au coating is found to be very effective to improve the signal intensity. Surprisingly, the best analyzing location is not on the C or Au coating, but at the edge (outside) of the coating.

  12. Large anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic insulator-topological insulator heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alegria, L. D.; Petta, J. R.; Ji, H.; Cava, R. J.; Yao, N.; Clarke, J. J.

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The 61?K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.

  13. Direct observation of spin-polarized surface states in the parent compound of a topological insulator using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in a Mott-polarimetry mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, David

    We report high-resolution spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) measurements on the parent compound Sb of the recently discovered three-dimensional topological insulator Bi1?xSbx (Hsieh et al 2008 Nature ...

  14. Performance of Thermal Insulation Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Yarbrough, David [R & D Services] [R & D Services; Syed, Azam M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is dynamic thermal performance microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) blended with loose-fill cellulose insulation. Dynamic hot-box testing and heat-flux measurements have been made for loose-fill cellulose insulation with and without uniformly distributed microencapsulated PCM. The heat flux measurements were made with a heat-flow-meter (HFM) apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 518. Data were obtained for 1.6 lb{sub m}/ft{sup 3} cellulose insulation containing 0 to 40 wt% PCM. Heat-flux data resulting from a rapid increase in the temperature on one side of a test specimen initially at uniform temperature were analyzed to access the effect of PCM on total heat flow. The heat flux was affected by the PCM for about 100 minutes after the temperature increase. The total heat flow during this initial period decreased linearly with PCM content from 6.5 Btu/ft{sup 2} at 0% PCM to 0.89 Btu/ft{sup 2} for 40 wt% PCM. The cellulose insulation with PCM discharged heat faster than the untreated cellulose when the hot-side temperature of the test specimen was reduced. In addition, hot-box apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 1363 was utilized for dynamic hot-box testing of a wood stud wall assembly containing PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. Experimental data obtained for wood-frame wall cavities containing cellulose insulation with PCM was compared with results obtained from cavities containing only cellulose insulation.

  15. The Electromagnetic Green's Function for Layered Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crosse, J A; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2015-01-01

    The dyadic Green's function of the inhomogeneous vector Helmholtz equation describes the field pattern of a single frequency point source. It appears in the mathematical description of many areas of electromagnetism and optics including both classical and quantum, linear and nonlinear optics, dispersion forces (such as the Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces) and in the dynamics of trapped atoms and molecules. Here, we compute the Green's function for a layered topological insulator. Via the magnetoelectric effect, topological insulators are able to mix the electric, E, and magnetic induction, B, fields and, hence, one finds that the TE and TM polarizations mix on reflection from/transmission through an interface. This leads to novel field patterns close to the surface of a topological insulator.

  16. Quantum Capillary Waves at the Superfluid--Mott Insulator Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steffen Patrick Rath; Boris Spivak; Wilhelm Zwerger

    2011-10-10

    We discuss quantum fluctuations of the interface between a superfluid and a Mott-insulating state of ultracold atoms in a trap. The fluctuations of the boundary are due to a new type of surface modes, whose spectrum is similar (but not identical) to classical capillary waves. The corresponding quantum capillary length sets the scale for the penetration of the superfluid into the Mott-insulating regime by the proximity effect and may be on the order of several lattice spacings. It determines the typical magnitude of the interface width due to quantum fluctuations, which may be inferred from single site imaging of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.

  17. Thermal Insulation Performance in the Process Industries: Facts and Fallacies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24703 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-85-05-54.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 THERMAL INSULATION... PERFORMANCE IN 'mE PROCESS INDUSTRIES: FACTS AND FALLACIES R.P. Tye Dynatech RID Company, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A. ABSTRACT The efficient use of thermal insulation materials and systems for design of cryogenic and elevated temperature process...

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  19. The Analysis of Dynamic Thermal Performance of Insulated Wall and Building Cooling Energy Consumption in Guangzhou 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, L.; Li, X.; Li, L.; Gao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ST. The simulation predictions indicate that reductions in the cooling load and maximum cooling demand are obtained when the insulation is added in the wall, but the potential of energy saving is quite limited when the wall only is insulated....

  20. Development of a methodology to discriminate incipient insulator faults from distribution system load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Christopher Scott

    2000-01-01

    Insulator failure has long plagued transmission and distribution system power quality. The failure process begins when airborne contamination combines with moisture from atmospheric wetting to form a conductive pollution layer on the insulator...

  1. Industrial Insulation: An Energy Efficient Technology That Saves Money and Reduces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brayman, B.

    1999-01-01

    -but no one knew exactly just how much. Everyone understands that insulation protects people from hot surfaces and that it prevents condensation. Until recently, however no one could quantify the emissions saved for the insulation investment incurred. In fact...

  2. Quantification of Corona Discharges on Nonceramic Insulators B. Pinnangudi, R. S. Gorur and A. J. Kroese *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of time due to inadequate hardware design, damaged hardware, deficient interfaces due to improper design on the insulator. It is a significant drawback as discharges on insulator hardware cannot always be avoided and may

  3. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of a Steel-jacketed Steam Heating Pipeline with Vacuum Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, W.; Zou, P.

    2006-01-01

    The steel-jacketed steam heating pipeline employs vacuum insulation to improve the insulating effect and reduce the corrosion, and hence increases the heat transfer efficiency of the heating network and building energy efficiency. It is important...

  4. Metal-insulator transition of the reduced surface of yttria-stabilized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal-insulator transition of the reduced surface of yttria-stabilized zirconia near Pt electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal-insulator transition of the...

  5. Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keast, Craig L.

    Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

  6. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covering Manufacturing Association More Documents & Publications Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings The new building wing of the Saint-Gobain Research Shanghai...

  7. Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petter Jelle, Bjorn

    2013-01-01

    for thermal insulation and daylighting”, Solar Energy, 79,the thermal performance of vacuum glazing”, Solar Energy,energy as possible both from solar radiation and ambient thermal (

  8. SOLAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    for Conservation and Solar Applications of the U.S.~ the Fifth National Passive Solar Conference, University ofInsulation- Proceedings the Solar Glazing Conference,

  9. Methodology for evaluation of insulation-debris effects. Containment emergency sump performance-unresolved safety issue A-43

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wysocki, J.; Kolbe, R.

    1982-09-01

    The postulated failure of high energy piping within a light water reactor containment has raised safety questions related to the generation of insulation debris, the migration of such debris to the containment emergency sump screens and the potential for severe screen blockages. High, or total, screen blockages could result in impairment of the long term RHR recirculation systems. Debris considerations are an integral part of the unresolved Safety Issue A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance. This report develops calculational methods and debris transport models which can be used for estimating the quantities of debris that might be generated by a LOCA, the transport of such debris, methods for estimating screen blockages and attendant pressure losses. Five operating plants were analyzed using this debris evaluation methodology. These calculations show the dependency on plant containment layout, sump location and design, and types and quantities of insulation employed. 9 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Transition from band insulator to Bose-Einstein-condensate superfluid and Mott state of cold Fermi gases with multiband effects in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Ryota; Imada, Masatoshi

    2009-10-15

    We study two models realized by two-component Fermi gases loaded in optical lattices. We clarify that multiband effects inevitably caused by the optical lattices generate a rich structure, when the systems crossover from the region of weakly bound molecular bosons to the region of strongly bound atomic bosons. Here the crossover can be controlled by attractive fermion interaction. One of the present models is a case with attractive fermion interaction, where an insulator-superfluid transition takes place. The transition is characterized as the transition between a band insulator and a Bose-Einstein condensate superfluid state. Differing from the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid transition, this transition shows unconventional properties. In contrast to the one-particle excitation gap scaled by the superfluid order parameter in the conventional BCS transition, because of the multiband effects, a large gap of one-particle density of states is retained all through the transition, although the superfluid order grows continuously from zero. A re-entrant transition with lowering temperature is another unconventionality. The other model is the case with coexisting attractive and repulsive interactions. Within a mean-field treatment, we find a new insulating state, an orbital ordered insulator. This insulator is one candidate for the Mott insulator of molecular bosons and is the first example that the orbital internal degrees of freedom of molecular bosons appears explicitly. Besides the emergence of a new phase, a coexisting phase also appears where superfluidity and an orbital order coexist just by doping holes or particles. The insulating and superfluid particles show differentiation in momentum space as in the high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors.

  11. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, S.J.

    1982-06-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode. 7 figs.

  12. Particle trap with dielectric barrier for use in gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping electrode is disposed within the outer sheath, and the electrode has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the apertured electrode.

  13. Thermal insulation for buildings. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning materials used for the thermal insulation of buildings. Consumer acceptance of materials and weatherproofing options are included. Insulation in new and retrofitted buildings is discussed. Residential buildings, earth sheltered structures, greenhouses, and animal houses are among the structures studied. Infrared thermal sensing of heat loss, insulation placement, multilayer partition walls, and insulating windows are briefly considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Distinct Length Scales in the VO{sub 2} Metal–Insulator Transition Revealed by Bi-chromatic Optical Probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lei [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Novikova, Irina B. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Klopf, John M. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Madaras, Scott E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Madaras, Eric [Nasa Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Lu, Liwei [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lukaszew, Rosa A. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Upon a heating-induced metal–instulator transition (MIT) in VO{sub 2}, microscopic metallic VO{sub 2} puddles nucleate and coarsen within the insulating matrix. This coexistence of the two phases across the transition spans distinct length scales as their relative domain sizes change. Far-field optical probing is applied to follow the dynamic evolution of the highly correlated metallic domains as the MIT progresses.

  15. Supporting Documentation for the 2008 Update to the Insulation Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K

    2008-02-01

    The Insulation Fact Sheet provides consumers for general guidance and recommended insulation levels for their home. This fact sheet has been on-line since 1995 and this update addresses new insulation materials, as well as updated costs for energy and materials.

  16. Irradiation requirements of Nb3Sn based SC magnets electrical insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Irradiation requirements of Nb3Sn based SC magnets electrical insulation developed within the Eu and Power Engineering #12;Outline · Motivation of launching EuCARD irradiation task · Nb3Sn SC magnet coils electrical insulation candidates · EuCARD insulators certification conditions · Post irradiation tests

  17. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vohra, Arun (Bethesda, MD)

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  18. Evaluation of Critical Components of Non-Ceramic Insulators In-Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of Critical Components of Non-Ceramic Insulators In-Service: Role of Defective Center Evaluation of Critical Components of Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) In-Service: Role of Defective Components of Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) In-Service: Role of Defective Interfaces." #12;Executive Summary

  19. Hall effect at a tunable metal-insulator transition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teizer, Winfried; Hellman, F.; Dynes, RC.

    2003-01-01

    Using a rotating magnetic field, the Hall effect in three-dimensional amorphous GdxSi1-x has been measured in the critical regime of the metal-insulator transition for a constant total magnetic field. The Hall coefficient R-0 is negative, indicating...

  20. A Rapid Scanning Inspection Method for Insulated Ferromagnetic Tubing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, G. M.; Milewits, M.

    1984-01-01

    Until the present there has been no effective way to rapidly scan thermally insulated refinery or process piping for corrosion or thin wall. Such defects, if left unattended, can lead to wasteful losses of time, energy and money. To date the most...

  1. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  2. Topological insulators and superconductors Xiao-Liang Qi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Topological insulators and superconductors Xiao-Liang Qi Microsoft Research, Station Q, Elings Hall and the topological field theory are discussed. Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions. The theory of topological superconductors

  3. Heat insulating system for a fast reactor shield slab

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotora, J. Jr.; Groh, E.F.; Kann, W.J.; Burelbach, J.P.

    1984-04-10

    Improved thermal insulation for a nuclear reactor deck comprises many helical coil springs disposed in generally parallel, side-by-side laterally overlapping or interfitted relationship to one another so as to define a three-dimensional composite having both metal and voids between the metal, and enclosure means for holding the composite to the underside of the deck.

  4. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N of the present work was to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of powder cylinder is thermally anchored to the coldhead of a single stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler, while

  5. Solitons, charge fractionization, and the emergence of topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yannouleas, Constantine

    (2013) #12;2D Graphene: honeycomb lattice Massless Dirac-Weyl fermion Graphene Nanosystems Armchair_F^2 = D c v_F #12;N=3m (Class I) Semiconductor N=3m+1 (Class II) Semiconductor N=3m+2 (Class IIISolitons, charge fractionization, and the emergence of topological insulators in armchair graphene

  6. Design, Simulation and Modeling of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Kaustubh

    2013-07-09

    The market for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is growing and there is a need for techniques to improve the design, modeling and simulation of IGBT. In this thesis, we first developed a new method to optimize the layout and dimensions...

  7. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

  8. Testing During Study Insulates Against the Buildup of Proactive Interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szpunar, Karl K.

    Testing During Study Insulates Against the Buildup of Proactive Interference Karl K. Szpunar in the benefits of retrieval practice on long-term retention--the testing effect--has spawned a considerable. Taking a test may benefit retention through both direct means (engaging appropriate retrieval processes

  9. Thermal performance of various multilayer insulation systems below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider dipole cryostat consists of a vacuum shell operating at room temperature, two thermal shields operating near 80K and 20K respectively, and the superconducting magnet assembly operating near 4K. The cryostat design incorporates multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets to limit radiant heat transfer into the 80K and 20K thermal shields. Also, an MLI blanket is used to impede heat transfer through residual gas conduction into the 4K superconducting magnet assembly. A measurement facility at Fermilab has been used to experimentally optimize the thermal insulation system for the dipole cryostat. Previous thermal measurements have been used to define the 80K MLI system configuration and verify system performance. With the 80K MLI system defined, the current effort has focused on experimentally defining the optimum insulation scheme for the 20K thermal shield. The SSC design specification requires that radiant heat transfer be limited to 0.093 W/m[sup 2] at an insulating vacuum of 10[sup [minus]6]torr.

  10. Analysis of multilayer insulation between 80K and 300K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustynowicz, S.D.; Demko, J.A.; Datskov, V.I.

    1993-07-01

    A model has been developed that can be used to determine the temperature distribution and heat transfer through a multilayer insulation (MLI) blanket. Predictions from the model were compared with a series of temperature measurements made during laboratory experiments and during a test of five superconducting magnets (dipoles) installed in a string and tested at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, FNAL (ER Test).

  11. Thermal performance of various multilayer insulation systems below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Schoo, C.J.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider dipole cryostat consists of a vacuum shell operating at room temperature, two thermal shields operating near 80K and 20K respectively, and the superconducting magnet assembly operating near 4K. The cryostat design incorporates multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets to limit radiant heat transfer into the 80K and 20K thermal shields. Also, an MLI blanket is used to impede heat transfer through residual gas conduction into the 4K superconducting magnet assembly. A measurement facility at Fermilab has been used to experimentally optimize the thermal insulation system for the dipole cryostat. Previous thermal measurements have been used to define the 80K MLI system configuration and verify system performance. With the 80K MLI system defined, the current effort has focused on experimentally defining the optimum insulation scheme for the 20K thermal shield. The SSC design specification requires that radiant heat transfer be limited to 0.093 W/m{sup 2} at an insulating vacuum of 10{sup {minus}6}torr.

  12. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, R.; Nelson, P.A.; Shimotake, H.; Battles, J.E.

    1983-07-26

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  13. Hermetically sealed electrical feedthrough for high temperature secondary cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knoedler, Reinhard (Nussloch, DE); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A passthrough seal is disclosed for electrically isolating the terminal in a lithium/metal sulfide cell from the structural cell housing. The seal has spaced upper and lower insulator rings fitted snuggly between the terminal and an annularly disposed upstanding wall, and outwardly of a powdered insulator also confined between the upstanding wall and terminal. The adjacent surfaces of the upper insulator ring and the respective upstanding wall and terminal are conically tapered, diverging in the axial direction away from the cell interior, and a sealing ring is located between each pair of the adjacent surfaces. The components are sized so that upon appropriate movement of the upper insulator ring toward the lower insulator ring the powdered insulator and sealing rings are each compressed to a high degree. This compacts the powdered insulator thereby rendering the same highly impervious and moreover fuses the sealing rings to and between the adjacent surfaces. The upper and lower insulator rings might be formed of beryllium oxide and/or alumina, the powdered insulator might be formed of boron nitride, and the sealing rings might be formed of aluminum.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Stud Walls with Continuous Exterior Insulation for Factory Built Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research — stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  15. A combined compensation method for the output voltage of an insulated core transformer power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, K. F.; Qin, B.; Chen, D. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-15

    An insulated core transformer (ICT) power supply is an ideal high-voltage generator for irradiation accelerators with energy lower than 3 MeV. However, there is a significant problem that the structure of the segmented cores leads to an increase in the leakage flux and voltage differences between rectifier disks. A high level of consistency in the output of the disks helps to achieve a compact structure by improving the utilization of both the rectifier components and the insulation distances, and consequently increase the output voltage of the power supply. The output voltages of the disks which are far away from the primary coils need to be improved to reduce their inhomogeneity. In this study, by investigating and comparing the existing compensation methods, a new combined compensation method is proposed, which increases the turns on the secondary coils and employs parallel capacitors to improve the consistency of the disks, while covering the entire operating range of the power supply. This method turns out to be both feasible and effective during the development of an ICT power supply. The non-uniformity of the output voltages of the disks is less than 3.5% from no-load to full-load, and the power supply reaches an output specification of 350 kV/60 mA.

  16. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and characterization of strain in silicon-on-insulator nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Reiche, Manfred; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2014-12-06

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI exploits the ultra-high sensitivity of the diffraction pattern to the distortions of crystalline lattice. Its ability of imaging strain on the nanometer scale in three dimensions is highly novel. We will present the latest progress on the application of BCDI in investigating the strain relaxation behavior in nanoscale patterned strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) materials, aiming to understand and engineer strain for the design and implementation of new generation semiconductor devices.

  17. Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging and characterization of strain in silicon-on-insulator nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, Gang; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Reiche, Manfred; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian

    2014-12-06

    Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) has emerged in the last decade as a promising high resolution lens-less imaging approach for the characterization of various samples. It has made significant technical progress through developments in source, algorithm and imaging methodologies thus enabling important scientific breakthroughs in a broad range of disciplines. In this report, we will introduce the principles of forward scattering CDI and Bragg geometry CDI (BCDI), with an emphasis on the latter. BCDI exploits the ultra-high sensitivity of the diffraction pattern to the distortions of crystalline lattice. Its ability of imaging strain on the nanometer scale in three dimensionsmore »is highly novel. We will present the latest progress on the application of BCDI in investigating the strain relaxation behavior in nanoscale patterned strained silicon-on-insulator (sSOI) materials, aiming to understand and engineer strain for the design and implementation of new generation semiconductor devices.« less

  18. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  19. Physicochemical and electrical characterizations of atomic layer deposition grown HfO2 on TiN and Pt for metal-insulator-metal application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the physicochemical characterization in order to study the junction interface and determine the oxide thickness reflectance. Electrical characteristics of the structures with different oxide thicknesses and an evaporated insulating materials with a higher dielectric constant.1 These materials shall lead to a high capacitance

  20. The Space Shuttle design presented many thermal insulation challenges. The system not only had to perform well, it had to integrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to exceedingly high temperatures and needed reusable, lightweight, low-cost thermal protection. The vehicle also Steinetz Ice Detection Prevents Catastrophic Problems Charles Stevenson Aerogel-based Insulation System broke apart and collided with the surface of the vehicle, they recombined in an exothermic reaction

  1. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental blanket arrangements. The tests explore the thermal performance of two candidate blanket joint configurations each employing a variation of a stepped-butted joint nested between sewn blanket seams. The results from the joint configurations are compared to measurements made describing the thermal performance of the basic blanket materials as tested in an ideal joint configuration. Twenty foil sensors were incorporated within each test blanket to measure interstitial layer and joint layer temperatures. Heat flux and thermal gradients are reported for high and degraded insulating vacuums, and during transient and steady state conditions. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head but with the title extension Part 1: Instrumentation and experimental preparation (300K-80K)'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  3. Calculation of room temperature conductivity and mobility in tin-based topological insulator nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, William G. Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2014-11-07

    Monolayers of tin (stannanane) functionalized with halogens have been shown to be topological insulators. Using density functional theory (DFT), we study the electronic properties and room-temperature transport of nanoribbons of iodine-functionalized stannanane showing that the overlap integral between the wavefunctions associated to edge-states at opposite ends of the ribbons decreases with increasing width of the ribbons. Obtaining the phonon spectra and the deformation potentials also from DFT, we calculate the conductivity of the ribbons using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and show that their mobility is limited by inter-edge phonon backscattering. We show that wide stannanane ribbons have a mobility exceeding 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Contrary to ordinary semiconductors, two-dimensional topological insulators exhibit a high conductivity at low charge density, decreasing with increasing carrier density. Furthermore, the conductivity of iodine-functionalized stannanane ribbons can be modulated over a range of three orders of magnitude, thus rendering this material extremely interesting for classical computing applications.

  4. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  5. Transpiration cooled electrodes and insulators for MHD generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, Jr., Delmer Q. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Systems for cooling the inner duct walls in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The inner face components, adjacent the plasma, are formed of a porous material known as a transpiration material. Selected cooling gases are transpired through the duct walls, including electrically insulating and electrode segments, and into the plasma. A wide variety of structural materials and coolant gases at selected temperatures and pressures can be utilized and the gases can be drawn from the generation system compressor, the surrounding environment, and combustion and seed treatment products otherwise discharged, among many other sources. The conduits conducting the cooling gas are electrically insulated through low pressure bushings and connectors so as to electrically isolate the generator duct from the ground.

  6. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R. (Lenoir City, TN); Shapira, Hanna B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  7. Strain designed Josephson $?$ junction qubits with topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin Benjamin

    2015-06-23

    A Josephson qubit is designed via the application of a tensile strain to a topological insulator surface sandwiched between two s-wave superconductors. The strain applied leads to a shift in the Dirac point without changing the pre-existing conducting states, on the surface of a topological insulator. Strain applied can be tuned to form a $\\pi$ junction in such a structure. Combining two such junctions in a ring architecture leads to the ground state of the ring being in doubly degenerate state- the "0" and "1" states of a qubit. A qubit designed this way is quite easily controlled via the tunable strain applied. We report on the conditions necessary to design such a qubit. Finally the operating time of a single qubit phase gate is derived.

  8. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  9. Electron transport and transient conductivity of irradiated insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, O.H.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of an insulator by an intense electron beam causes a large transient increase in the conductivity, due to ionization. In this talk, the development of a theory of this effect and comparison with experiments are described. Predictions of the scaling of transient conductivity over a wide range of beam current are made on the basis of present understanding, and issues for future work are presented. 9 figures.

  10. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anatasia; Baker, Richard; Prahl, Duncan

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  11. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  13. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Atchley, Jerald Allen

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  14. Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2014-09-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: insulation contractors; general contractors; builders; home remodelers; mechanical contractors; and homeowners, as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and homebuilders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 1. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible; 2. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials; 3. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation. Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  15. Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation system and an energy/shade screen) retrofitted into plastic covered greenhouses, and compare the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Objective: Determine the energy use of two greenhouse insulation technologies (a bubble insulation system and energy curtain provided significant reductions in natural gas use and associated heating costs Resources and Conservation Service, New Hampshire Floriculture Endowment and SunArc, Canada. 2013 Energy Use

  16. Thermal-performance study of liquid metal fast breeder reactor insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Kelvin K.

    1980-09-01

    Three types of metallic thermal insulation were investigated analytically and experimentally: multilayer reflective plates, multilayer honeycomb composite, and multilayer screens. Each type was subjected to evacuated and nonevacuated conditions, where thermal measurements were made to determine thermal-physical characteristics. A variation of the separation distance between adjacent reflective plates of multilayer reflective plates and multilayer screen insulation was also experimentally studied to reveal its significance. One configuration of the multilayer screen insulation was further selected to be examined in sodium and sodium oxide environments. The emissivity of Type 304 stainless steel used in comprising the insulation was measured by employing infrared technology. A comprehensive model was developed to describe the different proposed types of thermal insulation. Various modes of heat transfer inherent in each type of insulation were addressed and their relative importance compared. Provision was also made in the model to allow accurate simulation of possible sodium and sodium oxide contamination of the insulation. The thermal-radiation contribution to heat transfer in the temperature range of interest for LMFBR's was found to be moderate, and the suppression of natural convection within the insulation was vital in preserving its insulating properties. Experimental data were compared with the model and other published results. Moreover, the three proposed test samples were assessed and compared under various conditions as viable LMFBR thermal insulations.

  17. Method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine (Greer, SC); Rahal, Fadi Elias (Easley, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  18. Development of the Pixelated Photon Detector Using Silicon on Insulator Technology for TOF-PET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koyama, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Arai, Yasuo; Kurachi, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Nio, Daisuke; Hamasaki, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To measure light emission pattern in scintillator, higher sensitivity and faster response are required to photo detector. Such as single photon avalanche diode (SPAD), conventional pixelated photo detector is operated at Geiger avalanche multiplication. However higher gain of SPAD seems very attractive, photon detection efficiency per unit area is low. This weak point is mainly caused by Geiger avalanche mechanism. To overcome these difficulties, we designed Pixelated Linear Avalanche Integration Detector using Silicon on Insulator technology (SOI-Plaid). To avoid dark count noise and dead time comes from quench circuit, we are planning to use APD in linear multiplication mode. SOI technology enables laminating readout circuit and APD layer, and high-speed and low-noise signal reading regardless smaller gain of linear APD. This study shows design of linear APD by using SOI fabrication process. We designed test element group (TEG) of linear APD and inspected optimal structure of linear APD.

  19. Simulation of Electric Field in Semi Insulating Au/CdTe/Au Detector under Flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franc, J.; James, R.; Grill, R.; Kubat, J.; Belas, E.; Hoschl, P.; Moravec, P.; Praus, P.

    2009-08-02

    We report our simulations on the profile of the electric field in semi insulating CdTe and CdZnTe with Au contacts under radiation flux. The type of the space charge and electric field distribution in the Au/CdTe/Au structure is at high fluxes result of a combined influence of charge formed due to band bending at the electrodes and from photo generated carriers, which are trapped at deep levels. Simultaneous solution of drift-diffusion and Poisson equations is used for the calculation. We show, that the space charge originating from trapped photo-carriers starts to dominate at fluxes 10{sup 15}-10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, when the influence of contacts starts to be negligible.

  20. Multianalyte biosensor based on pH-sensitive ZnO electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haur Kao, Chyuan; Chun Liu, Che; Ueng, Herng-Yih [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiang, E-mail: hchen@ncnu.edu.tw; Cheng Chu, Yu; Jie Chen, Yu [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China); Ling Lee, Ming; Ming Chang, Kow [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-14

    Multianalyte electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensors with a ZnO sensing membrane annealed on silicon substrate for use in pH sensing were fabricated. Material analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy to identify optimal treatment conditions. Sensing performance for various ions of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, urea, and glucose was also tested. Results indicate that an EIS sensor with a ZnO membrane annealed at 600?°C exhibited good performance with high sensitivity and a low drift rate compared with all other reported ZnO-based pH sensors. Furthermore, based on well-established pH sensing properties, pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensors have also been developed for use in detecting urea and glucose ions. ZnO-based EIS sensors show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

  1. Luminescence properties of ZnO layers grown on Si-on-insulator substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupendra; Gong, Hao; Vicknesh, S.; Chua, S. J.; Tripathy, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 Singapore (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-10-02

    The authors report on the photoluminescence properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films grown on compliant silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films on SOI were characterized by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The observation of E{sub 2}{sup high} optical phonon mode near 438 cm{sup -1} in the Raman spectra of the ZnO samples represents the wurtzite crystal structure. Apart from the near-band-edge free exciton (FX) transition around 3.35 eV at 77 K, the PL spectra of such ZnO films also showed a strong defect-induced violet emission peak in the range of 3.05-3.09 eV. Realization of such ZnO layers on SOI would be useful for heterointegration with SOI-based microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems.

  2. Direct wafer bonding technology for large-scale InGaAs-on-insulator transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, SangHyeon E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Li, Jian; Kao, Yung-Chung

    2014-07-28

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V devices on Si wafers have been explored for realizing high device performance as well as merging electrical and photonic applications on the Si platform. Existing methodologies have unavoidable drawbacks such as inferior device quality or high cost in comparison with the current Si-based technology. In this paper, we present InGaAs-on-insulator (-OI) fabrication from an InGaAs layer grown on a Si donor wafer with a III-V buffer layer instead of growth on a InP donor wafer. This technology allows us to yield large wafer size scalability of III-V-OI layers up to the Si wafer size of 300?mm with a high film quality and low cost. The high film quality has been confirmed by Raman and photoluminescence spectra. In addition, the fabricated InGaAs-OI transistors exhibit the high electron mobility of 1700?cm{sup 2}/V s and uniform distribution of the leakage current, indicating high layer quality with low defect density.

  3. A new approach to low-conductivity, environmentally acceptable thermal insulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, B.; Day, J.; Ferrero-Heredia, M.; Shanklin, E.; Varadarajan, G.; Woodruff, L.

    1996-02-01

    The object of this work was to develop a low-conductivity, economical, environmentally benign insulation. Specific objectives were to develop the following: (1) a very low conductivity use as ``super insulation`` in refrigerators, and (2) a general-purpose insulation for buildings and other applications. The technical goals of this work were to minimize gas phase, solid phase, and radiative conductivity. The novel approach pursued to achieve low gas phase conductivity was to blow foam with a removable gas or vapor, encapsulate the foam panel in a pouch made with a barrier film, and introduce a very low conductivity gas as the insulating gas phase. For super insulation and general-purpose insulation, the gases of choice were xenon and krypton, respectively. To control cost, the gases were present at low pressure, and the insulating panel was encapsulated with an impermeable polymeric film. Solid-phase conductivity was minimized by using low-density, open-cell, polyurethane foam. For super insulation, radiative heat transfer was impeded by placing aluminized Mylar films between relatively transparent 70-mil foam slabs. For general-purpose insulation, it was projected to impede radiative heat transfer by achieving the same very small cell size with open-cell CO{sub 2}-blown foam as is now achieved with closed-cell CO{sub 2}-blown foam.

  4. Entanglement of strongly interacting low-dimensional fermions in metallic, superfluid, and antiferromagnetic insulating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, V. V.; Capelle, K.

    2006-10-15

    We calculate the entanglement entropy of strongly correlated low-dimensional fermions in metallic, superfluid, and antiferromagnetic insulating phases. The entanglement entropy reflects the degrees of freedom available in each phase for storing and processing information, but is found not to be a state function in the thermodynamic sense. The role of critical points, smooth crossovers, and Hilbert space restrictions in shaping the dependence of the entanglement entropy on the system parameters is illustrated for metallic, insulating, and superfluid systems. The dependence of the spin susceptibility on entanglement in antiferromagnetic insulators is obtained quantitatively. The opening of spin gaps in antiferromagnetic insulators is associated with enhanced entanglement near quantum critical points.

  5. Influence of two dynamic predictive clothing insulation models on building energy performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Clothing Model Impact on Building Energy PerformanceInsulation Models on Building Energy Performance K. H. LeeModel Impact on Building Energy Performance is one of the

  6. Single-Particle Tunneling in Doped Graphene-Insulator-Graphene Junctions R. M. Feenstra*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    -insulator-graphene (GIG) tunnel junctions. * feenstra@cmu.edu djena@nd.edu ggu1@utk.edu Published in J. Appl. Phys. 111

  7. Apparatus and method for fast recovery and charge of insulation gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-09-03

    An insulation gas recovery and charge apparatus is provided comprising a pump, a connect, an inflatable collection device and at least one valve.

  8. Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Insulator-to-Metal Transition of Vanadium Dioxide Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding...

  9. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  10. Simulation and Detection of Photonic Chern Insulators in One-Dimensional Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng Mei; Jia-Bin You; Wei Nie; R. Fazio; Shi-Liang Zhu; L. C. Kwek

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a simple method to realize and detect photonic topological Chern insulators with one-dimensional circiut quantum electrodynamics arrays. By periodically modulating the couplings of the array, we show that this one-dimensional model can be mapped into a two-dimensional Chern insulator model. In addition to allowing the study of photonic Chern insulators, this approach also provides a natural platform to realise experimentally Laughlin's pumping argument. Based on scattering theory of topological insulators and input-output formalism, we show that the photonic edge state can be probed directly and the topological invariant can be detected from the winding number of the reflection coefficient phase.

  11. Holographic Polarons, the Metal-Insulator Transition and Massive Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Baggioli; Oriol Pujolas

    2014-11-19

    Massive gravity is holographically dual to `realistic' materials with momentum relaxation. The dual graviton potential encodes the phonon dynamics and it allows for a much broader diversity than considered so far. We construct a simple family of isotropic and homogeneous materials that exhibit an interaction-driven Metal-Insulator transition. The transition is triggered by the formation of polarons -- phonon-electron quasi-bound states that dominate the conductivities, shifting the spectral weight above a mass gap. We characterize the polaron gap, width and dispersion.

  12. Structural Insulated Panel Association (SIPA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS ReportEurope GmbHSoloPageBeforeCreek WindInsulated Panel Association

  13. List of Equipment Insulation Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressed air IncentivesEquipment Insulation

  14. #AskEnergySaver: Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar: Demonstration of NREL'sWindInsulation #AskEnergySaver:

  15. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S. Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined.

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

    2012-02-01

    Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

  17. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  18. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Jennings, Christopher; Oliver, Bryan V.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closuremore »and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.« less

  19. Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing high-energy spin fluctuations in iron pnictide superconductors and the metal-insulator transition in rare-earth nickelates by soft X-ray RIXS Wednesday, November 18, 2015 -...

  20. A Study of the Energy-Saving Potential of Metal Roofs Incorporating Dynamic Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Kriner, Scott [Metal Construction Association, Glenview, IL; Manlove, Gary [Metanna, Monument, CO

    2013-01-01

    This article presents various metal roof configurations that were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, U.S. between 2009 and 2013, and describes their potential for reducing the attic-generated space-conditioning loads. These roofs contained different combinations of phase-change material, rigid insulation, low emittance surface, and above-sheathing ventilation with standing-seam metal panels on top. These roofs were designed to be installed on existing roofs decks, or on top of asphalt shingles for retrofit construction. All the tested roofs showed the potential for substantial energy savings compared to an asphalt shingle roof, which was used as a control for comparison. The roofs were constructed on a series of adjacent attics separated at the gables using thick foam insulation. The attics were built on top of a conditioned room. All attics were vented at the soffit and ridge. The test roofs and attics were instrumented with an array of thermocouples. Heat flux transducers were installed in the roof deck and attic floor (ceiling) to measure the heat flows through the roof and between the attic and conditioned space below. Temperature and heat flux data were collected during the heating, cooling and swing seasons over a three-year period. Data from previous years of testing have been published. Here, data from the latest roof configurations being tested in year three of the project are presented. All test roofs were highly effective in reducing the heat flows through the roof and ceiling, and in reducing the diurnal attic-temperature fluctuations.

  1. Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator: review of wafer bonding fabrication techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator: review of wafer bonding fabrication techniques Gianni was arranged by Prof. C.K. Maiti Abstract Techniques for fabricating strained Si, SiGe, and Ge on-insulator include SIMOX, Ge condensation and wafer bonding. In this paper, a brief introduction of each method

  2. Predicting Contamination Flashover of Insulators: Successes and Shortcomings of Tests and Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predicting Contamination Flashover of Insulators: Successes and Shortcomings of Tests of insulator behavior has fascinated researchers more so than predicting flashover under contaminated, there is no interaction of the surface with the contamination layer on the surface. We know that with nonceramic

  3. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . (Keywords: CFCs; refrigeration; air conditioning; insulation; ozone depletion) Utilisation des to this global environmental issue by signing for R22 were obtained from the Air Conditioning and the MontrealFILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air

  4. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. The Energy Costs of Insulators in Biochemical Networks John P. Barton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    that consume energy, typically in the form of ATP. We hypothesize that better insulation neces- sarily requiresThe Energy Costs of Insulators in Biochemical Networks John P. Barton and Eduardo D. Sontag higher energy consumption. We test this hypothesis through a combined theoretical and computational

  6. Superconducting Proximity Effect and Majorana Fermions at the Surface of a Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Charles

    Superconducting Proximity Effect and Majorana Fermions at the Surface of a Topological Insulator an s-wave superconductor and the surface states of a strong topological insulator. The resulting two-dimensional state resembles a spinless px ipy superconductor, but does not break time reversal symmetry. This state

  7. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  8. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Hariharan; Klocke, Steve; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  9. Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions Liang Fu, C. L. Kane, and E. J. Mele

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Charles

    ) effect. Unlike two dimensions, where a single Z2 topological invariant governs the effect, in three (STI) topological insulators. The WTI are like layered 2D QSH states, but are destroyed by disorder will refer to as weak (WTI) and strong (STI) topological insulators. With disorder, the WTI is equivalent

  10. Dual-scale 3-D approach for modeling radiative heat transfer in fibrous insulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tafreshi, Hooman Vahedi

    Dual-scale 3-D approach for modeling radiative heat transfer in fibrous insulations R. Arambakam 2013 Keywords: Radiative heat transfer Dual-scale modeling Insulation media Fibrous media a b s t r a c a fiber diameter for which radiation heat transfer through a fibrous media is min- imal, ranging between 3

  11. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  12. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  13. Economic Evaluation of Insulation/Radiant Barrier Systems for the State of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M. A.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    on reductions of ceiling heat loads during the summer time, a combination of R-11 with RB was more effective than upgrading the insulation level to R-19. Similarly, adding a radiant barrier to an existing insulation level of R-19 proved more effective than...

  14. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  15. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill Borough, PA); Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA); Bolin, Philip C. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections.

  16. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, Prasad R. (Westboro, MA)

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section.

  17. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section. 4 figs.

  18. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  20. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  1. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-? studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-01

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-? exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing ?. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-?. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (?=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (?=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore »BaTiO3-? is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  2. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-? studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-01

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-? exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing ?. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-?. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (?=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (?=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reduced BaTiO3-? is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.

  3. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  4. Thermal insulation for Buildings. September 1982-September 1988 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for September 1982-September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning materials used for the thermal insulation of buildings. Consumer acceptance of materials and weatherproofing options are included. Insulation in new and retrofitted buildings is discussed. Residential buildings, earth sheltered structures, greenhouses, and animal houses are among the structures studied. Infrared thermal sensing of heat loss, insulation placement, multilayer partition walls, and insulating windows are briefly considered. (This updated bibliography contains 244 citations, 92 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Transport on the surface of a topological insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargiamidis, V.; Vasilopoulos, P. [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Ouest, Montréal, Québec H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2014-08-14

    We study theoretically dc and ac transport on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator when its time-reversal symmetry is broken. Starting with a Kubo formula, we derive an explicit expression for the dc Hall conductivity, valid for finite temperatures. At zero temperature this expression gives the dc half-quantum Hall conductivity, provided the Fermi level lies in the gap. Corrections when the Fermi level is outside the gap and scattering by impurities are quantified. The longitudinal conductivity is also examined. At finite frequencies, we find a modified Drude term in ?{sub xx}(?) and logarithmic, frequency-dependent corrections in ?{sub yx}(?). The ac Hall conductivity exhibits a robust logarithmic singularity for excitation energies equal to the gapwidth. For these energies, we also find that the power spectrum, which is pertinent to optical experiments, exhibits drastic increase. The Hall conductivity remains almost unaffected for temperatures up to approximately 300?K.

  6. Insulating concrete forms: Installed cost and acoustic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    The NAHB Research Center conducted a study to compare the cost and performance of Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) walls to conventional wood-frame exterior walls. This report contains the results of the cost study and sound transmission tests. Three home were built and monitored. One home has an ICF plank system, one has an ICF block system, and one is of conventional 2x4 lumber construction. The homes have identical floor plans and are located side by side. The findings indicate that the labor costs for the ICFs were slightly to moderately higher than the wood framing. However, the sound tests indicate that the ICF walls perform significantly better than the wood walls when no openings were present. The report summarizes the findings and recommends ways to increase the cost-effectiveness of ICFs.

  7. Inhomogeneous field induced magnetoelectric effect in Mott insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulaevskii, Lev N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We consider a Mott insulator like HoMnO{sub 3} whose magnetic lattice is geometrically frustrated and comprises a 3D array of triangular layers with magnetic moments ordered in a 120{sup o} structure. We show that the effect of a uniform magnetic field gradient, {gradient}H, is to redistribute the electronic charge of the magnetically ordered phase leading to a unfirom electric field gradient. The resulting voltage difference between the crystal edges is proportional to the square of the crystal thickness, or inter-edge distance, L. It can reach values of several volts for |{gradient}H| {approx} 0.01 T/cm and L {approx_equal} 1mm, as long as the crystal is free of antiferromagnetic domain walls.

  8. Modeling of RHIC insulating vacuum for system pumpdown characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.J.; Pate, D.J.; Welch, K.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents a model for predicting the pumpdown characteristics of a 480 m RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) vacuum cryostat. The longitudinal and transverse conductances of a typical cryostat were calculated. A voltage analogue of these conductances was constructed for room temperature conditions. The total longitudinal conductance of a room temperature cryostat was thereby achieved. This conductance was then used to calculate the diameter of an equivalent long outgassing tube, having more convenient analytical expressions for pressure profiles when pumped. The equivalent of a unit outgassing rate for this tube was obtained using previously published MLI (multi-layer insulation) outgassing data. With this model one is then able to predict a cryostat pumpdown rate as a function of the location and size of roughing pumps.

  9. Evolution of Holographic Fermi Arcs from a Mott Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett Vanacore; Srinidhi T. Ramamurthy; Philip W. Phillips

    2015-08-10

    We study fermions in an electrically-probed and asymptotically anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild spacetime which interact via a novel chiral symmetry-preserving interaction. Computing the dual fermion two-point correlator, we show that this bulk interaction anisotropically gaps Fermi surfaces of the boundary spectrum. Consequently, the interaction we devise provides a holographic model for Fermi arcs seen ubiquitously in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates. Our interaction is a modification of the chiral symmetry-breaking Pauli coupling, which has previously been proposed as the holographic realization of Mott physics. The onset of Mott insulation and pseudogap physics are respectively discussed in the context of bulk chiral and boundary parity symmetry breaking, and the Mott transition is interpreted as a deconfinement transition of non-Fermi liquid excitations.

  10. Evolution of Holographic Fermi Arcs from a Mott Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanacore, Garrett; Phillips, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    We study fermions in an electrically-probed and asymptotically anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild spacetime which interact via a novel chiral symmetry-preserving interaction. Computing the dual fermion two-point correlator, we show that this bulk interaction anisotropically gaps Fermi surfaces of the boundary spectrum. Consequently, the interaction we devise provides a holographic model for Fermi arcs seen ubiquitously in the pseudogap regime of the cuprates. Our interaction is a modification of the chiral symmetry-breaking Pauli coupling, which has previously been proposed as the holographic realization of Mott physics. The onset of Mott insulation and pseudogap physics are respectively discussed in the context of bulk chiral and boundary parity symmetry breaking, and the Mott transition is interpreted as a deconfinement transition of non-Fermi liquid excitations.

  11. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  12. Four cavity efficiency enhanced magnetically insulated line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemke, R.W.; Clark, M.C.; Calico, S.E.

    1998-04-21

    A four cavity, efficient magnetically insulated line oscillator (C4-E MILO) having seven vanes and six cavities formed within a tube-like structure surrounding a cathode is disclosed. The C4-E MILO has a primary slow wave structure which is comprised of four vanes and the four cavities located near a microwave exit end of the tube-like structure. The primary slow wave structure is the four cavity portion of the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO). An RF choke is provided which is comprised of three of the vanes and two of the cavities. The RF choke is located near a pulsed power source portion of the tube-like structure surrounding the cathode. The RF choke increases feedback in the primary slow wave structure, prevents microwaves generated in the primary slow wave structure from propagating towards the pulsed power source and modifies downstream electron current so as to enhance microwave power generation. A beam dump/extractor is located at the exit end of the oscillator tube for extracting microwave power from the oscillator, and in conjunction with an RF extractor vane, which comprises the fourth vane of the primary slow wave structure (nearest the exit) having a larger gap radius than the other vanes of the primary SWS, comprises an RF extractor. Uninsulated electron flow is returned downstream towards the exit along an anode/beam dump region located between the beam dump/extractor and the exit where the RF is radiated at said RF extractor vane located near the exit and the uninsulated electron flow is disposed at the beam dump/extractor. 34 figs.

  13. Four cavity efficiency enhanced magnetically insulated line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemke, Raymond W. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, Miles C. (Albuquerque, NM); Calico, Steve E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-04-21

    A four cavity, efficient magnetically insulated line oscillator (C4-E MILO) having seven vanes and six cavities formed within a tube-like structure surrounding a cathode. The C4-E MILO has a primary slow wave structure which is comprised of four vanes and the four cavities located near a microwave exit end of the tube-like structure. The primary slow wave structure is the four cavity (C4) portion of the magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO). An RF choke is provided which is comprised of three of the vanes and two of the cavities. The RF choke is located near a pulsed power source portion of the tube-like structure surrounding the cathode. The RF choke increases feedback in the primary slow wave structure, prevents microwaves generated in the primary slow wave structure from propagating towards the pulsed power source and modifies downstream electron current so as to enhance microwave power generation. A beam dump/extractor is located at the exit end of the oscillator tube for extracting microwave power from the oscillator, and in conjunction with an RF extractor vane, which comprises the fourth vane of the primary slow wave structure (nearest the exit) having a larger gap radius than the other vanes of the primary SWS, comprises an RF extractor. Uninsulated electron flow is returned downstream towards the exit along an anode/beam dump region located between the beam dump/extractor and the exit where the RF is radiated at said RF extractor vane located near the exit and the uninsulated electron flow is disposed at the beam dump/extractor.

  14. Conductor load bearing roller for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-10

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes a corrugated outer conductor, an inner conductor disposed within and insulated from the outer conductor by means of support insulators and an insulating gas, and a transport device for supporting and permitting movement of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly axially along the corrugated outer conductor without radial displacement. The transport device includes two movable contacts, such as skids or rollers, supported on a common pivot lever, the pivot lever being rotatably disposed about a pivot lever axis, which pivot lever axis is in turn disposed on the periphery of a support insulator or particle trap if one is used. The movable contacts are separated axially a distance equal to the axial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor and separated radially a distance equal to the radial distance between the peaks and valleys of the corrugations of the outer conductor. The transport device has the pivot lever axis disposed perpendicular to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulating support assembly.

  15. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Wet Thermal Insulator with Multi-layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong-Won Kim; Goon-Cherl Park; Tae-Wan Kim; Doo-Jeong Lee

    2006-07-01

    SMART developed in KAERI is an integral type nuclear cogeneration reactor. SMART uses a nitrogen-filled gas pressurizer so that the steam partial pressure should be minimized and the pressurizer should be under low temperature condition. To sustain the low temperature condition, the wet thermal insulator and pressurizer cooler are installed in the pressurizer. Since the performance of wet thermal insulator is an important parameter to determine the size of the pressurizer cooler, it is important to evaluate the insulation performance of the wet thermal insulator. The wet thermal insulators with 20 layers are installed in SMART. In the design of SMART, the empirical correlation by Adamovich was used to estimate the thermal resistance of the wet thermal insulator. However, the experimental condition and results are not clear so that this correlation should be verified. To analyze the heat transfer characteristics of the multi-layer wet thermal insulator, natural convective heat transport through horizontal and vertical water-filled layers is investigated. Experiments and numerical analyses have been performed to evaluate the heat transfer rates through multi-layer and verify Adamovich correlation. In addition, a new multi-layer correlation was obtained. (authors)

  16. Insulator/metal phase transition and colossal magnetoresistance in holographic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong-Gen Cai; Run-Qiu Yang

    2015-07-27

    Within massive gravity, we construct a gravity dual for insulator/metal phase transition and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect found in some manganese oxides materials. In heavy graviton limit, a remarkable magnetic-field-sensitive DC resistivity peak appears at the Curie temperature, where an insulator/metal phase transition happens and the magnetoresistance is scaled with the square of field-induced magnetization. We find that metallic and insulating phases coexist below the Curie point and the relation with the electronic phase separation is discussed.

  17. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1999-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 4.29-4.36.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Gartland, L.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 4.157-4.168.

  18. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  19. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-29

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN{sub 2}, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  20. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  1. In Situ Energy Loss Instruments for Insulation Economy and Process Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauser, R. L.; McKeever, R. B.; Stull, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    and follow changes off ambient weather conditions for indoor, outdoor, buried and downhole applications. A variation of this instrument can be placed on columns under insulation to act as control sensor for adiabatic operation....

  2. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  3. Thermometry and Refrigeration in a Two-Component Mott Insulator of Ultracold Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weld, David M.

    Interesting spin Hamiltonians can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-component Mott insulator (2CMI) [Adv. Phys. 56, 243 (2007); Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 885 (2008)]. It was recently demonstrated that the application of ...

  4. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  5. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings - Steam Tip Sheet #17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Irradiation of insulators for Workshop on Accelerator Magnet, Superconductor, Design and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Irradiation of insulators for EuCARD Workshop on Accelerator Magnet, Superconductor, Design #12;Outline WAMSDO ­ 14.11.2011 CERN · Motivation of launching EUCARD irradiation task · Irradiation methodology · Post irradiation tests ­ Electrical ­ Thermal ­ Mechanical · Irradiation cryostat · Conclusions

  7. The development of an approximate dynamic analysis of insulating glass units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sequeira, Miguel Angel

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop an approximate dynamic analysis of sealed insulating glass (IG) units subject to uniform blast loads, the formulation of which will be incorporated into a computer program that will ...

  8. Industrial Insulation: Protects the Environment, Improves Efficiency and Saves More Money Than You Can Imagine! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brayman, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    efficiency is important to environmental preservation. One of the most effective energy efficient technologies available is mineral fiber insulation. The examples presented will give energy management professionals the evidence they need to consider...

  9. Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices : the superfluid to Mott insulator phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mun, Jongchul

    2008-01-01

    87Rb Bose Einstein Condensate in 3D optical lattice was studied in the regime of weak interaction(the superfluid phase) and strong interaction(the Mott insulating phase). The stability of superfluid currents was studied ...

  10. Design, fabrication and testing of low-cost vacuum insulated packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Bryan P. (Bryan Paul), 1983-

    2004-01-01

    A design for the use of evacuated Perlite insulation in the shipment of perishable goods was analyzed, implemented, and evaluated, with the goal of replacing or reducing the amount of phase-change materials needed to ship ...

  11. Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klam, Jeremy Wayne

    2009-06-02

    A percentage of insulating glass (IG) units break each year due to thermally induced perimeter stresses. The glass industry has known about this problem for many years and an ASTM standard has recently been developed for ...

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Interior Foundation Insulation Upgrade-Minneapolis Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    This interior foundation project employed several techniques to improve performance and mitigate moisture issues: dimple mat; spray polyurethane foam insulation; moisture and thermal management systems for the floor; and paperless gypsum board and steel framing.

  13. Electrically insulating phosphate coatings for iron powder based electromagnetic core applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, William Rane

    2009-01-01

    Powdered metals, such as iron, are a common building block for electromagnetic cores. An iron powder was reacted with phosphoric acid to create a layer of iron phosphate on each particle. This electrically insulating ...

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE RECTANGULAR CERAMIC INSULATORS FOR ION ACCELERATORS FOR THE NEUTRAL-BEAM PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    OF LARGE RECTANGULAR CERAMIC INSULATORS FOR ION ACCELERATORSj o i n t d e t a i l the Ceramic Shop. Thanks are also dueC. P. Smith, "Machinable Class Ceramics, Nev Materials for

  15. Dielectrometry measurements of moisture diffusion and temperature dynamics in oil impregnated paper insulated electric power cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Zachary M. (Zachary Michael)

    2007-01-01

    Paper insulated lead covered (PILC) cables have played an important role in underground power distribution for a hundred years. Replacing aged PILC before failure is critical to managing power distribution. Three prominent ...

  16. Proposal of a gigawatt-class L/Ku dual-band magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.-C. Fan, Y.-W.; Shu, T.; Zhong, H.-H.

    2014-10-15

    We present a gigawatt (GW)-class magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) which is capable of generating dual-band high power microwaves (HPMs). The proposed device, deriving from previously studied complex MILO and dual-frequency MILO, is designed to produce two HPMs in L-band and Ku-band, respectively. It is found in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation that when the diode voltage is 610?kV, HPMs with frequencies of 1.72 GHz and 14.6?GHz can be achieved with powers of 3.3?GW and 2.4?GW, respectively. The corresponding total power conversion efficiency is approximately 12.8%. Power difference of the two generated HPMs is approximately 1.4?dB, and frequency difference of them reaches a level as high as ?10?dB.

  17. Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped KxFe2-ySe? single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng; Lei, Hechang; Lazarevic, N.; Warren, J. B.; Bozin, E. S.; Popovic, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-04

    We report electron doping effects by Ni in KxFe2-?-yNiySe? (0.06 ? y ? 1.44) single crystal alloys. A rich ground state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (~ 4%) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I4/mmm with no phase separation whereas both I4/m + I4/mmm space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentration of Ni more »with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.« less

  18. Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped K x Fe 2 - y Se 2 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng; Lei, Hechang; Lazarevic, N.; Warren, J. B.; Bozin, E. S.; Popovic, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-01

    We report electron doping effects by Ni in KxFe2-?-yNiySe?(0.06?y?1.44) single-crystal alloys. A rich ground-state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (~4%) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin-glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I4/mmm with no phase separation whereas both I4/m+I4/mmm space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentration of Ni < Fe. The absence of superconductivity coincides with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.

  19. Method of preparing a powdered, electrically insulative separator for use in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Tom O. (Naperville, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell includes electrodes separated by a layer of electrically insulative powder. The powder includes refractory materials selected from the oxides and nitrides of metals and metaloids. The powdered refractory material, blended with electrolyte particles, is compacted as layers onto an electrode to form an integral electrode structure and assembled into the cell. The assembled cell is heated to its operating temperature leaving porous layers of electrically insulative, refractory particles, containing molten electrolyte between the electrodes.

  20. Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2006-01-01

    HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-5 Associate Master Professor Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator Chunmin Qu Yong Sun Zhonghai Chen Master... refrigerator; insulation heat; saving energy 1. INTRODUCTION The homoiothermal refrigerators that are built early day need be rebuilt to the cryogenic refrigerators along with the development continuously of market economy. The matching...

  1. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  2. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Pérot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arisingmore »from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.« less

  3. Fermionic Casimir Effect on the Topological Insulator Boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muniz, C R

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the Casimir effect on the conducting surface of a topological insulator characterized by both $Z_2$ topological index and time reversal symmetry, subject to the action of a static and spatially homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to that surface, at zero temperature. To do this, we consider modifications in the Gauss' law that arise due to the nonzero gradient of the axion-like pseudoscalar factor coupled to the constant magnetic field, which occur in a term that must be added to the electromagnetic Lagrangian in order to account for the topological properties of the system. Such term allows to find an effective point-like charge that changes the quantum vacuum of a spinor field in 1+2 dimensions confined on the edge under analysis. Since that the Casimir energy found depends on a length defined on the boundary, we show that there is a tangential density of force or a shear stress associated to the surface, tending to shrink or stretch it depending on the magnetic field direction. ...

  4. Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

  5. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  6. A COMPARISON OF TWO THERMAL INSULATION AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN TYPE B PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-16

    This paper presents the summary of design features and test results of two Type B Shipping Package prototype configurations comprising different insulating materials developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy. The materials evaluated, a closed-cell polyurethane foam and a vacuformed ceramic fiber material, were selected to provide adequate structural protection to the package containment vessel during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and to provide thermal protection during the HAC fire. Polyurethane foam has been used in shipping package designs for many years because of the stiffness it provides to the structure and because of the thermal protection it provides during fire scenarios. This comparison describes how ceramic fiber material offers an alternative to the polyurethane foam in a specific overpack design. Because of the high operating temperature ({approx}2,300 F) of the ceramic material, it allows for contents with higher heat loads to be shipped than is possible with polyurethane foam. Methods of manufacturing and design considerations using the two materials will be addressed.

  7. Amorphous silicon enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor contacts for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Cuevas, A.; Yan, D.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-10-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal-semiconductor contacts has become a significant obstacle to the further advancement of high-efficiency diffused-junction silicon solar cells. This paper provides the proof-of-concept of a procedure to reduce contact recombination by means of enhanced metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Lightly diffused n{sup +} and p{sup +} surfaces are passivated with SiO{sub 2}/a-Si:H and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-Si:H stacks, respectively, before the MIS contacts are formed by a thermally activated alloying process between the a-Si:H layer and an overlying aluminum film. Transmission/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to ascertain the nature of the alloy. Idealized solar cell simulations reveal that MIS(n{sup +}) contacts, with SiO{sub 2} thicknesses of ?1.55?nm, achieve the best carrier-selectivity producing a contact resistivity ?{sub c} of ?3 m? cm{sup 2} and a recombination current density J{sub 0c} of ?40 fA/cm{sup 2}. These characteristics are shown to be stable at temperatures up to 350?°C. The MIS(p{sup +}) contacts fail to achieve equivalent results both in terms of thermal stability and contact characteristics but may still offer advantages over directly metallized contacts in terms of manufacturing simplicity.

  8. New insulating antiferromagnetic quaternary iridates MLa10Ir4O24 (M=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qingbiao; Han, Fei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Han, Tian -Heng; Li, Hao; Mitchell, J. F.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, oxides of Ir4+ have received renewed attention in the condensed matter physics community, as it has been reported that certain iridates have a strongly spin-orbital coupled (SOC) electronic state, Jeff = ½, that defines the electronic and magnetic properties. The canonical example is the Ruddlesden-Popper compound Sr2IrO4, which has been suggested as a potential route to a new class of high temperature superconductor due to the formal analogy between Jeff = ½ and the S = ½ state of the cuprate superconductors. The quest for other iridium oxides that present tests of the underlying SOC physics is underway. Inmore »this spirit, here we report the synthesis and physical properties of two new quaternary tetravalent iridates, MLa10Ir4O24 (M = Sr, Ba). The crystal structure of both compounds features isolated IrO6 octahedra in which the electronic configuration of Ir is d5. As a result, both compounds order antiferromagnetically despite the lack of obvious superexchange pathways, and resistivity measurement shows that SrLa10Ir4O24 is an insulator.« less

  9. Decision-Making Aid Tool for the Evaluation and Improvement of the Energy Performance of Stock of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Lahrech, R.

    2005-01-01

    Energy efficient glazing is necessary to reduce heat gains or losses that contribute to the high-energy use of buildings. However, high-rise commercial buildings that use energy efficient glazing are still consumptive. To reduce their energy use...

  10. Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Slow light engineering for high Q high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors Keywords: Photonic crystal microcavity Biosensor Nanophotonic biosensor a b s t r a c t Current trends in photonic crystal microcavity biosensors in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), that focus on small and smaller

  11. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  12. Validation of the thermal effect of roof with the Spraying and green plants in an insulated building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru; Ojima, Toshio

    2004-08-08

    In recent years, roof-spraying and rooftop lawns have proven effective on roofs with poor thermal insulation. However, the roofs of most buildings have insulating material to provide thermal insulation during the winter. The effects of insulation has not previously been quantified. In this study, the authors collected measurements of an insulated building to quantify the thermal effects of roof-spraying and rooftop lawns. Roof-spraying did not significantly reduce cooling loads and required significant amounts of water. The conclusion is that roof spraying is not suitable for buildings with well-insulated roofs. Rooftop lawns, however, significantly stabilized the indoor temperature while additionally helping to mitigate the heat island phenomenon.

  13. Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

    2012-01-01

    developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building...

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: Cost-Optimized Attic Insulation Solution for Factory-Built Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes a low-cost, low-tech attic insulation technique developed by the ARIES Building America team with help from Southern Energy Homes and Johns Manville. Increasing attic insulation in manufactured housing has been a significant challenge due to cost, production and transportation constraints. The simplicity of this dense-pack solution to increasing attic insulation R-value promises real hope for widespread industry adoption.

  15. Localization of Electrical Insulation Failures in Superconducting Collared Coils by Analysis of the Distortion of a Pulsed Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komorowski, P A

    2000-01-01

    The localization of possible electrical faults in superconducting accelerator magnets may, in most cases, be a complex, expensive and time-consuming process. In particular, inter-turn short circuits and failures of the ground insulation are well detectable when the magnet is collared, but often disappear after disassembly for repair due to the release of the pre-stress in the coils. The fault localization method presented in this paper is based on the measurement and analysis of the magnetic field generated inside the magnet aperture by a high voltage pulse. The presence of the fault modifies the distribution of the current in the coils and produces a distortion of the magnetic field. The described method aims at locating both the longitudinal and azimuthal position of the fault-affected area. The test method, the transient case FEM models and the implemented experimental set-up are presented and discussed for the LHC dipole models.

  16. Heavy surface state in a possible topological Kondo insulator: Magnetothermoelectric transport on the (011) plane of SmB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Hua; Dai, Jianhui; Xu, Zhu -an; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-25

    Motivated by the high sensitivity to Fermi surface topology and scattering mechanisms in magnetothermoelectric transport, we have measured the thermopower and Nernst effect on the (011) plane of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB6. These experiments, together with electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements, suggest that the (011) plane also harbors a metallic surface with an effective mass on the order of 10–102 m0. The surface and bulk conductances are well distinguished in these measurements and are categorized into metallic and nondegenerate semiconducting regimes, respectively. As a result, electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing scattering and also contributemore »to the heavy surface state.« less

  17. Charge dynamics of Ce-based compounds: Connection between the mixed valent and Kondo-insulator states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, B. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schlesinger, Z. [IBM, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10958 (United States)] [IBM, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10958 (United States); Mandrus, D.; Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); DiTusa, J.F.; Oglesby, C.; Aeppli, G.; Bucher, E. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)] [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The reflectivities of the mixed-valent compounds CeSn{sub 3} and CePd{sub 3} have been measured to obtain the optical conductivity as a function of temperature. Both compounds show a renormalization of the low-energy Drude conductivity at low temperatures. In addition, for the low-carrier-density compound CePd{sub 3}, but not for high-carrier-density CeSn{sub 3}, substantial spectral weight lost from the conductivity below 1000 cm{sup {minus}1} reappears in the frequency range 2000{endash}10000 cm{sup {minus}1}, indicating that CePd{sub 3} can be considered a lightly doped Kondo insulator. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Accumulation capacitance frequency dispersion of III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor devices due to disorder induced gap states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Hinkle, C. L. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The origin of the anomalous frequency dispersion in accumulation capacitance of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices on InGaAs and InP substrates is investigated using modeling, electrical characterization, and chemical characterization. A comparison of the border trap model and the disorder induced gap state model for frequency dispersion is performed. The fitting of both models to experimental data indicate that the defects responsible for the measured dispersion are within approximately 0.8 nm of the surface of the crystalline semiconductor. The correlation between the spectroscopically detected bonding states at the dielectric/III-V interface, the interfacial defect density determined using capacitance-voltage, and modeled capacitance-voltage response strongly suggests that these defects are associated with the disruption of the III-V atomic bonding and not border traps associated with bonding defects within the high-k dielectric.

  19. Strain effects on in-plane conductance of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heui Hwang, Jin; Kwon, Sangku; Hun Kim, Jong; Young Park, Jeong, E-mail: jeongypark@kaist.ac.kr [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joonbum; Sung Kim, Jun [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jhinhwan [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lyeo, Ho-Ki [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-21

    We investigated the correlation between electrical transport and mechanical stress in a topological insulator, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, using conductive probe atomic force microscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. After directly measuring charge transport on the cleaved Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} surface, we found that the current density varied with applied load. Current mapping revealed a variation of the current on different terraces. The current density increased in the low-pressure regime and then decreased in the high-pressure regime. This variation of current density was explained in light of the combined effect of changes in the in-plane conductance due to spin–orbit coupling and hexagonal warping.

  20. A long-pulse repetitive operation magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Yu-Wei; Zhong, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Jian-De; Shu, Ting; Liu, Jin Liang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-05-15

    The improved magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) is a gigawatt-class L-band high power microwave tube. It has allowed us to generate 3.1 GW pulse of 40 ns duration in the single-pulse operation and 500 MW pulse of 25 ns duration in the repetition rate operation. However, because of the severe impedance mismatch, the power conversion efficiency is only about 4% in the repetition rate operation. In order to eliminate the impedance mismatch and obtain repetitive long-pulse high-power microwave (HPM), a series of experiments are carried out and the recent progress is presented in this paper. In the single-pulse operation, when the diode voltage is 466 kV and current is 41.6 kA, the radiated microwave power is above 2.2 GW, the pulse duration is above 102 ns, the microwave frequency is about 1.74 GHz, and the power conversion efficiency is about 11.5%. In the repetition rate operation, under the condition of the diode voltage about 400 kV, beam current about 38 kA, the radiated microwave power is about 1.0 GW, the pulse duration is about 85 ns. Moreover, the radiated microwave power and the pulse duration decline little by little when the shot numbers increase gradually. The experimental results show that the impedance matching is a vital factor for HPM systems and one of the major technical challenges is to improve the cathode for the repetition rate operation MILO.